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                    SUNTECH .CO.LTD

                             Text To Use
     Distributor Support Net – Technical Training


                  The Problems With Induction Motors


Since its invention one hundred years ago, the standard 3-phase induction motor
has become one of the most familiar items of industrial equipment ever known.
Due to its simplicity of construction, low cost, reliability and relatively high
efficiency, it is likely to remain the prime source of mechanical energy for the
foreseeable future.
The main problems are the motor‟s inability to match motor torque to load torque
both during starting and running and the high starting current. During starting the
motor usually produces 150 - 200% torque (see Figure 1) accelerating the load to
full speed in a fraction of a second, which can cause damage to the drive train. At
the same time the motor can commonly draw 8 times nominal current (In)
causing supply stability problems (see Figure 2).
When the motor is operating at light load for extended periods the motor‟s
efficiency falls due to the over-fluxing of the windings for the particular torque
required to drive the load. At a constant terminal voltage this flux, often referred
to as magnetising current, is fixed and accounts for around 30-50% of the motors
total losses.

              Figure 1

                                                          Motor Torque

                                                          Acceleration
                                                          Torque
                 Torque
                                                          Load Torque




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                                      Speed       100%


                   8 x (In)


                                                           Starting Current
                   Current



                       (In)


                                      Speed
                                        Fig 2


                               Motors – An Overview

AC Induction Motors – Basic Principles
The simplest of all electric motors is the squirrel-cage type of induction motor
used with a three-phase supply. The stator of the squirrel-cage motor consists of
three fixed coils of copper or aluminium wire wound within insulated slots. The
rotor consists of a core in which are imbedded a series of solid conductors
arranged in a circle around the shaft and parallel to it. With the core removed, the
rotor conductors resemble in form the cylindrical cages once used to exercise pet
squirrels, hence the name “Squirrel Cage Motor”.
The three-phase current flowing in the stationary stator windings generates a
rotating magnetic field, and this field induces a current in the conductors of the
cage. The magnetic reaction between the rotating field and the current-carrying
conductors of the rotor makes the rotor turn. If the rotor is revolving at exactly the
same speed as the magnetic field, no currents will be induced in it, and hence
the rotor will not turn at a synchronous speed. In operation, the speeds of rotation
of the rotor and the field differ by about 2 to 5 percent. This speed difference is
known as slip.

Theory
In very basic terms, the reason that the shaft of any motor rotates can be
explained by one law of electromagnetic theory.

Fleming's Left Hand Rule.

This states that if an electric current is passed through a conductor which is
positioned perpendicular to the direction of a magnetic field, then that conductor
will experience a mechanical force causing it to move in a direction that is
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perpendicular to both the current flowing through the conductor AND the direction
of the magnetic field. The relative directions of these three vectors can be
deduced by holding one's left hand with the thumb, first finger and second finger
all perpendicular to each other.




If CURRENT flows along the SECOND finger and the FIELD flows along the
FIRST finger then the resultant MOTION will be in the direction of the THUMB.


In a typical AC Induction Motor, the current flowing through windings of the stator
sets up a rotating magnetic field. This current also causes an "induced" current to
flow through the bars in the rotor (hence the term "induction" motor). The
resultant force causes the rotor to rotate as it continually "chases" the rotating
magnetic field and since the rotor is firmly fixed to the shaft, the shaft also rotates.




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Squirrel Cage Motor Construction

        Component parts commonly found on a Squirrel Cage Motor.

 1.      End Cover, Drive End.     8.    Motor Yolk.
 2.      Wave Washer.              9.    Earth Stud.
 3.      Bearing, Drive End.       10.   End Cover, Non Drive End.
 4.      Terminal Box.             11.   Bearing, Non Drive End.
 5.      Terminal Box Cover.       12.   Fan Cowl.
 6.      Stator Laminations.       13.   Fan.
 7.      Rotor laminations.




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Since it‟s invention around 100 years ago the squirrel cage induction motor
remains basically the same construction. We will now discuss some basic terms.


The Stator Winding
The windings in a motor are there to provide a path for the AC current to flow,
which in turn produces the magnetic field, which will cause the rotor to rotate.
   The windings are insulated copper or aluminium wire and inserted into slots in
 the stator laminations. These slots have insulation between the windings and the
steel laminations. This is known as the "Stator Pack". The windings are designed
                     to provide the output and speed required.
The stator pack is, in turn, inserted into the motor casing known as the "Motor
Yolk". The ends of the winding are brought out through the motor yolk to
terminals in a terminal box mounted on the frame. This is where the mains leads
are connected.

The Rotor
This consists of laminations, shaft, bearings and a "winding".

The "winding" of a squirrel cage motor consists of solid bars, that are joined
either end by a shorting ring. This is because the cage of the rotor resembles the
cage that squirrels use to play with when in captivity. The bars are generally
aluminium but can be copper or any such material. The squirrel cage rotor motor
is the most common type in use today as it requires simple control gear and, in
most cases, can be used instead of a wound rotor (slip-ring) motor.

The bearings are used to support the shaft and to enable it to rotate.

Polarity And Speed
You will remember the earlier reference to the rotating magnetic field and how
the rotor "chases" it. In theory, if there were just the one magnetic 'pole", the rotor
would rotate at a rate equal to twice the frequency of the supply, that is to say, for
a 50 Hertz supply the rotational speed would be 100 revolutions per second, or
6000 rpm.

In practice it is not possible to create one magnetic pole without at the same time
creating an equal and opposite pole, so the highest achievable speed for an AC
induction motor using a 50 HZ supply is 3000 rpm.

It is possible to arrange the stator windings in such formations as to provide any
number of PAIRS of poles and so we can offer 2,4,6,8,10,12 pole motors etc.
Motors over 12 pole are available if required but are not in common use.



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Poles and Synchronous Speed
The number of poles is determined by number of magnet poles as shown below.

Remember that as the number of poles increase, so the speed decreases.

We call the hypothetical speed "Synchronous speed” because it is the speed that
would be obtained if the rotor rotated in "Synchrony" with the magnetic field. In
any AC induction motor, the synchronous speed is never achievable, since
friction losses in the bearings, air resistance within the motor and additional drag
imposed by the load combine to cause the rotor to lag slightly behind the
rotational speed of the magnetic field. This lagging effect is known as the "slip".

The "Synchronous" speed of a motor can be determined by the formulae:

       Synchronous speed = 120 x Frequency
                              Poles

If the frequency varies, the speed varies in a direct ratio.

The percentage slip varies from one motor to the next -- as a general rule of
thumb, the larger the motor, the less slip is experienced -- and for any given
motor the slip will decrease as the load decreases. At no load the slip may be as
little as 0.5%, while at full load, depending on the size of the motor, it can be high
as 5%.

Thus typical "Full Load" speeds for 2,4,6 and 8 pole motors, on 50 Hertz supply,
could be 2950, 1470, 980 and 735 rpm respectively, compared with the
synchronous speeds of 3000; 1500; 1000 and 750 rpm.

It is not surprising to find that the "slip" of a motor is closely related to the motor's
efficiency. The full load speed of a motor is a good guide to the motor's efficiency.


TORQUE
The physical size of a motor is not purely dependent on the kW rating. A 15 kW 6
Pole motor would be far larger than a 15 kW 2 pole machine.

If there were a single factor which determines the frame size of a motor (and
there isn't) it would be the torque. Torque is the rotational equivalent of linear
force and for any rotating machine, if the Power and Speed are known then the
Torque is given by the formula: -

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                     Torque =    kW x 9550 Newton Meters
                                        RPM

When a motor is driving the load at full speed, the torque developed by the motor
will always equal the torque required by the load to keep it running at that speed.
The more accurate the motor selection, the closer this torque value will approach
the rated full load torque (F.L.T.) of the motor

During the starting cycle the torque developed by the motor at any given instant
must always exceed the torque required by the load at that particular speed,
otherwise the load will not continue to accelerate and the motor will stall.

At any given speed during run up, the difference between the motor torque and
the load torque is known as the Accelerating Torque. Taken over the complete
curve of torque against speed from zero to 100% speed, it is this accelerating
torque together with the load Moment of Inertia that determines the run up time.

The above curve shown below is typical for a squirrel cage motor.




The initial point is known as the Starting torque or locked rotor torque (L.R.T.),
the minimum point is known as the Pull Up torque (P.U.T.) and the maximum
point known as the Pull Out Torque (P.O.T.)



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Slip Ring Motors
If the rotor has a winding which is similar to that of the stator it is known as a
wound rotor motor, or slip-ring motor. The slip-ring motor works in the same way
as a squirrel cage motor, the difference being that the rotor current (hence
torque) is controlled by external resistances.
The rotor windings are connected to copper rings (slip-rings) mounted onto the
shaft of the rotor which is connected to the resistances using carbon brushes.
The acceleration of the motor can then be controlled by switching the rotor
resistance using contactors or a rotary drum controller.
In almost all cases the external rotor resistance is short circuited after the motor
is up to full speed.

The above explanation is a very simplified explanation of "How a Motor Works"
but we hope it will be of some help to enable a "layman" to understand.

The writer would like to acknowledge assistance from various articles and
technical papers in preparation.



                       Reading A Motor Name Plate
Introduction
The following information is designed to help the „layman‟ to take all the relevant
information from a motor nameplate that is required to choose the correct
Powerboss a particular motor.
It is recommended that the following information be used in conjunction with the
product manual.

Voltage
The voltage at which the motor is designed to operate is an important parameter.
One common misapplication is of motors nameplated (rated) at one voltage but
applied on a different voltage network using the + 10% voltage tolerance for
"successful" operation. Nameplate-defined parameters for the motor such as
power factor, efficiency, torque, and current are at rated voltage and frequency.
Application at other than nameplate voltage will likely produce different
performance.

It is common for manufacturers to show a variety of voltages on one motor
nameplate. A common example would be motor wound for 220 and 440 V
(220/440 V) but operable on 220 V. This 220/440 V motor will have degraded
performance at 220 V. Another common misconception is to request a motor
rated at network voltage; for example, at 440 V. The UK standard is 415 V. The
voltage rating assumes that there is voltage drop from the network to the motor
terminals. Thus, the 440-V motor is appropriate on a 415-V network.
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Frequency (Hz)
Supply frequency is usually 50 or 60 Hz. When more than one frequency is
nameplated, other parameters that will differ at different input frequencies must
be defined on the nameplate. The increasing use of adjustable frequency drives
(VSDs) is also making it necessary to nameplate a frequency range, especially
for hazardous-duty-listed applications.

Phase
This represents the number of ac power lines supplying the motor. Single and
three-phase are the norms.

Current
This is some times marked as FLA (full load amps) or FLC (full load current) and
is measured in Amps.

Power Factor
Also given on the nameplate as "P.F." or Cos Ø," power factor is the ratio of the
active power (W) to the apparent power (VA) expressed as a percentage. It is
numerically equal to the cosine of the angle of lag of the input current with
respect to its voltage, multiplied by 100. For an induction motor, power factor also
varies with load. The nameplate provides the power factor for the motor at full
load.

Active power is the power that does work; apparent power has a reactive
component. This reactive component is undesirable - the Electricity Company
must supply it, but it does no work.

A power factor close to unity (100%) is most desirable. Because there are
tradeoffs when designing an induction motor for improved efficiency or other
performance parameters, power factor sometimes suffers.

Efficiency
This is the difference between the input power to the motor terminal block in kW
and the motor shaft power at full load in kW or HP. The higher the percentage
the more efficient the motor is. Common values for three phase motors vary
between 0.8 and 0.95 (80-95%). Generally the higher the motor output the more
efficient the motor is.

KW and HP Rating
Shaft power is a measure of the motor's mechanical output rating, its ability to
deliver the torque required for the load at rated speed. It is usually given as kW
or HP" on the nameplate.


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Full Load Speed
The speed at which rated full-load torque is delivered at rated power output is
full-load speed. It is generally given as "RPM" on the nameplate. This speed is
sometimes called "slip" speed or actual rotor speed rather than synchronous
speed. Synchronous speed is the speed at which the motor would run if it were
fixed to the ac power line frequency. That is, if it turned at the same speed as the
rotating magnetic field created by the combination of winding pattern and power
line frequency. An induction motor's speed is always less than synchronous
speed and it drops off as load increases. For example for 1500-rpm synchronous
speed, an induction motor might have a full-load speed of 1450 rpm.

The following information is not necessary for the specification of Powerboss but
may prove useful if further information is required.

Insulation Class
Often abbreviated "INSUL CLASS" on nameplates, it is an industry standard
classification of the thermal tolerance of the motor winding. Insulation class is a
letter designation such as "A," "B," or "F," depending on the winding's ability to
survive a given operating temperature for a given life.
Insulation of a letter deeper into the alphabet performs better. For example, class
F insulation has a longer nominal life at a given operating temperature than class
A, or for a given life, it can survive higher temperatures.

Operating temperature is a result of ambient conditions and the energy lost in the
form of heat (causing the temperature rise) as the motor converts electrical to
mechanical energy.

Duty
Duty defines the length of time during which the motor can carry its nameplate
rating safely. Most often, this is continuous ("Cont."). Some applications have
only intermittent use and do not need motor full load continuously.

Maximum Ambient Temperature
The nameplate lists the maximum ambient temperature at which the motor can
operate and still be within the tolerance of the insulation class at the maximum
temperature rise. The value is usually given in C.

Altitude
This indicates the maximum height above sea level at which the motor will
remain within its design temperature rise, meeting all other nameplate data. If the
motor operates below this altitude, it will run cooler. At higher altitudes, the motor
would tend to run hotter because the thinner air cannot remove the heat so
effectively, and the motor may have to be de-rated. Not every nameplate has an
altitude rating.
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                                Construction

Protection
This designation, often shown as "ENCL" on a nameplate, classifies the motor as
to its degree of protection from its environment, and its method of cooling. In
Europe, the values are shown as IP (ingress protection) the higher the IP rating
the better the motor is protected.




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Drip Proof
An open drip-proof motor allows a free exchange of air from outside the motor to
circulate around the winding. Being unaffected by drops of liquid or particles that
strike or enter the enclosure at any angle from zero to15 deg downward from the
vertical.

TEFC
A totally enclosed fan cooled motor prevents free exchange of air between inside
and outside the motor enclosure. It has a fan blowing air over the outside of the
enclosure to aid in cooling.
A TEFC motor is not considered air or water-tight; it allows outside air containing
moisture and other contaminants to enter, but usually not enough to interfere with
normal operation.

Explosion-proof
Explosion-proof motors must contain any explosions of the specified atmosphere
inside the motor. Moreover, they won't let the surface temperature exceed the
limits of the temperature code even at fault conditions such as overload or locked
rotor. The dust ignition-proof motor is designed to have the features of an
explosion-proof motor as well as to exclude ignitable amounts of dust.




                          TYPICAL MOTOR NAME PLATE




                   ACME MOTOR COMPANY Ltd.
                               Quality AC Induction Motors

            KW 7.5          VOLTS 380/440        SERIAL NO. ABC1234567
           RPM 1440          FLC 15 Amps          INSULATION CLASS F
             HZ 50             PHASE 3                DUTY CONT.
           Cos Ø 0.81       IP RATING IP54          ALTITUDE 2000M
                                               AMB TEMP. 40° C


                        Manufactured by ACME Motor Company Ltd.
                                PO Box 1, London. England




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                            Single Phase Motors.

Single Phase Induction Motors – Basic Types
Most home and business appliances operate on single-phase ac power. For this
reason, single-phase ac motors are in widespread use.
Furthermore, induction motors account for a large percentage of these due to
their rugged construction, maintenance-free operation, and low cost.

A single-phase induction motor operates on the principle of induction, just as
does a three-phase motor. However, in a single-phase motor, the stator field
does not rotate, but instead merely alternates poles as the single sine-wave
voltage swings from positive to negative.
Because of this, the stator field remains lined up in one direction with the poles
changing position once each cycle. As a result, a single-phase induction motor
will run once it has been started, but it has no means for starting itself.
Rotation of the motor shaft is not obtained from a single-phase motor as it is in a
three-phase motor. When a single-phase motor is first turned on, the rotor may
not be aligned perfectly with the stator field. If not, then a small voltage will be
induced in the rotor, and it will only move into alignment with the stator field,
similar to the dead centre position of a dc motor. Therefore we will call the
alignment position dead centre.
When the rotor reaches dead centre, voltage is no longer induced because no
lines of force are cut in the stator field. However, when the rotor is already
spinning with some speed, inertia carries it past dead centre, just as with a dc
machine, and voltage
continues to be induced in the rotor.
In this way, the rotor turns by being attracted to the continually alternating stator
poles.

A single-phase motor could be started by mechanically spinning the rotor, and
then quickly applying power. However, these motors all use some sort of
automatic starting.
Single-phase induction motors are often referred to by the starting method used.
There are three basic types, Shaded-Pole, Split-phase induction, and Split-phase
capacitor start Motors




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Shaded-Pole Motors:
A shaded-pole motor is so named because it uses a small, shorted Shading Coil
wound in a small notch in the stator pole piece. In some motors this coil consists
of a single copper ring or copper band.
When the electromagnetic field builds up around the main coil, the flux cuts
across the conductors of the shading coil. Since the shading coil is shorted,
current flows which produces a field opposite that of the main field.
The main field is then strongest on the side away from the shading coil. However,
the field through the shading coil reaches maximum intensity much later - at a
time when the main field is already decreasing.
The electromagnetic field in the pole piece then appears to be stronger on the
side nearest (or through) the shading coil. This produces a sweeping motion from
side to side in the stator pole piece, although small, this motion is enough to
maintain an induced voltage in the rotor and start the rotor turning.
These motors are usually very small and are fitted to such things as equipment
cooling fans.

Split-Phase Inductor Motors:
A split-phase inductor motor produces a rotating field in the same way that a
three-phase motor does. A separate stator winding, called a Starting Winding, is
included in the stator field.
This winding has only a few turns of light gauge wire. When the ac line is applied
to both windings simultaneously, a field builds up much more quickly around the
starting coil than around the main coil.
That is, the field around the main windings lags the field around the starting coil.
This produces a partially rotating stator field, which starts the motor. Once the
motor is running, the starting winding must be removed from the circuit.
Since the coil is light, continuous current through it would cause the winding to
burn out. One widely used method for doing this is to use a Centrifugal Switch
physically mounted on the rotor, and wired in series with the starting coil. When
the rotor gains sufficient speed to continue turning, using only the main field,
centrifugal force operates the switch contacts, and breaks the starter coil circuit.

Split-Phase Capacitor Motors:
Split-phase capacitor motors also produce a partially rotating stator field. In this
case, however, the starting winding need not be a light coil. A large capacitor is
placed in series with the second winding.
When the line current is applied, a field builds up around the starting winding
earlier than around the main winding. The main winding field LAGS that of the
starting winding. Since the phase shift results from the capacitor, the starting coil
may be identical to the main winding, and left in the circuit at all times. When this
is done, the motor is called a Capacitor-run motor.


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If instead, a lighter coil is used, and should not be left in the circuit, a centrifugal
switch is used to break the series circuit after the motor has reached starting
speed. This type of motor is called a Capacitor-start motor.

Capacitor Start-Capacitor Run Motors:
In this type of motor a capacitor is used on both the start and run windings. The
capacitor in the start winding is used to provide a high starting torque, the start
winding is usually switched out after starting using a centrifugal switch. The
capacitor in the run winding is always left in circuit. To enable the phase shift
principle to work the start and run capacitors are always different values.


Single Phase Motors - Theory Of Operation
In the single-phase induction motor the current drawn at no load is relatively high
because the stator windings still supply all the magnetic field energy. See Figure
1.
This means that even during idling the motor draws the majority of its full load
operating current. This excess energy is converted into heat and vibration, in
addition to being wasted the heat and vibration shortens the life of the motor.

In the single-phase induction motor the current lags the voltage due to the
inductive reactance in the windings. The cosine of the amount of lag in degrees
is the motor power factor. Power factors are 1 for resistive loads (heaters etc)
and typically vary from 0.65 for a fully loaded motor to as low as 0.1 for an idling
motor. See Figure 2.

The actual power being consumed by the motor is Voltage X Current X Power
Factor.

A lightly loaded motor has a low power factor, as the motor reaches its rated load
the power factor moves closer to its designed maximum. Powerboss calculates
the motor loading by measuring the time delay between voltage and current zero
crossing points, in effect the motors power factor. When the load on the motor is
low Powerboss lowers power consumption by lowering the voltage to the motor
by switching a triac at the correct time in the voltage cycle. Powerboss
continually adjusts the power to the motor every mains cycle to ensure the motor
always has enough power to suit the driven load.

Powerboss will usually reduce the motor current and thereby improve motor
power factor, system power factor will not be effected.




   POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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 100%
                                           0.7
                                                                                   Speed
                         Copper

                           Load
 Motor                                   Power
Losses                                   Factor
           Magnetising

              Friction
                                              0
     0         50%                100%                         50%                100%
               Load                                            Load

                Figure 1.                                       Figure 2.
         Induction Motor Losses                    Induction Motor Power Factor




     POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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Single Phase Motor Types Suitable For Operation With Powerboss


Single Phase Motors Split Phase Type
This is a single-phase motor built with two windings, a start winding and a run
winding. A centrifugal switch fitted on the shaft of the motor disconnects the start
winding when the motor reaches about 65% of its rated speed. Then the motor
operates continuously with the run winding only connected.
The split-phase motor has moderate starting torque, which varies between 130
and 170% of the nominal running torque. This type of motor is usually fitted on
types of applications that require few starts with a moderate starting torque
requirement.


Single Phase Motors Split Phase Capacitor Start Type
This is a single phase motor built with two windings, a start winding with a
capacitor of a suitable value connected in series and a run winding. A centrifugal
switch fitted on the shaft of the motor disconnects the start winding when the
motor reaches about 80% of its rated speed. Then the motor operates
continuously with the run winding only connected.

The split-phase capacitor start motor has high starting torque, which varies
between 200 and 300% of the nominal running torque. This type of motor is
usually fitted on types of applications with a high starting torque requirement.

Single Phase Motors Split Phase Capacitor Run Type
Powerboss will provide little or no savings to motors fitted with a capacitor to the
run winding, this is due to the high power factor of the motor.

Powerboss PB (Single Phase) Product Specifications

Parameter            Description
Supply Voltage       220 - 240V +10% / -15%
                     110V       +10% / -15%* US versions only
Supply Frequency     50 Hz
                     60 Hz* US versions only
Ambient              -10 - +40 Deg C
Temperature          Reduce kW Rating 2% per Deg C up to 50 Deg C
Storage              -40 - +60 Deg C
Temperature
Relative Humidity    <95% No condensation allowed
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Parameter                        Description
Altitude                         Maximum 1000 m. Reduce kW Rating by 1% per additional 100 M
Starting Duty                    Size 1 - 30 Starts per hour.
                                 Size 2 - 30 Starts per hour.
Cooling                          Naturally cooled
LED Indications                  None
Size 1
LED Indications                  Mains, Power on, Status
Size 2
Enclosure                        IP20
EU Directives                    EN50082-2, EN55011, 73/23/EEC



Powerboss PB Single Phase Selection Guide
                                        Weight kg




Chassis




                                                                                                                               Cooling
                                                    Rating



                                                                     Rating



                                                                                     Rating



                                                                                                     Rating



                                                                                                                     Rating
                         Model




                                                    Amps



                                                             kW @




                                                                                                     kW @



                                                                                                                     HP @
                                                                                     HP @
                                                             220V



                                                                              220V



                                                                                              110v



                                                                                                              110v
Size
HxWxD mm


H130                       PB6       0.2              6        1.1                   1.5             0.5             0.75     Natural
                SIZE 1




W75                        PB8       0.2              8        1.5                    2              0.75             1       Natural
D55
H215                     PB13       0.86              13       2.2                    3              1.1             1.5      Natural
                SIZE 2




W128                     PB20        0.9              20        3                     4              1.5              2       Natural
D48




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Installation – Powerboss PB Single Phase


                         IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTICE

                                SAFETY AT WORK




      The owner, installer and user of the Powerboss unit are
      responsible for its correct installation and use, and must
      ensure that;

      a)    Only qualified persons install the unit.

      b)    No adjustments should be made with the unit live.

      c)    The installation complies with the information
            contained in the manual supplied with the unit.


      d)    The operation and maintenance of the unit complies
            with the relevant Codes of Practice, Regulations and
            Statutory Requirements.


Somar International Limited, or their agents do not assume any
liability, expressed or implied, for any consequences resulting
from inappropriate, negligent or incorrect installation,
application, use or adjustment of the product or circuit design,
or from the mismatch of the unit to a motor.

Prior To Installation
1.     Carefully remove the Powerboss from the packaging and check that the
       parts supplied identify with the delivery note and the purchase order.
       Check that the parts supplied identify with the kW size of the motor.
   POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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2.     Check the Voltage and Current ratings of the Powerboss correspond with
       the motor name plate details.
3.     Check that there are no loose parts or objects within the Powerboss unit.
4.     Check sufficient space exists to correctly install the Powerboss.
5.     Check you have sufficient tools to correctly install the Powerboss


Mechanical Installation
Unless the Powerboss is fitted within a suitable enclosure the following should be
avoided.
1. Exposure to explosive and/or corrosive atmospheres.

2. Atmospheres containing a high proportion of conductive dust.
3.Extremes of temperature and/or humidity beyond published limits.


Fix the Powerboss to a flat vertical surface using the mounting holes provided
using adequately sized mounting bolts.
Care should be taken to ensure the orientation of the Powerboss is correct and a
gap of 40mm is maintained above and below the Powerboss. This is to ensure a
safe exit path for the heat generated by the Semiconductors within Powerboss.

Electrical Installation

Lightning Strikes / Very High Voltage Transients
In areas subject to frequent lightning strikes or other very high voltage transients,
       a suitably rated Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV) should connect each input
       line to earth.

Electro Magnetic Interference
Where the supply voltage to the Powerboss is thought to be subject to EMI
      beyond the published limits a suitable line filter with transient voltage
      suppression should be fitted between the control supply and the
      Powerboss.

Coil Suppression
It is good practice for any AC relay or contactor coil either connected to
        Powerboss or sharing a common supply to be fitted with a RC suppresser.


     POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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    Additional Equipment
    All necessary electrical connections for mains, earth and control wiring are
    provided for in the Powerboss unit. However the following additional
    components will need to be provided.
    1.    Isolator.
    2.    Cable protection fuses.
    3.    Motor overload.

    WARNING

    POWERBOSS USES A TRIAC SWITCHING DEVICE IN ITS MAIN CIRCUIT AND IS
    NOT DESIGNED FOR ISOLATION. A SUITABLY RATED MECHANICAL ISOLATION
    METHOD MUST BE EMPLOYED IN LINE WITH THE MAIN INPUT TERMINALS TO
    THE POWERBOSS.



    Earthing




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POWERBOSS PB CONNECTION DRAWING


        WARNING
        POWERBOSS MUST BE EARTHED.
        CONNECT THE EARTHING TERMINAL OF THE POWERBOSS UNIT TO A
        SUITABLE LOW IMPEDANCE EARTH AS IS REQUIRED BY STATUTORY
        REGULATIONS COVERING THE INSTALLATION OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT.



                                                                                  1.   Centrifugal Switch
                                                                                  2.   Start Capacitor (if
                                                                                       fitted)
                                                                                  3.   Run Capacitor (if
                                                                                       fitted)
From Isolator
                                                                     3
Live                             L      Powerboss PB      L
Neutral                          N                        N
                                                                            Run              Start
                               Mains                    Motor
                                                                                                        Motor
Earth                           Earth

                                                                                  1     2

        To Protective
           Earth




   Notes.

   1.         Powerboss will not operate to its full potential with capacitor run motors in
              the Automatic Mode. If Powerboss is to be fitted to capacitor run motors the
              Semi-Automatic Mode must be selected. Savings, if any, will be much
              smaller with capacitor run motors.

   2.         No load other than the target motor load should be connected to the output
              of Powerboss.

   3.         This diagram must be used in conjunction with the installation notes in this
              manual.

   4.   Powerboss will only control a single motor load.
    POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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     USER CONTROL SETTINGS AND DIMENSIONS SIZE 1
                65
         32                             10




55




                                                                          To Motor
               On
       Micro   N
                     12 3 4                                               Neutral
                      Switch 1
                     1                                                    Live
                                         To maintain the IP20
                                         rating all Connections
                                         to the Powerboss must




                                                                                             Freq.
                                         be Insulated
                                         6.3x0.8mm
                                         Receptacles.




                                                                                  Serial No.
                                                                                                     120 130




                                                                                  Supply
                                                                                  Model
                                         All mounting holes M4
                                         clearance.

                                                                          From Supply

                                                                          Earth

                                                                          Live

                                                                          Neutral




                                                                                         25

                                                                            55




       POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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USER CONTROL SETTINGS AND DIMENSIONS SIZE 2


                     64                4




                                  Mains
                   Micro          Statuss
                                  Power
             On
             N
                  1 23 4
                  Switch 1



 211   187          L N                     N L
                    Mains                   Motor


              Switching




                                                                             Freq.
               Device




                                                                  Serial No.
                                                                  Supply
                                                                  Model
                                   Protective
                                     Earth




                                                                          15mm Stuffing
                                                                             Glands
                                                        48


                                                             16



                             74


  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.
                        128

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LED FUNCTIONS SIZE 2 ONLY

       Function     Colour                      Description
         Mains       Green    Illuminates when Powerboss is connected to a
                              mains supply
        Status       Yellow   Illuminates when Powerboss is not connected to a
                              motor
                              Illuminates during the learning cycle
                              Flashes when optimising
                              - Sow flashing = Partial optimisation
                              - Fast flashing = Full optimisation
        Power         Red     Illuminates when internal power supply is healthy


     SWITCH SETTINGS

                                  Switch Position              Resultant Value
      Function                                                   @240V Input
                                                                (Approximate)
                                                     ON           Automatic
      Automatic Learning            2           4
                              1           3
           Mode
                                                     ON             225V
      Backstop Voltage 1
                              1     2     3     4


                                                     ON             220V
      Backstop Voltage 2
                              1     2     3     4


                                                     ON             210V
      Backstop Voltage 3
                              1     2     3     4


                                                     ON             195V
      Backstop Voltage 4
                              1     2     3     4


                                                     ON             185V
      Backstop Voltage 5
                              1     2     3     4


                                                     ON             170V
      Backstop Voltage 6
                              1     2     3     4


                                                     ON             155V
      Backstop Voltage 7
                              1     2     3     4




  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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Commisioning Powerboss PB – Single Phase

Pre-Commissioning Checks
1.    Ensure that the unit supplied is of the correct voltage and frequency rating.
2.    Ensure that the motor current does not exceed the Powerboss rating.
3.    Check that the Powerboss is connected as per the preceding connection
      diagrams.
4.    Ensure that no other load other than the target motor is connected to the
      output terminals of Powerboss.

Commissioning In Automatic Mode
1.  Ensure that all the pre-commissioning checks have been followed.
2.  Set switch1 to the automatic mode and replace cover.
3.  Switch on.
4.  Once the motor has started it should be allowed to run for a period of two
    minutes. This allows the motor to come to normal load conditions before
    testing the results.
5.  During the initial 10 second period Powerboss will give full power to the
    motor.
6.  After the initial 10 seconds the on board microcontroller will enter its
    learning cycle, during this time Powerboss will learn the minimum amount
    of power required to allow the motor to attain full speed.
7.  At the end of the learning cycle Powerboss will then go into control mode
    and progressively reduce the motor current until it has reached the
    optimum level.
8.  Powerboss will only perform a learning cycle if the electricity supply to the
    unit has been removed since its last learning cycle.
9.  On the correct type of motor Powerboss will usually produce savings of
    around 20%, if the equipment fails to produce this margin of savings then
    refer to the next section of this manual for operation in semi-automatic
    mode.

       Commissioning In Semi-Automatic Mode
1.     Ensure that all the pre-commissioning checks have been followed.
2.     Set switch1 to backstop voltage 1 and replace cover.
3.     Switch on.
4.     Powerboss will repeat its learning cycle as in the automatic mode but the
       voltage will not drop further than the set limit. Leave the motor running for
       a few minutes to ensure stability.
5.     Repeat the above process until the motor operates on the minimum
       possible current without slowing down.
6.     Set Powerboss on the next highest backstop setting to allow for a
       reduction in the supply voltage.

     POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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7.     Ensure all covers are replaced and Powerboss is fitted in a suitable
position.

POWERBOSS PB REFRIGERATION COMPRESSOR CONNECTION DRAWING


                                                                 Compressor        1.    Centrifugal Switch
                                                               Protection Relay          (if fitted)
                                                                   Contacts        2.    Start Capacitor (if
 From Isolator
                                                                                         fitted)
 Live                          L      Powerboss PB        L
              Protection
 Neutral        Relay          N                          N
                                                                             Run               Start
                             Mains                     Motor
 Earth                        Earth

                                                                                   1      2

         To Protective                                                                              Compressor
             Earth                                                                                    Motor


                                             Evaporator Fan
                                                                                        Fan
                                             Control Circuit
                                                                     Protective
                                                                     Earth Not
                                                                      Shown
                                             Condenser Fan
                                                                                        Fan
                                             Control Circuit




     Notes.



     1. No load other than the target motor load should be connected to the output of
        Powerboss.


     2. This diagram must be used in conjunction with the installation notes in the
        manual.

     3. Powerboss will only control a single motor load.




   POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                     선일테크㈜



Notes On Installing Powerboss PB Single Phase On Refrigeration Compressors

1.     Before carrying out any installation a complete inspection of all equipment
       to which Powerboss is to be fitted must be made. During this process
       establish the most suitable position to which Powerboss is to be fitted. It
       is most desirable to fit Powerboss directly in the line feeding the
       compressor motor, so during this initial inspection establish the best place
       to fit. If during the inspection any defects are found they should be
       pointed out to the customer. This will prevent any possible
       misunderstanding arising between you and the customer.

2.     When switching off refrigeration equipment a period of one to three
       minutes should be given before switching back on. This will allow the
       pressures to drop and the thermal switch in the motor to cool down. If this
       delay is not given it is likely that the compressor will go into a locked rotor
       condition. Whilst this will not damage the equipment you will have to wait
       for a much longer period before the compressor will try to restart.

3.     It has been found that some compressors fitted with voltage operated
       protection relays (referred usually to Potential Relays), de-energise when
       the voltage supplied to the compressor falls below say 180 volts. If this is
       found to be the case and the relay coil cannot be re-connected to the input
       Powerboss must be put into SEMI AUTOMATAIC mode and the output
       voltage be limited to a minimum of 200 volts. If this is not done damage to
       the compressor may occur




     POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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               Three Phase Motors


                                                Theory Of Starting Motors

               Electro-Mechanical Methods of Starting Induction Motors

               Direct On Line
               The simplest means of controlling energy flow to an induction motor is to interrupt
               the power supply by a single, solenoid operated, 3-phase switch, known as a
               contactor. Very widely applied, the method is known variously as "direct-on-line",
               "across-the-line", "direct" etc., and is the usual form of control where low cost is
               the first, and most important consideration. As a result, it is most often used on
               smaller motor sizes (up to 11kW), or where the supply is strong enough to
               withstand the inrush and starting current surges without causing unacceptable
               voltage drops.
               See Figure 2

               The harsh, damaging effects of rapid acceleration of the driven load due to the
               excess starting torque and very high starting currents are all imposed by direct-
               on-line starting and, as a control method, it is the most destructive of equipment.
               Its simplicity and apparent low cost, although attractive at first sight, hide large
               cost penalties in the shape of increased maintenance, reduced transmission
               equipment life and higher risk of motor failure, particularly when frequent
               stopping and starting is needed.
               See Figure 1


                            1 DOL Torque
                            2 Load Torque
                            3 Excess Acceleration Torque



               2.5                                                                        Excess
                                                                  Motor Current




                        1                                                                Starting
                                                                                         Current
Motor Torque




                                         3
                1                                                                 2.5



               0.33                                                               In
                        2



                      POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.
                                        Speed              100%                                     Speed   100%
                                                       N
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                                  Figure 2                                          Figure 1

         Star - Delta
         Reduced voltage starting makes use of the fact that motor torque is proportional
         to the square of the terminal voltage and the most familiar type of reduced-
         voltage starter is the star-delta or wye delta starter.

         Consisting of three contactors and a time switch (which can be mechanical,
         pneumatic, electrical or electronic), the star-delta starter changes the motor
         winding configuration from an initial star connection to a delta as the motor
         accelerates. The changeover or transition point is controlled by the time switch
         and is usually arranged to be at the point where the motor cannot continue to
         accelerate. The effect of starting in star is to alter the voltage across each stator
         winding to 58% of normal. This reduces the starting torque to a third of locked
         rotor torque (LRT) with a consequent reduction in starting currents and
         acceleration forces.

                                                                                               Transition Peak
                                                                                                up to 20 x In
                     1   Delta Torque
                     2   Star Torque
                     3   Load Torque                         6-10 x In                         Excess Starting
                     4   Excess Acceleration Torque
                                                                                                  Current


         2.5
                                                              Motor Current




                  1
Torque




                                    4
          1



         0.33    2                                                      In

                 3


                                   Speed              100%                             Speed          100%
                                                       N                        Current Speed Curve    N
                              Speed Torque Curve



         Although an apparent improvement over the direct system, significant
         disadvantages still remain. The transfer from star to delta momentarily removes
         the motor from the supply. During this time the motor is under the mechanical
                POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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     influence of the rotating load and, at the instant of disconnection, current will still
     flow in the rotor bars due to the time delay necessary for the magnetic flux to die
     away. Therefore, there is a residual flux "frozen" on the surface of the rotating
     rotor, which cuts the stator windings, generating a voltage whose frequency
     depends on the rotor speed. If the load inertia is small, such as in a pump, or if
     the friction is high, there could be a significant loss of speed during the time the
     supply is disconnected.




                                 Overload
         Fuses
L1                                                  U1    W2

                                                    V1     U2
L2
                                                    W1    V2
L3




                       Line Contactor                                  Delta Contactor
                                                                                            Star
                         Contactor                                                        Contactor




                                     Typical Star-Delta Starter



     In this case, when the reconnection to delta is made, a large phase differential
     can exist between the supply and the rotor fluxes. This can give rise to very large
     current surges (as much or more than full-voltage locked rotor current), together
     with massive transient torque oscillations. (These oscillations can be as much as
     five times full-load torque.) Although the effects described are only present for a
     very short period of time (about one fifth of a second), they are sources of great
     stress and damage to the whole drive system, and where frequent starting is
     necessary, invoke high maintenance costs.

     There are methods of control, for example, the closed transition starter, which
     eliminate or reduce the reconnection transients. However, such starters are
     expensive and have reliability implications; for these reasons, they are not widely
     applied.

        POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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The star-delta starter also has disadvantages due to the restricted starting torque
available (if you need 40% LRT breakaway, you can only increase the motor size,
or revert to direct-on-line). Combined with the severe effects of the re-switching
surges, and the additional costs of bringing six conductors from the motor to the
starter instead of only three, star-delta only offers an imperfect solution to the
problem of starting the induction motor.


Primary Resistance Starter
It has long been recognised that the transition step in the star-delta system was a
source of problems such as welded contactors, sheared drive shafts etc., and for
many years a method of stepless control has been available in the form of the
primary resistance starter. This type of controller inserts a resistance in one, or
more often in each, of the phase connections to the stator at start-up, after which
it is progressively reduced and shorted out at the end of the acceleration process.
As motor torque is directly proportional to the square of the motor current,
controlling the current by inserting a resistance will have a beneficial effect on
controlling the motors acceleration torque.


Liquid Resistance Starter
This method uses copper rods connected to the rotor that are gradually
immersed in an electrolyte liquid, the further the rods are inserted into the
electrolyte the greater the current (and torque) is produced in the rotor. The
mechanism is usually large and expensive, both to purchase, and to maintain,
and considerable heat is created by the passage of current through the
electrolyte resistor. This limits the starting frequency (because the electrolyte has
to condense back to liquid before a new start can proceed), and these
restrictions prevent this starter from being a popular option when selecting a
control system. However, it has the distinction of traditionally being the
smoothest and least stressful Electro-mechanical method of accelerating an
induction motor and its load.


Auto Transformer Starter
Other control methods such as Auto-Transformer starting (popular in North
America), primary reactance starting etc., are employed to a greater or lesser
extent, to compensate for some of the disadvantages of each type of starter
discussed.
Again, AutoTransformers control the motors acceleration torque (torque is
proportional to the voltage or Current squared) by increasing in steps the
Voltage/Current to the motor by means of contactors and timers.


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This method of control is usually only supplied with new plant and equipment as
all the relevant information such as motor/load speed torque curves and
motor/load inertia figures are required. Theses figures are not normally available
on retrofit applications.
Nevertheless, the fundamental problems of Electro-mechanical starters remain,
and it is only in the last decade or two that their dominance has been challenged
by the introduction of power semiconductors controlled by electronics.


                        How Does Powerboss Work?

      Starting Induction Motors - The Powerboss Solution

      In common with all soft start devices Powerboss uses thyristor‟s to
      accurately control the voltage applied at the motor terminals.
      A characteristic of the thyristor to switch rapidly from "OFF" to "ON" when
      pulsed, and to remain "ON" until the current through the device falls to
      zero at the end of each half-cycle in the AC supply, is called self
      commutation.
      By controlling the switch-on point relative to the voltage zero crossing in
      each half cycle of the supply, it is possible to regulate the current flowing
      through the thyristor. The closer the turn-on point is to the end of the cycle
      the smaller the value of current that will be allowed to flow. Conversely,
      the closer the turn-on point is to the beginning of the cycle the higher the
      value of current will be. Using this principle and by connecting two
      thyristor‟s in anti-parallel to each of the phase connections to a motor
      Powerboss can continuously adjust the voltage to the motor terminals by
      precisely controlling the thyristor‟s turn-on points. This provides just
      sufficient voltage for the motor to accelerate the load. See Figure 3.
      So, for instance, by starting with a large delay to the turn on point in each
      half cycle, and progressively reducing it over a selected time period, the
      voltage applied to the motor starts from a relatively low value and
      increases to full voltage. Due to the motor torque being proportional to the
      square of the applied voltage, the starting torque increases in a stepless
      manner ensuring a soft start for both the motor and the driven load.


             Figure 3




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                                           Motor Torque

                                           Acceleration
         Torque                            Torque

                                           Load Torque




                          Speed    100%




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       MOTOR EFFICIENCY – THE POWERBOSS SOLUTION

       Motor Power Consumption
       In a squirrel cage induction motor, the current drawn at no load is quite
       high because the stator windings must supply all the magnetising current,
       this means even at no load the motor still draws a significant proportion of
       its full load current. The energy not converted into work is converted into
       heat, vibration and noise. In addition to being wasted, the heat and
       vibration shortens the life of lubricants, bearings, mechanical seals and
       other components within the drive train.
       The torque produced by an AC induction motor is directly proportional to
       the square of the applied voltage therefor a motor subject to only part of its
       rated load needs only part of its rated torque.

       Power Factor
       In a squirrel cage induction motor the current in the windings lags the
       voltage due to the inductive reactance in the windings. The cosine of the
       amount of lag in degrees is the power factor. Power factors are 1 for
       resistive loads (heaters) and typically 0.85 for a fully loaded motor,
       depending on its internal design, to as low as 0.1 for a motor running with
       little or no load.

       The actual power consumed by the motor is;

       Power (Watts) = Volts x Amps x Power Factor

       Powerboss calculates motor loading by measuring the time between the
       current and voltage zero crossing points, in effect, power factor. When the
       motor is lightly loaded lowering the magnetising current of the stator
       windings can reduce the power consumed by the motor by reducing the
       motor terminal voltage. Powerboss monitors motor power factor every
       current cycle and adjusts the applied voltage to suit the driven load.

       A lightly loaded motor with a low power factor controlled by Powerboss will
       draw less current and its power factor will be improved, however the
       power factor seen by the line, the system power factor, will not
       significantly improve.


When working at or near full load, the typical 3-phase induction motor is relatively
     efficient, achieving efficiencies of between 80% to 92%. However, as
     shown in Figure 4 below, motor efficiency falls dramatically when the load
     falls to less than 50% of rated output. In fact, very few motors actually
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       experience consistent fully rated operation, the vast majority operate at
       much lower loads due to either over-sizing (a very frequent situation), or
       natural load variations.

       In applications where motor speeds do not need to be varied, the
       optimisation software in the Powerboss will produce energy savings in
       lightly loaded motors.

       Less sophisticated soft-starters remain at full conduction and the motor
       then behaves as if it were connected directly to the mains supply.
       However, at light loads at full mains voltages, induction motors always
       have excess magnetising current (see Figure 5). By detecting the load at
       any instant, and adjusting the motor terminal voltage accordingly,
       Powerboss is able to save some of the excitation energy and load loss,
       and improve motor Power Factor when the motor is running inefficiently at
       light loads.



                     100%
                                                       Speed




                Efficiency




                           0
                                         50%         100%
 Figure 4.
 Induction Motor Efficiency
                                         Load



                                                        Copper Losses

                                                        Stray Losses

                  Losses                                Magnetising Losses

                                                        Friction Losses



 Figure 5.
 Induction Motor Losses
                  0     50%     100%
                         Load 입니다.
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                       Do You Need An Engineer?

To Be Provided

                      Equipment Recommendations.

To Be Provided


                 Assessing Suitability Of Applications.

More Text To Be Provided

     LOAD AND DUTY CYCLE TABLE

            Application         Load Type     Inertia     Starts / Hour   Start Type
      Centrifugal Pump            Low          Low            <20         Standard
                                                              >20         Heavy
      Positive Displacement      Medium        Low            <12         Standard
      Pump                                                    >12         Heavy
      Submersible Pump           Medium        Low            <12         Standard
                                                              >12         Heavy
      Reciprocating              Medium       Medium          <10         Standard
      Compressor                                              >10         Heavy
      Screw Compressor           Medium     Medium/High        <6         Standard
                                                               >6         Heavy
      Axial Fan - No Load         Low          High            <4         Standard
      Start                                                    >4         Heavy
      Axial Fan - Full Load      Medium        High            <4         Heavy
      Start                                                    >4         Very Heavy
      Blower                      Low          Low            <20         Standard
                                                              >20         Heavy
      Centrifuge                  Low        Very High         <2         Very Heavy
      Conveyor Off Load Start     Low          High           <10         Standard
                                                              >10         Heavy

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                      Application                              Load Type          Inertia              Starts / Hour                  Start Type
       Conveyor On Load Start                                    High              High                              <6               Heavy
                                                                                                                     >6               Very Heavy
       Steel Press                                               Low               High                              <6               Standard
                                                                                                                     >6               Heavy
       Escalator                                                 Low               High                              <6               Standard
                                                                                                                     >6               Heavy
       Plastic Extruder Off Load                                 Low               Low                               <20              Standard
       Start                                                                                                         >20              Heavy
       Grinders                                                  Low               High                              <6               Standard
                                                                                                                     >6               Heavy
       Circular Saw                                              Low               Low                               <20              Standard
                                                                                                                     >20              Heavy




Selecting Units.

It is important that you consider k W ratings, voltage, amperage and ambience
when selecting the correct Powerboss units

      POWERBOSS COMPACT SELECTION GUIDE
       HxWxD mm
                  Size
                  Chassis




                                                                                                        Protection
                                                   Weight kg




                                                                                   380/440v




                                                                                                                            Cooling
                                                                Rating



                                                                         Rating



                                                                                              Rating
                                       Model




                                                                Amps



                                                                         kW @



                                                                                    kW @
                                                                          220V




                                     PBC 2.2      3.5             4        1.1*        2.2              IP20               Natural
       H 270                         PBC 4        3.5             9        2.2*          4              IP20               Natural
       W 130                         PBC 5.5      3.5             11       3*          5.5              IP20               Natural
                            SIZE 1




       D 115
                                     PBC 7.5       4              15       4*          7.5              IP20               Natural
                                     PBC 11        4              23       5.5*         11              IP20               Natural
                                     PBC 15        4              30       7.5*         15              IP20               Natural
                                     PBC 22        4              42       11*          22              IP20               Natural
       H 385                         PBC 30       9.9             53       15*          30              IP20               Forced
                            SIZE 2




       W 130                         PBC 37       9.9             65       22*          37              IP20               Forced
       D 215                         PBC 55       9.9             97       30*          55              IP20               Forced

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    WARNING
    * UNITS MUST BE SPECIFICALLY ORDERED TO RUN AT 220V




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    POWERBOSS COMPACT STARTING DUTY TABLE

      Model       Motor Current Rating       Motor Current Rating       Motor Current Rating
                       Standard                     Heavy                   Very Heavy
     PBC 2.2                 4                          3                          2.5
      PBC 4                  9                          6                           4
     PBC 5.5                11                          8                           6
     PBC 7.5                15                         10                          7.5
      PBC 11                23                         15                          10
      PBC 15                30                         19                          15
      PBC 22                42                         28                          20
      PBC 30                53                         38                          28
      PBC 37                65                         47                          35
      PBC 55                97                         68                          50

    Sizing Powerboss COMPACT For A Particular Duty
    Determine the load type from the Load and Duty Cycle Table paying
    particular attention to the starts per hour rating on page 9, and then select
    a unit according to the Motor Current from the above Table.


    Example;       Load Type - Reciprocating Compressor, 18 starts per hour
                   Start Type =       Heavy
                   Motor Current      =      15

    Unit required is a PBC11.


    If a particular application is not listed on page 9 refer to the Starting Duty and Starts per
    Hour listed in the POWERBOSS COMPACT PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS on
    page 7.




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    POWERBOSS PMLV2 SELECTION GUIDE


     HxWxD mm
     Size
                Chassis




                                                                                                                                        Fuse Types
                                                                                                                      Conductor
                                               Weight kg




                                                                       380/460v




                                                                                                    Cooling
                                                           Rating



                                                                        Rating



                                                                                  Rating



                                                                                           Rating
                                       Model




                                                                                                              Fuses
                                                           Amps



                                                           kW @



                                                                                  kW @



                                                                                  kW @




                                                                                                                        Semi-
                                                            220V




                                                                                   690V
     H448                          PML 75V2                132   37               75    110*        Forced Optional                Δ Brush 315FM
                          SIZE 3


     W305                          PML 90V2    22          170   55               90    132*        Forced Optional                Δ Brush 350FM
     D205
                                   PML 110V2               205   63               110   150*        Forced Optional                Δ Brush 350FM
                                   PML 132V2               255   75               132   186*        Forced        Fitted             Δ Ferraz
     H590                                                                                                                         5URZ2BS88Z-700
     W368                          PML 150V2 28            290   85               150   225*        Forced        Fitted             Δ Ferraz
     D211
                          SIZE 4




                                                                                                                                  5URZ2BS88Z-700
                                   PML 186V2               340   110              186   260*        Forced        Fitted             Δ Ferraz
                                                                                                                                  5URZ2BS88Z-800
                                   PML 225V2               410   132              225   315*        Forced        Fitted             Δ Ferraz
                                                                                                                                  5URZ2BS88Z-800
                                   PML 260V2               475   150              260   375*        Forced        Fitted             Δ Ferraz
     H730                                                                                                                           33TTF1100
                          SIZE 5




     W460                          PML 315V2 46            580   186              315   450*        Forced        Fitted             Δ Ferraz
     D253                                                                                                                           33TTF1250
                                   PML 375V2               670   215              375   550*        Forced        Fitted             Δ Ferraz
                                                                                                                                    33TTF1400
                                                                                                                                     Δ Ferraz
     H920                          PML 450V2 72            800   260              450   675*        Forced        Fitted            33TTF1600
                          SIZE 6




     W784                                                                                                                            Δ Ferraz
     D339                          PML 630V2 110 1100            375              630   950*        Forced        Fitted            33TTF1800



    Δ = Fuse Manufacturer

    Warning.
    *Units required to operate at 690V must be specified at time of order.




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    POWERBOSS PMLV2 STARTING DUTY TABLE

        Model           Motor Current             Motor Current              Motor Current
                           Rating                    Rating                     Rating
                          Standard                   Heavy                    Very Heavy
      PML 75V2                145                        105                        75
      PML 90V2                170                        120                        97
     PML 110V2                205                        145                       105
     PML 132V2                255                        170                       120
     PML 150V2                290                        206                       145
     PML 186V2                340                        255                       170
     PML 225V2                410                        290                       206
     PML 260V2                475                        340                       255
     PML 315V2                580                        410                       290
     PML 375V2                670                        475                       340
     PML 450V2                800                        580                       410
     PML 630V2               1100                        800                       580

    Sizing Powerboss For A Particular Duty
    Determine the load type from the Load and Duty Cycle Table paying
    particular attention to the starts per hour rating on page 9, and then select
    a Powerboss according to the Motor Current from the above Table.


    Example;       Load Type - Reciprocating Compressor, 18 starts per hour
                   Start Type =       Heavy
                   Motor Current      =      145

    Powerboss required is a PML 110V2.


    If a particular application is not listed on page 9 refer to the Starting Duty and Starts per
    Hour listed in the POWERBOSS PMLV2 PRODUCT SPECIFICATIONS on page 7.




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          Installation – Powerboss PBC & PMLV2 3 Phase

 (For single phase installation guidelines please click here ).Insert hyperlink to
                                    section on

     INSTALLATION

                            IMPORTANT SAFETY NOTICE

                                    SAFETY AT WORK




     The owner, installer and user of this Powerboss Compact unit are responsible for
     its correct installation and use, and must ensure that;

     a)     Only qualified persons install the unit.

     b)     No adjustments should be made with the unit live.

     c)     The installation complies with the information contained in this publication.


     d)     The operation and maintenance of the unit complies with the relevant
            Codes of Practice, Regulations and Statutory Requirements.


     Somar International Limited, or their agents do not assume any liability,
     expressed or implied, for any consequences resulting from inappropriate,
     negligent or incorrect installation, application, use or adjustment of the product or
     circuit design, or from the mismatch of the unit to a motor.
     Prior To Installation
     1.     Carefully remove the unit from the packaging and check that the
            parts supplied identify with the delivery note and the purchase order.
            Check that the parts supplied identify with the kW size of the motor.
     2.     Check the Voltage and Current ratings of the unit correspond with
            the motor name plate details.
  3. Check the Voltage rating of the cooling fans if fitted.
     4.     Check that there are no loose parts or objects within the unit.
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      5.     Check sufficient space exists to correctly install the unit.
      6.     Check you have sufficient tools to correctly install the unit.

Please Note: - At the end of this section there is additional text dealing
specifically with the installation of Powerboss with:
        Star Delta (Insert Link)
        Slip Ring Motors (Insert Link)
        Part Wound Motors (Insert Link)
        Two Speed / Two Winding Motors (Insert Link)

      Mechanical Installation
      Unless the unit is fitted within a suitable enclosure the following should be
      avoided.
      1.     Exposure to rain, spray or wet areas.
      2.     Exposure to explosive and/or corrosive atmospheres.
      3.     Atmospheres containing a high proportion of conductive dust.
      4.     Extremes of temperature and/or humidity beyond published limits.


      Wall Mounting
      Fix the unit to a flat vertical surface using the mounting holes provided
      using adequately sized mounting bolts. With the PMLV2 additional gland
      boxes should be used to provide adequate space for cable terminations.
      Care should be taken to ensure the orientation of the unit is correct and a
      gap of 80mm (100mm for PBC 30 and above) is maintained above and
      below the Powerboss. This is to ensure a safe exit path for the heat
      generated by the semiconductors within the unit.

      Mounting Powerboss Within An Enclosure
      If the unit has been purchased purely for the soft start features and
      optimisation is not required, the unit can be bypassed using a contactor
      driven by the Top of Ramp relay provided within the unit. This will negate
      the need to fit additional cooling fans to the enclosure. See connection
      drawings for details.


      Cooling Powerboss Within An Enclosure
      If the optimisation feature is required the installer must ensure that the
      temperature within the enclosure is kept below the maximum permitted for
      Powerboss.


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    Care should be taken to include any other heat producing equipment
    within the enclosure into the calculation.
    The following formula should be used to calculate the minimum airflow
    through the enclosure.


                                 AF =                  W
                                                    Tenc - Tamb
                                 AF     =      Required airflow in cubic metres per
           hour
                                 W      =      Heat produced within the enclosure
                               Tenc     =      Maximum enclosure ambient
                         temperature


                                 Tamb =        Temperature of external air


    Perform the minimum airflow calculation using the power dissipation information
    provided in the Powerboss Compact Heat Dissipation Table, the resultant figure
    should then be used to select a cooling fan from the Fan Selection Table


    POWERBOSS COMPACT heat dissipation table

                       Model          Power Dissipation in
                                            Watts
                      PBC 2.2                  15
                       PBC 4                   32
                      PBC 5.5                  40
                      PBC 7.5                  54
                      PBC 11                   82
                      PBC 15                  108
                      PBC 22                  150
                      PBC 30                  190
                      PBC 37                  235
                      PBC 55                  350


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    POWERBOSS PMLV2 heat dissipation table

                       Model         Power Dissipation in
                                        Watts @ FLC
                   PML 75V2                   522
                   PML 90V2                   612
                  PML 110V2                   738
                  PML 132V2                   918
                  PML 150V2                   1044
                  PML 186V2                   1224
                  PML 225V2                   1476
                  PML 260V2                   1710
                  PML 315V2                   2088
                  PML 375V2                   2412
                  PML 450V2                   2880
                  PML 630V2                   3960


    Fan Selection Table

   PAPST Model No.                Air Flow                    Air Flow
                               With Filter 50Hz            With Filter 60Hz
 Fan Model   Fan Model    L/sec    CFM       M3Hr    L/sec      CFM      M3Hr
   110V        220V
   8506N      8556N       13        24        57      15         28           67
   4600N      4650N       40        82       159      47         96       168
  6028ES      6078ES      85       200       388      99         235      420




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    Electrical Installation

    Lightning Strikes / Very High Voltage Transients
    In areas subject to frequent lightning strikes or other very high voltage
    transients, a suitably rated Metal Oxide Varistor (MOV) should connect
    each input line to earth. The Varistors should not be mounted within the
    Powerboss enclosure.


    Control Voltage Transients
    Where the supply voltage to the Powerboss is thought to be subject to
    EMI a suitable line filter with transient voltage suppression should be fitted
    on the control supply.

    Coil Suppression
    It is good practice for any AC relay or contactor coil either connected to
    Powerboss or sharing a common control supply to be fitted with a RC
    suppresser. DC coils should be fitted with a suitable flywheel diode.

    Input / Output Control Connections
    To avoid „ pick up‟ it is good practice to keep all control connections as
    short as possible and to run them separately from the main motor cables.
    If this cannot be guaranteed an interposing relay fitted with suitable
    suppression must be used, mounted as close to the Powerboss as
    possible.

    Harmonics
    In common with all Thyristor based switching devices Powerboss
    produces harmonics during Ramp Up, Ramp Down and in the Optimising
    mode. The only significant harmonics generated are the 5th and the 7th.
    The UK Electricity Council Engineering Recommendations G5/3 state that
    the harmonic content on a typical 100KVA supply, should not exceed 56
    amps of the 5th harmonic and 40 amps of the 7th harmonic. Assuming a
    400V supply this equates to a motor load of about 145 amps, 75kW.
    Therefore the maximum allowable 5th harmonic would be 37% and the 7th
    harmonic around 28%.
    Typical test values* of harmonic current on a motor operating in the
    optimising mode would be 8% of the 5th and 1% of the 7th harmonic.
    Clearly the recommendations are unlikely to be exceeded in normal
    operation.

    * Based on tests carried out on a 22kW motor by the University of Sussex
    Industrial Electronics Group November 1988.


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    Power Factor Correction Capacitors
    Power factor correction capacitors, if fitted, should be connected to the live
    side of K1 and switched in or out before starting Powerboss
    Never connect Power Factor Correction Capacitors to the output
    terminals of the Powerboss.

    Thermal Protection Switch
    The thermal protection switch (if fitted) is the automatic reset type and
    should be wired into the control circuit in such a way as not to allow an
    automatic re-start in the event of a trip.

    Additional Equipment
    All necessary electrical connections for mains, earth and control wiring are
    provided for in the Powerboss unit. However the following additional
    components will need to be provided.
    1.     Isolator.
    2.     Cable protection fuses.
    3.     AC3 rated contactor.
    4.     Motor overload.

    WARNING
    EARTHING
    POWERBOSS USES THYRISTOR SWITCHING DEVICES IN ITS MAIN CIRCUIT AND
    IS NOT DESIGNED FOR ISOLATION. A SUITABLY RATED MECHANICAL
    WARNING
    ISOLATION METHOD MUST BE EMPLOYED IN LINE WITH THE MAIN INPUT
    THIS EQUIPMENT MUST BE EARTHED.
    TERMINALS TO THE UNIT.
    CONNECT THE EARTHING STUD WITHIN THE UNIT TO A SUITABLE LOW
    IMPEDANCE EARTH AS IS REQUIRED BY STATUTORY REGULATIONS
    COVERING THE INSTALLATION OF ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT.


    Fuse Protection
    The mains supply and the control supply each require fuse protection. The
    installer should always fuse the mains supply with motor rated fuses
    before the input to the unit.
    Semiconductor fuses are available as an optional extra and must be
    mounted external to the unit.

    WARNING

    SEMICONDUCTOR FUSES SHOULD NOT BE USED IN PLACE OF CABLE
    PROTECTION FUSES.

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      Powerboss Compact Mains Connection Drawing


                                            From Fused
                                          3 Phase Supply


Optional Reversing
Contactor.
                                                                                 Line
         K2                                                               K1     Contactor




                                                                      Motor
                                                                      Overload




   Bypass                                                           Semiconductor
   Contactor                                                        Fuses (if fitted).
                                           L1         L2   L3
    K3
                                     Powerboss Compact
                                          U       V        W    EARTH




                                                                EARTH
                                                                (Electrical
                                                                Ground)


                                              U1-W2

                                                                  Induction
                                                                    Motor



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      POWERBOSS PMLV2 MAINS CONNECTION DRAWING
                                     V1-U2  W1-V2




                                        From Fused
                                      3 Phase Supply


Optional Reversing
Contactor.
                                                                            Line
         K2                                                          K1     Contactor




                                                                 Motor
                                                                 Overload




   Bypass                                                       Semiconductor
   Contactor                                                    Fuses (if fitted).
                                       L1         L2     L3
    K3
                                                  Powerboss PMLV2
                                      U       V         W                     EARTH




                                                                              EARTH
                                                                              (Electrical
                                                                              Ground)


                                          U1-W2

                                                               Induction
                                                                 Motor
                                      V1-U2            W1-V2


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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                          선일테크㈜




     POWERBOSS MINIMUM CONTROL CIRCUIT REQUIREMENTS
NOTE: WITH PMLV2 CONN1 CONNECTED FOR 415V OPERATION.



       110V/230V
      Control Supply




                                                 FAN
                                                 (if fitted)

       STOP                               1
                                          2
                                          3
                                          4
                                          5
                                          6
      START
                                        CONN5            RL1

                                          1
                                          2
                                          3
                                          4
                                          5
                                          6

      OVERLOAD                          CONN6            RL2


                                          1
                                          2
                              TT          3
                                          4
                                        CONN7A
                   K1
                                          Powerboss Compact
                                              OR PMLV2
                                          Powerboss Compact
                                              OR PMLV2
         Warning
         The thermal protection switch, tt (if fitted) is the automatic reset
         type, it should be wired to prevent the unit from automatically re-
         starting in the event of an over temperature trip.
         Terminals 1 & 2 should be linked if tt not fitted.




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      Control Circuit Requirements For Soft Stop And Bypass


Note: With Pmlv2 Conn1 Connected For 415v Operation.




            110V/230V
           Control Supply

                                                       FAN
                                                       (if fitted)
                                                 1
                                                 2
                                                 3
          EMERGENCY                              4
          STOP                                   5
                                                 6
                                                               RL1
                                               CONN5

                                       SOFT
                                       STOP      1
                                               CONN6
           START                                 2
                                                 3
                                                 4
                                        TT       5
                        K1
                                                 6
                                                               RL2



                                                 1
                                                           Powerboss
           OVERLOAD                              2         Compact or
                                                 3
                                                 4          PMLV2
                                               CONN7A




                                  K3




         Warning
         The thermal protection switch, tt (if fitted) is the automatic reset
         type, it should be wired to prevent the unit from automatically re-
         starting in the event of an over temperature trip.

         On PMLV2 terminals 1&2 should be linked if tt not fitted.
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      Control Circuit Requirements For Reversing And Bypass

Note: With PMLV2 Conn1 Connected For 415v Operation.

    110V/230V
   Control Supply

                                                         FAN
                                                         (if fitted)

                                                  1
   STOP                                           2
                                                  3
                                                  4
                                                  5
          O/L                                     6
                                                                 RL1
                                                   1
                                                CONN5
                                                  2
                                                  3
                                                  4
                                                  5
                                          TT      6
                                                  1
                                                  2              RL2
                                                CONN6
                                                  3
          K1              K2        K3            4

                                                CONN7A


                                                          Powerboss
   FOR              REV                                   Compact or
                                                           PMLV2
               K2              K1




           Warning
           The thermal protection switch, tt (if fitted) is the automatic reset
           type, it should be wired to prevent the unit from automatically re-
           starting in the event of an over temperature trip.
           Terminals 1 & 2 should be linked if tt not fitted.

           On PMLV2 Terminals 1&2 should be linked if TT not fitted.



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    MINIMUM CIRCUIT REQUIREMENTS FOR STAR /DELTA INSTALLATION

    USER CONTROL SETTINGS
    POWERBOSS Compact PCB USER ADJUSTMENTS MAP


                          CONN 7A        CONN6              CONN5       Isolator
                          1 2 3 4    1 2 3 4 5 6        1 2 3 4 5 6

                                                                                                   Control
                                                                                                   Relays

                          POWER SUPPLY
                                                                                                     LED
                          TRANSFORMER                      L1 L2 L3 L4 L5                         Indications
                                                   1                    12
                                                        SWITCH1 1-12                          User Control
                                               MICROCONTROLLER
                                                                                                Settings
                                                                         1



                                    L1    L2       L3                        CONN6



                            Powerboss PML
       FAN
       (if fitted)                                                                                Thyristor
                                                                                     Earth        Modules
               U                     V                   W

                     K3                                      K1                              K2

                                                                                                Mains
               L1                    L2                  L3                                   Connections
                                                           Line



                                                                                                         Earth
                              Moto                                                                       (Electrical
                                                                                                         Ground)

                                 r
                              Over
  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

                               load
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    DEFAULT SWITCH SETTINGS TABLE
    All units are set to the „default settings‟ before leaving the factory. These settings
    should be tried first and further adjustments made only where necessary to fine-
    tune the starter.


                                 DEFAULT SETTINGS
       ADJUSTMENT                FUNCTION           SWITCH POSITION                  RESULTANT
                                                                                       VALUE
     SWITCH 1-11 OFF        PEDESTAL VOLTS                                    ON    40% VOLTAGE
     SWITCH 1-12 ON                                                                 16% TORQUE
                                                          11       12
     SWITCH 1-8 ON               RAMP TIME                                           RAMP UP 20
                                                                               ON
     SWITCH 1-9 ON                                                                      SEC.
     SWITCH 1-10 OFF                                  8        9         10

     SWITCH 1-7 OFF           STOP SELECT                               ON            COAST TO
                                                                                        STOP
                                                               7
     SWITCH 1-6 OFF            OPTIMISE                                 ON            OPTIMISE
                                ENABLE                                                ENABLED
                                                               6
     SWITCH 1-5 OFF            OPTIMISE                                 ON          67% VOLTAGE
                                MINIMUM                                               SELECTED
                               VOLTAGE                         5

     SWITCH 1-4 OFF          CURRENT LIMIT                              ON          CURRENT LIMIT
                                ENABLE                                                DISABLED
                                                               4
     SWITCH 1-3 OFF           EMERGENCY                                 ON           EMERGENCY
                                  RUN                                               RUN DISABLED
                                                               3
     SWITCH 1-2 OFF            RELAY RL2                                ON
                                                                                     TOP OF RAMP
                                SELECT                                                  RELAY
                                                               2                      SELECTED
     SWITCH 1-1 OFF               50/60HZ                               ON               50HZ
                                                                                      SELECTED
                                                               1

                   SEE APPLICATION GUIDE FOR SET-UP INFORMATION.




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    Description Of User Control Settings

    Pedestal Voltage
    Sets the initial voltage that is applied to the motor. This should be adjusted
    to a level so that the motor starts to accelerate smoothly and immediately
    at switch on.
    The switch settings are as follows.

      ADJUSTMENT            FUNCTION       SWITCH POSITION                  RESULTANT VALUE
     SWITCH 1.11 ON         PEDESTAL                                 ON    30% LINE VOLTS
     SWITCH 1.12 ON          VOLTS
                                                  11       12              9% DOL TORQUE
     SWITCH 1.11 OFF        PEDESTAL                                       40% LINE VOLTS
     SWITCH 1.12 ON          VOLTS                                   ON    (DEFAULT)
                                                  11       12              16% DOL TORQUE
     SWITCH 1.11 ON         PEDESTAL                                 ON    50% LINE VOLTS
     SWITCH 1.12 OFF         VOLTS
                                                  11       12              25% DOL TORQUE
     SWITCH 1.11 OFF        PEDESTAL                                 ON    70% LINE VOLTS
     SWITCH 1.12 OFF         VOLTS
                                                  11       12              49% DOL TORQUE




                  SEE APPLICATION GUIDE FOR SET-UP INFORMATION.




    Ramp Up
    The Ramp Up switches adjust the time from the initial Pedestal Voltage setting to
    full output voltage. Setting a specific Ramp Up time will not guarantee that the
    motor will accelerate to full speed at the set Ramp time because the motor torque
    may not be directly proportional to the load torque.

       ADJUSTMENT           FUNCTION        SWITCH POSITION                 RESULTANT VALUE
     SWITCH 1-8 ON
     SWITCH 1-9 ON           RAMP UP                                  ON      0.5 SECONDS
     SWITCH 1-10 ON            TIME          8         9        10
     SWITCH 1-8 OFF
     SWITCH 1-9 ON           RAMP UP                                  ON       2 SECONDS
     SWITCH 1-10 ON            TIME           8        9        10
     SWITCH 1-8 ON
     SWITCH 1-9 OFF          RAMP UP                                  ON       5 SECONDS
  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다. 9
                             8                                  10


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    SWITCH 1-10 ON     TIME
    SWITCH 1-8 OFF
    SWITCH 1-9 OFF    RAMP UP                  ON    10 SECONDS
    SWITCH 1-10 ON      TIME      8   9   10
    SWITCH 1-8 ON
    SWITCH 1-9 ON     RAMP UP                  ON    20 SECONDS
    SWITCH 1-10 OFF     TIME      8   9   10          (DEFAULT)
    SWITCH 1-8 OFF
    SWITCH 1-9 ON     RAMP UP                  ON    30 SECONDS
    SWITCH 1-10 OFF     TIME     8    9   10
    SWITCH 1-8 ON
    SWITCH 1-9 OFF    RAMP UP                  ON    60 SECONDS
    SWITCH 1-10 OFF     TIME     8    9   10
    SWITCH 1-8 OFF
    SWITCH 1-9 OFF    RAMP UP                  ON    120 SECONDS
    SWITCH 1-10 OFF     TIME      8   9   10


             SEE APPLICATION GUIDE FOR SET-UP INFORMATION.




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    Ramp Down
    The Ramp Down time is the same as the selected Ramp Up time and
    cannot be altered separately. Ramp Down is a mirror image of the Ramp
    Up profile and will only provide a „soft stop‟ against high static friction
    loads such as a centrifugal pump.

    Stop Select
    Switch 1-7 enables the Ramp Down function when ON. The motor will
    Coast To Stop (default) with the switch OFF. To use the Ramp Down
    feature the unit must be started and stopped using terminals 1 and 2 on
    CONN7A.

    Optimise Enable
    Switch 1-6 enables the Optimising function when OFF (default). Selecting
    the ON position will apply full voltage to the motor after the Ramp Up time
    has elapsed. If the unit is to be bypassed with a contactor after the Ramp
    Up time has elapsed this function must be disabled.

    Minimum Voltage Backstop
    On some motor load combinations instability may be experienced due to the
    motors speed torque curve. Setting the minimum backstop voltage to a higher
    level will help to minimise this problem.

    ADJUSTMENT           FUNCTION           SWITCH POSITION       RESULTANT VALUE
     SWITCH 1-5          VOLTAGE                                        67%
                                                         ON
        OFF             BACKSTOP %
     SWITCH 1-5                                     5                     83%
                                                         ON
        ON               VOLTAGE
                        BACKSTOP %                  5



           Shock Load Detection
    On software versions 2.2 and above the unit can be configured to operate
    on cyclic shock loads such as Injection Moulding Machines. Closing
    terminals 3 and 4 on terminal block CONN7A will enable this feature.

    Current Limit Enable
    The Current Limit Enable switch 1-4, when set to the ON position will hold
    the selected Pedestal Voltage setting for a given time as listed below, after
    which the voltage will be increased by the selected Ramp Up time. This
    feature is useful for accelerating high inertia loads with a reduced starting
    current.
    WARNING
    PARTICULAR ATTENTION SHOULD BE PAID TO THE POWERBOSS COMPACT
    SELECTION TABLE BEFORE 시스템 입니다.
  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전USING THIS FEATURE AS THE RESULTANT CURRENT
    MAY DAMAGE THE UNIT.
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        ADJUSTMENT          FUNCTION            SWITCH                  TIME IN    RESULTANT
                                               POSITION                CURRENT       VALUE
                                                                         LIMIT
      SWITCH 1-4 ON        CURRENT                           ON           N/A     CURRENT LIMIT
                           LIMIT                                                    ENABLED
                           ENABLE                   4

      SWITCH 1-11 ON       30%    DOL                                  60 SEC.    1.8 - 2.4 X FLC*
      SWITCH 1-12 ON       CURRENT                                ON
                                                                                  9% DOL TORQUE
                                               11       12
      SWITCH 1-11 OFF      40%   DOL                                   30 SEC.    2.4 - 3.2 X FLC*
      SWITCH 1-12 ON       CURRENT                                ON
                                                                                     16% DOL
                                               11       12
                                                                                      TORQUE
      SWITCH 1-11 ON       50%   DOL                                   10 SEC.      3 – 4 X FLC*
      SWITCH 1-12 OFF      CURRENT                                ON
                                                                                     25% DOL
                                               11       12
                                                                                      TORQUE
      SWITCH 1-11 OFF      70%   DOL                                    5 SEC.    4.2 – 5.5 X FLC*
                                                                  ON
      SWITCH 1-12 OFF      CURRENT
                                              11        12                           49% DOL
                                                                                     TORQUE

       *Note
       The starting currents shown are based on standard squirrel cage motors
       with a DOL current of between 6 and 8 times nominal current (In).

       Emergency Run
       If a fault occurs, setting Switch1-3 to the ON position will enable the motor
       to start under a „short circuit Thyristor‟ condition. This is achieved by
       bypassing the fault routines within the software and applying full voltage to
       the motor, allowing the motor to continue to run. LED‟s L2 and L4 will
       alternately flash when Emergency Run is selected.
       WARNING

       BEFORE SELECTING THIS FEATURE ALL ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT SHOULD
       BE CHECKED TO ASCERTAIN THAT IT IS IN A SAFE WORKING CONDITION.



        Programmable Relay Rl2 Select
        Switch1-2 will enable the user to select either of the following two options
as follows.
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       ADJUSTMENT          FUNCTION       SWITCH POSITION        RL2 OPTION
      SWITCH1-2 OFF       RL2 SELECT                ON       TOP OF RAMP RELAY
                                                                  (DEFAULT)
                                               2
      SWITCH1-2 ON        RL2 SELECT                ON          FAULT RELAY
                                               2

     The Top of Ramp Relay can be used as an output to signal „at full volts‟
     when the start is completed.

     Supply Frequency Selection

       ADJUSTMENT           FUNCTION      SWITCH POSITION             FREQUENCY
      SWITCH1-1 OFF           50Hz                  ON                   50Hz
                             SELECT
                                               1
      SWITCH1-1 ON            60Hz                  ON                  60Hz
                             SELECT
                                               1



Application Set-Up Guide

            Application           Pedestal    Ramp Time     Current          Current
                                    %V         Seconds       Limit         Limit Value
      Centrifugal Pump              30%            20            No            N/A
      Positive Displacement         40%            10            No            N/A
      Pump
      Submersible Pump              40%            10            No            N/A
      Reciprocating                 50%            5             No            N/A
      Compressor
      Screw Compressor              50%            5             No            N/A
      Axial Fan - No Load           N/A            30        Yes               30%
      Start
      Axial Fan - Full Load         N/A            30        Yes               50%
      Start
      Blower                        40%            10            No            N/A
      Centrifuge                    N/A            60        Yes               70%
      Conveyor Off Load Start       30%            20            No            N/A
      Conveyor On Load Start        50%            20            No            N/A
      Steel Press                   N/A            30        Yes               50%
      Escalator                     40%            10            No            N/A
      Plastic Extruder Off Load     40%            10            No            N/A
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            Application         Pedestal   Ramp Time   Current      Current
                                  %V        Seconds     Limit     Limit Value
    Start
    Grinders                      N/A         60         Yes          50%
    Circular Saw                  40%         20           No         N/A

    The above set-up guide will provide a good starting point for
    commissioning Powerboss Compact and PMLV2 on a particular load type.




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    Start And Stop Input
    To start the unit, close terminals 1 and 2 on terminal block CONN7A, if no
    fault is present the unit will start at the programmed settings. The mains
    supply and the motor must be present to allow the unit to start.
    To stop the unit open terminals 1 and 2 on CONN7A, if the default setting
    on switch1-7 is selected the unit will coast to stop. If the soft stop feature
    is chosen all the necessary circuitry is provided within the unit to control
    both the line and bypass contactors.

    Programmable Input
    An unused digital input is provided on terminals 3 and 4 on terminal block
    CONN7A. This can be factory configured to provide access to customer
    specified features.

    Run Relay
    The run relay, RL1, energises when the unit is running. It can be used as
    a „circuit healthy relay‟ to give indication and to retain the line contactor so
    that the contactor de-energises should a fault occur. During normal
    operation K1 will de-energise under zero current.

    Programmable Relay
    See the section on relay RL2 select.

    LED Indications

       PCB         FUNCTIO        colour                   Led FUNCTION
      marking         N
         L1            Run         Green     Illuminates when the unit is given the start
                                             command and no fault is detected.
         L2           Fault         Red      Illuminates when a fault is detected.
         L3         Power On       Green     Illuminates when mains power is applied.
         L4           Start        Yellow    Illuminates when the unit is Ramping Up,
                                             extinguishes after the programmed ramp
                                             time.
         L5         Optimise       Green     Illuminates when the unit is at full output
                                             voltage (Top of Ramp), then flashes when
                                             optimisation is occurring.




  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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Installing Powerboss On A Star – Delta Installation

Description Of Operation

Mains Circuit

The Powerboss should be connected as shown on page 22 of the installation
manual and operates as follows.

When the motor is started using the existing start/stop circuit, the star contactor
K2 and the line contactor K1 are energised, at this stage no current should flow
through the motor. The star timer must be reduced to its minimum setting.
After the star timer operation is completed the star contactor K2 will de-energise
and the delta contactor K3 will energise, the motor will then start according to the
Powerboss settings.

Control Circuit
Relay RL2 should be configured to operate as a fault relay, this means as soon
as the
3 -phase supply is applied to Powerboss via the isolator switch the relay will
energise, closing the normally open contacts. Provided the thermal switch TT (if
fitted) on the heat sink has not operated the normally open auxiliary contacts on
contactor K3 will close terminals 1&2 on terminal block CONN7A initiating the
start routine.

Installing on a Compressor
Some Compressor control circuits require that the Compressor rotate within a
certain time frame dictated by the control software within the Compressor. More
often than not, the lack of rotation before the delta contactor is energised will
cause the Compressor safety circuit to trip due to lack of oil pressure.
If this is the case, remove the output from the „Compressor Controller‟ to the star
contactor.
Connect the output to the delta contactor and the line contactor together, this will
ensure the Compressor begins to rotate as soon as the Powerboss is started.
The control connections to the Powerboss should not be changed.




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           Minimum Circuit Requirements For Star /Delta Installation




                                                          Isolator




    Cable                                           Relay RL2 must be configured as a
                                                    fault relay.
  Protection                                        See page 31 for details.
                                                                   TT
    Fuses
                                                          K3



Semiconductor L1 L2 L3
  Fan
                                            1 2 3 4 5 6        CONN6
                                                                        CONN7A

                                                                          1

Fuses (ifFAN
Voltage
 110 or
          fitted)
                Powerboss PML                                     RL2
                                                                          2
                                                                          3
                                                                          4
230VAC
           (if      U    V  W                                           Earth


         fitte
                 K                           K1                                   K2
           d)    3



                                            Line



                                                                                         Earth

                                  V1
                                            Moto                                           (Elec
                             U1        W1
                                              r                                            trical
                            W2
                                  U2
                                       V2
                                            Over                                 Star-Delta
                                                                                 must beGrou
                                                                                               Timer
                                                                                             set to
                                            load                                 Minimum Time
                                                                                            nd)
        POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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       INSTALLING POWERBOSS ON SLIP- RING MOTORS

      General
The principle of the slip-ring induction motor and its torque/speed characteristics
      at full load are the same for the standard squirrel cage motor but the rotor
      is fitted with copper windings. The windings of the rotor are taken to
      external resistances using slip rings and carbon brushes usually mounted
      on the non-drive end of the rotor shaft. The external resistances either can
      be made from special wire similar to the heaters in an electric fire or may
      be even a saline solution.
      The design objective of the slip-ring motor is to eliminate the very high
      starting current and torque associated with the squirrel cage motor. When
      the motor is asked to start a voltage is induced into the rotor, with the
      added resistance of the external resistor the current therefor toque can be
      easily controlled.
      The resistance is slowly reduced during the motors acceleration, when the
      motor is up to speed the resistance is then shorted out.

       As the acceleration is usually controlled by the resistances Powerboss
       should be set to have little effect on the motors acceleration. Only after the
       motor has reached full speed should the optimise feature on terminals 3
       and 4 on CON7A be enabled.
       See drawing on following page for details.

       Powerboss Settings
       To successfully start a slip ring motor the stator should be fully
       magnetised very quickly, to achieve this we would recommend the
       following settings.

       Pedestal Voltage 70%
       Ramp Up Time         2 seconds
       All other settings should be set to DEFAULT.

Software
     Powerboss should be fitted with special slip-ring motor control software
     and must be specified at the time of order.

Rotary Drum Controller Types
      If the rotor resistance is controlled with a „Rotary Drum Controller‟ the final
      notch on the controller should be arranged to close terminals 3 & 4 on
      terminal block on CONN7A (volt free contacts) via a control relay.
      This will ensure the motor is up to speed before the optimisation software
      within Powerboss is enabled.


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       Alternatively a speed sensing circuit (electronic rev counter) could be used
       to enable optimisation.

Rotor Contactor Control
If the rotor resistance is controlled with a „Rotor Contactors‟ the final contactor in
        the set should be arranged to close terminals 3 & 4 on terminal block on
        CONN7A (volt free contacts) via a control relay or spare normally open
        contacts on the final contactor.
        This will ensure the motor is up to speed before the optimisation
        software within Powerboss is enabled.
        Alternatively a speed sensing circuit (electronic rev counter) could be used
        to enable optimisation.

       Liquid Resistance Starter
       If the rotor torque is controlled by slowly lowering the rotor connections
       (usually copper bars) into a saline solution, a float switch should arranged
       to close terminals 3 & 4 on terminal block on CONN7A (volt free contacts)
       via a control relay. The float switch should be activated when the rotor
       connections are fully inserted into the solution.
       Alternatively a speed sensing circuit (electronic rev counter) could
       be used to enable optimisation.




   POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                          선일테크㈜


       Circuit Requirements For Slip- Ring Motor Installation




                               3 Phase Supply
                                                                                   Control Supply



                                                K1                         Stop


                                                                         Start


                                                                        Overload



  CONN1                                                                              K1


Connected                                                                CONN7A
                    L1    L2  L3
 for 415V
   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9   CONN1                     1 2 3 4 5 6    CONN6
                                                                           1
                                                                           2
                Powerboss PMLV2                                                             TT
Operation U V W
    FAN
    (if fitted)
                                                                   RL2     3
                                                                           4
                                                                         Earth




                                      V
                                  U       W




                                 D        F
                                      E
                                                                                          Earth
                                                                                          (Electrical
                                                                                          Ground)


                               See previous text for technical
                               Existing
                               description of Rotor Control
                               methods.
   POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.
                                Rotor
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                                   er
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  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                    선일테크㈜


       Installing Powerboss On Part Wound Motors

General
Part wound motors (connection two parallel star) are designed to minimise the
motors direct on line starting current by dividing the motors Kw rating between
two windings.
This has the effect of starting a motor half the Kw rating thereby reducing the
starting current inrush to around 50%.
The motors are always started with a reduced load to enable the motor to
accelerate to full speed, a short time later, usually within 1 second, the second
parallel winding is energised, the motor is then ready for full load.
This type of motor is usually used on compressors as the load can be easily
controlled.

Main Connections
Powerboss must be connected after the switch fuse and motor overload but
before the stator control gear. See drawing for details.

Control Connections
Relay RL2 must be configured as a fault relay, see manual for details.
To select the start winding, close the contact between the overload and K1.
Provided there is no fault with either the incoming supply or the Powerboss, relay
RL2 (must be set as a fault relay) will already be energised, contactor K1 will
energise and close the auxiliary contact on CONN7A.
After a short time, delay usually set by a PLC or timer relay the run contactor K2
will energise and close the auxiliary contact on CONN7A.
As the auxiliary contacts of K1 and K2 are in series, the Powerboss will not start
the motor until both contactors are closed.

If Powerboss is fitted to a compressor the ramp time on the Powerboss should be
set to 5 seconds or less or the oil pressure failure circuit may operate and inhibit
the start.

This connection will also work on the Powerboss Compact.




   POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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Control Connections For Part Wound Motor




                                                CONN1 CONNECTED


 110V/230V
                                           FOR 415V
Control Supply                             OPERATIO
                                                   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9     CONN1


                                            FAN
                                                N.
                                                   (if fitted)
                                                                 Earth
                                            1
STOP                                        2
                                            3
                                            4
                                            5
                                            6
                                                          RL1
                                          CONN5
      O/L
                                            1
                                            2                                    Note
                                            3                                    RL2 must be set as
       START           RUN                  4
                                                                                 a fault relay.
                                            5
                                            6

                                          CONN6            RL2

                                    K1
                                            1
                 K1                         2
                                            3
                               K2           4
      K1              K2
                                          CONN7A


                                           Powerboss
                                           PMLV2



      Warning.
      The thermal protection switch, TT (IF FITTED), is the automatic
      reset type. it should be wired to prevent the unit from
      automatically re-starting in case of an over temperature trip.


    POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                  선일테크㈜



        INSTALLING POWERBOSS ON TWO SPEED TWO
                  WINDING MOTORS
General
The principle of the two speed induction motor and its torque/speed
characteristics are the same as the standard squirrel cage motor except that the
stator is fitted with two electrically separate windings. As the windings are
electrically separate any speed combinations are possible, commonly the motors
are 2 pole (2850rpm) and 4 pole (1450rpm).
Other two speed motors have tap (or Dhalander) wound single winding stators, to
change the speed the windings are re-configured by contactor control gear
similar to two winding motors. The number of two, even three or four speed
connections are too numerous and it would be laborious to list them all.

Main Connections
Powerboss must be connected after the switch fuse and motor overload but
before the stator control gear. Some motors may be fitted with an overload for
both windings, in this case the overloads will be fitted after the individual
contactors.
In most cases the stator control gear will be mechanically as well as
electrically interlocked.

Control Connections
To select the Slow Speed Winding, close the Slow speed start contact,
contactor K1 will energise and close the start circuit on CONN7A. Provided
there is no fault with either the incoming supply or Powerboss relay RL2
will remain energised and maintain contactor K1.
Powerboss will then start the motor in the normal manner.

To select the Fast Speed Winding, close the Fast speed start contact,
contactor K2 will energise and close the start circuit on CONN7A. Provided
there is no fault with either the incoming supply or Powerboss Relay RL1
will remain energised and maintain contactor K2.
Powerboss will then start the motor in the normal manner.

This connection will also work on the Powerboss Compact.




   POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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CONTROL Connections For Two Speed Two Winding Motor




                                                 CONN1 CONNECTED


 110V/230V
                                            FOR 415V
Control Supply
                                            OPERATIO
                                                    1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9     CONN1


                                             FAN
                                                 N.
                                                    (if fitted)
                                                                  Earth
                                             1
                                             2
STOP                                         3
                                             4
                                             5
                                             6

                                           CONN5           RL1
      O/L
                                             1
                                             2                                    Note
                                             3                                    RL2 must be set as
       SLOW            FAST                  4
                                                                                  a fault relay.
                                             5
                                             6

                               K1          CONN6            RL2


                                             1
                 K1                          2
                                             3
                               K2            4
      K1              K2
                                           CONN7A


                                            Powerboss
                                            PMLV2



      warning
      The thermal protection switch, TT (IF FITTED), is the automatic
      reset type. it should be wired to prevent the unit from
      automatically re-starting in the event of an over temperature trip.


    POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                    선일테크㈜




                             Commissioning.

    Pre-Commissioning checks
    1.    Ensure that the terminal block CONN1 is configured correctly.
    2.    Ensure that Fans (if fitted) are connected to the correct voltage.
    3.    Ensure ALL switch settings are set to default or if your load type is
          listed in the set-up guide on page 30 start with the recommended
          values.
    4.    Check that the unit is connected correctly as per the preceding
          connection diagrams.
    5.    Ensure any Power Factor Correction Capacitors are connected on
          the input side of the line contactor and are only switched in or out
          when the unit is not running.
    6.    Do not exceed the recommended starts per hour while
          commissioning.

    Starting Powerboss Compact For The First Time
    1.     Check that all the pre-commissioning checks have been followed.
    2.     Give the start command, the unit should accelerate the load
           smoothly to full speed, only if starting is not satisfactory should the
           following procedures be carried out.
    i)     Set switch1-8/9/10 to the maximum Ramp Up time.
    ii)    Set switch1-11/12 to the minimum Pedestal voltage.
    iii)   Start the unit.
           The motor should begin to rotate immediately, if a delay occurs
           switch off and set switch1-11/12 to the next highest setting. Repeat
           until the initial start is satisfactory paying particular attention to the
           rated starts per hour.
    iv)    With the Pedestal Voltage set the Ramp Up time can now be
           adjusted on switch1-8/9/10.The Ramp Up time should be set to a
           value that accelerates the motor to full speed as quickly as is
           practical to achieve a smooth start.
    v)     The other switches can then be employed to configure the unit for
           the required duty.




  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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      Starting High Inertia Loads
      Warning.
      Before attempting to start a high inertia load it is essential to check that
      powerboss compact is rated for the required duty,


      i)     Set the Current Limit Enable switch1-4 to the ON position.
      ii)    Set switch1-8/9/10 to the minimum Ramp Up time.
      iii)   Set switch1-11/12 to the minimum Pedestal voltage, the lower the
             voltage the longer the acceleration that can be permitted by the unit.
      iv)    Start the unit.
             The motor should begin to rotate immediately, if a delay occurs
             switch off and set switch1-11/12 to the next highest setting. Repeat
             until the load has satisfactorily accelerated to full speed, paying
             particular attention to the rated starts per hour.


                              Test Schedules.


      DECRIPTION OF OPERATION AND TEST ROUTINE
PBC

        Before attempting to perform any tests we strongly advise the reader is
        familiar with the safety procedures in the Commissioning Manual.



      Internal +15/+5V Power supply generation - PBC

      Transformer TX1 will give an AC output of between 12 and 15V. This
      voltage is rectified by Bridge Rectifier W4 and smoothed by Capacitors
      CD11 and CE4. LED L3 provides visual indication.

      The +15V rail is used to drive the output Relays and is also fed into
      Voltage Regulator U2 which supplies a strong 5V rail which is smoothed
      by Capacitors CD15 and CE5, ZD1 is a fast acting Zenor Diode which
      provides over voltage protection for the +5V rail.

      The +5V rail is used to supply the Microcontroller, CMOS devices and
      isolating Optocouplers. See Figure 1A.


  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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                                                 Figure 1A
                                                                                 R47
                                                                   +5
                                          +15
                                                             U2
                         W4
                                  ~                                                ZD1
                              -       +                                                  L3
                                           CE4    CD11            CE5   CD15
                                  ~
              TX1




      Testing
      With the PCB powered up test for +15V DC and +5V DC using an
      Oscilloscope connected to GND (Metal tab of Voltage Regulator U2 or Pin
      20 of AT1)

      Starting
      Before starting Powerboss all the relevant installation criteria must be met.
      To start close terminals 1 and 2 on Terminal Block Conn7A, the internal
      AC supply is used to drive Optocoupler PC2 through current limiting
      resistor R45. AT1 pin 16 is pulled low by the output Transistor of the
      Optocoupler initiating the start routine. See Figure 2.

      If no fault is present AT1 pin 27 snaps To GND, U1 pin 15 inverts the
      signal energising relay FBR1 (RL1) and LED L1 via the driver Transistor
      Q1. AT1 pin 26 snaps to GND and LED L4 is illuminated until the end of
      the selected ramp time. After the selected ramp time LED L4 extinguishes,
      AT1 pin 32 snaps to GND, U1 pin 12 inverts the signal energising relay
      FRB2 (RL2) via the driver Transistor Q2. AT1 pin 33 snaps to GND and
      LED L5 is illuminated. See Figure 3.

      Coast To Stop
      Open terminals 1 and 2 on CONN7A, Optocoupler PC2 turns off, AT1 pin
      16 is pulled to +5V initiating the stop routine. The Thyristors are turned off,
      LED‟s L1 and L5 are extinguished, relays RL1 and RL2 are de-energised.
      See Figure 2 and 3.

      Powerboss is immediately ready for another start.

       Soft Stopping (Ramping Down)
       To Ramp Down the Ramp Down option must be selected as per the
instructions in the
       Installation and Commissioning Manual.

   POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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    Open terminals 1 and 2 on CONN7A, Optocoupler PC2 turns off, AT1 pin
    16 is pulled to +5V initiating the soft stop routine. Relay RL2 is de-
    energised and LED L5 is extinguished. After the set Ramp Down time has
    elapsed the thyristors are turned off and Relay RL1 is de-energised. See
    Figure 2 and 3.

    Powerboss is immediately ready for another start.

                15V AC     AC GND      +5V



            CONN7A       R45    R44

                           1       4                          IC1-16
        1                       PC2

                                                        CE2

        2

                           2           3                      GND
                                Figure 2




  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                      선일테크㈜




                                                           +15V


                       +5V
                                                                             R48
                                                             RL1

                                              R50
               RN4
             AT1-27                                  Q1                      L1

                             14                             +15V
                                  U1f               0V
                                                                        +5           +5
                                         15
                       +5V
                                                              RL2             R35         R41
               RN4
                                              R51
                             11
            AT1-32                U1e                 Q2
                                         12
                                                                    L4
                                                                     AT1-26         AT1-33   L5
                                                    0V

                                        FIGURE 3

       Testing
       Check Start and Stop (including Soft Stop) functions operate as previously
       described. Set Switch 1-7 to the ON position to test Soft Stop.
       Check operation of relays.

Fault Finding Routine
       In the event of a fault AT1 pin 28 snaps low illuminating LED L2. The
       thyristor power assembly is switched off and relay RL1 is de-energised
       removing mains power from the Powerboss. If RL2 is programmed as a
       fault relay in the event of a fault the relay will de-energise.

Testing
      Check the fault finding routine by removing a motor phase before starting
      Powerboss.
      Check operation of LED L2 and relay RL1.

Voltage Synchronisation
      In order for the Microcontroller to fire the thyristors in the correct order
      voltage crossing points are taken from the Red Phase.

       The voltage is divided via resistor R44 and Transistor Q3 and fed into the
       inverting input of U1d pin 9, this signal is compared with GND. When the

   POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                    선일테크㈜


      AC voltage at the base of Q3 swings negative the collector is at +5V, U1
      pin 10 inverts this signal and a square wave in phase with the red input is
      generated. See Figure 4.

        This signal is fed to AT1 pin 25, the yellow and blue phases are generated
within IC1.


                            +5



                                        RN3
                    1N11                 9          10           AT1-25
                                              U1d
      Red
      Phase        R44             Q1
                    1N12



                            0V

                                   FIGURE 4.


      TESTING
      With the PCB powered up and the mains connected test for a square
      wave on AT1-25 using an Oscilloscope connected to GND.




   POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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    Thyristor Gating

    Red Phase – AT1 pin 39 provides a pulse train from +5 to GND. TLP2
    and TLP1 provide optical isolation from the mains supply, each thyristor is
    anode gated at the correct time via 1N1 and 1N2. The firing pulses are in
    blocks of 15 for 120 uS each, thus ensuring Thyristor conduction. See
    Figure 5.

    Yellow Phase – AT1 pin 38 provides a pulse train from +5 to GND. TLP4
    and TLP3 provide optical isolation from the mains supply, each thyristor is
    anode gated at the correct time via 1N4 and 1N3. The firing pulses are in
    blocks of 15 for 120 uS each, thus ensuring Thyristor conduction.

    Blue Phase – AT1 pin 37 provides a pulse train from +5 to GND. TLP6
    and TLP5 provide optical isolation from the mains supply, each thyristor is
    anode gated at the correct time via 1N6 and 1N5. The firing pulses are in
    blocks of 15 for 120 uS each, thus ensuring Thyristor conduction.
                                                                 Line



                     Q4E             R8    R6 R10 1N2
                              TLP2
                                                  B22
                                                  2

                                                                _-            Thyristor
                                                                                Module
                                                                _-
                              TLP1
                                                               +_

                                      R7      R9 1N1
                             R12
                    R Fire

                                     Figure 5.                   Load




    Testing
    With the motor running check for correct firing pulses on all three phases using
    an Oscilloscope connected between AT1 pin 37, 38, 39 and GND.

    Current Synchronisation And Power Factor Measurement
    After the initial phase angle control in voltage synchronisation the
    Microcontroller changes the control reference to current crossing points,
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    this is due to the constantly changing motor PF both during acceleration
    and running. Motor PF is calculated by comparing the position of the
    current crossing points with the fixed voltage crossing point. The angle the
    current lags the voltage by is the motor power factor.
    This is achieved as follows;

    Red Phase – The voltage across the thyristor is monitored by Optocoupler
    IC1, the resultant waveform, a constantly changing wave in phase with the
    motor current is fed into AT1 pin 34, see Figure 6. The Microcontroller
    monitors the position of the signal in relation to the voltage waveform (see
    Figure 4) and alters the pulse train to suit the motors current power factor.

    Yellow Phase – The voltage across the thyristor is monitored by
    Optocoupler IC2, the resultant waveform, a constantly changing wave in
    phase with the motor current is fed into AT1 pin 35. The Microcontroller
    monitors the position of the signal in relation to the voltage waveform and
    alters the pulse train to suit the motors current power factor.

    Blue Phase – The voltage across the thyristor is monitored by
    Optocoupler IC3, the resultant waveform, a constantly changing wave in
    phase with the motor current is fed into AT1 pin 36. The Microcontroller
    monitors the position of the signal in relation to the voltage waveform and
    alters the pulse train to suit the motors current power factor

                               +5V


    Figure 6.
                    R2                   R1                                Line


                               6     8        3                   R34




                                     IC1
                                                              ~
    AT1-34                     5     7        2
                                                          -       +
                                         R3          W1       ~
                         CD1
                                                                            Load


    TESTING
    With the motor running check for correct current wave on all three phases
    using an Oscilloscope connected between AT1 input and GND. The

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    correct wave is an inverting pulse decreasing with the increase in output
    voltage.

    Watchdog Timer Function
    Correct software execution is monitored by MAX1 pin7, provided a pulse
    is received from AT1 pin24 every machine cycle MAX1 pin9 remains low.
    If for any reason MAX1 pin7 does not receive a pulse MAX1 pin5 is pulled
    to +5V for 1 second resetting the software by forcing AT1 pin 9 to logic 1.

    The Microcontroller's +5V Power supply is also monitored by MAX1. If a
    brownout occurs on the mains supply and the monitored voltage drops
    below 4.6V MAX1 pin5 is pulled to +5V for 1 second resetting the software
    by forcing AT1 pin 9 to logic 1.

                             +5V      +5V          +5V


                       RN5
                                             2      8

                                                 MAX1 5               AT1-9
              AT1-24                     7
                                             3      4
                                                                CE1



                                             GND          GND



                                   Figure 6.



    TESTING
          With the motor running using an Oscilloscope connected between
    GND and IC3-7 check for the watchdog pulse. Frequency is approximately
    110 uS.


    Motor Stall Protection Circuit
    The motor Back EMF is used to monitor motor load, during periods of light
    load, when Powerboss is optimising or when a shock load is applied; the
    motor current will try to become discontinuous. AT1 pin 12 monitors the
    output square wave produced by U1 pin 6 and adjust the firing angle to
    maintain the signal, thus preventing the motor from stalling. See Figure 7.

                                   +5V


                    1N11
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                                   GND
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     (Red Motor
     Phase)                               7      U1g
                                                       6
                              1N10




                                     Figure 7.


      TESTING
      With the motor running using an Oscilloscope connected between GND
      and IC1-12 check for a square wave signal becoming discontinuous.

Parameter Switch
     All operational parameters are adjustable on switch 1. The logic levels on
     IC1 are either logic 1 or logic 0 depending on the position of the switch.
     See Figure 8 for connection details. The parameter adjustment values are
     published in the Powerboss COMPACT Installation and Commissioning
     Guide.

                           +5V




                                                                   AT1     40 +5V




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AT1 pin number description
           AT1                 DESRIPTION                     AT1                     DESRIPTION
           PIN                                                PIN
            No.                                               No.
             1     Pedestal Voltage Setting                    21         Not Used
             2     Pedestal Voltage Setting                    22         Not Used
                                                                                        1 Pedestal
             3     Ramp Time Adjustment                        23         Not Used
                                                                                        2 Pedestal
             4     Ramp Time Adjustment                        24         Watch Dog Timer Input Pulse
             5     Ramp Time Adjustment                        25                       3 Ramp
                                                                          Red Phase Voltage Clock
             6     Programmable Input                          26         Start LED     4 Ramp
             7     Stop Select                                 27         Run Relay     5 Ramp
             8     Energy Save Bypass                          28         Fault LED     7 Stop Select
             9     Reset                                       29         Not Used      8 Energy saving Bypass
            10     Energy Saving Voltage Backstop              30         Not Used      10 Energy saving Backstop
            11     Current Limit Enable                        31         +5V           11 Current Limit Enable
            12     Motor Back EMF Monitor                      32         Programmable 13 Emergency Run
                                                                                         Relay
            13     Emergency Run                               33         Top of Ramp Energy Saving LED
                                                                                        14 Relay Select
            14     Relay Select                                34         Red Phase Optocoupler Input
                                                                                        15 50-60Hz Select
            15     50-60 Hz Select                             35         Yellow Phase Optocoupler Input
            16     Start / Stop                                36         Blue Phase Optocoupler Input
            17     Not Used                                    37         Blue Phase Firing Pulse
            18     Clock                                       38         Yellow Phase Firing Pulse
            19     Clock                                       39         Red Phase Firing Pulse
            20     GND                                         40         +5V
         12                                                           1

                             Switch 1. Programmable Switches 1 – 12

                                                  Figure 8.



TESTING
With the unit powered up using an Oscilloscope connected between GND and the each of the IC1 inputs. In turn move the
switch and check the input of each switch swings between +5V and GND.




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             DESCRIPTION OF OPERATION AND TEST
                     ROUTINE PMLV2

       Before attempting to perform any tests we strongly advise the reader is
       familiar with the safety procedures in the Commissioning Manual.



       Internal +15/+5V Power Supply Generation
       Terminal Bock CONN1 should be correctly configured for the correct input
voltage.

      Transformer TX1 will give an AC output of between 12 and 15V. This
      voltage is rectified by BR1 and smoothed by Capacitors C1 and C2. LED
      L3 provides visual indication.

      The +15V rail is used to drive the Thyristor gating circuit and output
      Relays and is also fed into Voltage Regulator VR1 which supplies a strong
      5V rail which is smoothed by Capacitors C3 and C4, Z1 is a fast acting
      Zenor Diode which provides over voltage protection for the +5V rail.

      The +5V rail is used to supply the Microcontroller, CMOS devices and
      isolating Optocouplers. See Figure 1.




             BR1         15V DC                                 5V DC

                                                     VR1
                     +
                          C1      C2                       C3   C4
                                               R39
                   BR1
                                                                          Z1

                                       L3
       12V AC
                                                                                  GND

                                         Figure 1




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      Testing
      With the PCB powered up test for +15V DC and +5V DC using an
      Oscilloscope connected to GND (Metal tab of Voltage Regulator VR1)

      Starting
      Before starting Powerboss all the relevant installation criteria must be met.
      To start close terminals 1 and 2 on Terminal Block Conn7A, the internal
      AC supply is used to drive Optocoupler IC9 through current limiting
      resistor R1. IC1 pin 16 is pulled low by the output Transistor of the
      Optocoupler initiating the start routine. See Figure 2.

      If no fault is present IC1 pin 27 snaps To GND, IC2 pin 12 inverts the
      signal energising relay RL1 and LED L1 via the driver IC5 pin 11. IC1 pin
      26 snaps to GND and LED L4 is illuminated until the end of the selected
      ramp time. After the selected ramp time LED L4 extinguishes, IC1 pin 32
      snaps to GND, IC2 pin 15 inverts the signal energising relay RL2 via the
      driver IC5 pin 10. IC1 pin 33 snaps to GND and LED L5 is illuminated. See
      Figure 3.

      Coast To Stop
      Open terminals 1 and 2 on CONN7A, Optocoupler IC9 turns off, IC1 pin
      16 is pulled to +5V initiating the stop routine. The Thyristors are turned off,
      LED‟s L1 and L5 are extinguished, relays RL1 and RL2 are de-energised.
      See Figure 2 and 3.

      Powerboss is immediately ready for another start.

       Soft Stopping (Ramping Down)
       To Ramp Down the Ramp Down option must be selected as per the
instructions in the
       Installation and Commissioning Manual.
       Open terminals 1 and 2 on CONN7A, Optocoupler IC9 turns off, IC1 pin
       16 is pulled to +5V initiating the soft stop routine. Relay RL2 is de-
       energised and LED L5 is extinguished. After the set Ramp Down time has
       elapsed the thyristors are turned off and Relay RL1 is de-energised. See
       Figure 2 and 3.

      Powerboss is immediately ready for another start.




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                   15V AC        AC GND           +5V



              CONN7A        R1             RN2

                                 1            4                                  IC1-16
          1
                                           IC11

                                                                       C5

          2

                                 2                3                  +15V        GND
                                           Figure 2
                         +5V
                                                                                          R38
                                                                      RL1
                RN5
                                                                                          L1
                IC1-27         11                     6
                                     IC2                  IC5
                                             12                 11




                                                                     +15V         +5            +5

                         +5V

                                                                      RL2                 R5            R4
                RN3

                               14
                                                                            L4                           L5
                IC1-32                                7
                                     IC2                  IC5
                                             15                 10
                                           FIGURE 3                              IC1-26        IC1-33

Testing
      Check Start and Stop (including Soft Stop) functions operate as previously
      described. Set Switch 1-7 to the ON position to test Soft Stop.
      Check operation of relays.

Fault Finding Routine
       In the event of a fault IC1 pin 28 snaps low illuminating LED L2. The
       thyristor power assembly is switched off and relay RL1 is de-energised
       removing mains power from the Powerboss. If RL2 is programmed as a
       fault relay in the event of a fault the relay will de-energise.
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      Testing
      Check the fault finding routine by removing a motor phase before starting
      Powerboss.
      Check operation of LED L2 and relay RL1.

      Voltage Synchronisation
      In order for the Microcontroller to fire the thyristors in the correct order
      voltage crossing points are taken from the Red Phase (PHA on Terminal
      Block CONN2).

      The voltage is divided via resistors R6 and R7 to 0.25V and fed into the
      non-inverting input of IC11, this signal is compared with GND. When the
      AC voltage at the non-inverting input swings negative the output is at GND
      providing a square wave in phase with PHA. See Figure 4.

        This signal is fed to IC1 pin 25, the yellow and blue phases are generated
within IC1.

                                                                     +5


                                                                          RN5
                   R7
         PHA                                         5+                         IC1-25
                                                                 7
                                                          IC11
                                                     6-

                        D1     D2            R6
                                      FIGURE 4.
      TESTING
      With the PCB powered up and the mains connected test for a square
      wave on IC1-25 using an Oscilloscope connected to GND.

      Thyristor Gating
      Red Phase – IC1 pin 39 snaps to GND, IC2 pin 6 inverts the signal. Pulse
      Transformer PT1 is then pulsed via the driver IC4 and current limiting
      resistor R9 firing the positive and negative Red Phase Thyristors. The
      firing pulses are in blocks of 15 for 120 uS each, thus ensuring Thyristor
      conduction. See Figure 5.
      Yellow Phase – IC1 pin 38 snaps to GND, IC2 pin 4 inverts the signal.
      Pulse Transformer PT2 is then pulsed via the driver IC12 and current
      limiting resistor R10 firing the positive and negative Yellow Phase
      Thyristors. The firing pulses are in blocks of 15 for 120 uS each, thus
      ensuring Thyristor conduction.

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         Blue Phase – IC1 pin 37 snaps to GND, IC2 pin 2 inverts the signal.
         Pulse Transformer PT3 is then pulsed via the driver IC5 and current
         limiting resistor R11 firing the positive and negative Blue Phase Thyristors.
         The firing pulses are in blocks of 15 for 120 uS each, thus ensuring
         Thyristor conduction.

                                                                                CONN2
                                                         PT1
                                                                                    PHA
                                +15V
                                           R9
                                                                 R12

                                                                 D3
           +5V
                                                                                    FAA

 RN3
                                                                                    FAB
                               1-7
                                                                 D4
                           6
IC1-39           7                          10 - 16
                     IC2             IC4                         R13

                                                                                    M-A
                                Red Phase only shown.


                                                  Figure 5.

         TESTING
         With the motor running check for correct firing pulses on all three phases
         using an Oscilloscope connected between the current limiting resistor and
         pulse transformer and GND.

         Current Synchronisation And Power Factor Measurement
         After the initial phase angle control in voltage synchronisation the
         Microcontroller changes the control reference to current crossing points,
         this is due to the constantly changing motor PF both during acceleration
         and running. Motor PF is calculated by comparing the position of the
         current crossing points with the fixed voltage crossing point. The angle the
         current lags the voltage by is the motor power factor.
         This is achieved as follows;

         Red Phase – The voltage across the thyristor is monitored by Optocoupler
         IC6, the resultant waveform, a constantly changing wave in phase with the
         motor current is fed into IC1 pin 34, see Figure 6. The Microcontroller
         monitors the position of the signal in relation to the voltage waveform (see
         Figure 4) and alters the pulse train to suit the motors current power factor.

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    Yellow Phase – The voltage across the thyristor is monitored by
    Optocoupler IC7, the resultant waveform, a constantly changing wave in
    phase with the motor current is fed into IC1 pin 35. The Microcontroller
    monitors the position of the signal in relation to the voltage waveform (see
    Figure 4) and alters the pulse train to suit the motors current power factor.
    Blue Phase – The voltage across the thyristor is monitored by
    Optocoupler IC8, the resultant waveform, a constantly changing wave in
    phase with the motor current is fed into IC1 pin 36. The Microcontroller
    monitors the position of the signal in relation to the voltage waveform (see
    Figure 4) and alters the pulse train to suit the motors current power factor

                             +5V
                                                                          CONN2
    Figure 6.
                                                                               PHA
                     R25               R24

                             6     8         3
                                                                   R18

                                                                               FAA


                                   IC6                                         FAB
    IC1-34                   5     7         2                 ~
                                       R26                 -       +
                       C12                           BR2       ~
                                                                               M-A

    TESTING
    With the motor running check for correct current wave on all three phases
    using an Oscilloscope connected between IC1 input and GND. The
    correct wave is an inverting pulse decreasing with the increase in output
    voltage.

    Watchdog Timer Function
    Correct software execution is monitored by IC3 pin7, provided a pulse is
    received from IC1 pin24 every machine cycle IC1 pin9 remains low, if for
    any reason IC3 pin7 does not receive a pulse IC3 pin5 is pulled to +5V for
    1 second resetting the software.




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    The Microcontroller's +5V Power supply is also monitored by IC3. If a
    brownout occurs on the mains supply and the monitored voltage drops
    below 4.6V IC3 pin5 is pulled to +5V for 1 second resetting the software.

                               +5V      +5V          +5V


                         RN5
                                               2          8

                                                   IC3         5                    IC1-9
                IC1-24                     7
                                               3         4
                                                                              C18



                                               GND                      GND



                                     Figure 6.



    TESTING
          With the motor running using an Oscilloscope connected between
    GND and IC3-7 check for the watchdog pulse. Frequency is approximately
    110 uS.


    Motor Stall Protection Circuit
    The motor Back EMF is used to monitor motor load, during periods of light
    load, when Powerboss is optimising or when a shock load is applied; the
    motor current will try to become discontinuous. IC1 pin 12 monitors the
    output square wave produced by IC2 pin 10 and adjust the firing angle to
    maintain the signal, thus preventing the motor from stalling. See Figure 7.

                                     +5V


                               D10
   M-A
                         R43
   (Red Motor
   Phase)                                      9                                            IC1-12
                                                         IC2
                                                                   10
                               D9


                                     GND
                                     Figure 7.
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      TESTING
      With the motor running using an Oscilloscope connected between GND
      and IC1-12 check for a square wave signal becoming discontinuous.

Parameter Switch
     All operational parameters are adjustable on switch 1. The logic levels on
     IC1 are either logic 1 or logic 0 depending on the position of the switch.
     See Figure 8 for connection details. The parameter adjustment values are
     published in the Powerboss PML Installation and Commissioning Guide.

                            +5V




                                                                       IC1    40 +5V




                                                                             20 GND




                      Switch 1. Programmable Switches 1 – 12

                                         Figure 8.




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        Ic1 Pin Number Description
           IC1                 DESRIPTION                     IC1                  DESRIPTION
           PIN                                                PIN
           No.                                                No.
            1      Pedestal Voltage Setting                    21     Not Used
            2      Pedestal Voltage Setting                    22     Not Used
                                                                                    1 Pedestal
            3      Ramp Time Adjustment                        23     Not Used
                                                                                    2 Pedestal
            4      Ramp Time Adjustment                        24     Watch Dog Timer Input Pulse
                                                                                    3 Ramp
            5      Ramp Time Adjustment                        25     Red Phase Voltage Clock
            6      Programmable Input                          26     Start LED     4 Ramp
            7      Stop Select                                 27     Run Relay     5 Ramp
            8      Energy Saving Bypass                        28     Fault LED     7 Stop Select
            9      Reset                                       29     Not Used      8 Energy saving Bypass
            10     Energy Saving Voltage Backstop              30     Not Used      10 Energy saving Backstop
            11     Current Limit Enable                        31     +5V           11 Current Limit Enable
            12     Motor Back EMF Monitor                      32     Programmable 13 Emergency Run
                                                                                     Relay
            13     Emergency Run                               33     Top of Ramp Energy Saving LED
                                                                                    14 Relay Select
            14     Relay Select                                34     Red Phase Optocoupler Input
                                                                                    15 Programmable Spare
            15     Programmable Spare                          35     Yellow Phase Optocoupler Input
            16     Start / Stop                                36     Blue Phase Optocoupler Input
            17     Not Used                                    37     Blue Phase Firing Pulse
            18     Clock                                       38     Yellow Phase Firing Pulse
            19     Clock                                       39     Red Phase Firing Pulse
            20     GND                                         40     +5V



                                 Service & Maintenance.


TESTING
          Warning
With the unit powered up using an Oscilloscope connected between GND and the each of the IC1 inputs. In turn move the
           check equipment must swings between by qualified
switch andThis the input of each switch be serviced+5V and GND. personnel only. The
          thyristor heatsinks are live on models pml 110v2 and above. Before any
          work on the powerboss is undertaken all electrical supplies must be
          isolated and a 5 minute period observed to allow capacitor filters to
          discharge before working on the unit.


        general
        Powerboss Optimising soft starters have shown themselves to be very
        robust and reliable provided they are used within their design capability.
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       Powerboss requires very little maintenance, however the checks listed
       below should be performed at half yearly intervals.
       i)    Check that the environment has not changed and that no restriction
             has occurred to the fan or cooling apertures.
       ii)   Check all connections for tightness.
       iii)  Check all connections for signs of oxidation. A small amount of
             non-conducting grease can be smeared on the power connections
             to prevent oxidation.
       iv)   Check mains and control wiring for signs of deterioration.
       v)    Visually inspect the control PCB for signs of deterioration, the PCB
             can be cleaned with a dry airline if required.
       vi)   Replace fan filters if required.

       Fault Finding
       Before moving to the fault finding procedure the following checks should
be performed.
       i)     Check that supply and motor cables are connected correctly to the
              terminals of the Powerboss. Powerboss will not work within the
              delta loop.
       ii)    Check terminal block CONN1 is correctly configured.
       iii)   Check external control circuitry.
       iv)    All fuses including the semiconductor type (if fitted) should be
              checked for continuity with a DVM.
       v)     If an electronic overload is fitted check with the manufacturer that it
              is suitable for use with a chopped waveform, some electronic
              overloads interpret a chopped waveform as a single-phase
              condition.

       See Trouble Shooting Guide in Technical Support section for fault finding
       and procedures Insert Hyperlink to Technical Support / Fault Testing and
       Repair.


       WARNING
       NEVER USE A HIGH VOLTAGE INSULATION TESTER SUCH AS A
       MEGGER AS THIS MAY CAUSE IRREPAIRABLE DAMAGE TO
       POWERBOSS.



                          Additional Functionality.

Text To Follow


   POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                선일테크㈜



                           How To Check Savings.

      Taking and proving measurements

       Warning
       Due to the numerous motor and load combinations possible somar
       international limited, or their agents do not assume any liability,
       expressed or implied, for any consequences resulting from the use of the
       following information.


Why you cannot not use any meter
Three phase energy analysers such as the Circator AR5 (example 1) should be
used for taking measurements due to their accuracy at all currents. Most meters
will give a reasonably accurate current and voltage measurement but when it
comes to power factor they may give inaccurate measurements at lower currents.
This type of meter (example 2) will usually measure on one phase for current and
voltage on the other two phases the meter then calculates the power factor,
which is not always accurate at lower currents.

      The following two examples show this disparity in measurements.

      Example 1       MEASUREMENTS            TAKEN WITH THE CIRCATOR
      AR5 METER
      Without Powerboss.                      With Powerboss
      I    =     2.7          I               =     1.13
      V    =     415          V               =     415
      Pf   =     0.13         Pf              =     0.21

      Power = V x I x pf               Power = V x I x pf
      =146 Watts                       = 98 Watts

      Saving = 33%

      Example 2    MEASUREMENTS TAKEN WITH A LEM HEME ANALYST
2050 METER.

      Without Powerboss                       With Powerboss
      I    =     2.7                   I      =     1.13
      V    =     415                   V      =     415v
      Pf   =     0.29                  Pf     =     0.65

       Power = V x I x pf              Power = V x I x pf
   POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                 선일테크㈜


      = 325 Watts                              = 305 Watts

      SAVINGS = 6.2%

      AS CAN BE SEEN FROM THE ABOVE EXAMPLE THE MOTOR
      POWER FACTOR MEASUREMENT HAS A LARGE IMPACT ON THE
      SAVINGS. THE CONCLUSION IT IS A GOOD IDEA TO INVEST IN AN
      ACCURATE METER SUCH AS THE AR5.

      Relying On Statistics
      If you do not have an expensive meter or do not wish to purchase one you
      can estimate savings compiled information from real motors in the field.
      This method is harder to convince people they are saving energy but can
      be easily measured on a simple current clamp. From information compiled
      from various motors in the field a trend has emerged which shows that by
      taking the percentage of current saved and multiplying by 0.5 can give a
      reasonably accurate Kw saving.

      Look at the example of below taken from a real situation.

      Without Powerboss                              With Powerboss
      I    =     2.7                           I     =     1.13 A
      Kw   =     0.146                         Kw    =     0.0985

      Current saving      = 58%
      Kw saving           = 33%


      Estimating Savings In A Particular ApplicatioN
      Taking averages from field measurements has enabled us to give a
      reasonably accurate picture of what savings can be expected for a
      particular motor power factor.
      It must be remembered to multiply the savings by the duty cycle applicable
      to the motor, for example.
      Motor runs on load at a power factor of 0.7 for 50% of the duty cycle and
      off load
      at a power factor of 0.3 for the remainder of the duty cycle. As can be
      seen in the graph on the following page no savings are possible at a
      power factor of 0.7.
      You therefore you must multiply the figure for a power factor of 0.3 by the
      duty cycle to give a true estimation.

See table below.


   POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                      선일테크㈜




                                                                       5%
                     0.6
                                                              10%
   Power Factor




                     0.5
                                                     16%
                     0.4
                                             23%
                     0.3
                                     29%
                     0.2
                              37%
                     0.1


                                        Possible Savings


                  It must be understood all these estimations are averages you
                      may find a motor that does not exactly comply with the
                                    information in this graph.




  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                       선일테크㈜




        What happens at each point when a powerboss is fitted?


                               E

                               D
                               C


                                                                   0.95
                        A               B              F


             MOTOR          POWER BOSS
                                                           PF CORRECTION AND
                                                           METER
        What happens at what point:

        A      The voltage is reduced by the Powerboss with load variations.
               The current reduces due to the reduction in voltage.
                 The motor becomes more efficient thus the reactive component
                                     reduces.
               The power factor increases.

        B      Input voltage to power boss which is at line voltage and does not
               get reduced.
               Current in a series circuit is equal, thus current A = current B.

        C ,D,E These are connected to various other motors all with different
                     power
              factors and loading conditions.
              The voltage is equal to line voltage.
              The current is different in each leg depending on load and motor
size.

        F-     The current is the Vector sum of;           F=B+C+D+E
               The voltage is equal to line voltage.
               The power factor is resultant of;           B + C + D + E.

        G-     The Power factor is corrected to 0.95 automatically.
               The voltage is equal to the line voltage.
               The current is Equal to Point F.
               The electricity meter is reading power = V x I x pf

   POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                             선일테크㈜


          Measuring the energy saved by the power boss in real terms:
    Savings = (Power without PB – Power with PB) /Power Without PB




  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                     선일테크㈜



       From the diagram we can relate curtain quantities.
         If you reduce the current in leg B by 10 amps the current at Point G will
              also reduce by 10 amps if there is no change in power factor.

       PF is constant at 0.95
       Voltage is constant at line voltage.
       We are left with: (Current without PB – Current with PB)/Current without
PB
       To compensate for any vector discrepancies, the Kw saving should be
       taken as the half the current saving.

       Conclusion:
       The % saving of current / 2 can be a good indication of the total saved Kw.
       If you reduce the current in any of the legs using power boss it will reduce
       the total thus reduce your electricity bill. We can also conclude that if we
       installed Powerboss on the remaining legs C, D and E the impact on the
       total would be even greater.

       Are savings and load linear?
       The answer is definatly not , look at the graph below taken again from a
       real motor with an efficiency of 0.76 at full load. Motors are very ineffiecent
       at no load but become effiecent quickly as the load is increased.
       From 0.63 – 0.65 upwards it is very unlikely you will get any savings.


                           60
                           50
                           40
                 Savings




                           30
                           20
                           10
                            0
                             15



                             25



                             35



                             45



                             55



                             65
                              2



                              3



                              4



                              5



                              6
                            0.



                            0.



                            0.



                            0.



                            0.
                           0.



                           0.



                           0.



                           0.



                           0.



                           0.




                                          Power Factor




     POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

                                기술 및 제품 문의: 선일테크㈜
                                     :032-589-3311
                                   www.profibus.pe.kr
유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                 선일테크㈜



    Using Capacitors For Individual Motor Pf Correction
    A large proportion of the inductive current on the supply is due to the
    magnetizing current of induction motors. With power factor correction, it is
    important that the capacitive current is less than the inductive magnetizing
    current of the motor. In many installations power factor correction
    capacitors are connected directly in parallel with the motor windings.
    When the motor is disconnected from the supply, there is for a period of
    time, a magnetic field associated with the rotor. As the motor decelerates,
    it generates voltage out its terminals at a frequency which is related to the
    motors speed. The capacitors connected across the motor terminals form
    a resonant circuit with the motor inductance.
    If the motor is critically corrected, (corrected to a power factor of 1.0) the
    inductive reactance equals the capacitive reactance at the line frequency
    and therefore the resonant frequency is equal to the line frequency. If the
    motor is over corrected, the resonant frequency will be below the line
    frequency. If the frequency of the voltage generated by the decelerating
    motor passes through the resonant frequency of the corrected motor,
    there will be high currents and voltages around the motor/capacitor circuit.
    This can result in sever damage to the capacitors and motor. It is
    imperative that motors are never over corrected or critically corrected
    when power factor correction is employed.
    Individual motor correction is commonly applied by using one contactor to
    control both the motor and the capacitors. It is better practice to use two
    contactors, one for the motor and one for the capacitors. Where one
    contactor is employed, it should be up sized for the capacitive load. The
    use of a second contactor eliminates the problems of resonance between
    the motor and the capacitors.
    Power Factor correction capacitors must not be connected to the output of
    Powerboss. When capacitors are installed with Powerboss they must be
    controlled by a separate contactor, and switched in when the Powerboss
    output voltage has reached line voltage. Powerboss provides a "top of
    ramp" or "bypass contactor control" which can be used to control the
    power factor correction capacitors.

    A capacitor is a passive component which will really only work well at one
    particular loading . It would be calculated for instance to bring the motor
    PF up to 0.85 . The problem with this is you may run the risk of
    overcorrecting the PF as the loading increases and secondly the power
    consumed will increase.




  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                  선일테크㈜



    Example
    Before the capacitor.                             After capacitor is installed
    I = 10 A                                   I = 5A
    V = 10v                                    V = 10V
    Pf = 0.1                                   Pf = .85

    Power = Vx I x pf =10w                     Power = Vx I x pf = 42.5w

    As can be seen from the previous example you have an increase of 76% of
    power seen by the energy meter.

    Whilst it is true that power factor correction capacitors fitted to the motor
    terminals may provide similar results to fitting a Powerboss it must be
    remembered that they cannot adjust to variable loads and do not provide
    the soft start feature associated wth Powerboss.




  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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                            :032-589-3311
                          www.profibus.pe.kr
유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                          선일테크㈜



    Savings At The Meter With System Pf Correction
    Unfortunatly the calculation for working this out is extreemly complex as
    can be seen on the following pages. The motor measured saved 33%
    locally

                PF Correction
                    Ic

       Im                If
                              I1       I2                  I3              I4
                     Lighting      Heating        Motors of various sizes
                     6A Pf 0.95    100A Pf 0.9    200A Pf 0.5
                                                                        I4 without Powerboss
                                                                        Pf = 0.13
                                                                       I4 = 2.7 A




                                                                         I4 with Powerboss
    Lagging Angle
                                                                         Pf = 0.21
    I1
                                                                         I4 = 1.13 A
    Angle = acos(0.95)
    =18.2                                  Current Vectors
    I2
    Angle = acos(0.9)                 I1         618.2
    =25.84                           I2         10025.84
    I3                                I3         20060
    Angle = acos(0.5)                 I4a        2.782.53
    =60                              I4b        1.1377.88
    I4 w/o PB
    Angle =acos(0.13)
    =82.53
    I4 with PB
    Angle = acos(0.21)
    =77.88




    The current Ic must be such that when combined with If the resultant
    current is 0.95

    Equation 1

    Using Complex Notation to calculate the vector resultant current If
  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                  선일테크㈜



    If    = I1 + I2 + I3 + I4
          = 618.2 + 10025.84 + 20060 + 2.782.53
          = 5.7 + j1.87 + 90 + j43.59 + 100 + j173.2 + I4
          = 195.7 + j218.66     + I4
          = 195.7 + j218.66 + 0.351 + j2.677
          = 295.6748.466

    The resultant current If
    295.67 A      Pf 0.66
    The active component of current If
    If x Pf = 295.67 x 0.66
           = 195.14 A

    The reactive component
    If sin = 295.67 x sin(48.466)
            = 221.33

    The active component of Im
    Im cos      = Im x 0.95
    I     = 195.14
             0.95
          = 205.4A
    Angle of current @ pf 0.95
    acos 0.95 = 18.19

    The reactive component of Im
    Im sin = 205.4 x sin 18.19
          = 64.14A

    Ic    = If reactive – Im reactive
          = 221.33 – 64.14
          = 157.19

    Im    = If + Ic
          = 295.6748.466 - j157.19
          = 196.04 +j221.32 – j157.19
          = 196.04 + j64.13
          = 206.2618.11

    Check to see if the resultant pf is in fact 0.95

    Pf    = cos 
          = cos 18.11
  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

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유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                             선일테크㈜


          = 0.95 lagging

    If we have a look at the current after the Pf has been corrected, we
    notice a significant change.
    Before 295.67 A  After 206.26 A

    This is one of the reasons why the electricity authority insists on Pf
    correction, it reducer’s the size of the source needed and cross-
    sectional area of the conductors.

    The Power at the meter before Powerboss was installed.
    P    = V x I x cos 
         = 400 x 206.26 x cos 18.11
         = 78416.88 watts

    Vector Sum of If after Powerboss was installed.

    From Equation 1

    Im    = If + Ic
          = 195.7 +j 218.66 + I4 +Ic
          = 195.7 +j 218.66 + 0.23 + j 1.10
          = 195.93 + j219.76 –j157.19
          = 205.6717.71

    Power at meter after Powerboss was installed

    P     = V x I x cos 
          =400 x 205.67 x cos 17.71
          = 78369.19

    Difference in Watts at meter

          = 78416.88 – 78369.19
          = 47.69

    Original Power Consumed by motor

    P     = V x I x cos 
          = 400 x 2.7 x 0.13
          = 140.4 w

    Saving       = 47.69       x 100%
                 140.4
  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

                      기술 및 제품 문의: 선일테크㈜
                           :032-589-3311
                         www.profibus.pe.kr
유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                  선일테크㈜


            = 34%




  POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

               기술 및 제품 문의: 선일테크㈜
                    :032-589-3311
                  www.profibus.pe.kr
유도전동기와 POWERBOSS 작동원리                                    선일테크㈜



                                    Training Aids.

A full Powerpoint presentation is available for you to use to pass technical
training onto your team members. The presentation includes the following
subject matter
         AC Induction Motors
         Traditional Methods Of Starting
         The Powerboss Method Of Starting
         Powerboss – How Does It Work?
         The Theory of Optimisation
         Energy Saving With Powerboss.
         Installing Powerboss
         Commissioning Powerboss.
         Powerboss In Action.
         Taking Readings
         Technical Benefits.

Please click here to download presentation (automated download of Technical
Training Presentation).

The best training reference that your Engineers can have are the manuals –
please click here to download latest manuals. (automated download of All Manuals).



                                 Training Courses.

Should you wish to reinforce this material with face to face training and practical
demonstrations at Somar‟s offices in Truro please click here to book your place.

Insert hyperlink to contact us – training.

                             Recommended Reading.

Text To Follow.




   POWERBOSS 는 모터 에너지 절전 시스템 입니다.

                            기술 및 제품 문의: 선일테크㈜
                                 :032-589-3311
                               www.profibus.pe.kr

								
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