TITLE intensity by nikeborome

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									TRENDS IN WORK ORGANISATION
  AND WORKING CONDITIONS –
          EWCS DATA

             October 2008

            Nathalie Greenan
           Ekaterina Kalugina
         Emmanuelle Walkowiak
             Objectives
Mapping work organisation in Europe
 through key synthetic indicators that
 are relevant to catch up different
 dimensions of work

Measure trends in work organisation
 between 1995 et 2005 in 15 European
 countries and between 2001 and 2005
 in 12 New Member States
  European Surveys on Working Conditions
     (European Foundation for the Improvement
         of Living and Working Conditions)


 Data for 1995 and 2000 for 15 European countries.
 Data for 2001 for 12 acceding and candidate
  countries. Data for 2005 for 27 European countries

 Provide an overview of the state of working
  conditions and the content of work throughout Europe
  at each date: cross section sample of individuals.

 Surveys cover the active population, i.e. persons that
  at the time of the interview were either salaried
  employees or self-employed
     Methodological approach

 Deal with the richness of data and measure
  trends

  →Focus on three key dimensions of work to assess
   changes in work organisation



 Explain heterogeneity across European
  countries

  →Measuring regional and individual effects (multilevel
   model)
    Three key dimensions of work

 QUALITY OF WORKING CONDITIONS


 WORK INTENSITY


 WORK COMPLEXITY
Quality of working conditions
             Breathing in vapours, handling dangerous
             products;
             Radiation, painful or tiring positions
             Exposure to vibrations, noise, high/low
             temperatures;
             Carrying or moving heavy loads
             Repetitive hand or arm movements
             Wearing personal protective equipment
             Harassment and discrimination at work
                EU-15                    NMS-12
 1995-2005       1995-2000   2000-2005   2001-2005
  Quality of working conditions
Good physical working conditions versus
Bad physical working conditions
   Change in quality of working conditions
EU-15: 1995-2005        NMS-12: 2001-2005
                          Work intensity
                         Repetitive tasks of less than 10 minutes
                         Working at very high speed
                         Working to tight deadlines
                         Pace of work dependent on:
                           -Work done by colleagues
                           -Direct demands from people
                           -Numerical production targets
                           -Automatic speed of a machine
                           -Direct control of boss
                         Having enough time to get the job done
                                                 EU-15                   NMS-12
                                     1995-2005   1995-2000   2000-2005   2001-2005
Intensity of technical constraints

Intensity of market constraints
Work intensity: technical constraints
High work intensity in an industrial environment versus
Low work intensity in a non industrial environment
Change in intensity of technical constraints
EU-15: 1995-2005           NMS-12: 2001-2005
    Work intensity: market constraints
High work intensity in market-driven environment (direct
demands from people like customers, clients) versus
Low work intensity in non-market environment
         Change in intensity of market constraints

EU-15: 1995-2005           NMS-12: 2001-2005
    Work complexity
 Main job involve:
Meeting precise quality standards
Self-assessment of the quality of work
Problem solving
Monotonous tasks
Learning new things
Complex tasks

Possibility of choosing or changing
the order of tasks and methods of work
        Work complexity
 Knowledge-based economy:
    Increase in work complexity?
                  EU-15                   1995      2000     2005
Does you main paid job involve…
…complex tasks                             59        56      58
…learning new things                       76        70      70
Are you able to choose of change…
…order of tasks                            66        64      63
…methods of work                           72        70      67

                      EU-15                      NMS-12
      1995-2005      1995-2000      2000-2005    2001-2005
    Work complexity
Complex task, Learning, Discretion versus
Routine tasks, No Learning, No Discretion
Change in the degree of work complexity
 EU-15: 1995-2005      NMS-12: 2001-2005
  A paradox: the decrease in
        complexity?
A negative residual effect in the
 evolution of complexity, measured with
 a multilevel model that takes into
 account characteristices of workers and
 countries

This effect is all the more important that
 structural evolutions (by age,
 occupations, education) should favour
 an increase in complexity
                  Conclusions
         In 15 EU countries between 1995 and 2005:

              Significant DECREASE in work
              complexity even after controlling for micro
              and macro characteristics
              Significant INCREASE in intensity of
              technical constraints
              Significant DECREASE of market
              constraints after controlling for micro and
              macro characteristics
              Significant DECREASE in quality of
              working conditions

 What   can explain “work complexity paradox”?

								
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