The Terrestrial Planets by nikeborome

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 29

									The Terrestrial Planets
Which of these is the smallest
 planet in the Solar System?
 Mercury
 Venus
 Mars


             Chapter 3, Lesson 2
        Lesson Overview

 Mercury
 Venus
 Mars




            Chapter 3, Lesson 2
                Quick Write


What drives people to explore? If
you got the chance to visit space,
 where would you want to go and
              why?

   (Note to teacher: Use “Pick a Student” button in CPS)


                       Chapter 3, Lesson 2
        The View of Mercury
            from Earth
Because Mercury is closest to the Sun you
 can only see it shortly before dawn or after
 dusk when the Sun is below the horizon
Most elusive to view




                  Chapter 3, Lesson 2
       (Remember this slide?)
          Earth’s Interior
Density is the ratio of an object’s mass to
 its volume
Average density of Earth is 5.52 grams per
 cubic centimeter
As a comparison:
  water is 1 g/cm3
  aluminum is 2.7 g/cm3
  iron is 7.8 g/cm3
                   Chapter 2, Lesson 1
          Mercury’s Density and
           Gravitational Pull

Density - 5.43 times the density of water
Diameter - 3,033 miles
Mariner 10 detected a magnetic
 field on Mercury, although it is
 not very strong
70% iron and 30% silicate material
Reaches temperature extremes from -183 to
 467 degrees                             Courtesy NASA/Johns Hopkins
                                         University Applied Physics
                   Chapter 3, Lesson 2   Laboratory/Carnegie Institution of
                                         Washington
       Mercury’s Rotation and Orbit
             Around the Sun
 Mercury circles the Sun
  quickly (88 days)
 Mercury’s orbit is the most
  eccentric
 One solar day on Mercury
  lasts two Mercurian years –
  176 Earth days
 The planet rotates one and
  a half times for every time it
  goes around the Sun

                       Chapter 3, Lesson 2
 Mercury’s Surface




Cliffs that run for 100s of miles
           Chapter 3, Lesson 2
       The View of Venus from
               Earth
The second closest
 planet to the Sun
Except for the Sun and
 Moon, it’s the brightest
 object in the sky
It is visible only in the
 evening after sunset
 and in the morning sky
 before sunrise
                   Chapter 3, Lesson   Courtesy NASA/JPL
            Venus’s Density and
              Magnetic Field

Venus is often called Earth’s sister planet
  Diameter is 95 percent of Earth’s
  Mass is 82 percent of Earth’s
  Its orbit is located closest to the Earth
  Density 5.24 times that of water (Earth is 5.52)
Because Venus has a slow rotation (about
 243 days), scientists wouldn’t expect it to
 have a strong magnetic field
                   Chapter 3, Lesson 2
           Venus’s Rotation and
           Orbit Around the Sun

More circular orbit than any other planet
A solar day on Venus is about 117 Earth
 days; 1 Venus year = ~ 2 Venus days
Venus rotates backwards
While all eight planets revolve around the
 Sun in a counterclockwise fashion, Venus
 and Uranus are the only two that rotate in
 a clockwise fashion
                 Chapter 3, Lesson 2
Venus’s Rotation and
Orbit Around the Sun




     Chapter 3, Lesson 2
             Venus’s Surface and
                Atmosphere
 All of Venus is drier than
  the driest desert on Earth
 Venus has about a
  thousand craters
 Venus has an
  atmosphere made up of
  about 96 percent carbon
  dioxide, 3.5 percent
  nitrogen and small
  amounts of water and
  sulfuric acid
                      Chapter 3, Lesson 2   Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech
      The View of Mars From
              Earth
The best time to look at
 Mars is when it is in
 opposition—when a
 planet is directly
 opposite the Sun in the
 sky
Mars is in opposition
 about every 2.2 years
                                       Courtesy NASA/ESA/the Hubble
                                       Heritage Team, STSc1/AURA/,J.Bell
                 Chapter 3, Lesson 2   Cornell University/M.Woff Space
                                       Science Institute
     Mars’ Density and Magnetic Field


Diameter about half of the Earth’s
Mass is only one-tenth that of Earth
Scientists calculate that Mars’ density is
 3.93 times that of water, about 0.7 of
 Earth’s density
Mars rotates almost as quickly as Earth


                   Chapter 3, Lesson 2
      Mars’ Density and Magnetic
             Field, cont.

Mars doesn’t have a
 magnetic field
Mars probably lost its
 magnetic field about
 4 billion years ago
The Sun’s solar wind
 erodes Mars’
 atmosphere and
 contributes to its loss
 of water
                                         Courtesy ESA/DRL/FU Berlin
                                         (G. Neukum)
                   Chapter 3, Lesson 2
       Mars’ Rotation and Orbit
           Around the Sun

Orbits the Sun from about 143 million
 miles away
Day is 24 hours and 40 minutes
Equator tilts 25.2 degrees
Eccentricity of Mars’ orbit causes it to be
 much closer to the Sun during parts of its
 year than others

                Chapter 3, Lesson 2
           Mars’ Surface and
             Atmosphere
 Olympus Mons is the largest known mountain
  in the Solar System
 Liquid water played an important role in
  shaping the
  planet’s surface
 Today rainfall is
  not possible
 Thin atmosphere reason for extreme difference
  in temperature
                   Chapter 3, Lesson 2   Courtesy NASA/jJPL-Caltech
           Checkpoint


What planet has a density
 similar to that of Earth?

Liquid water seems to have
 played an important role in
 shaping what planet’s surface?
            Chapter 3, Lesson 2
            Checkpoint


Which of these planets is
 often called Earth’s sister
 planet?
If you could choose, which
 terrestrial planet would you
 most like to visit?
             Chapter 3, Lesson 2
                   Review

One side of Mercury is more massive than
 the other
Venus is often called Earth’s sister planet
The eccentricity of Mars’ orbit causes it to
 be much closer to the Sun during parts of
 its year than others
Olympus Mons is the largest known
 mountain in the Solar System
                  Chapter 3, Lesson 2
            Summary

 Mercury
 Venus
 Mars




            Chapter 3, Lesson 2
                  Next…

Done – The
 Terrestrial Planets

Next – The Outer
 Planets



                    Chapter 3, Lesson 2   Photo courtesy NASA.gov
       Activity 1: Crews in Space

 Work with your crew to create fact sheets
  about each planet studied in this lesson
  but don’t identify the planet
 Exchange fact sheets and see if you can
  identify the planet the other crew has
  featured
 Be prepared to share your answers

                  Chapter 3, Lesson 2
            Activity 2: Comparing Earth to
                the Terrestrial Planets

Using your text (pages 95-112), complete
 the table comparing Earth to the
 Terrestrial planets
Then answer the reflection questions
Be prepared to share your answers



                   Chapter 3, Lesson 2
      Activity 3: Colonizing Mars Debate

Debate Scenario: It is the year 2030. NASA scientists
 just have completed a decade long project on how
 to colonize Mars. A host of inventions, including
 special spacecraft and spacesuits, make it possible
 for the first time in history for humans to live on
 Mars. NASA’s plan is for a group of astronauts to
 live on Mars for one year before returning to Earth
 to share their experiences. You represent a
 committee in Congress charged with deciding
 whether or not to approve NASA’s plan.
                     Chapter 3, Lesson 2
        Technology Enrichment:
       Researching Probe Missions

In your groups, research your assigned
 probe mission
Focus on searching for news sources or
 information from NASA on the Internet
Then, write a summary of your findings
 and prepare a group presentation for the
 class

                 Chapter 3, Lesson 2
 Review Questions
CPS Questions (5-6)




      Chapter 3, Lesson 2

								
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