Docstoc

Engineering and Technical Cluster

Document Sample
Engineering and Technical Cluster Powered By Docstoc
					Computer Integrated Manufacturing                                                                           WVEIS 2465

Computer Integrated Manufacturing is a component of the Project Lead the Way (PLTW) pre-engineering curriculum.
This course will introduce students to principles of robotics and automation and CAD design. The course builds on
computer solid modeling skills developed in Computer Integrated Manufacturing, and Design and Drawing for Production.
Students use CNC equipment to produce actual models of their three-dimensional designs. Fundamental concepts of
robotics used in automated manufacturing and design analysis are included. Students will utilize problem-solving
techniques and participate in laboratory activities to develop an understanding of course concepts. Safety instruction is
integrated into all activities. Students are encouraged to become active members of TSA, the national youth organization
for those enrolled in technology education. TSA is an integral component of the program and provides curricular
opportunities that enhance student achievement. The West Virginia Standards for 21st Century Learning include the
following components: 21st Century Content Standards and 21st Century Learning Skills and Technology Tools. All West
Virginia teachers are responsible for classroom instruction that integrates learning skills, technology tools and content
standards and objectives.

Grade 9-12       Computer Integrated Manufacturing
Standard: 1      Computer Modeling
ET.S.CIM.1       Students will:
                       outline the fundamentals of computer modeling.
                       researches object construction.
                       examine parts modeling.
                       demonstrate the creation of drawing views.
                       determine assembly modeling.
                       recognize rapid prototyping.
Objectives       Students will
ET.O.CIM.1.1     demonstrate the ability to store, retrieve, copy, and output drawing files depending upon system setup.
ET.O.CIM.1.2     utilize instructor identified 2D computer sketching functions.
ET.O.CIM.1.3     incorporate various coordinate systems in the construction of 2D geometrical shapes.
ET.O.CIM.1.4     calculate the x and y coordinates given a radius and angle.
ET.O.CIM.1.5     produce 2D sketches using available sketching features.
ET.O.CIM.1.6     apply editing techniques to produce accurate sketches.
ET.O.CIM.1.7     examine and apply sketch constraints.
ET.O.CIM.1.8     analyze drawings with appropriate inquiry functions.
ET.O.CIM.1.9     produce sketched objects with dimensions and geometric constraints.
ET.O.CIM.1.10    apply necessary sketched features to generate a solid model.
ET.O.CIM.1.11       demonstrate the application and modifying of placed features.
ET.O.CIM.1.12       develop multi-view drawings such as top, front, right side, isometric, section, and auxiliary views from the
                    solid model.
ET.O.CIM.1.13 demonstrate the proper application of annotations and reference dimensions while conforming to
                    established drafting standards.
ET.O.CIM.1.14 update model and drawing views using revision specification sheets provided by the instructor.
ET.O.CIM.1.15 create assembly models through the integration of individual parts and sub-assemblies.
ET.O.CIM.1.16 generate an assembly drawing, which include Views, Balloons, and Bill of Materials (BOM).
ET.O.CIM.1.17 recognize the wide array of industry-wide prototyping methods in use.
ET.O.CIM.1.18 examine the need for rapid-prototyping.
ET.O.CIM.1.19 prepare a prototype model from a drawing data base.
Performance Descriptors (ET.PD.CIM.1)
             Above Mastery                                  Mastery                                Partial Mastery
The student demonstrates                   The student demonstrates competent The student demonstrates basic but
exceptional and exemplary                  and proficient performance and shows inconsistent performance of fundamental
performance with distinctive and           a thorough and effective application of knowledge and skills characterized by
sophisticated application of               knowledge and skills that meet the       errors and/or omissions in computer
knowledge and skills that exceed the standard in computer modeling. The             modeling. The student can do the
standard in computer modeling. The student can do the following with few            following with notable errors:
student can do the following with no       errors: demonstrate the ability to       demonstrate the ability to store, retrieve,
errors: demonstrate the ability to         store, retrieve, copy, and output        copy, and output drawing files depending
store, retrieve, copy, and output          drawing files depending upon system      upon system setup; utilize instructor
drawing files depending upon system setup; utilize instructor identified 2D         identified 2D computer sketching
setup; utilize instructor identified 2D    computer sketching functions;            functions; incorporate various coordinate
computer sketching functions;              incorporate various coordinate           systems in the construction of 2D
incorporate various coordinate             systems in the construction of 2D        geometrical shapes; calculate the x and y
systems in the construction of 2D          geometrical shapes; calculate the x      coordinates given a radius and angle;
geometrical shapes; calculate the x        and y coordinates given a radius and     produce 2D sketches using available
and y coordinates given a radius and angle; produce 2D sketches using               sketching features; apply editing
angle; produce 2D sketches using           available sketching features; apply      techniques to produce accurate sketches;
available sketching features; apply        editing techniques to produce            examine and apply sketch constraints;
editing techniques to produce              accurate sketches; examine and apply analyze drawings with appropriate inquiry
accurate sketches; examine and             sketch constraints; analyze drawings     functions; produce sketched objects with
apply sketch constraints; analyze          with appropriate inquiry functions;      dimensions and geometric constraints;
drawings with appropriate inquiry          produce sketched objects with            apply necessary sketched features to
functions; produce sketched objects        dimensions and geometric constraints; generate a solid model; demonstrate the
with dimensions and geometric              apply necessary sketched features to application and modifying of placed
constraints; apply necessary               generate a solid model;                  features; develop multi-view drawings
sketched features to generate a solid    demonstrate the application and           such as top, front, right side, isometric,
model; demonstrate the application       modifying of placed features; develop     section, and auxiliary views from the solid
and modifying of placed features;        multi-view drawings such as top, front,   model; demonstrate the proper
develop multi-view drawings such as      right side, isometric, section, and       application of annotations and reference
top, front, right side, isometric,       auxiliary views from the solid model;     dimensions while conforming to
section, and auxiliary views from the    demonstrate the proper application of     established drafting standards; update
solid model; demonstrate the proper      annotations and reference dimensions      model and drawing views using revision
application of annotations and           while conforming to established           specification sheets provided by the
reference dimensions while               drafting standards; update model and      instructor; create assembly models
conforming to established drafting       drawing views using revision              through the integration of individual parts
standards; update model and drawing      specification sheets provided by the      and sub-assemblies; generate an
views using revision specification       instructor; create assembly models        assembly drawing, which include Views,
sheets provided by the instructor;       through the integration of individual     Balloons, and Bill of Materials (BOM);
create assembly models through the       parts and sub-assemblies; generate        recognize the wide array of industry-wide
integration of individual parts and      an assembly drawing, which include        prototyping methods in use; identify the
sub-assemblies; generate an              Views, Balloons, and Bill of Materials    need for rapid-prototyping; and prepare a
assembly drawing, which include          (BOM); recognize the wide array of        prototype model from a drawing data
Views, Balloons, and Bill of Materials   industry-wide prototyping methods in      base. Performance needs further
(BOM); recognize the wide array of       use; examine the need for rapid-          development and supervision.
industry-wide prototyping methods in     prototyping; and prepare a prototype
use; assess the need for rapid-          model from a drawing data base.
prototyping; and prepare a prototype     Application of knowledge and skills is
model from a drawing data base.          thorough and effective, and the
The student can independently solve      student can work independently.
problems and is self-directed.

Standard: 2      Programmable Machines
ET.S.CIM.2       Students will:
                     outline the history of programmable machining.
                     research CNC characteristics.
                     examine CNC programming.
                     recognize CNC operations.
                     demonstrate precision measurement.
                     utilize CAM software.
                     demonstrate coordinate systems.
Objectives       Students will
ET.O.CIM.2.1     research the history of computer controlled machines charting the growth of NC and how it has been
                 implemented into private industry.
ET.O.CIM.2.2    examine how the application of CNC machines has impacted manufacturing.
ET.O.CIM.2.3    compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of CNC Machining.
ET.O.CIM.2.4    chart the evolution of machine tools, controllers, and software used in programmable machines.
ET.O.CIM.2.5    outline career opportunities and educational requirements within the field of programmable machines.
ET.O.CIM.2.6    identify the axis relative to various CNC machines.
ET.O.CIM.2.7    contrast open and closed loop control systems.
ET.O.CIM.2.8    demonstrate the types of drive systems used in CNC machines.
ET.O.CIM.2.9    use the CNC control program to indicate the machine position and then contrast that position to the
                relative position of the part origin (PRZ).
ET.O.CIM.2.10   recognize the function of the major components of a CNC machine tool.
ET.O.CIM.2.11   apply various work holding devices commonly used for CNC machining.
ET.O.CIM.2.12   investigate various types of tool changers used in CNC machine tools.
ET.O.CIM.2.13   determine the three primary axes used in CNC machining and explore the remaining axes used in
                advanced machining.
ET.O.CIM.2.14   research the importance of cutting tool materials and how they affect the speed and feed rates used by
                machine tools.
ET.O.CIM.2.15   demonstrate different types of tool holding devices used in CNC machine tools.
ET.O.CIM.2.16   select appropriate cutting tools to efficiently, safely, and accurately cut parts using a CNC machine.
ET.O.CIM.2.17   compare the difference between reference and position points.
ET.O.CIM.2.18   discover that CNC machine movements are identified by axes.
ET.O.CIM.2.19   characterize that the axis system is a worldwide standard for machine movement.
ET.O.CIM.2.20   plot points using absolute, relative (incremental), and polar coordinates.
ET.O.CIM.2.21   demonstrate significant points on geometric shapes (ex. center point, end point).
ET.O.CIM.2.22   assess the optimum location for the Program Reference Zero (PRZ) point.
ET.O.CIM.2.23   outline the three categories of machine movement: straight line, curved line, and non-regular shape.
ET.O.CIM.2.24   construct a preliminary planning sheet to identify necessary work holding devices, cutting tools, reference
                points, machining sequences, and safe operation.
ET.O.CIM.2.25   research the three categories of machine movement: straight line, curved line, and non-regular shape.
ET.O.CIM.2.26   produce a preliminary planning sheet to identify necessary work holding devices, cutting tools, reference
                points, machining sequences, and safe operation.
ET.O.CIM.2.27   discover the term “Alphanumeric Coding.”
ET.O.CIM.2.28   characterize the term “G codes.”
ET.O.CIM.2.29   research the term “M code.”
ET.O.CIM.2.30   outline the three sections of a program; Initial Commands, Program Body, and Program End.
ET.O.CIM.2.31   produce a basic NC part program using necessary G and M codes, including remarks that describe the
                function of each code.
ET.O.CIM.2.32   compare the advantages and disadvantages of shop floor programming as well as off line programming.
ET.O.CIM.2.33   create a simple NC part program using a text editor and a CAM package.
ET.O.CIM.2.34   utilize a CAD/CAM/CNC software solution to create a part.
ET.O.CIM.2.35   analyze, identify, and correct errors found in NC part program files.
ET.O.CIM.2.36   use simulation software to graphically verify NC program operation.
ET.O.CIM.2.37   perform a “dry run” to verify the machine setup and program operation.
ET.O.CIM.2.38   demonstrate the ability to safely setup, maintain, and operate a CNC machine center using appropriate
                documentation and procedures.
ET.O.CIM.2.39   analyze part geometry to select appropriate cutting tools and fixturing devices needed to create the part
                using a CNC machine.
ET.O.CIM.2.40   organize and edit the tool library of a CNC control program providing offset values and tool geometry.
ET.O.CIM.2.41   calculate and verify appropriate spindle speeds and feed rates specific to each cutting tool utilized in an
                NC part program.
ET.O.CIM.2.42   demonstrate how to fixture a part in a CNC machine and set the program reference zero (PRZ).
ET.O.CIM.2.43   validate NC part programs using simulation software before machining the part on a CNC device.
ET.O.CIM.2.44   demonstrate all possible methods of disabling a CNC machine in the event of an emergency.
ET.O.CIM.2.45   demonstrate how to measure using standard and metric systems.
ET.O.CIM.2.46   use mathematical computations to convert measurements between metric and standard inch systems.
ET.O.CIM.2.47   demonstrate how to read technical drawings identifying the dimensional tolerances and limits.
ET.O.CIM.2.48   demonstrate how to make precision measurements to the degree of accuracy required by plan
                specification using appropriate instruments.
ET.O.CIM.2.49   determine how comparison instruments can be used to check dimensions, compare shapes, indicate
                centers, and check parallel surfaces.
ET.O.CIM.2.50   research advanced and automated measurement systems that are applied in industry. (ex. Coordinate
                Measuring Systems, Digital Probes, and Optical scanners)
ET.O.CIM.2.51   characterize the importance of precision measurement in SPC and quality control.
ET.O.CIM.2.52   examine the purpose of a CAM package.
ET.O.CIM.2.53   demonstrate the ability to operate the user interface of a CAM package and access help using
                appropriate documentation and help screens.
ET.O.CIM.2.54   perform basic file operations using a CAM package such as saving, opening, printing, and editing part
                program files.
ET.O.CIM.2.55   model how to import and export CAD files using a CAM package.
ET.O.CIM.2.56   setup a CAM package by editing the material and tool libraries, defining stock sizes, selecting the
                appropriate post processor, and defining the units of measure to be used.
ET.O.CIM.2.57   apply the fundamental and advanced milling and turning procedures used in CAM packages.
ET.O.CIM.2.58   use a CAM package to generate and edit tool paths by applying appropriate machining processes to
                geometry imported from a CAD program.
ET.O.CIM.2.59   utilize the right hand rule to identify the X, Y, and Z axes of the Cartesian Coordinate System.
ET.O.CIM.2.60 apply a combination of absolute, relative, and polar coordinates to construct a three-dimensional model.
ET.O.CIM.2.61 research the origin planes in the Cartesian Coordinate System.
ET.O.CIM.2.62 determine the origin and planar orientations of each side of a three-dimensional model.
Performance Descriptors (ET.PD.CIM.2)
             Above Mastery                                 Mastery                               Partial Mastery
The student demonstrates exceptional      The student demonstrates competent        The student demonstrates basic but
and exemplary performance with            and proficient performance and shows a inconsistent performance of
distinctive and sophisticated application thorough and effective application of     fundamental knowledge and skills
of knowledge and skills that exceed the knowledge and skills that meet the          characterized by errors and/or
standard in programmable machines.        standard in programmable machines.        omissions in programmable machines.
The student can do the following with     The student can do the following with     The student can do the following with
no errors: research the history of        few errors: examine the history of        notable errors: identify the history of
computer controlled machines charting computer controlled machines charting         computer controlled machines
the growth of NC and how it has been      the growth of NC and how it has been      charting the growth of NC and how it
implemented into private industry;        implemented into private industry;        has been implemented into private
evaluate how the application of CNC       examine how the application of CNC        industry; identify how the application
machines has impacted manufacturing; machines has impacted manufacturing; of CNC machines has impacted
compare and contrast the advantages       examine the advantages and                manufacturing; list the advantages
and disadvantages of CNC Machining; disadvantages of CNC Machining; chart and disadvantages of CNC Machining;
chart the evolution of machine tools,     the evolution of machine tools,           chart the evolution of machine tools,
controllers, and software used in         controllers, and software used in         controllers, and software used in
programmable machines; outline            programmable machines; outline career programmable machines; outline
career opportunities and educational      opportunities and educational             career opportunities and educational
requirements within the field of          requirements within the field of          requirements within the field of
programmable machines; identify the       programmable machines; identify the       programmable machines; identify the
axis relative to various CNC machines; axis relative to various CNC machines;       axis relative to various CNC
contrast open and closed loop control     contrast open and closed loop control     machines; contrast open and closed
systems; demonstrate the types of         systems; demonstrate the types of drive loop control systems; demonstrate the
drive systems used in CNC machines;       systems used in CNC machines; use         types of drive systems used in CNC
use the CNC control program to            the CNC control program to indicate the machines; use the CNC control
indicate the machine position and then machine position and then contrast that program to indicate the machine
contrast that position to the relative    position to the relative position of the  position and then contrast that
position of the part origin (PRZ);        part origin (PRZ); recognize the function position to the relative position of the
recognize the function of the major       of the major components of a CNC          part origin (PRZ); recognize the
components of a CNC machine tool;         machine tool; apply various work          function of the major components of a
apply various work holding devices        holding devices commonly used for         CNC machine tool; apply various work
commonly used for CNC machining;          CNC machining; examine various types holding devices commonly used for
investigate various types of tool         of tool changers used in CNC machine      CNC machining; list various types of
changers used in CNC machine tools;         tools; determine the three primary axes     tool changers used in CNC machine
determine the three primary axes used       used in CNC machining and explore the       tools; determine the three primary
in CNC machining and explore the            remaining axes used in advanced             axes used in CNC machining and
remaining axes used in advanced             machining; examine the importance of        explore the remaining axes used in
machining; research the importance of       cutting tool materials and how they         advanced machining; identify the
cutting tool materials and how they         affect the speed and feed rates used by     importance of cutting tool materials
affect the speed and feed rates used by     machine tools; demonstrate different        and how they affect the speed and
machine tools; demonstrate different        types of tool holding devices used in       feed rates used by machine tools;
types of tool holding devices used in       CNC machine tools; select appropriate       demonstrate different types of tool
CNC machine tools; select appropriate       cutting tools to efficiently, safely, and   holding devices used in CNC machine
cutting tools to efficiently, safely, and   accurately cut parts using a CNC            tools; select appropriate cutting tools
accurately cut parts using a CNC            machine; compare the difference             to efficiently, safely, and accurately
machine; compare the difference             between reference and position points;      cut parts using a CNC machine;
between reference and position points;      examine how CNC machine movements           compare the difference between
discover that CNC machine                   are identified by axes; examine how the     reference and position points; identify
movements are identified by axes;           axis system is a worldwide standard for     how CNC machine movements are
evaluate that the axis system is a          machine movement; plot points using         identified by axes; identify how the
worldwide standard for machine              absolute, relative (incremental), and       axis system is a worldwide standard
movement; plot points using absolute,       polar coordinates; demonstrate              for machine movement; plot points
relative (incremental), and polar           significant points on geometric shapes      using absolute, relative (incremental),
coordinates; demonstrate significant        (ex. center point, end point); assess the   and polar coordinates; demonstrate
points on geometric shapes (ex. center      optimum location for the Program            significant points on geometric shapes
point, end point); assess the optimum       Reference Zero (PRZ) point; outline the     (ex. center point, end point); assess
location for the Program Reference          three categories of machine movement:       the optimum location for the Program
Zero (PRZ) point; outline the three         straight line, curved line, and non-        Reference Zero (PRZ) point; outline
categories of machine movement:             regular shape; construct a preliminary      the three categories of machine
straight line, curved line, and non-        planning sheet to identify necessary        movement: straight line, curved line,
regular shape; construct a preliminary      work holding devices, cutting tools,        and non-regular shape; construct a
planning sheet to identify necessary        reference points, machining sequences,      preliminary planning sheet to identify
work holding devices, cutting tools,        and safe operation; examine the three       necessary work holding devices,
reference points, machining                 categories of machine movement:             cutting tools, reference points,
sequences, and safe operation;              straight line, curved line, and non-        machining sequences, and safe
research the three categories of            regular shape; produce a preliminary        operation; define the three categories
machine movement: straight line,            planning sheet to identify necessary        of machine movement: straight line,
curved line, and non-regular shape;         work holding devices, cutting tools,        curved line, and non-regular shape;
produce a preliminary planning sheet to     reference points, machining sequences,      produce a preliminary planning sheet
identify necessary work holding             and safe operation; examine the term        to identify necessary work holding
devices, cutting tools, reference points,   “Alphanumeric Coding”; characterize         devices, cutting tools, reference
machining sequences, and safe               the term “G codes”; examine the term         points, machining sequences and safe
operation; discover the term                “M code”; outline the three sections of a    operation; define the term
“Alphanumeric Coding”; characterize         program, Initial Commands, Program           “Alphanumeric Coding”; characterize
the term “G codes”; research the term       Body, and Program End; produce a             the term “G codes”; define the term “M
“M code”; outline the three sections of a   basic NC part program using necessary        code”; outline the three sections of a
program, Initial Commands, Program          G and M codes including remarks that         program, Initial Commands, Program
Body, and Program End; produce a            describe the function of each code;          Body, and Program End; produce a
basic NC part program using necessary       examine the advantages and                   basic NC part program using
G and M codes including remarks that        disadvantages of shop floor                  necessary G and M codes including
describe the function of each code;         programming as well as off line              remarks that describe the function of
compare the advantages and                  programming; create a simple NC part         each code; list the advantages and
disadvantages of shop floor                 program using a text editor and a CAM        disadvantages of shop floor
programming as well as off line             package; utilize a CAD/CAM/CNC               programming as well as off line
programming; create a simple NC part        software solution to create a part;          programming; create a simple NC part
program using a text editor and a CAM       analyze, identify, and correct errors        program using a text editor and a
package; utilize a CAD/CAM/CNC              found in NC part program files; use          CAM package; utilize a
software solution to create a part;         simulation software to graphically verify    CAD/CAM/CNC software solution to
analyze, identify, and correct errors       NC program operation; perform a “dry         create a part; analyze, identify, and
found in NC part program files; use         run” to verify the machine setup and         correct errors found in NC part
simulation software to graphically verify   program operation; demonstrate the           program files; use simulation software
NC program operation; perform a “dry        ability to safely setup, maintain, and       to graphically verify NC program
run” to verify the machine setup and        operate a CNC machine center using           operation; perform a “dry run” to verify
program operation; demonstrate the          appropriate documentation and                the machine setup and program
ability to safely setup, maintain, and      procedures; examine part geometry to         operation; demonstrate the ability to
operate a CNC machine center using          select appropriate cutting tools and         safely setup, maintain, and operate a
appropriate documentation and               fixturing devices needed to create the       CNC machine center using
procedures; analyze part geometry to        part using a CNC machine; organize           appropriate documentation and
select appropriate cutting tools and        and edit the tool library of a CNC control   procedures; define part geometry to
fixturing devices needed to create the      program providing offset values and tool     select appropriate cutting tools and
part using a CNC machine; organize          geometry; calculate and verify               fixturing devices needed to create the
and edit the tool library of a CNC          appropriate spindle speeds and feed          part using a CNC machine; organize
control program providing offset values     rates specific to each cutting tool          and edit the tool library of a CNC
and tool geometry; calculate and verify     utilized in an NC part program;              control program providing offset
appropriate spindle speeds and feed         demonstrate how to fixture a part in a       values and tool geometry; calculate
rates specific to each cutting tool         CNC machine and set the program              and verify appropriate spindle speeds
utilized in an NC part program;             reference zero (PRZ); validate NC part       and feed rates specific to each cutting
demonstrate how to fixture a part in a      programs using a simulation software         tool utilized in an NC part program;
CNC machine and set the program             before machining the part on a CNC           demonstrate how to fixture a part in a
reference zero (PRZ); validate NC part       device; demonstrate all possible              CNC machine and set the program
programs using a simulation software         methods of disabling a CNC machine in         reference zero (PRZ); validate NC
before machining the part on a CNC           the event of an emergency;                    part programs using a simulation
device; demonstrate all possible             demonstrate how to measure using              software before machining the part on
methods of disabling a CNC machine in        standard and metric systems; use              a CNC device; demonstrate all
the event of an emergency;                   mathematical computations to convert          possible methods of disabling a CNC
demonstrate how to measure using             measurements between metric and               machine in the event of an
standard and metric systems; use             standard inch systems; demonstrate            emergency; demonstrate how to
mathematical computations to convert         how to read technical drawings                measure using standard and metric
measurements between metric and              identifying the dimensional tolerances        systems; use mathematical
standard inch systems; demonstrate           and limits; demonstrate how to make           computations to convert
how to read technical drawings               precision measurements to the degree          measurements between metric and
identifying the dimensional tolerances       of accuracy required by plan                  standard inch systems; demonstrate
and limits; demonstrate how to make          specification using appropriate               how to read technical drawings
precision measurements to the degree         instruments; examine how comparison           identifying the dimensional tolerances
of accuracy required by plan                 instruments can be used to check              and limits; demonstrate how to make
specification using appropriate              dimensions, compare shapes, indicate          precision measurements to the degree
instruments; assess how comparison           centers, and check parallel surfaces;         of accuracy required by plan
instruments can be used to check             research advanced and automated               specification using appropriate
dimensions, compare shapes, indicate         measurement systems that are applied          instruments; examine how comparison
centers, and check parallel surfaces;        in industry (ex. Coordinate Measuring         instruments can be used to check
research advanced and automated              Systems, Digital Probes, and Optical          dimensions, compare shapes, indicate
measurement systems that are applied         scanners); characterize the importance        centers, and check parallel surfaces;
in industry (ex. Coordinate Measuring        of precision measurement in SPC and           research advanced and automated
Systems, Digital Probes, and Optical         quality control; examine the purpose of       measurement systems that are
scanners); characterize the importance       a CAM package; demonstrate the ability        applied in industry (ex. Coordinate
of precision measurement in SPC and          to operate the user interface of a CAM        Measuring Systems, Digital Probes,
quality control; evaluate the purpose of     package and access help using                 and Optical scanners); characterize
a CAM package; demonstrate the               appropriate documentation and help            the importance of precision
ability to operate the user interface of a   screens; perform basic file operations        measurement in SPC and quality
CAM package and access help using            using a CAM package such as saving,           control; identify the purpose of a CAM
appropriate documentation and help           opening, printing, and editing part           package; demonstrate the ability to
screens; perform basic file operations       program files; model how to import and        operate the user interface of a CAM
using a CAM package such as saving,          export CAD files using a CAM package;         package and access help using
opening, printing, and editing part          setup a CAM package by editing the            appropriate documentation and help
program files; model how to import and       material and tool libraries, defining stock   screens; perform basic file operations
export CAD files using a CAM package;        sizes, selecting the appropriate post         using a CAM package such as saving,
setup a CAM package by editing the           processor, and defining the units of          opening, printing, and editing part
material and tool libraries, defining      measure to be used; apply the              program files; model how to import
stock sizes, selecting the appropriate     fundamental and advanced milling and       and export CAD files using a CAM
post processor, and defining the units     turning procedures used in CAM             package; setup a CAM package by
of measure to be used apply the            packages; use a CAM package to             editing the material and tool libraries,
fundamental and advanced milling and       generate and edit tool paths by applying   defining stock sizes, selecting the
turning procedures used in CAM             appropriate machining processes to         appropriate post processor, and
packages; use a CAM package to             geometry imported from a CAD               defining the units of measure to be
generate and edit tool paths by            program; utilize the right hand rule to    used; apply the fundamental and
applying appropriate machining             identify the X, Y, and Z axes of the       advanced milling and turning
processes to geometry imported from a      Cartesian Coordinate System; apply a       procedures used in CAM packages;
CAD program; utilize the right hand rule   combination of absolute, relative, and     use a CAM package to generate and
to identify the X, Y, and Z axes of the    polar coordinates to construct a three-    edit tool paths by applying appropriate
Cartesian Coordinate System; apply a       dimensional model; research the origin     machining processes to geometry
combination of absolute, relative, and     planes in the Cartesian Coordinate         imported from a CAD program; utilize
polar coordinates to construct a three-    System; and determine the origin and       the right hand rule to identify the X, Y,
dimensional model; research the origin     planar orientations of each side of a      and Z axes of the Cartesian
planes in the Cartesian Coordinate         three-dimensional model. Application of    Coordinate System; apply a
System; and determine the origin and       knowledge and skills is thorough and       combination of absolute, relative, and
planar orientations of each side of a      effective, and the student can work        polar coordinates to construct a three-
three-dimensional model. The student       independently.                             dimensional model; research the
can independently solve problems and                                                  origin planes in the Cartesian
is self-directed.                                                                     Coordinate System; and determine
                                                                                      the origin and planar orientations of
                                                                                      each side of a three-dimensional
                                                                                      model. Performance needs further
                                                                                      development and supervision.
Standard: 3      Robotics
ET.S.CIM.3       Students will:
                     research the technology of robotics.
                     compare and contrast robotics and automated systems.
                     outline robotic characteristics.
                     discover mechanical components.
                     research control systems.
                     demonstrate programming methods.
                     apply industrial robot applications.
Objectives       Students will
ET.O.CIM.3.1     outline the chronological development of automation leading to robotics.
ET.O.CIM.3.2     discover career opportunities in the robotics career fields.
ET.O.CIM.3.3  investigate the development of robotics from science fiction.
ET.O.CIM.3.4  compare and contrast a minimum of four dangerous and repetitive jobs that robots are used.
ET.O.CIM.3.5  formulate a definition of a robot.
ET.O.CIM.3.6  classify different types of robots.
ET.O.CIM.3.7  evaluate the positive impact robots have on manufacturing.
ET.O.CIM.3.8  research the social implications of robots.
ET.O.CIM.3.9  compare the four classifications of robots.
ET.O.CIM.3.10 examine a classification of robot.
ET.O.CIM.3.11 design and build a working model of a robot.
ET.O.CIM.3.12 report specifications and work envelopes of robots.
ET.O.CIM.3.13 sketch the mechanical components to a robot.
ET.O.CIM.3.14 design and develop an end effector.
ET.O.CIM.3.15 demonstrate an understanding of the way end effectors are specific to a process.
ET.O.CIM.3.16 examine the various drive systems used in robotics and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of
              each.
ET.O.CIM.3.17 outline the basic components of robot controllers.
ET.O.CIM.3.18 demonstrate an understanding of control techniques and computer simulations.
ET.O.CIM.3.19 design and build a feed system with sensors.
ET.O.CIM.3.20 program a robot to perform several tasks.
ET.O.CIM.3.21 program a robot to solve a materials handling problem.
ET.O.CIM.3.22 recognize the need for end of arm tooling and how this tooling affects the robots operation.
ET.O.CIM.3.23 determine the necessity for specialty tooling applications in robotics.
ET.O.CIM.3.24 prepare and document a presentation on end of arm tooling.
ET.O.CIM.3.25 analyze and generate the solution to a robotic manufacturing problem.
Performance Descriptors (ET.PD.CIM.3)
          Above Mastery                                  Mastery                               Partial Mastery
The student demonstrates exceptional        The student demonstrates competent and         The student demonstrates basic but
and exemplary performance with              proficient performance and shows a             inconsistent performance of
distinctive and sophisticated application   thorough and effective application of          fundamental knowledge and skills
of knowledge and skills that exceed the     knowledge and skills that meet the             characterized by errors and/or
standard in robotics. The student can       standard in robotics. The student can do       omissions in robotics. The student
do the following with no errors: outline    the following with few errors: outline the     can do the following with notable
the chronological development of            chronological development of automation        errors: outline the chronological
automation leading to robotics;             leading to robotics; examine career            development of automation leading
discover career opportunities in the        opportunities in the robotics career fields;   to robotics; list career opportunities
robotics career fields; investigate the     examine the development of robotics            in the robotics career fields; identify
development of robotics from science        from science fiction; examine a minimum        the development of robotics from
fiction; compare and contrast a             of four dangerous and repetitive jobs that     science fiction; list a minimum of four
minimum of four dangerous and               robots are used; formulate a definition of     dangerous and repetitive jobs that
repetitive jobs that robots are used;       a robot; classify different types of robots;   robots are used; formulate a
formulate a definition of a robot;          examine the positive impact robots have        definition of a robot; classify different
classify different types of robots;         on manufacturing; research the social          types of robots; list the positive
evaluate the positive impact robots         implications of robots; examine the four       impact robots have on
have on manufacturing; research the         classifications of robots; examine a           manufacturing; research the social
social implications of robots; compare      classification of robot; design and build a    implications of robots; identify the
the four classifications of robots;         working model of a robot; report               four classifications of robots;
evaluate a classification of robot;         specifications and work envelopes of           describe a classification of robot;
design, and build a working model of a      robots; sketch the mechanical                  design and build a working model of
robot; report specifications and work       components to a robot; design and              a robot; report specifications and
envelopes of robots; sketch the             develop an end effector; demonstrate an        work envelopes of robots; sketch the
mechanical components to a robot;           understanding of the way end effectors         mechanical components to a robot;
design and develop an end effector          are specific to a process; examine the         design and develop an end effector;
with no errors; demonstrate an              various drive systems used in robotics,        demonstrate an understanding of the
understanding of the way end effectors      determine the advantages and                   way end effectors are specific to a
are specific to a process; evaluate the     disadvantages of each; outline the basic       process; identify the various drive
various drive systems used in robotics      components of robot controllers;               systems used in robotics and list the
and analyze the advantages and              demonstrate an understanding of control        advantages and disadvantages of
disadvantages of each; outline the          techniques and computer simulations;           each; outline the basic components
basic components of robot controllers;      design and build a feed system with            of robot controllers; demonstrate an
demonstrate an understanding of             sensors; program a robot to perform            understanding of control techniques
control techniques and computer             several tasks; program a robot to solve a      and computer simulations; design
simulations; design and build a feed        materials handling problem; recognize the      and build a feed system with
system with sensors; program a robot        need for end of arm tooling and how this       sensors; program a robot to perform
to perform several tasks; program a         tooling affects the robots operation;          several tasks; program a robot to
robot to solve a materials handling        examine the necessity for specialty         solve a materials handling problem;
problem; recognize the need for end of     tooling applications in robotics; prepare   recognize the need for end of arm
arm tooling and how this tooling affects   and document a presentation on end of       tooling and how this tooling affects
the robots operation; evaluate the         arm tooling; and analyze and generate       the robots operation; describe the
necessity for specialty tooling            the solution to a robotic manufacturing     necessity for specialty tooling
applications in robotics; prepare and      problem. Application of knowledge and       applications in robotics; prepare and
document a presentation on end of arm      skills is thorough and effective, and the   document a presentation on end of
tooling; and analyze and generate the      student can work independently.             arm tooling; and analyze and
solution to a robotic manufacturing                                                    generate the solution to a robotic
problem. The student can                                                               manufacturing problem.
independently solve problems and is                                                    Performance needs further
self-directed.                                                                         development and supervision.




Standard: 4      Computer Integrated Manufacturing
ET.S.CIM.4       Students will:
                      characterize the rationale for CIM.
                      compare and contrast the types of CIM systems.
                      outline the components of a CIM system.
                      demonstrate the CIM system applications.
Objectives       Students will
ET.O.CIM.4.1     compare and contrast how the individual components of a flexible manufacturing system are interrelated.
ET.O.CIM.4.2     outline the benefits and problems associated with CIM technology and how they affect the manufacturing
                 process.
ET.O.CIM.4.3     characterize some basic characteristics of a manufacturing operation that lend themselves to computer
                 integrated manufacturing.
ET.O.CIM.4.4     research some of the typical components and sub systems that make up an automated machining,
                 assembly, and process-type manufacturing operation.
ET.O.CIM.4.5     determine the three categories of CIM manufacturing systems.
ET.O.CIM.4.6       compare and contrast the benefits and drawbacks of the three categories of CIM manufacturing systems.
ET.O.CIM.4.7       compare and contrast the working relationship between the CNC mill and the robot.
ET.O.CIM.4.8       outline the components of a FMS.
ET.O.CIM.4.9       assess the relationship between a CNC milling machine interface and a jointed arm robot interface
                   through a communication handshaking process.
ET.O.CIM.4.10 discover the individual components used in selected CIM systems.
ET.O.CIM.4.11 analyze and select components for a CIM system for a specific industrial application.
ET.O.CIM.4.12 examine the various applications of a Programmable Logic Controller as related to its use in a CIM
                   system.
ET.O.CIM.4.13 compare and contrast the difference between a PLC and a computer with interface.
ET.O.CIM.4.14 recognize and understand the necessary safety precautions associated with a fully automated CIM
                   system.
ET.O.CIM.4.15 demonstrate the significance of teamwork and communication when they combine the designs of the
                   individual groups into a complete miniature FMS.
ET.O.CIM.4.16 recognize how their individual components work together to form a complete CIM system.
ET.O.CIM.4.17 assemble and test individual component designs by integrating them into a complete miniature FMS built
                   from the Fischertechnik models.
Performance Descriptors (ET.PD.CIM.4)
              Above Mastery                                   Mastery                            Partial Mastery
The student demonstrates exceptional          The student demonstrates competent The student demonstrates basic but
and exemplary performance with                and proficient performance and shows inconsistent performance of
distinctive and sophisticated application a thorough and effective application of fundamental knowledge and skills
of knowledge and skills that exceed the       knowledge and skills that meet the     characterized by errors and/or
standard in computer integrated               standard in computer integrated        omissions in computer integrated
manufacturing. The student can do the         manufacturing. The student can do      manufacturing. The student can do the
following with no errors: compare and         the following with few errors:         following with notable errors: compare
contrast how the individual components compare and contrast how the                  and contrast how the individual
of a flexible manufacturing system are        individual components of a flexible    components of a flexible manufacturing
interrelated; outline the benefits and        manufacturing system are               system are interrelated; outline the
problems associated with CIM                  interrelated; outline the benefits and benefits and problems associated with
technology and how they affect the            problems associated with CIM           CIM technology and how they affect
manufacturing process; characterize           technology and how they affect the     the manufacturing process;
some basic characteristics of a               manufacturing process; characterize    characterize some basic characteristics
manufacturing operation that lend             some basic characteristics of a        of a manufacturing operation that lend
themselves to computer integrated             manufacturing operation that lend      themselves to computer integrated
manufacturing; research some of the           themselves to computer integrated      manufacturing; research some of the
typical components and sub systems            manufacturing; research some of the    typical components and sub systems
that make up an automated machining,          typical components and sub systems     that make up an automated machining,
assembly, and process-type                 that make up an automated               assembly, and process-type
manufacturing operation; determine the     machining, assembly, and process-       manufacturing operation; determine the
three categories of CIM manufacturing      type manufacturing operation;           three categories of CIM manufacturing
systems; compare and contrast the          determine the three categories of CIM   systems; compare and contrast the
benefits and drawbacks of the three        manufacturing systems; compare and      benefits and drawbacks of the three
categories of CIM manufacturing            contrast the benefits and drawbacks     categories of CIM manufacturing
systems; compare and contrast the          of the three categories of CIM          systems; compare and contrast the
working relationship between the CNC       manufacturing systems; compare and      working relationship between the CNC
mill and the robot; outline the            contrast the working relationship       mill and the robot; outline the
components of a FMS; assess the            between the CNC mill and the robot;     components of a FMS; assess the
relationship between a CNC milling         outline the components of a FMS;        relationship between a CNC milling
machine interface and a jointed arm        assess the relationship between a       machine interface and a jointed arm
robot interface through a communication    CNC milling machine interface and a     robot interface through a
handshaking process; discover the          jointed arm robot interface through a   communication handshaking process;
individual components used in selected     communication handshaking process;      discover the individual components
CIM systems; analyze and select            discover the individual components      used in selected CIM systems; analyze
components for a CIM system for a          used in selected CIM systems;           and select components for a CIM
specific industrial application; examine   analyze and select components for a     system for a specific industrial
the various applications of a              CIM system for a specific industrial    application; examine the various
Programmable Logic Controller as           application; examine the various        applications of a Programmable Logic
related to its use in a CIM system;        applications of a Programmable Logic    Controller as related to its use in a CIM
compare and contrast the difference        Controller as related to its use in a   system; compare and contrast the
between a PLC and a computer with          CIM system; compare and contrast        difference between a PLC and a
interface; recognize and understand the    the difference between a PLC and a      computer with interface; recognize and
necessary safety precautions associated    computer with interface; recognize      understand the necessary safety
with a fully automated CIM system;         and understand the necessary safety     precautions associated with a fully
demonstrate the significance of            precautions associated with a fully     automated CIM system; demonstrate
teamwork and communication when            automated CIM system; demonstrate       the significance of teamwork and
they combine the designs of the            the significance of teamwork and        communication when they combine the
individual groups into a complete          communication when they combine         designs of the individual groups into a
miniature FMS; recognize how their         the designs of the individual groups    complete miniature FMS; recognize
individual components work together to     into a complete miniature FMS;          how their individual components work
form a complete CIM system; and            recognize how their individual          together to form a complete CIM
assemble and test individual component     components work together to form a      system; and assemble and test
designs by integrating them into a         complete CIM system; and assemble       individual component designs by
complete miniature FMS built from the      and test individual component designs   integrating them into a complete
Fischertechnik models. The student         by integrating them into a complete     miniature FMS built from the
can independently solve problems and       miniature FMS built from the            Fischertechnik models. Performance
is self-directed.                              Fischertechnik models. Application of needs further development and
                                               knowledge and skills is thorough and       supervision.
                                               effective, and the student can work
                                               independently.
Standard: 5            Participating in the Student Organization
ET.S.CIM.5             Students will participate in a local student organization.
Objectives             Students will
ET.O.CIM.5.1           assess the purpose and goals of student organizations.
ET.O.CIM.5.2           demonstrate leadership skills through participation in student organization activities such as meetings,
                       programs, projects, and competitions.
ET.O.CIM.5.3           evaluate the benefits and responsibilities of participation in student, professional, and civic
                       organizations as an adult.
Performance Descriptors (ET.PD.CIM.5)
              Above Mastery                                     Mastery                                Partial Mastery
The student demonstrates exceptional           The student demonstrates competent The student demonstrates basic but
and exemplary performance with                 and proficient performance and shows inconsistent performance of
distinctive and sophisticated application a thorough and effective application of fundamental knowledge and skills
of knowledge and skills that exceed the        knowledge and skills that meet the         characterized by errors and/or
standard in participating in the student       standard in participating in the student omissions in participating in the student
organization. The student can assess           organization. The student can              organization. The student can identify
the purpose and goals of a student             examine the purpose and goals of a         the purpose and goals of a student
organization; demonstrate leadership           student organization; demonstrate          organization; demonstrate leadership
skills through participation in student        leadership skills through reporting        skills through reading about student
organizations activities such as               about student organizations activities     organizations activities such as
meetings, programs, projects, and              such as meetings, programs, projects, meetings, programs, projects, and
competitions; and evaluate the benefits        and competitions; and examine the          competitions; and define the benefits
and responsibilities of participation in       benefits and responsibilities of           and responsibilities of participation in
student, professional, and civic               participation in student, professional,    student, professional, and civic
organizations as an adult. The student         and civic organizations as an adult.       organizations as an adult.
can independently solve problems and           Application of knowledge and skills is Performance needs further
is self-directed.                              thorough and effective, and the            development and supervision.
                                               student can work independently.
Standard: 6           Literacy and Numeracy
ET.S.CIM.6            Students will demonstrate the literacy and numeracy skills required to solve complex, real-world problems
                      associated with their career/technical content area and improve their thinking and reasoning skills.
Objectives            Students will
ET.O.CIM.6.1          utilize a variety of technical sources (e.g., Internet, manuals, journals, directions, reports, etc.) to complete
                      career/technical assignments and projects.
ET.O.CIM.6.2          demonstrate writing skills required to complete career/technical assignments and projects.
ET.O.CIM.6.3          demonstrate accuracy in calculating and measuring graphical work required to complete career/technical
                      assignments and projects.
ET.O.CIM.6.4          analyze tables, charts, graphs and multiple data sources to complete career/technical assignments and
                      projects.
Performance Descriptors (ET.PD.CIM.6)
              Above Mastery                                    Mastery                                 Partial Mastery
The student demonstrates exceptional          The student demonstrates competent        The student demonstrates basic but
and exemplary performance with                and proficient performance and shows      inconsistent performance of fundamental
distinctive and sophisticated application a thorough and effective application of       knowledge and skills characterized by
of knowledge and skills that exceed the       knowledge and skills that meet the        errors and/or omissions in literacy and
standard in literacy and numeracy. The        standard in literacy and numeracy. The numeracy. The student selects a variety
student chooses a variety of technical        student utilizes a variety of technical   of technical sources (e.g., Internet,
sources (e.g., Internet, manuals,             sources (e.g., Internet, manuals,         manuals, journals, directions, reports,
journals, directions, reports, etc.) to       journals, directions, reports, etc.) to   etc.) to complete career/technical
complete career/technical assignments         complete career/technical assignments assignments and projects; reproduces
and projects; performs writing skills         and projects; demonstrates writing skills writing skills required to complete
required to complete career/technical         required to complete career/technical     career/technical assignments and
assignments and projects;                     assignments and projects;                 projects; illustrates accuracy in
communicates accuracy in calculating          demonstrates accuracy in calculating      calculating and measuring graphical work
and measuring graphical work required         and measuring graphical work required required to complete career/technical
to complete career/technical                  to complete career/technical              assignments and projects; and explains
assignments and projects; and                 assignments and projects; and             tables, charts, graphs and multiple data
evaluates tables, charts, graphs and          analyzes tables, charts, graphs and       sources to complete career/technical
multiple data sources to complete             multiple data sources to complete         assignments and projects. Performance
career/technical assignments and              career/technical assignments and          needs further development and
projects. The student can independently projects. Application of knowledge and          supervision.
solve problems and is self-directed.          skills is thorough and effective and the
                                              student can work independently.
                           st
Standard: 7             21 Century Learning Skills
ET.S.CIM.7              The student will
                             access and manipulate information for use in oral, written, or multimedia format using appropriate
                                technology skills.
                             apply sound reasoning processes to solve complex real-world problems and develop new ideas.
                             exhibit leadership and ethical behavior in planning and executing tasks, as an individual or a
                                group member.
Objectives              Students will
ET.O.CIM.7.1            search online using a range of technology tools and media to access relevant information needed for
                         problem solving.
ET.O.CIM.7.2             create information for oral, written, and multimedia communications, adhering to copyright laws.
ET.O.CIM.7.3             engage in problem solving and critical thinking processes to create and evaluate complex strategies in
                         order to independently solve problems.
ET.O.CIM.7.4             adapt to new situations by considering multiple perspectives and a commitment to continued learning.
ET.O.CIM.7.5             exhibit ethical behavior and positive leadership while working collaboratively in the school and/or
                         community.
ET.O.CIM.7.6             model legal and ethical behaviors in the use of technology.
Performance Descriptors (ET.PD.CIM.7)
              Above Mastery                                     Mastery                                 Partial Mastery
The student demonstrates exceptional          The student demonstrates competent         The student demonstrates basic but
and exemplary performance with                and proficient performance and shows       inconsistent performance of fundamental
distinctive and sophisticated application a thorough and effective application of        knowledge and skills characterized by
of knowledge and skills that exceed the       knowledge and skills that meet the         errors and/or omissions in 21st century
standard in 21st century learning skills.     standard in 21st century learning skills.  learning skills. The student explains
The student assesses online technology The student searches online using a               online technology tools and media to
tools and media to access relevant            range of technology tools and media to access relevant information needed for
information needed for problem solving; access relevant information needed for problem solving; identifies information for
critiques information for oral, written, and problem solving; creates information for oral, written, and multimedia
multimedia communications, adhering to oral, written, and multimedia                     communications, adhering to copyright
copyright laws; integrates problem            communications, adhering to copyright      laws; discusses problem solving and
solving and critical thinking processes to laws; engages in problem solving and          critical thinking processes to create and
create and evaluate complex strategies        critical thinking processes to create and evaluate complex strategies in order to
in order to independently solve               evaluate complex strategies in order to independently solve problems; discusses
problems; interprets new situations by        independently solve problems; adapts       new situations by considering multiple
considering multiple perspectives and a to new situations by considering                 perspectives and a commitment to
commitment to continued learning;             multiple perspectives and a                continued learning; reviews ethical
incorporates ethical behavior and             commitment to continued learning;          behavior and positive leadership while
positive leadership while working             exhibits ethical behavior and positive     working collaboratively in the school
collaboratively in the school and/or          leadership while working collaboratively and/or community; and describes legal
community; and reinforces legal and           in the school and/or community; and        and ethical behaviors in the use of
ethical behaviors in the use of               models legal and ethical behaviors in      technology. Performance needs further
technology. The student can                   the use of technology. Application of      development and supervision.
independently solve problems and is           knowledge and skills is thorough and
self-directed.                                effective and the student can work
                                              independently.
Standard: 8           Entrepreneurship Skills
ET.S.CIM.8            Students will access the opportunities, concepts, processes, and personal traits/behaviors associated with
                      successful entrepreneurial performance.
Objectives            Students will
ET.O.CIM.8.1          assess global trends in entrepreneurship that are related to their career/technical program.
ET.O.CIM.8.2          determine entrepreneurial opportunities in venture creation related to their career/technical program.
ET.O.CIM.8.3          examine desirable entrepreneurial personality traits.
Performance Descriptors (ET.PD.CIM.8)
              Above Mastery                                   Mastery                                  Partial Mastery
The student demonstrates exceptional         The student demonstrates competent          The student demonstrates basic but
and exemplary performance with               and proficient performance and shows        inconsistent performance of fundamental
distinctive and sophisticated application a thorough and effective application of        knowledge and skills characterized by
of knowledge and skills that exceed the      knowledge and skills that meet the          errors and/or omissions in
standard in entrepreneurship skills. The standard in entrepreneurship skills. The entrepreneurship skills. The student lists
student critiques global trends in           student assesses global trends in           global trends in entrepreneurship that are
entrepreneurship that are related to their entrepreneurship that are related to          related to their career/technical program;
career/technical program; evaluates          their career/technical program;             describes entrepreneurial opportunities in
entrepreneurial opportunities in venture     determines entrepreneurial                  venture creation related to their
creation related to their career/technical opportunities in venture creation related career/technical program; and identifies
program; and assesses desirable              to their career/technical program; and      desirable entrepreneurial personality
entrepreneurial personality traits. The      examines desirable entrepreneurial          traits. Performance needs further
student can independently solve              personality traits. Application of          development and supervision.
problems and is self-directed.               knowledge and skills is thorough and
                                             effective and the student can work
                                             independently.