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					LESSON ONE
                                           INTRODUCTION

                            Preliminary Procedures and Introductions:

NOTE: The following procedures and instructions are to be taught to all students attending both
traditional and Internet/CD-ROM courses and will be taught the first hour of each course.
   1. After materials and paperwork have been passed out introduce yourself and visitors.
   2. Have Internet/CD-ROM students write the following statement on their printed final report form:
       “I certify that I spent a minimum of five hours doing this Internet/CD-ROM course”.
   3. Collect Student Registration forms. No students under 18 years of age will be allowed to
       participate in the range class without first presenting a completed and signed Parental Release
       Form. Make sure Parental Release Form is signed by their parent or legal guardian.
   4. Explain the Course and Objective of Class.
       a. Reasons for the course:
          1. Florida's Hunter Safety Program was initiated in 1958 and accelerated in 1971.
          2. Ignorance is dangerous--many accidents are caused by lack of knowledge.
          3. Carelessness is dangerous--many accidents are caused by thoughtless actions.
          4. Florida is a great hunting state:
                (1) Florida's hunters and non-hunters should be trained so that they may enjoy shooting
                     without getting hurt or hurting others.
                (2) Florida's hunters and non-hunters should develop an interest in conservation and game
                     management so that Florida will continue to be a great hunting state.
       b. The seriousness of the course:
           1. Firearms are used for recreation, but are not playthings.
           2. No horseplay will be tolerated either in the classroom or in the field.
           3. As in regular school classes, attendance and punctuality are required. Being late is
              discourteous and disruptive, both to those who are already seated and to the Instructor.
           4. Instructor should advise the class of the dangers of lead exposure.
       c. Requirements for passing the course:
          1. Students must attend all class sessions. If a student misses a class through no fault of his
               own, the Instructor may hold a special make-up class for him, but is not required to do so.
               a. Any student not able to attend the live firing portion will have 6 months to complete the
                    course from that date or they will have to repeat the entire course.
               b. Internet/CD ROM students who are not able to attend the field day or live firing portion
                    will have 6 months to complete the course from the printed date on the affidavit or they
                    will have to repeat the Internet/CD ROM portion.
           2. Students must pass the written examination with a score of at least 80 correct answers to the
               100-question test (80%). A score of 79 or less is a failing grade and you must take the
               entire course over.
           3. The Instructor will observe the students for their gun handling ability, general
               attitude, emotional stability, true sportsmanship, and general knowledge of guns and
               ammunition on the range. Should a student commit an unsafe act on the range with a gun;
               this could be a reason to fail the student.

  5. Show the video, “The Last Shot”.
  6. You should do a brief review of the movie and answer any questions the students may have.
  7. From this point forward classes may be taught in your personal preference. Should you conduct the
     range portion prior to the final exam, ensure the appropriate classes have been finished as listed by
     asterisks in the outline section of this manual.
  8. Should you want to include Internet/CD-ROM students in with a traditional class, this introduction
     would be followed by Laws and Wildlife Identification. The Internet/CD-ROM students would
     remain for testing while traditional students would return on the next scheduled class date.


                                                     1
           SUPPLEMENT TO HUNTER SAFETY INSTRUCTOR MANUAL
                                    INTRODUCTION
                                Dated: December 2003



Policy:
    The video “The Last Shot,” by Alan Madison Productions, Inc. will be used as the
introductory video to the Hunter Safety course after being properly introduced as
instructed in the guidelines listed below.
General Guidelines:
Reasoning:
   The two causes of firearms accidents are ignorance and carelessness. No
video in production better depicts what can happen if students do not pay attention and
learn the rules of safety and learn how a firearm functions; thus, displacing ignorance.
This video also graphically shows that the misuse of a firearm, or carelessness, can
have dire consequences—even jail time. Students must understand that once you pull
the trigger, there is nothing you can do to bring a bullet back.
    “The Last Shot” is a reenactment of a true story that took place when two young men
did not pay attention to their Hunter Safety Instructor. This story ended in tragedy. The
end of the video has graphic scenes of what can happen when you are careless with a
firearm. Some may find the graphic detail of the hospital scene offensive. However,
this is reality. There is no better video on the market today that does a better job in
stressing the difference between pretend and reality than “The Last Shot.”
   For these reasons, after a proper introduction, Hunter Safety Instructors will show
the video “The Last Shot” as a prelude to the course. This will help the student
understand the seriousness of paying attention to the course and the consequences of
the improper use of a firearm.
Exclusions:
   It is understood that some parents pay closer attention to their children’s activities
than others. These concerned parents do not allow their children to play violent video
games; they do not allow them to watch violent television shows or movies.
Unfortunately, these parents are the exception today and not the rule. We in no way
want to hinder these parents good work in rearing their children; therefore, after reading
the introduction it is perfectly acceptable for someone fitting the above description to
dismiss themselves while the instructor plays the video.
   If a parent or legal guardian does not accompany the child to the class as requested,
then it should be assumed these students should watch the video! These children are
the target audience.
   From time to time Hunter Safety Instructors will hold special classes for Boy Scouts,
4-H camps, as well as others where the majority of the students are not teenagers.
Under these circumstances (any time more than 50% of the students are not thirteen or
older) it is not advisable to use “The Last Shot Video.”
  In this situation the instructor should request and use a copy of the video, “Before
You Hunt” to show to the younger audiences.


                                            2
Introduction:
   The following is the introduction Instructors should read before showing the video
“The Last Shot” to their class.
    Every day we are faced with choices. We choose what clothes we wear, what we
will eat for dinner, what we watch on television, and on and on our decisions go. We
also have the choice as to whether we take this class or not, and if we choose to take
this course, whether we will pay attention and learn or just slide by and hopefully pass
the test in the end. The choice is ours. Another choice that we have is whether or not
we will be a safe and responsible with firearms.
    The video you are about to see is a reenactment of a true story. This video stresses
what can happen if you are careless with firearms and chose not to pay attention during
this course and do not learn how firearms function and do not learn the rules of safety.
     If you are a parent present with a child under the age thirteen and you do not want
your child to view this video, or if for any other reason you might object to such this
learning tool, please quietly exit when the tape begins and return for our discussion in
fifteen minutes.


Discussion:
    After viewing the video, draw the class into a discussion to get them to see where
things went wrong. Some sample questions to use to encourage participation are as
follows:


      Did you notice the one young man was playing a video game? What influences
       do you think video games have on your friends who are not familiar with
       firearms?
      What effects did peer pressure have on this situation?
      How would a person who is responsible with firearms have reacted to this peer
       pressure?
      What bad choices were made?
      Were there any rules of safety violated?
      Can the actions of one person have an effect on others?
      Some people blame the presence of the gun on the loss of the young mans life.
       Do you believe it is the guns fault that this young man died? (It is good to stress
       here that a firearm is amoral—it is neither good nor bad. Just like a carpenters
       hammer, it can be used to harm another or drive a nail.)
      Were the young men responsible? (Use the scenes of them trespassing and
       shooting cans and leaving trash on others property in your ethics lecture to show
       a responsible hunter is a safe hunter.)




                                            3
LESSON TWO
                                                LAWS



OBJECTIVES
 LEARNING              Overview of federal and state firearm and gun laws
                       Specific knowledge on hunting rules



   NOTE: This class must be taught to students from either a traditional or Internet/CD -ROM
          course.
                         Optional: Show the movie "We are the FWC"
A. Why do we have game laws?
     1. To ensure a fair share of game for everyone.
     2. To protect the game.
     3. To ensure the safety and welfare of people and property.

B. Federal Laws:
    Federal Firearm Statutes Gun Control Act 1968 (several major points of the law)
    1. Age. You cannot purchase a firearm or ammunition under the age of 18, nor handguns or
        handgun ammunition under the age of 21.
    2. The following persons cannot send, sell, buy, or get firearms or ammunition under any
       circumstances:
       a. Persons under indictment or convicted of a crime punishable by more than one year
           imprisonment.
       b. A fugitive from justice.
       c. An unlawful user of marijuana or narcotics.
       d. Anyone who has been adjudicated a mental deficient or committed to a mental institution.
       e. Any person who is a convicted felon.
       f. Any person who has been discharged from the armed services under dishonorable conditions.
       g. Anyone having their citizenship revoked or having renounced their citizenship.
       h. An alien illegally or unlawfully in the United States.
       i. Persons subject to a court order that restrains such persons from harassing, stalking, or
           threatening an intimate partner.
       j. Any person who has been convicted in any court of a misdemeanor crime of domestic violence.

C. Florida Laws and Regulations on Firearms and the Taking of Wildlife:
    1. Definitions:
        a. The term gun means a shotgun, rifle, pistol, revolver, air gun, gas gun, blowgun, or any
           device mechanically propelling an arrow, spear, or other projectile. Crossbow or bow and
           arrow shall be included in the meaning of the term gun. (FAC 68A-1.004)
        b. The term firearm means any weapon, including a starter gun, which will or is designed to or
           may readily be converted to expel a projectile by the action of an explosive. (FS 790.001(6)
        c. The term muzzleloading gun means a firearm using black powder as the propellant or a
           nonnitrocellulose substitute and fired by wheellock, flintlock, or percussion cap ignition and
           which is not adaptable to the use of any self contained cartridge ammunition. (FAC 68A-
           1.004)
   2. Prohibited Shooting:
       a. (FS 790.11): Carrying firearms in national forests is prohibited. Except during the hunting
           season as established by law, no person shall carry on or about his person, or any vehicle in
           which such a person may be riding, or on any animal which such a person may be using
           within the limits of the national forest area within the State, any gun or firearm of any
           description whatever.
       b. (FS 790.15): Any person who discharges firearms in any public place or on any paved public
           road, highway or street, or whosoever knowingly discharges any firearms over any paved
           public road, highway or street or occupied premises, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.
                                                   4
3. Voluntary authorized hunter identification program:
    Under this program, landowners wanting to participate notify the local Sheriff's Office and the
   FWC, and provide written authorization to hunters who may utilize their property. Anyone found
   on property enrolled in this program without written authorization from the landowner may be
   charged with trespass. Additionally, this law expands criminal trespass to include the propelling of
   potentially lethal projectiles over or across private property without authorization. This is intended
   to protect wildlife and livestock on private property.

4. FWC Rule 68A-4.008 Taking Wildlife on Roads and Rights-of-Way Prohibited:
   It is unlawful to take or attempt to take wildlife on, upon, or from the right-of-way of any federal,
   state, or county- maintained road - whether paved or otherwise. Taking or attempting to take
   wildlife under these conditions is prohibited by law (except for the collection of amphibians or
   reptiles without the use of a gun).

5. Miscellaneous:
   a. (FS 810.09): Trespass on property other than a structure or conveyance. Whoever, without being
      authorized, licensed, or invited, willfully enters upon or remains on any property... to which
      notice against entering or remaining is given either by actual communication to the offender or
      by posting, fencing, or cultivation . . . commits the offense of trespass on property other than a
      structure or conveyance. This trespass is a misdemeanor. If the offender is armed with a firearm
      or gun during the commission of this offense, he/she is guilty of a felony.

  b. Any person who in taking or attempting to take, kill, or endanger any animal, and knowingly
     propels or causes to be propelled any potentially lethal projectile over or across private land
     without authorization, commits trespass, which is a felony. For purposes of this paragraph, the
     term“potentially lethal projectile” includes any projectile launched from any firearm, bow,
     crossbow, or similar tensile device. This section shall not apply to any governmental agent or
     employee acting within the scope of his or her official duties.

  c. (Florida Statute 403.413) Florida Litter Law: It shall be unlawful for any person to throw,
      discard, place, or deposit litter in any manner or amount whatsoever in or on any Public
      highway, road, street, alley, thoroughfare, or any other public lands, except in containers or areas
     lawfully provided therefore. It shall be unlawful for any person to throw, discard, place, or
      deposit any garbage, cans, bottles, or containers, in or on any fresh water lakes, rivers, streams,
      or tidal or coastal waters of the state. In addition, it shall be unlawful for any person to throw,
      discard, place, or deposit litter in any manner or amount whatsoever on any private property,
      unless prior consent of the owner has been given. This statute carries the punishment of a
      misdemeanor.

  d. (Florida Statute 790.17): Whoever sells or gives any minor under eighteen years of age any pistol
      or firearm, (other than an ordinary pocket knife), without permission of the parent of such minor
      shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

  e. (Florida Statute 790 22): (1) The use for any purpose whatsoever of BB guns, air or gas
     operated guns or a firearm (as defined by this act), by any child under the age of sixteen
     years is prohibited unless such use is under the supervision and in the presence of an adult
     - regardless of the child’s experience or knowledge of safe gun handling techniques. (2) Any
     adult responsible for a child who knowingly permits such child to use or have a firearm as
     described herein shall be guilty of a misdemeanor.

  f. (Florida Statute 372.99): The displaying or use of a light in a place where deer might be found,
     and in a manner capable of disclosing the presence of deer, together with the possession of
     firearms or other weapons customarily used for the taking of deer between one (1) hour after
     sunset and one (1) hour before sunrise, shall be prima facie evidence of an intent to violate the
     provisions of this subsection one which carries the punishment of a misdemeanor.
                                                  5
D. Additional Information: Additional wildlife laws and rules in the hunting handbook should be
   discussed at this point. It is important that students have a basic understanding of what is expected of
   them while hunting in Florida, and where to find the information that follows:
   1. Resident game birds and migratory game birds – US Fish & Wildlife Service
        Jurisdiction.
   2. Daily bag limit and possession limit defined.
   3. Florida’s three management zones.
   4. Hunting license, stamps and permits:
        a. When are they required
        b. Exemptions
   5. Hunter Safety requirements.
   6. Legal methods for taking game:
        a. Native species
        b. Upland game birds
        c. Migratory game birds and three shell law
   7. Prohibited methods – center fire, semi-automatic rifle magazine capacity.
   8 Wild hogs as legal game.
   9. Shooting hours:
       a. Native species
       b. Upland game birds
       c. Migratory game birds
  10. Hunter Orange requirement.
  11. Dogs:
       a. Hunting dogs
       b. Bird dogs
       c. Deer dogs
       d. Chasing fox
 12. Hunting over bait – Established and maintained feeder
 13. Sex evidence of turkey and deer.
 14. Regular quota hunt permits and exemptions.
 15. Special quota hunt permits and exemptions.
 16. What is a “legal deer”?
 17. Furbearers:
       a. Definition
       b. License requirement
      c. Explain the use of steel leg hold traps in Florida
 18. Wildlife Alert program.
 19. Tagging and transporting of game.
 20. Discuss what firearms you may hunt with during the General Gun Season in Florida.
 21. Regional-specific areas of concern.
  22. Entertain any questions that pertain to this class of instruction. Avoid questions about:
    “10 years ago I or a friend of mine got… etc.” They just take up valuable time and distract the
     other students.
 D. Review (brief)




                                                     6
CHAPTER 1
                                ETHICS & HUNTER RESPONSIBILITY


                    Understand why we have laws.
                    Identify opportunities to go hunting on private and public lands.
OBJECTIVES
 LEARNING




                    Know how responsible and ethical hunters show respect for natural resources.
                    Know how responsible and ethical hunters show respect for other hunters.
                    Know how responsible and ethical hunters show respect for landowners.
                    Understand the relationship between hunters and non-hunters.
                    Know the main causes of meat spoilage and game care.
                    Understand the five stages of hunter development.

             Know the Law: Ignorance of hunting laws is not an excuse for violating them.

I. Why Do We Have Hunting Laws?                                                            (SM - page 4)
A. During 19th century, many game animals nearly hunted into extinction. Herds of buffalo that once
   roamed plains reduced to about 800 head. Beaver almost wiped out. Once plentiful elk, deer and
   pronghorn had been reduced to fraction of original number.
B. Game Conservation: To conserve wildlife for future generations to enjoy, wildlife management laws
   were passed. Laws allow game to flourish by:
   1. Establishing hunting seasons that limit harvesting and avoid nesting and mating seasons.
   2. Limiting hunting methods and equipment.
   3. Setting “bag” limits on number of animals to be taken.
   4. Establishing check stations and game tag requirements to enforce laws.
C. Safety, Opportunity and Funding: In addition to ensuring availability of game for future, hunting
   laws:
   1. Establish safety guidelines for hunting that protect both hunters and non-hunters.
   2. Offer equal opportunity for all hunters, whether they use modern firearms, muzzleloaders or
       bows.
   3. Ensure adequate funding for wildlife programs by collecting license fees – substantial amount of
       funding for wildlife management comes from the purchase of licenses.
D. Fair Chase: Hunting laws also define the rules of fair chase.
   1. Concept began in Middle Ages, when hunters increased challenge of sport hunting by setting
       rules that limited how they took game.
   2. More recently, fair chase rules developed to stem pubic criticism of hunters. One of earliest
       models was “Fair Chase Principle” established in late 1800s by Boone and Crockett Club, which
       was founded by Theodore Roosevelt. Those who violated club rules were expelled.
   3. Rules later expanded, banning use of vehicles, airplanes, radios, electronic calling or shooting in
       fenced enclosure. Many states have made those rules into law.
E. Hunter’s Image Matters:                                                                 (SM - page 5)
   1. Responsible hunters welcome laws that enforce sportsmanlike hunting practices, because
       behavior of irresponsible hunters has caused some people to oppose hunting.
   2. Nationally, approximately 5 percent of the population hunts, and roughly same percentage
       actively oppose hunting. The rest of population is predominantly non-hunters. However, bad
       behavior by hunters could sway some of neutral crowd into anti-hunting camp.
F. How Hunters make a positive Impact:
   1. Put in countless hours to improve wildlife habitat.
   2. Help biologists transplant game species and save other species from extinction.
   3. Encourage others to practice ethical behavior.
   4. Responsible hunters must set a good example for others to follow.

                                                      7
II. Hunter Ethics: Ethics are moral principles or values that distinguish between right and wrong.

A. While hunting laws preserve wildlife, ethics preserve hunter’s opportunity to hunt. Because ethics
   generally govern behavior that affects public opinion of hunters, ethical behavior ensures that hunters
   are welcome and hunting areas stay open.
B. Ethics generally cover behavior that has to do with issues of fairness, respect, and responsibility not
   covered by laws. For instance, it’s not illegal to be rude to landowner when hunting on his or her
   property, or carelessly fail to close pasture gate after opening it, but most hunters agree that
   discourteous and irresponsible behavior is unethical.
C. Then there are ethical issues that are just between the hunter and nature. For example, an animal
   appears beyond a hunter’s effective range for clean kill. Should the hunter take shot anyway and hope
   to get lucky? Ethical hunters would say no.
D. How to Ask Landowners for Permission:
   1. Make contact at least a week in advance
    2. Wear Street clothes – no hunting gear or firearms
    3. Don’t bring companions – a “crowd “could be intimidating
    4. Be polite
    5. Thank the owner, whether permission is granted or denied
E. Hunter’s Ethical Code: As Aldo Leopold, the “father of wildlife management,” once said, ethical
    behavior is doing the right thing when no one else is watching – even when doing the wrong thing is
    legal. Ethical code used by hunters today was developed by sportsmen over time. Most hunting
    organizations agree that responsible hunters:
    1. Respect Landowners:
        a. Ask landowners for permission to hunt.
        b. Follow their restrictions on when and where you may hunt.
        c. Treat livestock and crops as your own.
        d. Offer to share part of your harvest with owner.
        e. Leave all gates the way you found them.
        f. If you notice something wrong or out of place, notify the landowner immediately.
        g. Never enter private land that is cultivated or posted, unless you have first obtained
             permission, even if you have a hunting license.
        h. Landowner Complaints about Hunters:                                           (SM - page 6)
            (1) Don't get permission to hunt
            (2) Don't tell the landowner when they arrive or leave the property
            (3) Make to much noise
            (4) Carry loaded firearms in vehicles
            (5) Misuse of off-road vehicles
            (6) Shoot to close to neighbors or livestock
            (7) Leave fires unattended
            (8) Violate game laws
            (9) Drink alcohol to excess
    2. Respect Natural Resources:
        a. Leave land better than you found it.
        b. Adhere to fair chase rules.
        c. Know your capabilities and limitations as marksman, and stay within your effective
            range.
        d. Strive for quick, clean kill.
        e. Make every reasonable effort to retrieve game harvested                     (SM - page 6)
        f. Ensure that meat and usable parts are not wasted.
        g. Treat both game and non-game animals ethically
        h. Abide by game laws and regulations.
                                                    8
        i.   Cooperate with conservation officers.
        j.   Report game violations.
   3. Hunting Opportunities on Public Lands: All states have federal or state-owned public
       lands that are available for hunting. Public lands may have special regulations that
       regulate hunting and may require special permits. Be sure to check with your state’s
       wildlife management agency and obtain maps before you go out. Remember, when
       hunting on public lands, an ethical hunter shows the same respect as when hunting on
       private lands.
       Hunting Opportunities on Public Lands:                                             (SM - page 6)
       a. State parks and forests
       b. State-owned wildlife management areas
       c. National forests
       d. National Wildlife Refuge properties
       e. Bureau of Land Management properties
       f. Bureau of Reclamation properties
  4.   Respect Non-Hunters:
       a. Transport animals discretely - don't display them
       b. Keep firearms out of sight
       c. Refrain from taking graphic photographs of the kill and from vividly describing the kill while
            within earshot of non-hunters.
       d. Maintain a presentable appearance while on the street - no bloody or dirty clothing.
        e. How to behave if confronted by Anti-hunters Protesters:                           (SM - page 6)
           (1) Remain calm and polite and do not engage in arguments, never loose your temper
           (2) Never touch an anti-hunter or use any physical force or threaten with your firearm
           (3) Report hunter harassment to law enforcement authorities. If possible, record the vehicle
                license number of the harassers.
   4. Respect Other Hunters:
       a. Follow safe firearm handling practices.
       b. Insist your companions do the same or do not hunt with them.
       c. Refrain from interfering with another's hunt.
       d. Avoid consuming alcohol, which can impair you to the point of endangering others.
       e. Share knowledge and skills with others.
    5. Personal Choice:                                                                      (SM - page 7)
       a. As in every human endeavor, there are gray areas of ethical behavior that come down to a
            matter of personal choice.
       b. Examples of grey areas of ethical behavior are:
           1. Baiting deer with corn or protein pellets.
           2. Shooting quail on the ground or ducks on the water.
           3. Shooting from a vehicle or boat within private boundaries or on private waters.
           4. Remember hunting is a privilege and can be taken away if hunters fail to act
               responsibly toward property, people and wildlife.
III: Field Care of Game:                                                                     (SM - page 7)
     To prevent meat spoilage, you should properly field dress a harvested animal.
     Field Care Basics: Three factors contribute to spoiled meat: heat; dirt; and moisture.
     1. Heat is number one concern. Bacteria grow rapidly in carcass, especially if it’s allowed to stay
         warm. Meat begins to spoil above 40 degrees Fahrenheit. The higher the temperature and longer
         meat is exposed, greater the chance of spoilage, particularly true with large game.
     2. Basic field dressing techniques help cool game by removing entrails, which lowers body heat by
         allowing air into body cavity. Best to field dress immediately.
         a. When cooling body, use available shade. Hang a deer, if possible, which is the easiest way
             to skin it.
         b. In warm weather, helpful to place squirrels and doves in a cooler after dressing, as long as
             they remain dry.

                                                     9
         c. Dispose of entrails properly. Don’t leave them lying by side of a road, in waterways, or near
             residence where they can be dragged home by a dog.
         d. Keep meat clean by covering it with cheesecloth. This also protects it from flies, which lay
             eggs in exposed flesh. Rubbing meat with black pepper will also repel insects. If you have
             to drag the game to camp, try to keep dirt and debris out of the chest cavity.
         e. If you plan to process animal yourself, skin animal as soon as possible to allow carcass to
             cool
    3. Finally, a sure way to ruin meat – as well as earn the dislike of non--hunters – is to tie the animal
        to the hood or roof of a car or hang the animal out of the back of a truck, where it’s exposed
        to heat, exhaust fumes, and airborne dust.
    4. Game care Kit:                                                                            (SM - page 7)
        a. License tag, small saw, knife and sharpener, game bags, nylon rope (at least 25 feet), pulley
           and hatchet.
        b. Other typical items include: Fluorescent orange flagging, Plastic or cotton gloves, Gambrel and
         pulley system, Whetstone or other sharpening tool, Cooler and ice, Cheesecloth bags for organs
         you plan to use as meat (heart, liver), Plastic bags for clean-up, Hand towels, Foil, Large bag for
         caped or trophy head and Salt (noniodized) for hide care.
IV: Five Stages of Hunter Development:                                                          (SM - page 8)
     It should be the goal of every responsible hunter to become true sportsman. As hunter gains
     experience and skill, studies have shown that he or she will typically pass through five distinct stages
     of development. Keep in mind, however, that not everyone passes through all of these stages, nor do
     they necessarily do it in the same order.
    1. Shooting Stage: priority is getting off shot, rather than patiently waiting for good shot. Eagerness
        to shoot can lead to bad decisions that endanger others. Combination of target practice and
        mentoring helps most hunters move quickly out of this stage.
    2. Limiting Out Stage: success determined by bagging the limit. In extreme cases, this need to limit
        out can also cause hunters to take unsafe shots. Spending time with more mature hunters helps
        people grow out of this phase.
    3. Trophy Stage: hunter is selective and judges success by quality rather than quantity. Typically,
        focus is on big game. Anything that doesn’t measure up to desired trophy is ignored.
    4. Method Stage: process of hunting becomes focus. Hunter may still want to limit out, but places
        higher priority on how it’s accomplished.
    5. Sportsman Stage: success measured by total experience – appreciation of out-of-doors and animal
        being hunted, process of the hunt, and companionship of other hunters.
V. Involvement:                                                                                  (SM - page 9)
     A. Part of the process of becoming a true, responsible sportsman is becoming involved in efforts to
        make hunting a respected sport. That includes teaching proper knowledge and skills to others,
        working with landowners, and cooperating with wildlife officials.
     B. It also includes joining conservation organizations dedicated to improving habitat and
        management efforts. Young hunters can be involved by joining organizations such as 4-H, Boy
        Scouts and Girl Scouts, as well as participating in wildlife projects in their local communities.
     C. Responsible, ethical behavior and personal involvement are all essential to the survival of
        hunting. How you behave and how other people see you will determine whether hunting will
        continue as a sport.
     D. A true sportsman will:                                                                  (SM - page 9)
        1. Practice on targets, not animals.
        2. Know the vital organs of the animal and
        3. Make good clean, one-shot kills.
VI. Show video "Beyond Fair Chase".
VI. Review (brief)                                                                             (SM - page 89)

Suggested methods to help the students define their own personal code of ethics.

     Teaching Method: The Hunter Ethics Quiz                                                 (SM - page 89)

                                                     10
CHAPTER 2
                      NOMENCLATURE AND DISCUSSION OF FIREARMS
                               AND MARKSMANSHIP

                      Name actions and major parts of a firearm
                      Understand the meaning of caliber and gauge
                      Know the location of safeties on a firearm and how they function
OBJECTIVES
 LEARNING



                      Know the four sights found on firearms
                      Work the different types of actions correctly and safely
                      Know how to load, unload and tell if a firearm is loaded
                      Know how to determine your master eye
                      Understand the meaning of “sighting in” a rifle
                      Have an understanding of shooting fundamentals
                      Know the four rifle shooting positions.

I. What is a Firearm?                                                                        (SM - page 10)
   A. Firearm is a mechanical device, uses pressure from burning powder to force projectile out of a
        metal tube. To fully appreciate the importance of firearm safety, you must first understand how
        firearms work. This includes knowing the parts of the firearm, types of ammunition, how
        ammunition is fired and the ranges of the various firearms used for hunting.
   B. Basic Parts of a Firearm: Although firearms have changed a great deal since first invented, the
        terms used for their parts have changed very little. All modern firearms have three basic groups of
        parts. They are:
        1. Action: heart of firearm – moving parts that load, fire and eject empty shells or cartridges.
             Several types are used in modern firearms. Muzzleloaders have locks instead of actions.
        2. Barrel: metal tube that projectile travels through.
        3. Stock: serves as handle of firearm. Can be one or two pieces; usually made of wood or
             synthetics.
   C. Parts of a Bolt Action Rifle: See page 11 for diagram of parts of a bolt-action rifle (butt, stock,
        safety, bolt, bolt handle, chamber, sight, muzzle, barrel, forestock, magazine, trigger, trigger
        guard).
   D. Other firearm parts: Bore: Inside of barrel; Breech: rear end of barrel; Firing pin: A pin that
        strikes the primer; Receiver: Metal housing for the working parts of the action.
   E. Parts of a Pump Action Shotgun: Shotguns are long-barreled firearm used by hunters. See page
        12 for diagram of parts of pump action shotgun (butt, stock, safety, action bar, rib, sight, muzzle,
        barrel, forestock, magazine, trigger, trigger guard).
   F. Parts of a Handgun: Handguns (revolvers and pistols) are short-barreled firearms sometimes
        used for hunting. See page 12 for diagram of parts of a handgun (grip, hammer, barrel, sight,
        ejector rod, cylinder, trigger, trigger guard).
II. Common Features of Firearms: All types of firearms have actions and sights, and may have safeties
    or magazines. Features unique to rifles or shotguns are discussed in the following sections.
   A. Firearm Actions: Firearms are classified by action type. Action is made up of parts that load,
        unload, fire and eject used shotshell or cartridge. Actions are either single shot or repeating –
        single shot must be reloaded each time fired; repeating have extra cartridges or shot shells ready
        in magazine, cylinder or extra barrel.
        1. Bolt Action operates like opening and closing door bolt. The bolt solidly locks into breech
             making it accurate and dependable.
             a. To open action, lift handle up and pull it to rear.
             b. If firearm is loaded, the cartridge or shotshell will be ejected as you pull bolt to rear. To
                 make sure it’s unloaded, open the action. Visually check both open action and
                 magazine for cartridges or shot shells.
             c. You can store bolt action firearm safely by storing the bold separately from firearm.
        2. Lever Action has large metal lever located behind trigger. This handle usually also forms
             trigger guard.
                                                     11
         a. To open action, push lever downward and forward, which extracts cartridge case from
                chamber and ejects it. If magazine holds extra cartridges, another is immediately ready to
                be loaded into chamber.
           b. To unload, push lever downward and forward repeatedly until no more cartridges are
                ejected. To make sure it’s unloaded, open the action. Visually check both chamber
                and magazine for additional cartridges.
           c. Most models also have exposed hammer, which can be dangerous.
           d. Use extra caution to keep your hands away from trigger while working lever action.
      3. Pump Action is fast and smooth. Allows shooter to re-cock without taking eye off target.
           Pump action also referred to as “slide action” or “trombone action.”
            a. To open action, slide forestock to rear, this extracts cartridge from chamber and ejects it.
                Sliding forestock toward the muzzle closes action and readies another cartridge for
                loading. Pump-action opens only after it’s fired or a release lever is pressed and forestock
                pulled to rear.
            b. To make sure it’s unloaded; first remove the cartridges or shotshells from the magazine
                (if a rifle or shotgun). Then, open the action. Visually check the chamber for additional
                cartridges or shells.
       4. Semi-Automatic (or Autoloading) Action automatically ejects case of cartridge or shotshell
           and reloads chamber as each shot is manually fired.
           a. To open action, pull back bolt’s operating handle (on a rifle or shotgun) or slide (on a
               pistol). Most semi-automatics, when bolt or slide is pulled back, lock in the open position
               if magazine is empty. If it does not lock open, it means that a cartridge from the magazine
               has gone into the chamber, making firearm ready to fire. A few semi-automatics do not
               lock open and must be held open to check chamber.
           b. To make sure it’s unloaded; first remove the magazine (on a pistol) or remove cartridges
               or shells from the magazine (if a rifle or shotgun). Then, open the action. Visually check
               the chamber for additional cartridges or shells.
          c. When closing action for loading, pull back to unlock bolt or slide, then let go, allowing it
               to travel forward on its own. Do not guide it forward with your hand or it may not seat
               properly.
          d. On a semi-automatic, trigger must be pulled each time a shot is fired. This makes the semi-
              automatic different from the fully automatic firearm, which fires continuously as long as
               trigger is held down. The fully automatic may not be used for hunting or sport shooting.
     5. Break (or Hinge) Action operates on same principle as door hinge. Simple to load and
          unload.
         a. To open action, point barrel(s) at ground. Release is pressed and stock drops downward,
             allowing cartridges or shot shells to eject or be manually removed if loaded.
         b. To make sure it’s unloaded, open the action and visually check the chamber for
              cartridges or shells.
         c. Hinge-actions have separate barrel for each shot rather than magazine. Most models have
              one or two barrels, but some have up to four.
         d. Some models have an exposed hammer(s), which can be dangerous.
     6. Revolving Action takes its name from revolving cylinder containing a number of cartridge
          chambers. One chamber at a time lines up with the barrel as fired. Cylinders may rotate either
          clockwise or counter-clockwise. Revolving actions usually found on handguns; referred to as
          “single-action” or “double-action.”
        a. Single action: will fire only after the hammer has been manually cocked.
        b. Double action: pulling the trigger cocks and releases the hammer; typically can also be
             hammer-cocked like a single-action.
        c. Typical Handgun actions: Break, double and singe action revolvers and semi-automatic.
B.    Safety Mechanisms are mechanical devices that block action to prevent firearm from shooting
      until safety is released or pushed to “off.” Safeties should never be relied on totally to protect
      against accidental shooting. Never replace safe firearm handling by trusting safety – safety
      could fail or unknowingly be bumped from safe position. Don’t release safety until just before
      you shoot. Safeties located around receiver. Locations and types are:
                                                   12
    1. Cross-Bolt Safety common on pump and semi-automatic firearms. Simple push-button action
         blocks trigger or hammer. Located at trigger guard or ahead of hammer.
    2. Pivot Safety common on handguns and bolt-action rifles. Pivoting lever or tab that blocks
         trigger or firing pin. Located on frame (blocks trigger) or on bolt or slide (blocks firing pin)
   3. Slide or Tang Safety: common on some rifles and hinge action shotguns. Sliding bar or
         button that blocks firing action. Located on tang (metal strip behind receiver) of hinge action
         firearms, or on side of receiver on some rifles.
   4. Half-Cock or Hammer Safety common on firearms with exposed hammers. Locks the trigger
         at half cock, away from firing pin. Engaged by placing trigger at half cock; some firearms
         automatically rebound to position after trigger is released.
   5. Safety tip:                                                                          (SM - page 14)
        a. You should never replace safe firearm handling by trusting the safety on a firearm. A safety
            is a mechanical device that could fail. Don’t release the safety until just before you shoot.
        b. Knowing where the safety is and how it works is not always as simple as it might seem.
            There are many types of safeties. Sometimes persons alter or modify their guns to disable
            the safety. This is very dangerous, especially if the gun gets into the hands of an
            inexperienced shooter. Be sure you know how the safety works on your own gun or any
            others you handle. Never alter or modify your firearm yourself. Have an experienced
            gunsmith look at your gun if the safety does not work or anything else is wrong with it.
C. Magazines: a place that stores ammunition that has not been fired in repeating firearms. By
   working the action, cartridge is picked up from magazine and placed in chamber ready to be fired.
   1. Magazines designed with spring and follower that pushes against cartridges to move them into
       the action. To check if magazine is empty, you must either see or feel follower; if you cannot,
       there may be a cartridge jammed in the magazine. Tubular magazines require close attention to
       make sure cartridge is not jammed in magazine.
   2. Magazines may be detachable or fixed:
         a. Detachable magazines allow you to remove extra ammunition from firearm by removing
               magazine.
         b. Fixed (tubular magazines, hinged floor plates and revolving magazines) requires
               ammunition to be manually removed from firearm.
         c. Safety tip: Removing the magazine or the ammunition from it does not mean the
               firearm is unloaded. One round may still be in the chamber!
D. Sights: devices used to line up muzzle with shooter’s eye to hit target. More critical on firearm
     that fires single projectile (rifle and handgun) than firearm that shoots pattern of shot (shotgun).
     Shotguns usually have simple pointing bead. Rifles typically have open, aperture (peep), or
     telescopic sight. Most handguns have open sight, although some specialized handguns have dot
     or telescopic sight.
   1. Telescopic Sight (Scope) is a small telescope mounted on your firearm. A scope gathers light,
         brightening the image and magnifying target, and does away with aligning rear and front
         sights.
   2. Open Sight is combination of bead or post front sight and notched rear sight. They are simple
         and inexpensive, and allow quick sighting. To aim, center top of bead or post within notch of
         rear sight and line up on the target. Open sights can be fixed or adjustable. Aperture (Peep)
         Sight is a combination of bead or post front sight and round hole set on rifle’s receiver close to
         shooter’s eye. To aim, center target in rear peep or aperture sight and then bring front sight
         into center of the hole. An aperture sight is more accurate and adjusted more easily than open
         sight.
   3. Dot Sight is small device mounted on firearm that uses electronics or optical fibers to project
         glowing dot or other mark on lens in front of shooter’s eye. Some also magnify, like telescopic
         sights.
        Safety tip: Remember: Never use the scope as a set of binoculars. Remember: Sights are
         the only part of the firearm that can be adjusted without the help of a gunsmith.
   4. Bead: is simple round bead set into top of barrel near muzzle. Some shotguns have second,
         smaller bead about halfway back on barrel. Shooter uses shotgun to “point” and follow

                                                   13
            moving object, like pointing with a finger. Bead is used only for reference as shotgun is
            pointed and follows moving targets.
III. Differences Between Rifles, Shotguns and Handguns:                                         (SM - page 17)
  A. Main difference between rifles, shotguns and handguns is barrels and type of ammunition used.
    1. Rifle barrel is long with thick walls with spiraling grooves cut into bore. Grooved pattern is
        called rifling.
    2. Shotgun barrel is long and made of fairly thin steel that is very smooth on inside to allow shot
        and wad to glide down without friction. Thinner than rifle barrel since it does not have to
        withstand same pressure.
    3. Handgun barrel is much shorter than rifle or shotgun barrel because designed to be shot while
        being held with one or two hands, rather than being placed against shooter’s shoulder. Bores of
        most handgun barrels also have grooved pattern similar to rifles.
B. Rifling in the Rifle or Handgun Bore: A bullet fired from rifle or handgun has spiral spin that
    keeps it point-first in flight, increasing accuracy and distance. This is achieved by rifling inside barrel,
    from which rifle got its name. Barrel is thick, and has spiraling grooves cut or pressed into bore.
    Ridges of metal between grooves are called lands. Together, grooves and lands make up “rifling.”
C. Rifle’s or Handgun’s Caliber: Caliber describes size of rifle or handgun bore and size of cartridges
    designed for different bores.
    1. Caliber is usually measured as diameter of bore from land to opposite land. No standard set
        for designating caliber. Sometimes is given as diameter of bullet – distance between grooves.
    2. Caliber designations sometime have a second number, unrelated to caliber. For example, the .30-
        30 is a .30-caliber, but second number is from the days when cartridge took 30 grains of powder.
        The “06” in .30-06 refers to year (1906) it became official ammunition of the U. S. military.
    3. Every rifle or handgun is designed for specific cartridge – ammunition must match data stamp on
        firearm. There are several .30-caliber firearms that use same bullet size, but are designed for
        different cartridges.
D. Shotgun’s Gauge: Shotguns classified by gauge – measure related to diameter of smooth shotgun
    bore and size of shot shell designed for that bore.
    1. Common shotgun gauges are 10-gauge, 12-gauge, 16-gauge, 20-gauge, and 28-gauge. Smaller
        the gauge number, larger the shotgun bore. Gauge is determined by number of lead balls of
        size equal to exact diameter of the bore that it takes to weigh one pound. For example, it takes 12
        lead balls the same diameter as 12-gauge shotgun bore to weigh one pound. The .410 caliber
        shotgun is only exception to gauge designation for shotguns. It has bore diameter of 410/1000ths
        of an inch, approximately equivalent to 67 1/2 gauge.
    2. Each gauge of shotgun shoots only shells of same gauge (12-gauge shells are used only in 12-
        gauge guns).
    3. Gauge of shotgun usually marked on rear of barrel. Gauge of shell marked on shell and on box.
E. Shotgun Choke and Shot Pattern: When a shot shell is fired, pellets leave barrel and begin to
    spread or scatter. The farther pellets travel, greater spread of shot. Shotgun barrels have a choke to
    control spread or shot pattern.
    1. Choke acts like nozzle of garden hose. As nozzle is tightened, water shoots in long, narrow
        stream, similar to full choke on shotgun. As nozzle is opened, water sprays widely, similar to
        cylinder choke.
    2. Distance from target determines choke needed. Choke does not alter shotgun’s power – just
        controls spread of shot pattern at specific distance and how much shot will hit in certain area at
        different ranges.
        a. Cylinder choke is unconstricted barrel. Shot pattern spreads quickly.
        b. Improved Cylinder has slight constriction. Allows shot pattern to spread fairly quickly.
             Good choice for quail, rabbits and other upland game.
        c. Modified choke has moderate constriction. Shot stays together longer; pattern more dense
             and useful at longer ranges. Used for dove hunting and is preferred choke when using steel
             shot to hunt for ducks or geese. “Improved Modified” choke is slightly tighter than Modified.


                                                      14
          d. Full choke has tight constriction. Shot holds together even longer, so it's good for squirrels,
                turkey and other game shot at 35- to 40-yard ranges. Turkey hunters sometimes use Extra
                Full or Turkey choke for even denser patterns at long range.
      3. Steel shot is slightly lighter and harder than lead shot of same size – reducing its velocity and
           distance and keeping pattern tighter. Pattern your shotgun with various loads of steel shot before
           hunting waterfowl.
IV. Cleaning Your Firearm:                                                                       (SM - page 20)
  A. Firearms must be cleaned after every use to keep them in top condition.
  B. Always give firearm cleaning your full attention. Never clean firearm while doing something else.
      Work on cleared table or bench.
  C. Follow these basic steps to clean firearm:
      1. Point muzzle in safe direction and make sure gun is unloaded.
      2. Remove all ammunition from cleaning bench.
      3. For thorough cleaning, field strip firearm following owner’s manual and clean each part
           separately.
      4. If possible, clean from breech end using cleaning rod with brush or patch attached. Pass brush or
           patch all through muzzle. Use chamber brush and larger patch if chamber diameter is greater than
           bore diameter.
     5. Use cleaning solvents in well-ventilated area and only as directed.
     6. After cleaning, make sure to put a light coat of good firearm oil on all metal parts.
  D. Cleaning Kit: A stand to hold the firearm securely in a horizontal position, Cleaning rods, Assorted
      rod tips – brushes, mop tips, slotted tips, jag tips, Patches appropriate for the caliber or gauge of the
      firearm, Gunsmith screwdrivers, Gun oil, Solvent, Gun grease, Dental mirror, Tooth brush, Bore
      light, Clean cloths, Cotton swabs and Pipe cleaners.
  V. Repairing your Firearm:                                                                    (SM - page 21)
     A. Be aware that firearm repair is a highly specialized trade. Do not attempt it yourself. Take your
          firearm to a qualified gunsmith for any repairs.
     B. Always have a gunsmith repair:
          1. War souvenir guns
          2. Old secondhand firearms
          3. Any firearm that does not function properly
     C. “Shade tree” gunsmithing more often than not leads to accidents.
  VI. Good Marksmanship and Accuracy                                                              SM - page 21)
        A fair amount of knowledge, skill, and experience is required to become a successful hunter. One
         of the essential skills is good marksmanship, which is accurately and consistently hitting the target
         where planned. When hunting, accuracy is critical for a clean kill. Good marksmanship is built on
         three fundamentals:
        a. Proper sight adjustment or patterning
        b. Proper shooting technique
        c. Practice
  Know Your Accuracy Limits: Ethical hunters know their personal accuracy and limit their shots
  accordingly.
       A. An 8-inch paper plate is the standard target for establishing deer hunting shooting accuracy. An 8-
            inch target is about the same size as the vital area of a deer. You need to be able to hit the paper
            plate consistently at the same distance and from the same shooting position you will be using
            when hunting. The fact that you can hit an 8-inch target at 100 yards from a bench rest does not
            mean you will be able do the same from a standing or kneeling position.
       B. Before hunting, practice until you are confident you can hit the required target at the distances and
           shooting positions you expect to use in the field. When hunting, limit your shots to your most
           accurate range.
  VII: Rifle Shooting:                                                                          (SM - page 22)
      A. Sight Alignment: Process of lining up rear and front sights. Sight picture is image you see
          when sights are correctly aligned with target.
          1. Open sight: line up target with blade or bead of front sight within notch of the rear sight.

                                                       15
    2. Aperture sight: line up target with front sight within rear peephole.
    3. Telescopic sight with crosshair reticle: line up target with crosshairs of sight.
    4. Telescopic sight with dot reticle: line up target with dot of sight; dot must be centered.
B. Dominant or Master Eye: Aim with dominant (master) eye for accurate shooting. Dominant eye
    is usually same side as dominant hand, but not always. To determine dominant eye:
    1. Form triangular opening with thumbs and forefingers.
    2. Stretch arms out in front of you.
    3. Focus on distant object while looking through triangular opening.
    4. Bring hands slowly to face, keeping sight of object through opening; opening will naturally
         come to your dominant eye.
    5. If not sure, close one eye at a time. Weak eye will see back of your hand; strong one will be
         focused on object in triangle.
   6. Colorblind hunters must use extra caution. They may have trouble identifying game and
         recognizing hunter fluorescent orange.
    7. Good vision is the foundation for good shooting and hunting safety. Have your eyes
         examined on a regular basis.
C. Sighting in a Rifle:                                                                    (SM - page 23)
    1. Rifle bullets don't travel in a straight line. They travel in an arc, formed by the pull of gravity.
        "Sighting-in" is a process of adjusting the sights to hit a target at a specific range.
   2. All rifles should be sighted-in before every hunt using the ammunition you plan to use,
         especially rifles with peep or telescopic sights.
   3. You must sight-in your rifle with the ammunition you plan to use. Be sure you sight-in and
         practice shooting your rifle before you go hunting.
D. Trajectory: Once the projectile leaves the barrel of a rifle or pistol, it starts to slowly drop due to
       gravity. In order to hit a distant target, a bullet travels in an arched path called trajectory.
       The projectile will then drop back into the line of sight at some point down range, called the zero
       point, and then continues to drop. While the line of sight remains a straight line to the target, the
       muzzle of the firearm must be slightly elevated in order to launch the projectile in an arched
       path.
 E. Other than ensuring accurate shots, sighting-in a rifle has other advantages:
     1. Forces you to practice.
     2. Helps determine problems with your shooting technique.
     3. Builds confidence in your ability.
 F. Sighting-In Steps:                                                                     (SM - page 24)
     1. Fire rifle from solid bench rest with forearm resting on pad or sandbag – don’t rest gun on its
         barrel.
     2. Sight-in instructions are printed on some targets. Sighting-in process for most centerfire rifles
         begins at 25 yards, and then repeated at 100 yards. Basic steps involve firing at least three
         shots consistently at target. If bullets form a relatively small group of holes on target, but not
         where you were aiming, sights must be adjusted.
     3. When adjusting peep/telescopic sights, rear sights or dials adjusted by number of clicks.
         Sight’s instruction manual tells how much each click changes sight at 100 yards.
     4. Rear sight is moved in same direction you want your shot to move on target. Moving shots
         from side to side is “adjusting for windage.” Moving shots up or down is “adjusting for
         elevation.”
     5. Specific instructions about trajectory and what fractions or inches you should be above the
         bull’s-eye at 25, 50 or 100 yards are usually included on sight-in targets.
G. Rifle Firing Techniques: Using correct firing techniques helps steady the rifle for the accurate
     shooting.
    1. Shooting From a Rest: most accurate shots are taken from a rest – log, rock, or stump.
         To prevent rifle from bouncing when fired from a hard surface, put some padding under the
         rifle or use your hand.
    2. Trigger Squeeze: Jerking trigger or abruptly clenching the trigger hand can move gun enough
         to miss. To pull trigger without jarring the gun, apply slow, steady pressure until the gun fires.
    3. Breathing: breathing can move rifle just enough to throw off your shot.
                                                  16
       a. When ready to shoot, draw a deep breath and exhale about half of it.
      b. Hold your breath as you squeeze the trigger.
      c. If you hold your breath too long your heart beats faster, which increases your pulse and causes
           rifle to move. If this is happening, start over.
      d. At times the excitement of spotting game will make it more difficult to control your breathing.
      e. Practice will make holding your breath and proper trigger squeeze habitual
   4. Follow Through: After bullet fires, it’s important to continue the squeeze or follow through. That
       prevents you from jerking gun before bullet has left the barrel.
   5. Six steps for an Accurate Rifle Shot:                                              (SM - page 24)
      a. Aim carefully.
       b. Take a breath.
       c. Relax.
       d. Release half of your breath.
       e. Squeeze the trigger slowly.
       f. Follow through.

H. Shooting Positions: Four standard rifle positions:                                       (SM - page 25)
    Shooting positions: Will be demonstrated on the range:
    1. Prone: the steadiest of the four positions. Because it’s easiest to hold, it’s the best position for
       mastering fundamentals of shooting – breath control, aiming, trigger squeeze and follow through.
    2. Standing: the most difficult position for firing an accurate shot since neither arm is supported.
       Rather than trying to hold the barrel steady, try to keep movement of the barrel as small as
       possible.
    3. Sitting: both arms are supported by your legs. Steadiest position next to prone position.
    4. Kneeling: only one arm braced, so is less steady than prone or sitting positions.
VIII. Shotgun Shooting:
A. Matching Choke to Your Quarry: Choke allows fine-tuning shotgun for type of game. Built-in or
   attached to muzzle end of the barrel, choke can be constricted to create tighter pattern of shot,
   controlling pattern density at various distances.
   1. Tighter constriction, longer the cluster of shot stays together. Lesser constriction, faster shot
       pattern spreads. Most common chokes, ranging from tightest to widest, are Full, Modified,
       Improved Cylinder, and Cylinder (unchoked).
   2. If hunting small, fast birds, generally use an Improved Cylinder or Modified choke, which creates
       broad shot pattern that spreads quickly at close ranges. If hunting larger, less mobile bird (turkey)
       select Full choke, which concentrates shot in a tighter pattern. Shot size may vary depending on
       ammunition, target distance and hunting conditions.
B. Patterning Your Shotgun: shotgun’s choke, brand of shot shell, shot size, and type of shot affect
   pattern. In order to select ammunition that provides best performance, you must “pattern” your
   shotgun.
   1. Patterning can be done with commercial or homemade targets – a sheet of paper with a 30-inch
       circle containing a bull’s-eye.
   2. Fire from distance of 40 yards (close to the maximum range for shooting game birds). Pellets
       should be spread fairly evenly inside 30-inch circle and dense enough to insure a clean kill.
   3. Circle should also contain correct amount of pellets, which ranges from 40 to 80 percent of total
       number of pellets in load, based on choke you’re using. Using Full choke, 12-gauge, 3-inch load,
       expect 70 to 80 percent of pellets to land in circle. Modified choke should deliver 60 to 70
       percent in circle, and Improved Cylinder should deliver 40 to 50 percent. To determine
       percentage, count the number of pellet holes in the circle, then divide that number by number of
       pellets in load.
C. Shotgun Firing Techniques: unlike rifle shooting, quick reflexes and flexibility are essential. Point
   a shotgun and pull the trigger. Aim a rifle and squeeze the trigger.
   1. Shooting Stance: A shotgun is almost always fired at moving target from standing position. You
       must be able to swing freely over a wide arc and maintain control. That requires relaxed, balanced
       stance.

                                                    17
        a. Stand with feet apart shoulder-width and weight evenly balanced. Bring left foot slightly
          forward (if a right-handed shooter) and lean in same direction. Toes of forward foot should
          point toward target.
      b. Keep your knees slightly bent – easier to swing with moving target. Bent leg to the rear
          supports movements of your hips, allowing you to swing smoothly.
   2. Pointing: not time to “aim” shotgun since targets appear suddenly and move quickly.
      a. Shotguns designed to be pointed, with eye sighting a little above barrel or rib, keeping
         both eyes open.
      b. Sight is usually bead on front of gun. Eye must be in line with barrel, so head position is
         important.
      c. When bringing gun to shoulder, cheek should fit snugly against stock, providing proper sight
         picture. If that position isn’t comfortable, need to adjust “gun fit” (such as changing stock to
         better fit you).
      d. Shots at birds in flight should be limited to your “maximum effective range” – distance at
         which you can consistently hit target. Shooting beyond this distance leads to wounding loss
         and may destroy meat.
   3. Shouldering the Shotgun: when bringing shotgun to your shoulder, stock should be brought to
      your cheek first, then back to your shoulder. Common error is lowering head and cheek to stock,
      instead of bringing stock all the way up to cheek. When done properly, with head naturally erect,
      gun butt should always come to same spot on shoulder.
   4. Trigger Action: unlike rifle shooting, quick trigger action is important when hunting with
      shotgun.
      a. Tap trigger in much the same way you would strike a typewriter key.
      b. Breath control isn’t necessary because trigger is pulled quickly and body and gun are
          typically in motion.
      c. Continue shotgun’s swing as trigger is pulled. Stopping swing as you shoot will cause you to
          hit behind a moving target.
   5. Leading the Target: two most common methods at long distances are swing-through and
      sustained lead.
      a. Swing-Through: best technique for beginning student. Point shotgun at moving target and
          swing with it. Increase speed of gun so muzzle passes target, then fire – “swing through”
          target and fire at blank space in front of target.
      b. Sustained Lead: more challenging, because requires more experience. You estimate length of
          lead necessary to hit target, maintain that lead as you swing with target, then fire and continue
          swing.
K. Review (brief)                                                                           (SM - page 90)




                                                    18
CHAPTER 3
                                          MODERN AMMUNITION


                     Know how to identify modern ammunition
     OBJECTIVES
      LEARNING
                     Identify and name the components of rifle and pistol ammunition
                     Identify and name the components of shotgun ammunition
                     Understand the firing sequence - what happens and why
                     Identify which ammunition goes with a firearm
                     Have a basic understanding of reloading


I.       What is Ammunition?                                                                 (SM -page 29)
A. Rifles and handguns use cartridge containing single projectile (bullet). Shotguns use shot shells
   containing either single slug or large number of small projectiles (shot).
   1. Cartridge: Ammunition used in modern rifles and handguns; a case containing primer,
      smokeless gunpowder, and a bullet.
   2. Shotshell: Ammunition used in modern shotguns; a case containing primer, smokeless
      gunpowder, wad, and a slug or shot.
B. Centerfire and Rimfire Ammunition:                                                        (SM - page 29)
   1. Centerfire ammunition is used for rifles, shotguns, and handguns. In this type of ammunition,
      the primer is located in the center of the casing base. Most centerfire ammunition is reloadable.
   2. Rimfire ammunition has the primer contained in the rim of the ammunition casing. Rimfire
      ammunition is limited to low pressure loads. Rimfire cartridges are not reloadable.
B. Basic Components of Ammunition: Components of cartridges and shotshells are very similar –
   case, primer, powder, and projectile(s). Shot shells have additional component called wad.
   1. Case: container that holds ammunition components together; usually of brass, steel, copper,
       paper, plastic.
   2. Primer: explosive chemical compound that ignites gunpowder when struck by firing pin; may be
       placed either in rim of case (rimfire) or in center of base of case (centerfire).
   3. Smokeless gunpowder: chemical mixture that burns very rapidly and converts to expanding gas
       when ignited. Modern smokeless powder will burn slowly when ignited in open (outside of the
       case). Black powder is less stable and can be explosive when ignited in open.
   4. Projectile: object(s) expelled from barrel.
       a. Bullet: lead projectile fired through rifle or handgun barrel.
       b. Slug: lead projectile fired through shotgun barrel.
       c. Shot: group of lead, steel, tungsten or bismuth pellets fired through shotgun.
   5. Wad: seal made of paper or plastic separating powder from slug or shot in shot shells; prevents
       gas from escaping and holds shot together as it passes through barrel.
C. Rifle and Handgun Cartridges:
   1. Critical to select correct cartridge – compare data stamp on barrel of firearm against description on
       ammunition box and stamp on each cartridge. Bullets used in rifle and handgun cartridges come
       in various designs, sizes and weights. Bullets are made of lead, sometimes with copper jacket.
       Bullets for hunting may have soft or hollow points that expand upon impact. Bullets for target
       shooting have solid points that make smaller holes.
   2. Common types of rifle bullets are:
       d. Pointed Soft Point: high velocity, accurate bullets with a flat travel path (trajectory); excellent
            mushrooming
       e. Rounded Soft Point: popular for low velocity calibers; recommended for tubular magazines
            since bullet tip of one cartridge rests directly on primer of cartridge immediately ahead
       f. Protected Tip: highly accurate with excellent expansion
       g. Full Metal Jacket: maximum penetration without mushrooming; illegal for big game
            hunting in most states.

                                                       19
D. Shotshells
    1. Shotgun shells (shot shells) each use slug or shot as projectile(s). A slug is used for hunting big
        game. Shot typically used to hunt game birds and small game animals – size is adaptable to game
        hunted.
    2. Shot shells must exactly match gauge and shell length specified by shotgun manufacturer (found
        on barrel). Shotguns may be chambered for 2 3/4 inch, 3 inch or 3 1/2 inch shells (refers to length
        of shell after firing).
    3. Choose correct type and size of shot for shot shell. As size of target decreases, decrease diameter
        of shot used. Smaller the shot “number,” larger the pellet diameter. Shotshell marked as
        “magnum” means shell has more shot or more gunpowder than regular shell. Magnum and
        regular shot shells interchangeable if correct gauge and shell length used.
    4. Steel shot pellets react differently than lead when shot. Steel weighs about two-thirds of lead, but
        is much harder. Steel does not deform and is not as unstable in flight, and produces tighter pattern
        than lead. If using steel shot, choose shot size one to two sizes larger than lead shot you would
        use.
    5. Non-toxic shot (steel, tungsten or bismuth shot) is required throughout U. S. for waterfowl
        hunting.
II. Match Firearms and Ammunition... Correctly!                                                 (SM - page 31)
    A. Not always easy to correctly match proper ammunition to firearm – getting it right is critical.
        Using wrong ammunition can cause explosion, injuring or possibly killing yourself and
        bystanders.
    B. To correctly match proper ammunition to rifle, shotgun or handgun:
        1. Read specific caliber or gauge designations on side of barrel. Match that designation exactly.
             Shotgun barrels give gauge and length of chamber (“12-gauge for 23/4 inch shells” or “20-
             gauge magnum for 3 inch shells”). Sample for shotguns: 12 GA FOR 2 3/4 OR SHORTER
             SHELLS; Sample for Rifles: .308 WIN
        2. Carefully read information on lid of ammunition box. With shotgun ammunition, always
             check both gauge and shell length, and whether its magnum load to ensure it matches data on
             barrel.
        3. Finally, match information on barrel to information on box before you shoot. If in doubt, ask
             more experienced shooter or qualified gunsmith.
    C. Safety practices that will help you avoid using wrong ammunition are:
        1. Purchase only correct ammunition for your firearm. Buy exact caliber or gauge and
             length of ammunition for which your rifle, handgun or shotgun was designed. Shotshell must
             be correct length for shotgun.
        2. Carry only correct ammunition for firearm you’re using. Never mix ammunition.
             Common mistake involves putting 20-gauge shot shell into 12-gauge shotgun, which causes
             obstruction.
        3. Smaller shot shells (such as 20-gauge shells), if mistakenly fed into a 12-gauge gun, will slip
             past the chamber and lodge in the barrel, causing serious personal injury or gun damage if a
             12-gauge shell is fired in the gun. Some rifle and handgun ammunition also may fit into
             the wrong gun, creating a dangerous situation. The caliber or gauge stamped on the end of
             the shell must match that stamped on the gun barrel. Some are not stamped. Be sure the right
             ammunition is used in your gun. The data stamp of a rifle is usually stamped toward the rear
             of the barrel. (illustration SM - page 31)
         4. Safety Tip: Carefully read the information on the lid of the ammunition box. With shotgun
             ammunition, always check both the gauge and the shell length, and whether it’s a magnum
             load to ensure it matches the data on the barrel. Hangfires happen when the firing pin has
             struck the primer and there is a delay before it fires. This can occur for several reasons such
             as a faulty firing pin or spring, a defective primer or other cartridge related problems. A
             misfire is when the primer fails to ignite the powder .Always treat a “misfire” or a “hangfire”
             as if the firearm is going to discharge at any second. Leave the action closed and retain your
             shooting position. Most importantly, maintain muzzle control in a safe direction at all times.
             Failure to follow these safe handling practices could result in a tragedy.

                                                     20
III. How a Firearm Works:                                                                    (SM - page 32)
    A. The same physical process used to fire shotguns and rifles or handguns. Pulling trigger causes
        firing pin to strike and explode primer in base of cartridge or shot shell. Fire from primer ignites
        smokeless gunpowder, which burns rapidly, converting to gas. Gas rapidly expands and drives
        projectile(s) through barrel with great force.
    B. How the rifle and handgun fire:
        1. Cartridge is inserted into the chamber.
        2. Action is closed and firing pin is pushed back and held under spring tension.
        3. Trigger is pulled, releasing firing pin, which moves forward with great force. Firing pin
             strikes primer, causing it to explode.
        4. Spark from primer ignites the smokeless gunpowder. Gas converted from burning powder
             rapidly expands in cartridge.
        5. Expanding gas forces bullet out of cartridge and down barrel with great speed.
        6. Rifling in barrel causes bullet to spin as it travels out of barrel. Bullet’s speed and escaping
             gases produce “bang.”
       7. Safety Tip: In tubular magazines, the bullet tip of one cartridge rests directly on the primer of
             the cartridge immediately ahead. For this reason, use only rounded or blunt tips in tubular
             magazines.
    C. How the shotgun fires:
        1. Shotshell is inserted into the chamber.
        2. Action is closed and firing pin is pushed back and held under spring tension.
        3. Trigger is pulled, causing firing pin to strike primer-producing spark.
        4. Spark from primer ignites the smokeless gunpowder. Gas converted from burning powder
             expands in shell.
        5. Gas pushes wad against shot; wad and shot are forced out of plastic body of shell.
        6. Wad and shot leave barrel. Escaping gases produce “bang.”
        7. Shot and wad separate. Shot cluster spreads and forms pattern.
IV. Know Your Firearm’s Range:                                                               (SM - page 33)
     Knowing firearm’s range is critical – tells at what distances firearm’s projectile could cause injury to
     persons, animals or objects. When hunting, knowing range lets you immediately assess when shot
     will give clean kill.
     Some Rifle Ranges:                                                                      (SM - page 33)
     A. .22 Short: Up to one and one half mile
     B. .22 Long Rifle: Up to two miles
     C. .270: Up to three and one half miles
     D. .30-30: Up to two and one half miles
     E. .30-06: Up to four and one half miles
V. Review (brief)                                                                            (SM - page 92)




                                                     21
CHAPTER 4
                             SAFETY AND PROPER GUN HANDLING


                    Know Ten Commandments of Gun Safety.
  OBJECTIVES     
   LEARNING
                     Understand common causes of firearm accidents.
                    Know the proper gun handling carrying positions in the field.
                    Understand how to safely store and transport firearms.
                    Know what to do when picking up a firearm.
                    Know the safest color to wear when hunting



I. The Ten Commandments of Firearm Safety:                                                 (SM - page 34)
     1. Watch that muzzle. Always point the muzzle in a safe direction!
     2. Treat every gun with the respect due a loaded gun.
     3. Be sure barrel and action are clear of obstructions.
     4. Be sure of your target before you pull the trigger.
     5. Unload guns when not in use.
     6. Never point a gun at anything you do not want to shoot.
     7. Never climb a fence or tree or jump a ditch with a loaded gun.
     8. Never shoot a bullet at a flat, hard surface or water.
     9. Store guns and ammunition separately.
    10. Avoid alcoholic beverages and mood altering drugs before or during shooting.
II. A. Why Firearm Safety is Important:
        1. Whenever firearms are being handled, an accident can occur if the firearm is not handled
           responsibly. Preventing hunting accidents depends on knowing and understanding firearms,
           and handling them skillfully and safely. Responsible hunters practice safe habits until they
           become second nature.
        2. Four Primary Rules of Firearm Safety:
            a. Point the muzzle in a safe direction.
           b. Treat every firearm with the respect due a loaded gun.
           c. Be sure of the target and what is in front of it and beyond it.
           d. Keep your finger outside the trigger guard until ready to shoot.
    B. Hunting Incidents:
        From a law enforcement perspective, a hunting incident occurs when a hunter directly or
        indirectly causes personal injury or death while using a firearm or bow. More broadly defined, a
        hunting incident is any unplanned, uncontrolled action that occurs while using a sporting arm. It
        can include near misses. Being responsible to prevent hunting incidents is your first priority.
    C. Main Causes of Hunting Incidents:
        1. Hunter Judgment Mistakes, such as mistaking another person for game, or not checking the
            foreground or background before firing.
        2. Safety Rule Violations, including pointing the muzzle in an unsafe direction, and ignoring
            proper procedures for crossing a fence, obstacle or difficult terrain, which may cause the
            hunter to stumble or fall.
        3. Lack of Control and Practice, which can lead to accidental discharges and stray shots.
        4. Mechanical Failure, such as an obstructed barrel or improper ammunition.
        5. Improper Clothing Worn by Victim, such as wearing white clothing that may look like
            the flag of a deer or wearing red or blue colors when turkey hunting Safety tip: The
            safest color to wear while hunting is "hunter orange".
        6. Hunter Unaware of Location of Others, such as other persons who are out of sight or who
            may move into the line of fire
   D. Self-Control and Target Identification
       1. Some hunters may become overly anxious or excited on a hunt, which can lead to careless
           behavior. They may fire at sounds, colors, movements, or unidentified shapes, or simply shoot
                                                   22
             too quickly. In the excitement after hitting their target, they may swing a loaded firearm
             toward their companions, or run with the safety off toward a downed animal.
        2. Self-control is an essential aspect of hunter safety. Only shoot when you know the target is
             legal game and that no people, domestic animals, buildings or equipment are in the zone-of-
             fire – remember that bullets can pass through game and continue on for some distance with
             deadly force.
      3. Slow, careful shooting is not only safer; it produces a higher degree of success.
      4. It is advisable to use a "hen call" when turkey hunting.
      5. Be sure of the target and what is in front of it and beyond it. If you cannot see what lies beyond
           the target, do not take the shot.
   E. Accuracy:                                                                             (SM – page 36)
      1. Shooting accurately is not only the key to successful hunting; it’s also a safety factor. Some
           incidents, often-deadly ones, have occurred when stray bullets have hit people out of the
           shooter’s sight. Be sure you have a proper backstop before you shoot.
      2. Accuracy is also essential for achieving a clean kill. No real sportsman wants to wound game
           and cause needless suffering. You must learn how to hit the vital organs of the game you hunt.
           Knowing your game, equipment, and skill level will tell you when you’re in position to make a
           clean kill.
   F. Vital Shots:                                                                           (SM – page 36)
      Every hunter wants to bring home the game he or she’s seeking; true sportsmen strive to do it by
       inflicting a minimal amount of suffering on the quarry. To achieve these twin goals, it’s essential
       that you understand the anatomy of the game you’re after, and learn how to place a shot for a clean
       kill.
      Remember: It’s difficult to hit a vital area on an animal that is running or moving straight away
       from you. Rather than risk crippling the animal or ruining meat, wait for a better shot.
   G. Firearm Safety in the Home:                                                             (SM - page 37)
      More than 1/2 of fatal firearm incidents reported occur at home – almost all caused by carelessness
       and lack of knowledge. Hunter’s duty is to prevent firearm mishaps in the home.
       1. Lock guns away where children can’t reach them. Store ammunition in separate location. Check
           that firearm is unloaded before allowing it in any building or living area.
       2. Safety rules if handling firearm in the home:
            a. Immediately point muzzle in safe direction when you pick up firearm.
            b. Keep your finger off trigger.
            c. Always check to see that chamber and magazine are empty.
       3. If gun is taken from storage to show friends, be sure they understand safe gun handling rules.
III. Storing your Firearm:                                                                    (SM - page 37)
   A. Firearms must be stored unloaded and in a locked location, separate from ammunition. The
       storage area should be cool, clean, and dry. Storing firearms in closed gun cases or scabbards isn’t
       recommended because moisture can accumulate.
   B. Store guns horizontally, or with the muzzle pointing down. When guns are stored upright, gravity
       pulls gun oil downward into the action, which forms a sticky film. Oil can also drain onto the
       stock, softening the wood.
   C. Displaying guns in glass cabinets or wall racks is an invitation to thieves and curious children.
       Ideally, guns should be hidden from view and locked. Storage devices with hidden compartments
       are available. For the best protection against theft and fire damage, purchase a safe.
   D. Storing Ammunition:                                                                    (SM - page 37)
       1. Store ammunition, reloading supplies, and firearms in separate locked compartments.
       2. Keep all ammunition away from flammables.
       3. Store ammunition in a cool, dry place to prevent corrosion. Corroded ammunition can cause
           jamming, misfires and other safety problems.
IV. Safely Loading and Unloading Firearms:                                                   (SM – page 38)
   A. Loading:
      1. Point muzzle in safe direction.
      2. Open action; make sure barrel is unobstructed.
      3. Put safety on until ready to shoot.
                                                    23
      4. Load ammunition.
      5. Close action.
  B. Unloading:
      1. Point muzzle in safe direction.
      2. Make sure safety is on.
      3. Keep finger outside trigger guard.
      4. Open action.
      5. Remove ammunition; eject cartridges or shells if its only way to remove them – use extra care
          with lever action firearms.
      6. Count shells or cartridges to make sure gun is empty.
      7. Check chamber to make sure it’s clear.
      8. Removal of ammunition from magazine or removal of magazine from firearm does not
          mean firearm is unloaded!
V. Safely Transporting Firearms:                                                             (SM - page 39)
    Transporting firearms involves both legal and safe practices. In addition to federal laws, there are
    regulations that vary from state to state.
  A. Transporting Firearms in a Vehicle:
     1. Always unload and case firearms before transporting. In many states, this may be law.
         Action should be open or gun broken down, whichever makes it safest if mishandled.
     2. Firearms should not be displayed in window gun racks because display may provoke anti-hunter
         sentiment; also an invitation to thieves.
     3. Lean firearm against secure rest only. Vehicles do not provide secure resting places. If gun falls
         over, it might accidentally discharge or be damaged.
  B. Transporting Firearms in a Boat:
     1. Transport firearms with the action open, unloaded, and cased whenever possible.
     2. Before boarding the boat, place the unloaded firearm in the boat, muzzle first.
     3. When hunting with others, one person settles into the boat first, and then receives the firearms
          from another. Repeat the procedure when unloading.
VI. Safely Carrying Firearms in the Field:                                                  (SM - page 40)
  A. Three rules apply to all carrying methods:
      1. Muzzle pointed in safe direction and under control.
      2. Safety “on” until immediately before ready to shoot.
      3. Finger outside trigger guard.
  B. Proper Field Carries:
      1. Trail Carry: Leaves hand free for balance. Don’t use it when behind someone. Not
          recommended when walking in snow or brush – debris can get in barrel.
      2. Sling Carry: Easy carry for long treks through open country. Keep hand on sling when walking
          so it doesn’t slide off your shoulder if you trip. Not recommended for thick brush because gun
          could be knocked from your shoulder.
      3. Elbow or Side Carry: Comfortable, but has least muzzle control. Can also snag in brushy terrain.
          Use it when no one is in front of you.
     4. Two-Handed or “Ready” Carry: Provides best control, particularly in thick brush or weeds,
          or when you need to fire quickly.
     5. Cradle Carry: Comfortable and secure; reduces arm fatigue.
     6. Shoulder Carry: Good choice in waist-high brush. Don’t use if someone is behind you.
  C. Selecting Right Carry When Hunting With Others:                                          (SM- page 42)
      1. If three hunters walking side by side, ones at sides may carry guns pointing either to side away
          from their party or to front. One in center should keep gun pointing to front or up.
      2. If three hunters walking single file, one in lead should have gun pointed ahead, but never over
          shoulder. One in middle must have gun pointed to side. Hunter in rear may point gun to either
          side or rear.
      3. When facing another hunter, any carry is safe except trial carry or forward-facing elbow carry.
      4. Remember, same rules for safe carry apply when hunting companion is a dog.



                                                    24
  D. Checking for Obstructions:                                                             (SM – page 42)
      Occasionally you may trip or stumble in the field, accidentally dipping the barrel into the ground or
      snow. Immediately check for an obstruction:
      1. Point the muzzle in a safe direction
      2. Open the action, unload the firearm, and remove the bolt (if applicable)
      3. Check for debris in the barrel
      4. Remove the obstruction with a portable cable-type cleaning rod
      5. Recheck the barrel
      6. Reload and close the action
VII. Safe Zone-of-Fire                                                                       (SM - page 43)
     Before setting off in a group, hunters should agree on area, or zone-of-fire, each person will cover.
      A hunter’s zone-of-fire changes with every step. Only one hunter should aim at the target. When
      hunting in a group, hunters should shoot only at game in front of them. Hunters should only shoot if
      there us an adequate backstop. Don’t take a “skylined” shot. This is particularly true of groups
      hunting birds, rabbits or other small game.
     A. For safety purposes, best to have no more than three hunters in group. For new hunters, two is
         safer, until they become familiar with maintaining proper zone-of-fire.
     B. Hunters should be spaced 25 to 40 yards apart, always in sight of one another. Each hunter has
         zone-of-fire approximately 45 degrees in front, or from 10:30 to 1:30 on clock face. (Some states
         require an adult to be immediately beside youth hunter. In this case, adult should be supervisor
         only – not hunter.)
     C. Another way to visualize 45 degrees is look at spot directly in front of you. Stretch arms straight
         out from sides. Make a fist with thumbs held straight up. Gradually move arms toward front
         until thumbs are clearly in focus without moving your eyes. This gives your outer boundaries.
     D. If three hunters are walking side by side hunting pheasants, hunter in center will shoot at birds
         flushed in middle, which fly straight away. Other hunters will shoot at birds flying toward their
         end of line. (Illustration SM - page 43)
     E. If bird turns and flies back across line of hunters, best if all three hold their swings and do not
         fire. Same is true of rabbit scurrying back between hunters.
     F. No hunter, especially when swinging on game, should allow his or her gun to point at a person.
         Better to pass up a shot than risk injuring someone or damaging property.
     G. Everyone hunting should wear daylight fluorescent orange whether required by law or not.
Note: Only one hunter should aim at the target. Also hunters should only shoot if there is an adequate
        backstop. Don't shoot at a "skylined" animal. When hunting in a group, hunters should shoot
        only at the game in front of them.
VIII. Crossing Obstacles:                                                                    (SM - page 44)
      A. Always unload guns before crossing fences or other obstacles, or negotiating rough terrain.
      B. Cross wire fences close to a fence post to prevent damage to the fence.
      C. After unloading, place the gun on the other side of the fence or obstacle to be crossed, with the
         muzzle pointed away from you and your crossing point. Then cross the fence and retrieve your
         gun.
     D. If two people are crossing, one person crosses first, then receives the unloaded guns from the
         other hunter.
     E. Pull a gun toward you by the butt - never the muzzle.
IX. Dangerous Hunters:                                                                       (SM - page 45)
     A. The Show-Off:
         1. Wants to be noticed at any cost; will break all rules of gun safety in order to appear
             daring and attract attention to himself.
         2. Thinks it is smart or clever to handle firearms carelessly
         3. Thinks it is sissy to take the proper precautions
         4. Causes accidents
     B. The Overeager Hunters:
         1. Always anxious to be the first hunter in the field
         2. Runs over rough ground, climbs through fences, jump ditches, etc., without taking time to
             unload his firearm.
                                                    25
        3. Doesn't want to take time to check maps and landmarks before starting out. They are too
             anxious to begin hunting.
        4. Likely to ignore the rules of courtesy and safety when hunting with others and
            shoots at any game that appears, regardless of whose "field of fire" it may be in.
        5. So eager to bag something that he/she is likely to think any movement he/she sees is game.
            They are not careful about making sure of their target before firing.
        6. They cause accidents
    C. The Selfish Hunters:
        1. Is concerned only with their own hunting success
        2. Carry their loaded firearm in the vehicle
        3. They shoot across roads, near houses or buildings, into fields where there are domestic stock.
        4. They take skyline shots at game without considering the possibility of bullet or shot going
             beyond and striking another hunter.
        5. They cause accidents
X. The Safe Hunter:                                                                             (SM - page 46)
    A. The safe hunter will never::
        1. Run with a loaded firearm; either lay it down or unload its chamber.
        2. Climb a tree or fence, or jump a ditch or stream with a loaded firearm.
        3. Pull a gun toward you by the muzzle.
        4. Fire at hard surfaces or the surface of water--ricochet.
        5. Raise a firearm to fire at sounds or movements.
        6. Place finger on trigger or inside trigger guard until ready to fire. Even when hunting.
        7. Load or unload a firearm in camp, vehicle, or home.
        8. Take off the safety, until you are ready to shoot. Remember however, that the safety is
             a mechanical device that can and will fail.
        9. Use your scope to observe others (hunters).
      10. Lean a loaded rifle or shotgun against a tree, car or other object. If it slips or is knocked over,
            it could fire, causing an accident.
      11. Aim or point a firearm at anything you do not want to shoot.
      12. Use a firearm as a club or hammer.
      13. Hesitate to object to carelessness on the part of hunting companions. It may cause some
            embarrassment, but it might save a life.
   B. The Safe Hunter will Always:
       1. Point the muzzle in a safe direction first, regardless of the reason for having any gun in
            his/her hands. This is the "golden rule" of gun safety.
       2. See and identify your target clearly before sighting and firing.
       3. Be sure of your backstop and beyond.
       4. Shield trigger from accidental pressure by twigs, branches, etc., with hand covering
            trigger guard.
       5. Unload all firearms before placing them in vehicles or taking them into camp or any
            building.
      6. Keep the firearms safety on until ready to fire.
      7. Carry your rifle or shotgun so you can control the direction of the muzzle even if
           you stumble or fall. Remember that the two-handed carry position is the safest.
      8. Keep your firearms clean and in good working order.
      9. Be alert for any mud or dirt in the muzzle, especially if you have stumbled, fallen
           or dropped it in the dirt while climbing into a tree stand.
     10. Observe and follow the rules of safe firearm handling at all times – in the home, in
           the field, in camp, and in gun stores. Courteously, but firmly, insist that your companions
           do the same; otherwise, refuse to be around them and firearms in the same location.
XI: Review (brief)                                                                             (SM – page 92)




                                                     26
CHAPTER 5                               WILDLIFE IDENTIFICATION

OBJECTIVES
                    
 LEARNING

                        Increase visual knowledge of animals
                       Understand the difference between resident and migratory birds
                       Know the treatment for snakebites
                       Why certain species are becoming endangered


NOTE: This class must be taught to students from either a regular or Internet/CD ROM course.
I. Wildlife Identification:                                                              (SM - page 47)
   A. Developing wildlife identification skills is a basic requirement for hunters. Mistakes can lead to
       illegal harvest of game or non-game animals. To identify game properly, you must learn to
       recognize key characteristics of the animal you’re hunting.
   B. Identifying animals accurately can be a challenge. Sometimes the difference between animals in
       the same species is subtle, such as the size of their ears or distinctive coloring. Recognizing
       tracks, scat, food sources and habitat types can also help you identify animals.
   C. Wildlife commonly spotted in Florida are presented in these categories: protected species; game
       animals and birds; ducks; furbearers; and unprotected animals and birds, including venomous
       snakes.
   D. Wild animals are generally divided into five groups:
      1. Large mammals
      2. Small mammals
      3. Upland birds
      4. Waterfowl
      5. Rare, protected or endangered species
    E. Protected wildlife:                                                                       (SM page 47)
             There is no hunting of fully protected animals. You cannot possess a fully protected animal,
             reptile, bird, or any part thereof, without a permit from the Florida fish & wildlife conservation
             commission and/or the federal government.
             1. Panther:
                The Florida panther is also called a puma, cougar and mountain lion. The panther is the
                Florida state animal as chosen by the school children of the state. The panther is a large cat,
                tawny to gray in color, never black. Males grow up to 7 ft. in length with a weight of 130 lbs.,
                females are smaller, 6 ft in length, weight 60 to 80 lbs. the Florida species is identified by a
                cowlick, or swirl of fur in middle of its back. The Florida panther has irregular flecking with
                patches of white hairs on neck and shoulders, and its tail has a crooked tip. Adult panthers
                need up to 200 square miles of territory for their home range. The species is endangered due
                to habitat loss and inbreeding. The panther's diet consists mainly of deer and hogs.
             2. Black bear:
                The Florida black bear is currently a protected species. It can weigh up to 600 pounds and
                stand up to 6 feet tall on its hind legs. Normally, the bear has a uniform black coat, but may be
                brownish in color. Bears are omnivorous, which means they eat both plant and animal matter.
                80% of a bear’s diet is plant material. It is illegal to take bear in Florida. Diminishing habitat
                and concerns for black market value for bear parts has caused the commission to put the black
                bear on the protected species list. It is illegal to feed black bears in Florida.
             3. Fox squirrel:                                                                     (SM page - 48)
                The eastern fox squirrel is generally twice as large as the gray squirrel. In the southeast, a fox
                squirrel's body may be variously colored with mixtures of red, yellow, white and black and the
                head more or less black with white on the nose and ears. There is no hunting season on fox
                squirrels in Florida; the species is protected.
             4. Key deer:
                Key deer are only found on the islands of the Florida Keys. The population center is big pine
                                                          27
     key, where the national key deer refuge is located. The key deer are a subspecies of the
     Virginia white-tail deer and are the smallest of all white-tail deer. It is illegal to feed key deer.
  5. Crocodile:
     The American crocodile is similar in size to the alligator. The snout, or nose, is slender. Unlike
     the alligator, it’s upper and lower teeth protrude from the sides of the jaws. Its body is
     brownish with black markings. Crocodiles are found primarily in the extreme southern part of
     Florida. American crocodiles are an endangered species and are protected.
  6. Indigo snake:
     The eastern indigo snake has a smoothly scaled stout body which is shiny blue-black in color.
     Orange may be present on the throat and the sides of the head. Indigo snakes are threatened
     due to habitat destruction and capture for the pet trade. The eastern indigo is North America's
     largest native snake.
  7. Key largo wood rat:
     Found only on Key Largo. Is endangered due to loss of habitat. Here are several other
     endangered and threatened rats and mice found on the beaches of Florida. If seen, they are
     best left alone.
  8. Bald eagle:
     This is the American bald eagle. Until recent years, pesticides - notably D.D.T. - had
     contributed to the eagles decline by causing weak egg shells. Eagles eat fish. The fish
     contained D.D.T., which was washed into the water from surrounding farms. Since the ban on
     D.D.T., the species has recovered dramatically. Like all birds of prey, hawks, owls and
     falcons, the American bald eagle is federally protected.
 9. Turkey vulture:                                                                        (SM - page 49)
     Vultures are federally protected migratory birds. The head of the turkey vulture is red and
     bald. By being bald, it is protected from parasites and bacterial infection from its food source.
     The turkey vulture is primarily a carrion eater, and is the only vulture with a sense of smell.
10. Black vulture:
     The black vulture is smaller but similar to the turkey vulture. It has a black bald head.
11. Osprey:
     Another bird of prey is the osprey, commonly called a fish hawk. it is north America's largest
     hawk, with a wingspan of up to 6 feet in length, the osprey's diet consists mainly of fish, and it
     is our only raptor that plunges, feet first, into the water to capture its prey. Ospreys sometimes
     take over abandoned eagles nests.
12. Red shoulder hawk:
     The red shoulder hawk is one of Florida's typical medium sized hawks. It has a reddish-brown
     patch on its shoulder.
13. Great blue heron:
     The great blue heron is one of Florida's most common wading birds. The bird is lean gray in
     color and may stand up to four feet tall. Characteristic of a heron is its long legs; long neck,
     which is folded in flight, and its dagger like bill, which is used for spearing fish. All wading
     birds are protected.
14. Cardinal:
     In Florida all songbirds are protected. The male cardinal is an all red bird with a pointed crest
     and a black patch at the base of its heavy triangular red bill. The female is a buff brown with
     some red on its wings and tail.
15. Red wing blackbird:                                                                    (SM - page 50)
     The male red winged blackbird boasts red epaulets on its wings, which are most conspicuous
     in spring display. The female is brownish; identified by the sharp pointed bill. They are very
     gregarious, traveling and roosting in large flocks.
16. Purple gallinule:
     The purple gallinule is fully protected with no hunting season. It is slightly smaller than the
     common moorhen, with a purplish body, red bill and blue forehead.
 F. Game animals and birds may be hunted during specified seasons:
 1. Alligator:
     Alligators can grow to a length in excess of 12 ft. They have a round, broad snout, and their
                                                28
   upper teeth protrude from the jaw. It is illegal to feed alligators. They can be very dangerous
   if fed by humans because they lose their fear of man. It is a state offense to feed alligators.
   There are now regulated hunts due to increased numbers.

2. White tailed deer:
   The whitetail deer is so named because the tail has a white underside that is raised when the
   deer is disturbed or frightened. They are hoofed mammals that have antlers, which are shed
   every year. You cannot tell the age of a buck deer by counting the points on the antlers,
   which is determined by extracting the jaw. By the time a deer is 2-1/2 years old, all permanent
   teeth are in. at this stage, estimating age is based largely on the rate of tooth wear. The
   whitetail is Florida's and North America's most popular big game animal. There are about
   850,000 whitetail deer in Florida alone. Deer must have one or more antlers at least 5 inches in
   length to be legally hunted. Legal hunting of doe deer is sometimes necessary for the
   health and well being of a deer herd. Deer in Florida are generally smaller than northern
   whitetails because of two factors: one, large bodied deer with fatty tissue cannot cool
   themselves sufficiently in the heat of a Florida summer and two; sandy soils in Florida contain
   less nutrients with which to nourish plants that deer feed on. In other words, the nutritional
   value of deer food plants is lower.
3. Gray squirrel:                                                                   (SM - page 51)
   The eastern gray squirrel can and will consume up to 100 pounds of food per year. It eats
   acorns and seeds. It is the most common squirrel found throughout the state. The gray
   squirrel has a grayish body with a white underside and a very bushy tail with white-tipped
   hairs.
4. Cottontail rabbit:
   The cottontail rabbit is one of the most hunted small game species in the united states. The
   body color is brownish or grayish with a cottony-white tail. It’s habitat varies and may
   include heavy brush, strips of forest with open areas near by, edges of swamps, weed patches,
   rocky foot hills and marshes. Green vegtation is their main food in the spring and summer
   with twigs and buds a primary winter food source.
5. Marsh rabbit:
   The marsh rabbit is similar to the cottontail except it has shorter ears and does not have the
   white tail. It prefers moist bottom land and swamps. Its diet is the same as the cottontail.
6. Wild hogs:
   The wild hog found in Florida is a descendent of a domestic hog. It is not a native animal.
   They were first introduced around 1539 by Spanish explorers. Some animals escaped from
   their captors and adapted well to life in the wild. In most of Florida, wild hogs are
   considered domestic animals and are the property of the landowner upon whose land
   they occur. However, in areas such as wildlife management areas, hogs are generally
   classified as legal game and will be governed by specific regulations during the hunting
   season. According to studies, many of the wild hogs in Florida are infected with swine
   brucellosis. This is a very serious disease, which can be transmitted to people who come in
   contact with infected blood. When cleaning hogs, rubber gloves should be worn and then
   burned along with all clothing soiled by blood from the hog. The disease cannot be contracted
   from eating the cooked meat.
7. Wild turkey:
   Two sub-species of wild turkey are found in our state, the eastern and the Osceola, which is
   unique to Florida. A true Osceola bird will be found in the peninsula from about Gainesville
   south. Turkeys to the north could be a cross between the eastern and the Osceola or a pure
   eastern strain. The Osceola is a smaller turkey with longer legs and iridescent feathers. A large
   Osceola bird would weigh 20 pounds. An eastern turkey can be much larger, perhaps 25 or 26
   pounds. The beard on the chest is a hair like tuft of breast feathers. Males have red wattles, or
   skinflaps, at the throat and a red, white or blue head, which is why you should never wear or
   display these colors when hunting turkeys. The hen is smaller in size, always with a gray head.
   The female will sometimes have a beard, which makes it legal by definition, to harvest. It is no
   longer legal to take a hen turkey in Florida during any season, unless it has a beard. However,
                                            29
           when calling turkeys, it is wise to use only a hen call to avoid being mistaken for a gobbler
           by another hunter. Often turkey hunters are in a blind and well camouflaged so be sure not to
           shoot at calls or sounds. See and identify the turkey before you pull the trigger. The turkey is
           one of Florida's two resident upland game birds, which means you do not have to plug
           your shotgun to a maximum of three shells. They feed on berries, seeds and insects.
       8. Bob white quail:                                                                  (SM - page 52)
           The other upland game bird found in our state is the bob white quail. The bobwhite is the
           only species of quail that occurs in Florida. The throat and head markings on the male are
           white; on a female they are a buff color. The quail is best pursued with a dog that can flush the
           covey ahead of the hunters. The sport of quail hunting is in decline due to the lack of suitable
           habitat, such as brushy open country and wood edges. They feed on seeds and insects. To
           preserve the sport, it is important to pursue quail in an ethical manner. Even though it is
           legal to shoot quail on the ground, ask yourself, do I find that ethical, is it considered fair
           chase?
All other birds hunted in the state are classified as migratory. They are regulated by the federal
government and must be hunted with shotguns plugged to an over all capacity of three shells. Remember,
migratory game bird hunters in Florida need to have the migratory bird permit checked on their hunting
licenses or a migratory bird permit attached to their license. It is a no-cost permit that can now be
obtained on the FWC website.
        9. Virginia rail:
           Rails are compact marsh birds that fly with their legs dangling. Their diet includes aquatic
           plants, seeds, insects, frogs, crustaceans and mollusks. September 1st traditionally begins
           Florida's migratory bird season and starts with four species of rail: clapper, king, sora and
           Virginia rails.
      10. Wilson snipe:
           The common snipe, or Wilson's snipe, has a long slender bill. The head, throat and back are
           streaked brown with black. It has a white belly. The snipe takes off in a zigzag flight, showing
           a short, orange tail. Snipe can be found in marshes and areas of standing water.
      11. Woodcock:
           The woodcock or timberdoodle, has a chunky, almost neckless body with short legs. It has a
           long slender bill used to probe for earthworms, which is their major food source. The
           woodcock's eyes are located near the top of its head so it can look for predators while eating.
           They occur mainly in forested areas of north Florida.
      12. Morning dove:
           The mourning dove is Florida's most popular game bird. It is also a federally regulated game
           bird. It only takes 24 days from the egg until the bird is on its own. They can nest up to 12
           times a year in Florida. The population is estimated at 650 million birds and rising. Hunters
           annually harvest about 50 million mourning doves. The annual mortality rate for the
           species is approximately 80 per cent, whether it is hunted or not. Hunters in Florida are
           allowed a very liberal bag limit of 12 dove per day, with no more than four being
           white-winged doves. The fish and wildlife commission is managing several
           special-opportunity dove fields across the state. These fields usually have more birds and
           fewer hunters, which translates into a greater possibility of harvesting doves than a typical
           public field. Contact the commission or access our website for special opportunity information
           for dove hunters.
      13. Crow:
           The American or common crows is an all-black bird with a strong bill and feet, which are also
           black. They are a noisy, gregarious bird that can adapt to living almost anywhere. Federally
           governed, the hunting season on crows is broken into two phases, but covers most of the
           calendar year. There is no bag or possession limit on crows.
      14. Coot:                                                                             (SM - page 53)
           The coot has a slate-gray body with a white bill and forehead. Aside from waterfowl, the coot
           is currently the only species requiring the use of non-toxic shot. The season dates for the coot
           will mirror that of the waterfowl season, and the daily bag limit has stayed at fifteen for many
           years.
                                                    30
      15. Common Moorhen:
            Solitary dark gray or brown bird, one foot tall, with white undertail and red shield over conical
            bill. Prefers marshes and ponds with grassy edges where it eats lizards, frogs or salamanders.
            Call is whining “pep pep peent peeeeent peent.” They nest in rafts over water with up to
            twelve eggs in one clutch. It does not swim or dive, but walks on the grassy areas.
        G. Ducks: define:                                                                      (SM - page 53)
           There are two major types of ducks: puddle ducks and diving ducks. A. Puddle ducks
            prefer fresh shallow marshes and rivers. They feed by dabbling or tipping up, and take off
            from the water by springing into the air and climbing fast. They often have a brightly colored
            "speculum" or wing patch and because of the placement of their legs and feet, located farther
            forward, they can walk well on land.
        1. Greenhead mallard:
            The greenhead mallard is a puddle duck, and it's the most common and most recognizable
            duck in North America. The drakes have a shiny green head and the females are drab in color.
        2. Black duck:                                                                         (SM - page 54)
            The black duck is a puddle duck and is considered by many to be a sub-species of the mallard.
            It is a large duck, weighing a couple of pounds. It has a dark brown body with a light brown
            head. Due to low population numbers, the daily bag limit of black ducks has been no more
            than one for many years.
        3. Wood duck:
            The wood duck is the most common duck in the eastern United States. Wood ducks nest in
            tree cavities. Once on the verge of extinction due to over harvest and loss of habitat, wood
            duck numbers increased when wildlife managers limited the hunting pressure on the species
            and erected nesting boxes as artificial habitat. Male wood ducks sport a bizarre face pattern,
            swept-back crest and rainbow iridescence unique among waterfowl. The hen is dull colored
            with a dark, crested head and a white-eye patch. Many wood ducks are resident birds, but are
            still classified as migratory, as are all waterfowl.
         B. Diving ducks: define:
            Diving ducks prefer larger and deeper waters and will feed by diving to the bottom of the
             water. Their legs are located close to their tail and usually walk poorly on land. Most divers
             will patter along the surface of the water to take off. Their wing patches are normally dull
             colored.
         1. Hooded merganser:
             Mergansers are diving fish ducks with spike like bills. Most species have crests and are
             slender ducks. They are generally poor eating ducks as their diet consists chiefly of small
             fish. The hooded Merganser nests in tree cavities. It is easily identified by the fan-shaped
             white crest that may be raised or lowered. The common merganser is similar to the hooded
             merganser but larger. The male has a whitish body, a black back with a green-black head.
        2. Ringneck:
            Ringneck ducks are the most common wintering duck in Florida. They are found rafted up in
            great numbers on large bodies of water, such as Lake Okeechobee. This diving duck has light
            colored bands at both the tip and base of the bill. There is no discernable ring around the neck.
        3. Scaup:                                                                              (SM - page 55)
            Two species of scaup commonly winter in Florida, the greater and the lesser scaup. Except for
            wing marks, greater and lesser scaup appear nearly identical in the field. Greater scaup prefer
            large open water areas; lesser scaup often use marshes and ponds. Flock movements are rapid,
            often erratic, and are usually in compact groups.
Hunting waterfowl (ducks, geese and coots) throughout the entire United States requires the use of
non-toxic shot. Clues to waterfowl identification are flock patterns, silhouettes, calls and flight sounds,
coloration and habitat. If you hunt waterfowl, identification is very important. Seasons and bag limits are
set by species, and in some cases, the sex of an individual species. Also, table quality will vary between
the species, usually depending upon their diet.
                                                     31
 H. Furbearers: define:                                                                   (SM - page 55)
     Furbearers are those animals that are taken and used for their fur. Hunters attempting to
     take furbearers with guns or dogs for sporting purposes must have a hunting license. A
     trapping license is required of all persons who sell furbearing animals or use live traps or
     snares to take furbearers. Steel leg-hold traps cannot be used in Florida to take furbearers.
 1. Bobcat:
     The bobcat has a short stubby tail with a white underside and black tip on top. It is tawny
     brown with darker brown and black spots. Also, it has small tufts of hair at the tips of its ears.
     It eats small mammals, rodents, rabbits and birds. They are nocturnal, live in the forest,
     swamp and pine woodlands. There is a limited hunting season on them. Bobcat can be chased
     by the use of dogs year round, but you may not possess a gun outside of hunting season.
 2. Otter:
     The otter has dark brown fur, often with golden gloss on its head and shoulders. The tail is
     thick and tapering toward the tip. The hind feet of the otter are webbed. Its diet consists mainly
     of crayfish, frogs and fish. Florida has a limited season for taking otter.
 3. Raccoon:                                                                              (SM - page 56)
     The raccoon is usually gray with a black mask and ringed tail. It eats almost anything and lives
     just about anywhere. The raccoon does not have to wash its food. Its main diet consists of
     crayfish, bird eggs, vegetables and fruits. They are nocturnal animals. In the south, the
     raccoon is the largest carrier of rabies. It is illegal to feed raccoons in Florida.
 4. Opossum:
     The opossum is our only native marsupial or pouched animal. It can bear litters of up to 14
     young. It is the only North American land mammal with 50 teeth. It has a long scaly tail with
     no hair. If frightened, the opossum will play dead. Night hunting for raccoons and opossums
     is permitted year round with dogs and with.22 caliber rimfire firearms, other than.22 magnum,
     or a single-shot, 410 shotgun using shot no larger than #6. The firearm may not be loaded
     except immediately prior to shooting treed or bayed raccoons or opossums.
 5. Beaver:
     The beaver has brown fur, which is waterproof. They have large incisors (front teeth) usually
     orange in color due to the tanic acid from the bark they eat. Their tail is black, flat and scaly.
     It lives in ponds and streams in north Florida, and builds watertight dams and lodges.
 6. Skunk:
     The striped skunk is chiefly nocturnal. It is beneficial as a destroyer of rats and mice. The
     striped skunk is black with white lines extending back to its bushy tail. It is about the size of a
     house cat. They eat insects, mice, rats, fruits and berries. They have a well-developed scent
     gland and can be identified by their pungent odor.
 7. Civet cat (spotted skunk):
     The spotted skunk has irregular white spots and stripes on a thick, black coat. It is much
     smaller than the striped skunk; otherwise it is similar to the striped skunk just shown. There is
     no closed season on taking raccoon, opossum, skunk, and beaver. They may be live-trapped,
     hunted with dogs or taken with snares and guns year around. The use or possession of any
     steel or leg-hold trap where wildlife might be found is prohibited.
  8. Nutria:
     Medium-sized, grayish-brown rodent with long, round tail with few hairs. Hind feet webbed.
     Lives in marshes, swamps, ponds and lakes. Herbivorous. Nocturnal. Lives four years
  9. Red fox:                                                                             (SM - page 57)
     The red fox is not as common throughout the state. Larger than the gray fox, the red fox is
     identified by its black feet, reddish yellow coat which is darkest on its back, and its white belly
     and white tipped tail. Trapping or shooting any fox is prohibited in Florida. Foxes may not be
     killed, but may be chased by the use of dogs year-round. You cannot possess a gun while
     chasing Fox.
10. Gray fox:
     The gray fox is chiefly nocturnal and secretive. It will climb trees to escape its enemies. It is
     omnivorous, eating mostly small mammals, and supplements its diet with insects, fruits,
     acorns, birds and eggs. The gray fox has a salt and pepper coat with a buffy underfur and a
                                               32
    black-tipped bushy tail.
11. Coyote:
    Medium-sized to large with gray to reddish-gray fur, more red on legs, feet, ears; dark-tipped
    tail and whitish belly and throat. Lives in prairies, open woodlands, shrub lands and variety of
    habitats. Carnivorous. Mainly nocturnal but can be active anytime.
 I. Unprotected animals and birds:                                                  (SM - page 57)
    Hunting of these species does not require a permit from the Florida Fish &Wildlife
    Conservation Commission and/or the federal government.
 1. Muscovey Duck:
    Typically mainly black and white, with red skin on the face. These domestic ducks are found
    mainly in and around urban and suburban lakes and ponds. Muscovey ducks can be extremely
    prolific. Local populations, if uncontrolled, can increase dramatically in a short time. As a
    result, controversies frequently arise between citizens who enjoy the birds and those who
    consider the ducks a nuisance.
 2. Rock Dove (Pigeon):
    Most often dark gray head and iridescent neck and dark bars on wings. Lives in cities, parks,
    bridges, and steep cliffs. Male and female make a “coo-coo” sound when breeding. They nest
    on building ledges, rafters and barn beams; 1 -2 white eggs.
 3. English Sparrow:                                                                 (SM - page 58)
    The English sparrow is not native to Florida. The male is gray, black and brown in color.
    They gather in large groups to roost at night, and are considered to be a nuisance bird.
 4. European starling:
    The European starling is also not native to Florida. They are black with brown, green, and
    purple color and do not resemble a black bird. In flight you will notice they have short pointed
    wings and a short tail. They do an extensive amount of damage to crops in the United States.
 5. Armadillo:
    The nine-banded armadillo eats mostly insects. The armadillo can do a substantial amount of
    damage to a yard, lawn or garden with its rooting. The armadillo is not a species native to our
    state, and is not a protected species.
 J. Venomous snakes:                                                                (SM - page 58)
    Of the forty species of snakes in Florida, only six are venomous. These are readily recognized
    by anyone who will take the time to learn a few distinctive field marks.
    Florida is home to six species of venomous snakes and most are pit vipers, so called because
    of the pit located between the eye and nostril on each side of the head. The elliptical eye pupil
    and v-shaped head are other identifying features. The venom of these snakes is haemotoxic; it
    destroys the red blood cells and the walls of the blood vessels of the victim. The best
    treatment for venomous snakebite is to keep the victim calm, treat for shock and
    transport them to the hospital as quickly as possible. They include:
 1. Cane brake rattlesnake:
    The canebrake rattlesnake is the southern subspecies of the timber rattlesnake, which is found
    throughout the eastern United States. Its range is limited to northern Florida. The canebrake
    has a rusty stripe down the center of the back, which is crossed with dark brown or black
    zig-zag bands. It is more slender in build than the average diamondback.
 2. Eastern diamondback rattlesnake:
    The diamondback rattlesnake has a distinctive pattern of yellow- bordered diamond shaped
    body markings. Brittle, button-shaped segments form a rattling mechanism at the end of the
    tail. The head is much wider than the neck. This is a very dangerous snake due to its large size,
    quantity of venom, aggressive defensive tactics and tremendous striking speed.
 3. Pygmy rattlesnake:                                                               (SM - page 59)
    The pygmy rattlesnake is the smallest of the pit vipers, but the most aggressive Florida
    rattlesnake. It has a reddish line down the center of the back along with a row of prominent
    dark round spots; these are bordered by a lighter ring. It is found in every county in the state.
    Most pygmy rattlers measure less than 18 inches in length. They feed on small frogs, lizards,
    mice and other snakes. Like other members of the pit viper family, it does not lay eggs, but
    gives live birth to its young.
                                             33
        4. Copperhead:
             Florida is the southern extent of the range of the copperhead and it's found almost exclusively
             in the panhandle. The head and body of the copperhead is tan to golden brown, with
             alternately broad, light and dark, brown bands that form something of an hourglass shape. The
             head is moderately wide, usually with 2 round, dark, and spots between the eyes. The
             copperhead has a distinct odor, which comes from its musk glands.
        5. Water moccasin (cottonmouth):
             The water moccasin is a pit viper without rattles. Most specimens average about two feet in
             length. The head of the water moccasin is wider than the neck and it is a heavy bodied snake
             with an abruptly tapering tail. When disturbed, the moccasin cocks its head upwards and opens
             its mouth wide to reveal the whitish interior lining, hence the name cottonmouth. A water
             snake, the cottonmouth is found along stream banks, in swamps, around lakes and in
             tree-bordered marshes. It hunts at night for its prey of fish, frogs and other snakes, lizards and
             small mammals.
        6. Coral snake:
             The venom of the coral snake is neurotoxic, and it attacks the nervous system of a victim,
             bringing on paralysis. The coral snake always has a black snout followed by a broad yellow
             band across the back of the head and neck. The red is often flaked with black. The scarlet and
             scarlet king snakes are similar in appearance, but their patterns differ. The coral snake is not
             aggressive. Most bites occur when someone who does not recognize it as a venomous one
             picks up a "pretty little snake". An aid in identifying a coral snake is to think of a traffic light;
             red and yellow, stop and caution, are next to each other. Coral snakes do not strike, but bite
             and chew to inject the venom, which they can do very quickly.
II. Endangered Species:                                                                         (SM - page 60)
Endangered species are in danger of becoming extinct. This list identifies a few in that situation. The
instructor may use this list as a reference pertaining to the status of a particular species: This is a partial
list. For further information students should contact the nearest FWC office.
      A. Florida’s Endangered Species: (E) B. Threatened Species (T)
           1. Wood Stork                              1. Scrub Jay
           2. Snail Kite                              2. Florida Sandhill Crane
           3. Manatee                                3. Red-cockaded Woodpecker
           4. Bachman’s Warbler                       4. Big Pine Key Ringneck Snake
           5 Lower Keys Marsh Rabbit                 5. Everglades Mink
                                                      6. Southeastern American Kestrel
III. Dangerous Species:
       Many animals have potential to be dangerous under certain circumstances:
        A. Wounded:
            Many wild animals will avoid a fight when confronted by a hunter. However, if the
            animal has been wounded; his actions become unpredictable and place the hunter in
            danger of being attacked.
       B. Animals with young;
            Most animals become highly protective of their young and as such cause a danger to
             anyone who threatens the lair or nest. Many species that would normally seek flight to avoid
             confrontation will stand and fight to protect their young.
      C. Rabid animals:
          Animals that contract Rabies are dangerous and unpredictable. If an animal acts in an unusual
           fashion, is overly friendly when it should be shy and timid, or vice versa, or if it just plain
           doesn't look well, has a rough coat, appears unkempt, has a discharge from eyes, nose or mouth,
           or shows signs of un-coordination, leave it alone and contact the proper authorities.
Safety Precautions: Know your game before hunting it. Never "corner" a wild animal. Never get
           between an animal and its young. Approach a wounded animal with caution. Make sure your
           game is dead before attempting any field care.
IV. Review (Brief)                                                                             (SM – page 93)



                                                       34
CHAPTER 6                  WILDLIFE CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT



OBJECTIVES
 LEARNING           Basic understanding of history of wildlife management
                    Elementary knowledge of wildlife management concepts and tools
                    Know basic idea of Pittman-Robertson Act of 1937
                    Understand the importance of habitat and natural resource


I.     Wildlife Conservation:                                                                  (SM - page 61)
        A. The concept of wildlife conservation has been around since ancient times. Restrictions on
            taking game are mentioned in the Bible, and the first official hunting season may have been
            established in the 13th century by Kubla Kahn.
        B. Today, wildlife conservation has evolved into a science, but its goal remains essentially the
            same: to ensure the wise use and management of renewable resources. Given the right
            circumstances, the living organisms that we call renewable resources can replenish themselves
            indefinitely.
        C. Conservation: Wise use of natural resources, without wasting them
        D. Preservation is another means of protecting or saving a resource, such as outlawing hunting of
            endangered species. Both preservation and conservation are necessary to sustain resources for
            future generations.
        E. Preservation: Saving natural resources, but with no consumptive use of them
        F. Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act:                                            (SM - page 61)
            Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act of 1937 (Pittman-Robertson Act) was a benchmark of
            modern conservation. It provides:
            1. Federal excise tax on: firearms; ammunition; and archery equipment.
            2. Money for land purchases for development, maintenance, and management of wildlife. In
                 Florida, this is provided and performed by the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission.
            3. Money to finance hunter education. People who never hunt also benefit from
                 Pittman-Robertson Act. Management areas and wetlands are useful to all nature lovers and
                 bird watchers. The funds go toward management of all species, game and non-game alike.
        Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration, or Pittman-Robertson money, is not appropriated from any
        general tax revenue. This Act is financed entirely by the hunters and shooters.
        G. Lessons in Wildlife Management:                                                    (SM - page 62)
            1. Initially, wildlife management in the United States leaned toward protection. In the early
                1900s, wildlife managers attempted to preserve a mule deer herd in a remote section of
                Arizona. Hunting was banned, and predators were destroyed. The end result was severe
                overpopulation of the deer herd, which led to habitat destruction and mass starvation of the
                deer.
            2. The Kaibab Plateau was opened to hunting in 1929, which brought the deer population into
                balance with their habitat. Today, a large, healthy herd of mule deer inhabits that area.
           3. Around the same period, thinking that deer were extinct, white tail deer were brought into the
                state of Pennsylvania. With most of the predators' eliminated and little hunting allowed, the
                herd grew out of control. As their food supply dwindled, thousands of them starved to
                death.
            4. From these hard lessons, wildlife managers learned that there is more to conservation than
                just protecting wildlife. They discovered that nature overproduces game resources, and
                good wildlife management yields surplus that can be harvested by hunters.
        G. Habitat Management:                                                                 (SM - page 62)
            1. The most critical aspect of wildlife conservation is habitat management. Habitat loss
                presents the greatest threat to wildlife.
            2. Five essential elements must be present to provide a viable habitat: food, water, cover,
                space and arrangement.
               a. The need for food and water is obvious. Cover is not only needed as shelter from the
                   elements and predators, it’s also necessary to protect animals while feeding, breeding,
                                                      35
                roosting, nesting, and traveling. Cover can range from thick weeds and brush to a few
                rocks piled together.
            b. Space is necessary to avoid over-competition for food. Some animals also need a certain
                amount of territorial space for mating and nesting. When crowded, some species may
                develop stress-related diseases.
            c. Arrangement refers to the placement of food, water, cover and space in a habitat. The
                ideal arrangement allows animals to meet all of their needs in a small area so they
                minimize energy traveling from food to cover to water.
         3. For example, quail will spend much of their time where shrub and grassland areas converge.
            This is called edge effect. Most animals can be found where food and cover meet,
            particularly near a water source. River bottoms are ideal, offering many animals all their
            habitat needs along one corridor. Act
         4. Balancing Act: Habitats must be in balance in order to support wildlife. Remove a certain
            population of plants or animals from a community and the community may not survive. This
            typically happens when urban development pushes into wildlife areas.
     H. Carrying Capacity:                                                                  (SM - page 64)
         1. The resources in any given habitat can support only a certain quantity of wildlife. As
             seasons change, food, water, or cover may be in short supply. Carrying capacity is the
             number of animals the habitat can support all year long. The carrying capacity of a certain
             tract of land can vary from year to year. It can be changed by nature or humans.
         2. Factors that limit the potential production of wildlife include:
             Disease, Starvation, Predators, Pollution, Accidents, Old Age, and Hunting
         3. If the conditions are balanced, game animals will produce a surplus, which can be harvested
             on an annual, sustainable basis.
     I. The Hunter’s Role in Wildlife Conservation:                                         (SM - page 64)
         1. Since wildlife is a renewable resource with surplus, hunters help control wildlife populations
            at a healthy balance for the habitat. Regulated hunting has never led to threatened or
            endangered wildlife populations.
         2. Hunting is an effective wildlife management tool. Hunters play an important role by
            providing the information from the field that wildlife managers need.
         3. Funding from hunting licenses has helped many game and non-game species recover from
            dwindling populations.
         4. Hunters spend more time, money and effort on wildlife conservation than any other group in
            society. In addition to participating in the harvest of surplus animals, hunters help sustain
            game populations by:
            Filling out questionnaires, participating in surveys, stopping at hunter check stations,
            providing samples from harvested animals and funding for wildlife management through
            license fees.
    Remember: No North American animal has become extinct because of sport hunting.
II. Wildlife Management and Conservation Principles:                                         (SM - page 65)
    A. Wildlife Manager’s Job is to maintain number of animals in habitat at or below habitat’s carrying
       capacity, so no damage is done to animals or to habitat.
       1. Wildlife manager’s task is similar to ranchers. Just as ranchers limit number of animals in
          cattle herd to level that habitat can tolerate, wildlife managers try to keep number of animals in
          balance with habitat. In addition to looking at total number of each species in habitat, wildlife
          managers also monitor breeding stock – correct mix of adult and young animals needed to
          sustain a population.
       2. To manage habitat, wildlife managers consider historical trends, current habitat conditions,
          breeding population levels, long-term projections and breeding success. With that knowledge,
          wildlife managers have variety of practices to keep habitats in balance.
    B. Wildlife Management Practices:                                                       (SM - page 65)
       1. Monitoring Wildlife Populations: Wildlife managers continuously monitor birth rate and
          death rate of various species and condition of their habitat. This provides data needed to set
          hunting regulations and determine if other wildlife management practices are needed to
          conserve species.
                                                    36
          2. Habitat Improvement: As succession occurs, change in habitat affects type and number of
             wildlife habitat can support. Wildlife managers may cut down or burn forested areas to
             promote new growth and slow down process of succession. This enables them to increase
             production of certain species.
        3. Hunting Regulations: Hunting regulations protect habitat and preserve animal populations.
             Regulations include setting daily and seasonal time limits, bag limits and legal methods for
             taking wildlife. For example, the legal hunting of doe deer helps control the health and
             population of a deer herd.
      C. Beneficial Habitat Management Practices:                                            (SM - page 65)
          Food plots and planting; Controlled burning; Brush pile creation; Timber cutting; Ditching;
          Diking; Nuisance plant or animal control; Mechanical brush or grass control; Water holdings.
         Birth rate: Number of young born to a wildlife species in one year.
          Death rate: Number of wildlife species that die in one year.
          Succession: Natural progression of vegetation and wildlife of an area; for example, as trees grow
          and form a canopy, shrubs and grasses will disappear along with the wildlife that use them for
          food and cover.
         Predator: Animal that kills other animals for food.
      D. Wildlife Management Tools:                                                          (SM - page 65)
         1. Laws: Wildlife laws must be flexible, based on biological facts, and used in combination with
             other management tools. These game laws are necessary to protect the safety of people, to
             protect the game, and to insure a fair share for future generations.
        2. Habitat Management: The ideal goal is to manipulate vegetation so that the necessities for
             life for a variety of wildlife are provided. Generally this is done by controlled burning,
             selective forestry, food planting where feasible and appropriate, and other practices to
             maintain the proper mix of habitat requirements.
       3. Stocking: The purpose of stocking is to release wildlife species in areas that have suitable
             habitat but no animal population.
 **It should be noted that is not necessary in areas where the animals are already present.
       4. Hunting & Trapping: Hunting and trapping are valuable tools for maintaining wildlife
             populations at or below carrying capacity for the habitat. Our goal is to regulate hunting so
             that only excess animals in a population are removed. NOTE: The use of steel leg hold
             traps is illegal in the state of Florida.
       5. Public Education: Education is necessary for public understanding of wildlife management
             programs. The more people know & understand about wildlife and its needs, the more likely it
             will be that they will support management programs.
III. Show the video “Building tomorrow”.
IV. Review (brief)                                                                          (SM – page 93)




                                                    37
CHAPTER 7                         SURVIVAL AND FIRST AID

                        Know how to develop a personal pre-trip checklist

OBJECTIVES
LEARNING                Be aware of the items needed in a personal survival kit
                        Know what to do if lost and precautions to reduce chance of being lost
                        Know the international signals for help
                        Know the requirements for human survival
                        Know how to treat and prevent hypothermia
                        Be aware of basic first aid practices

I. IMPORTANCE OF PLANNING AND PREPARATION:                                                  (SM - page 66)
Hunting is a safe sport, but it does involve a certain amount of risk. Aside from firearm safety issues, a
variety of incidents can occur on a trip outdoors. The rougher the terrain – particularly when it’s
unfamiliar terrain – the greater the chance of accidents. Climate extremes also increase the risk factor. In
remote areas, there’s always the possibility of getting lost.
To plan properly:
    A. Be Ready: To help you avoid or minimize problems, it’s essential that you plan carefully for the
        hunt. Responsible hunters anticipate potential problems and make plans to deal with them.
        Considerations include terrain, location, weather, dangerous game, and the potential for fires.
    B. Know Your Location: Learn as much as you can about your chosen hunting area before you
        arrive. Purchase a topographic map and familiarize yourself with the terrain. If the location is
        within a convenient drive, it’s a good idea to visit the area in the off-season.
    C. Prepare for Safety: You also need to stay in good physical condition and maintain your
        equipment. Refresh your memory of hunting and firearm safety rules and review the rules with
        your hunting partners.
    D. Tell Others: Prepare a hunting plan that tells where and with whom you are hunting, and when
        you expect to return. Give specific directions on your route to your destination, and any alternate
        destinations. Leave the plan with a family member or friend. Do not deviate from your trip plan
        without notification. When hunting with a group, each person should discuss their route plan.
II. SURVIVAL SKILLS:
    Planning and preparation should keep you from having an outdoor misadventure. If something does
    go wrong, you’re now in survival mode. Most everyone who treks into the wilderness gets turned
    around occasionally. How you respond in the early stages often determines if your disorientation
    becomes a temporary inconvenience or a traumatic ordeal. If you keep a cool head, you’ll usually get
    your bearings fairly quickly. Think through recent events to see if you can retrace your path. If you
    decide you can’t return to your camp or car, commit yourself to spending the night where you are. If
    you remain in one spot, it’s very likely that you will be found in a few days.
    A. Rules of Survival:                                                                  (SM - page 67)
        1. Tell someone where you’re going and when you plan to return
        2. Don’t hunt alone
        3. Take enough food and water to last for at least two days in an emergency
        4. Bring a map and compass and always orient yourself before leaving camp
        5. Wear layered clothing and take extra clothing, preferably wool and polyester, with you
        6. Plan your outings so you can return to camp before dark
        7. Never leave camp without taking fire-starting equipment and foil blanket
        8. Don’t panic if you become lost
    B. Mental Self-Control:
        Probably the most important factor in a survival situation will be you're mental attitude about
        your situation.
        1. The first thing you must do is to admit to yourself that you are lost. Several other
             feelings such as pain, cold, thirst, fatigue, boredom, loneliness and fear will be affecting
             your chances for survival. You have had all of these feelings before, but never as strong as
             when in a survival situation, but no matter how strong these feelings are, they can be
             overcome when you know how to deal with them. Every person who ventures into the
             outdoors should practice over- coming these feelings prior to going out. One way to achieve
                                                    38
         this would be to spend a night in a familiar wooded area alone, with only a ground cover,
         sleeping bag and canteen. When you awake in the morning fine and in one piece, you know
         that should you ever be in a true survival situation, you could do it for real.
     2. And when in a true survival situation think of the phrase S-T-O-P; Sit down; Think; observe
         and Plan. Remember that most survival situations last less than 72 hours.
C.   Shelter:
     1. Start preparing your camp well before dark. Look for a natural shelter, such as a rock
         overhang or a thick stand of evergreens. The site should be dry, well drained, and protect
         you from the wind. Ideally, it should also be near water and plenty of firewood.
     2. If no natural shelter is available, pick an area with materials nearby to build a lean-to or
         debris hut.                                                                      (SM -page 68)
     3. A lean-to is constructed by leaning branches against a horizontal support to form a frame for
         a roof. Be sure to orient the opening away from the wind. Cover the frame with evergreen
         branches to block out wind or precipitation. Leaves and twigs are another option. If you
         need additional protection, you can add sidewalls.
     4. Build your fire where its heat will radiate into the shelter. Your sleeping area should be
         located between the shelter wall and the fire.
D.    Water:                                                                             (SM - page 68)
     1. Even in cool weather, you need two to four quarts of water a day. Under most conditions,
         humans can only last about three days without water.
     2. Pure drinking water is rare, even in the most remote regions. Clear mountain streams often
         are contaminated by Giardia lamblia, a parasite that causes serious intestinal sickness in
         humans.
     3. The best way to purify water is by boiling. Chemical purifiers such as iodide or chlorine and
         filter systems can be used, but some may not be satisfactory. Never make survival problems
         worse by drinking unsafe water.
     4. Solar stills can provide emergency drinking water. Ground water condenses on a plastic
         cone set in the ground, and drips into a collecting pan.
         To make a solar still: Dig a pit 3 feet wide by 18 in. deep; Place a shallow container in the
         center; Run a tube from the container to the edge of the pit; Lay clear plastic over the pit
         and place a rock or a little soil in the center to form a cone; Draw water through the tube to
         avoid disturbing the still; Make several stills if you have no other source of water.
E.   Food:
     1. Humans can go for two weeks or more without food. Although the need for food is not that
         urgent, you’ll be more comfortable and clear-headed if you eat. Anywhere there is game;
         there is food, but probably not what you’re accustomed to eating. As a general rule, anything
         that birds and mammals eat will be safe and will have some nutritional value.
     2. Before you head into a remote area, it’s a good idea to read up on what’s edible in that
         particular region. Hopefully, you’ll be able to use your hunting equipment to harvest the
         bulk of your food.
F.   Clothing:
     1. Clothing can also affect your ability to perform safely and responsibly. Select clothing based
         on the weather you expect, while being prepared for the worst. In warm weather, wear a hat
         and light clothing that covers as much of your skin as possible to prevent heat exhaustion or
         sunburn.
     2. Cold weather conditions call for clothing that is worn in layers. Layers offer superior
         insulation. Also, as weather warms up, you can shed a layer at a time to stay comfortable.
         Layers should include:
        a. A vapor transmission layer (material such as polypropylene) – worn next to the body; it
              should release moisture from the skin while retaining warmth
         b. An insulating layer – weightier or bulkier; it should hold warm air around you
         c. A protective outer layer – available in various weights and materials according to
             conditions; it should protect the inner layers from water and wind
         d. The most important clothing choice is a daylight fluorescent orange hat and a daylight
             fluorescent orange outerwear – shirt, vest or jacket. Daylight fluorescent orange clothing
             makes it easier for one hunter to spot and recognize another hunter because nothing in
                                                39
          nature matches this color. The orange color of the clothing should be plainly visible from
          all directions. This is required by law in many states.
    3. Other Clothing Essentials:
       A hat or cap with earflaps and gloves to retain body heat – most body heat is lost through the
       head and hands; gloves also protect your hands from abrasions and rope burns.
       Footwear that is sturdy, suitable for the conditions you’ll encounter, and broken in before the
       hunt.
       Two layers of socks – polypropylene against the skin and a wool outer layer.
       Wool is the best all-around choice for insulation because it can provide warmth even when
       wet. The best clothing combination in bad weather is woolen pants, polyester or
       polypropylene underwear and shirt, heavy jacket, and water repellent rain pants and parka.
       Clothing that is soaking wet can lose heat several hundred times faster than dry clothing.
       Any type of cotton clothing (underwear, T-shirts, jeans, flannel shirts) are a poor choice for
       cold, wet weather. When wet, they lose their already limited insulating ability and can cause
       rapid transfer of heat away from the body, increasing the risk of hypothermia.
G. Starting a Fire:                                                                           (SM - page 69)
   1. If there is snow on the ground, build the fire on a platform of green logs or rocks. If the
        terrain is dry, clear a patch of bare dirt to avoid starting a grass or forest fire.
   2. Gather everything you need before starting the fire. Pile fuel ranging from small twigs to fuel
        logs next to the fire site. Collect more fuel than you think you can use; you may need more
        than you estimate.
   3. Pile fine twigs grass or bark shavings loosely as a base. If you can’t find dry kindling,
        remove bark from trees. Use your knife to shave dry wood from the inside of the bark.
   4. Place slightly larger sticks on the starter material, until you have a pile about 10 inches high.
   5. If there’s no breeze, light the kindling in the middle of the base. If there is a breeze, light one
        end of the kindling so the flame will be blown toward the rest of the fuel. As the kindling
        lights and the flames spread to the larger twigs, slowly add more wood to the blaze. Add
        larger pieces as the fire grows. A large fire will throw more heat and be easier to maintain.
G. Signaling for Help:
   1. Once your needs for shelter and your fire have been dealt with, you must consider how to
        attract other people’s attention to your location.
   2. The international emergency sign for distress is three of any signal: three shots,
        three blasts on a whistle, three flashes or three fires evenly spaced.
        If you’re near an open space, walk an “X” in the snow, grass or sand. Make it as large as
        possible, so it can be seen easily from the air. Placing branches, logs or rocks along the “X”
        will make it more visible. Do not light signal fires until you hear an aircraft. Adding green
        boughs, preferably pine if available, to the fire will help create smoke.
   3. Don’t yell for assistance. Save your voice to answer signals from rescuers.
H. Day Pack Equipment:                                                                       (SM - page 70)
    In addition to your hunting gear, which includes your firearm – or bow – and field-dressing
    equipment, you should also prepare a day pack that includes emergency supplies. Although the
    contents will vary based on conditions and personal preference, an emergency day pack could
    include:
    First aid kit; metal, waterproof carrying case that can double as a cooking pot; candle;
    knives; small can lighter fluid; fire starters – waterproof matches, butane lighter, etc.; water;
    iodide tablets for water purification; base plate compass with signal mirror; nylon rope;
    flashlight with spare batteries and bulbs; whistle; extra pair of glasses; extra two-day supply
    of prescription medicine; emergency high energy food; thermal foil blanket; poncho; folding
    saw; snare wire or twine; one-sided razor blade; fishing line and hooks; plastic sheet or large
    garbage bag; extra boot laces; and tissues. Some additional equipment you may want to take
    is: a sleeping bag appropriate for temperature levels; hatchet or ax; pencil and paper pad; Duct
    tape; biodegradable trail markers; shovel and binoculars or spotting scope.



                                                 40
III. Topographic Maps and Compasses:                                                          (SM - page 70)
     A. Topographic Maps: when in remote or unfamiliar area, topographic map and compass are a
        must. Topographic maps, created from aerial photographs, reveal contours of land, including
        hills, ridges and valleys, as well as lakes, rivers, creeks, trails, and roads.
        1. Contour lines show elevation of ground.
        2. Contour intervals reveal how much vertical distance between each contour line – closely
             spaced contour lines indicate very steep slopes.
        3. Contour lines that are sharply tapered indicate uphill direction.
        4. Rounded contour lines typically indicate downhill direction.
     B. Compass: orienteering compass is a critical piece of equipment for outdoor travel. Good
        orienteering compass has these features:
        1. Clear base plate that allows you to see map underneath.
        2. Straight sides for aligning two points or for drawing lines.
        3. Liquid-filled needle housing that keeps magnetic needle relatively steady when taking
             readings.
        4. Two arrows: direction arrow painted on base plate used to point compass at destination;
             orienting arrow, located in needle housing, used to orient compass to map.
     C. Plot Your Progress:                                                                  (SM - page 71)
         1. As you hike into unfamiliar terrain, keep your bearings by taking frequent compass readings
              and plotting progress on map.
              a. Note key points, such as stream crossings, to help you find your way back.
              b. Pay particular attention when you reach high point at top of ridge.
              c. Use elevation to locate landmarks visible from there.
         2. Learning to set course and take bearings takes study and practice. Best way to become
              proficient with compass is under guidance of experienced individual.
              Remember: If you're an experienced map reader, you can: read terrain; determine directions;
              follow rivers, valleys and ridges; find your location in relationship to your camp and identify
              areas preferred by game animals.
     D. Global Positioning System (GPS): navigation system based on network of 24 satellites. Users
         with GPS unit can determine their exact location (latitude and longitude) in any weather all over
         world, 24 hours/day.
          5. GPS satellites circle earth twice/day and transmit information to earth. GPS receivers use
              this information to calculate the user’s location by comparing time signal was transmitted by
              satellite with time it was received. Time difference tells GPS receiver distance from satellite.
              By calculating distances from several satellites, receiver can determine and display user’s
              location on GPS unit.
          6. Once user’s position is determined, GPS unit can calculate other information – bearing, trip
              distance, distance to destination, sunrise and sunset times and more.
          7. GPS receivers are accurate to within 15 meters (49 feet) on average. Certain atmospheric
              factors and other sources of error can affect accuracy.
IV. Coping With Extreme Weather:                                                               (SM - page 72)
     Some of the most common and dangerous risks to hunters result from exposure to extreme weather.
     A. Hypothermia:
        Hypothermia: occurs when body loses heat faster than it can produce it, causing core body
        temperature to fall. Hypothermia often induced by cold, wet conditions, such as rain, snow,
        sleet, or immersion in water. Moisture from perspiration, humidity, and dew or rain on bushes
        and trees can also soak clothing, putting you at risk in cold weather. Wet or damp clothes will
        draw heat out of body more rapidly than air. Wind lowers body temperature as it evaporates
        moisture. Resting against cold surfaces also draw heat from body.
        Remember: Hypothermia is the number one cause of outdoor fatalities.
        1. Preventing Hypothermia:
            a. Hypothermia can be prevented by dressing properly, avoiding potentially dangerous
                weather conditions, and by drying out as quickly as possible.
            b. High-calorie foods, such as chocolate, peanuts or raisins provide quick energy that helps
                body produce heat.
                                                     41
       2. Symptoms of Hypothermia:
          a. Uncontrolled shivering – usually first obvious symptom – ceases as hypothermia
             progresses.
          b. Slow, slurred speech.
          c. Memory loss.
          d. Irrational behavior, such as removing clothing.
          e. Lack of body movement.
          f. Sleepiness.
          g. Unconsciousness, which could lead to death.
       3. Treatment of Hypothermia:                                                       (SM - page 73)
          Find shelter for the victim. Remove wet clothing and replace with dry clothing and other
          protective covering. If there is no dry clothing, use a fire to dry one layer at a time. • Give
          warm liquids to re-hydrate and re-warm, but never give the victim alcohol to drink. Quick
          energy foods also produce inner body heat. • For mild cases, use fire, blankets, or another
          person’s body heat to warm the victim up. • In more advanced stages, re-warm the victim
          slowly by one or more persons in body contact with the victim. Place canteens of hot water
          insulated with socks or towels on the groin, armpits, and sides of the neck of the victim. • A
          victim at or near unconsciousness must be handled gently, and not immersed in a warm bath or
          exposed to a large fire, which can lead to traumatic shock or death. Immediately contact
          emergency medical personnel to evacuate the victim to a hospital for treatment.
   B. Frostbite: This occurs when body tissue freezes. The best prevention is to avoid severe weather,
       and if you are caught in extremely cold conditions, pay attention to your face, ears, fingers and
       toes. (This condition can occur during above freezing temperatures if wind is high)
V. Basic First Aid: Every hunter should take a first aid course to learn what to do in case of
    injuries. Below are some common injuries that could occur while hunting:
   A. Bleeding:
        1. Severe bleeding is life threatening medical emergency. The rapid loss of just two pints of
            blood can result in shock and loss of consciousness.
        2. Direct pressure and elevation are usually sufficient to stop bleeding. If profuse bleeding
            continues, try shutting off circulation in artery supplying blood to injured limb.
   B. Broken Bones:
       1. Assume someone has broken bone if pain lasts more than a few minutes; moving injured area
            is difficult or swelling in injured area.
       2. If you have to transport the victim long a distance, it's best to immobilize the joint above and
            below break to prevent further injury and relieve pain. Don’t try to straighten the limb – splint
            it the way you found it.
   C. Chest Wounds:                                                                          (SM - page 74)
       1. A Bullet striking chest can cause sucking chest wound – deep, open wound of the chest wall
            that allows air into chest cavity.
       2. All chest injuries very serious and need immediate medical attention. Immediately respond to
            chest wound by:
           a. Using palm of your hand to cover wound until bandage is located.
           b. Cover wound with sterile gauze, clean cloth, plastic or foil to make an airtight seal.
   D. Shock:
       1. Shock can result from any serious injury. Symptoms include: pale, cold, clammy skin; rapid
           pulse; shallow breathing; and fear in victim.
       2. To treat shock, keep victim in prone position. In some cases, shock victims improve by raising
           their feet 8 - 10 inches.
   E. Snakebite:
      1. Most doctors agree that best response is rush victim to hospital emergency room. Cutting and
           suctioning bite can do more harm than good.
      2. Fear and panic aggravate snakebite reactions. Calm victim as much as possible. Keep victim
           in reclining position to slow the spread of venom, and transport the victim to a hospital
           immediately.
VI. Review (brief)                                                                           (SM - page 94)
                                                     42
CHAPTER 8
                             NOMENCLATURE AND DISCUSSION OF
                                BLACK POWDER FIREARMS
     OBJECTIVES
                      Basic understanding of the history of black powder
     LEARNING



                      Know the different black powder firearm actions
                      Understand how to select powder used in black powder firearms
                      Know equipment and safe techniques for shooting black powder firearms
                      Know the importance of cleaning a black powder firearm
                      Know how to determine if a black powder firearm is loaded


I.   Know Your Muzzleloader:                                                                  (SM - page 75)
      Muzzleloader is term given to early firearms because they are loaded from the muzzle or open end.
      A. Locks took the place of actions on early firearms. Matchlock and wheel lock muzzleloaders are
         rare, but also may be unsafe to use. Flintlocks and percussion caps are typically used for
         competitions and hunting. They are less expensive, lighter, more reliable and easier to load and
         maintain than matchlocks or wheel locks.
      B. Muzzleloaders are usually rifles, but there are also smooth-bored muzzleloaders – shotguns.
         Shotgun muzzleloaders can have either single barrel or double barrels joined side-by-side.
         Critical to avoid putting two loads down same barrel when loading double-barrel. Double-barrels
         usually have two locks, one for each barrel – allows shooter to fire each separately before gun is
         reloaded. Most double-barrels designed with two triggers.
      C. Muzzleloading handguns come as either pistols or revolvers. Pistols are mainly singleshot.
         Revolvers contain multiple-shot chambers. Chain firing revolvers can be dangerous. When
         chamber round is fired, it produces sparks that could accidentally ignite loads in another
         cylinder(s). To guard against this, be sure to protect each load in cylinder with coating of grease
         to prevent sparks from entering open end of other cylinders.
II. History of Black Powder Firearms:                                                         (SM - page 76)
      The Chinese are believed to be the first to use gunpowder's, now called “black powder.” The first
firearms were tubes closed at one end, usually made of brass or cast iron. Early firearms were loaded by
pouring black powder, shoving a projectile into the tube from the muzzle end, and then igniting the
powder using a lighted wick or match. The powder burned creating pressure that launched metal objects
or arrows. These firearms are called “muzzleloaders” due to their loading process. Advances in ignition
systems were the major changes that brought about modern firearms:
      A. Matchlock ignition was developed in the early 1400s. When the trigger is pulled, a lighted wick
         is lowered into a priming pan located next to a vent hole drilled into the closed end of the barrel.
         When the priming powder ignites, it lights the main charge.
      B. Wheel lock ignition replaced the wick of the matchlock in the 1500s. When the trigger is pulled,
         a coiled spring forces the rough-edged steel wheel to spin against a piece of iron pyrite creating
         sparks to ignite the powder in the priming pan.
      C. Flintlock ignition appeared in the late 1600s. When the trigger is pulled, the hammer holding
         a piece of flint fell against a steel cover (the frizzen) sitting over the priming pan. The hammer
         knocked the cover out of the way and the collision of flint and steel caused sparks that ignited
         the powder in the priming pan.
      D. The percussion lock (also called “caplock”) replaced the flintlock in early 1800s. Early
         percussion locks used priming compounds inside a metallic foil cap placed over the vent hole.
         When the hammer strikes the cap, the resulting spark ignites the main charge.
      E. The next advance, in 1835, was to arrange a series of percussion locks and barrels on a rotating
         wheel (cylinder) to allow a rapid succession of shots (Patterson revolver). With a single hammer
         and trigger, multiple shots could be fired without reloading a repeating firearm. The percussion
         cap revolvers were the forerunners of modern revolvers.

                                                     43
     F. The percussion cap also paved the way to the self-contained ammunition we have today –
         cartridges and shotshells. The percussion cap ignition system was developed in 1805 by the
         Reverend John Forsyth of England. Gunpowder, the projectile and the primer were put together
         into a single housing that could be loaded quickly in the mid-1800s. In addition to this system,
         some of the new in-line muzzleloaders may use a 209 primer, the same as is used in some
         shotgun shells.
III. Black Powder:                                                                            (SM - page 76)
     A. Black powder is only type of powder that should be used in muzzleloaders. However
         synthetic substitutes, such as Pyrodex®, also may be used. Don’t use modern-day smokeless
         powders in black powder firearms – could cause serious injury.
         1. Black powder is made of potassium nitrate (saltpeter), sulfur and charcoal. When ignited,
             causes dense cloud of white smoke. Comes in four sizes or granulations:
             a. Fg: Coarse grain typically used in cannons, rifles larger than .75 caliber and 10-gauge
                 shotguns or larger
             b. FFg: Medium grain typically used in larger rifles between .50 and .75 caliber, 20-gauge to
                 12-gauge shotguns and pistols larger than .50 caliber
             c. FFFg: Fine grain typically used in smaller rifles and pistols under .50 caliber and smaller
                 shotguns
             d. FFFFg: Extra-fine grain typically used as a priming powder in flintlocks
     B. Black Powder Substitutes:                                                              (SM - page 76)
          Pyrodex® and other black powder substitutes can be used in amounts equal to black powder,
           but loading may vary. Be sure to consult instructions from a qualified gunsmith for loading
           procedures.
          1. Pyrodex ®: a modern substitute for black powder. It is not an explosive, it is a
               propellant. It is not lawful to use in some states. It is available in powder form and in pre-
               measured pellets. Pellets are to be used in in-line ignition systems only. Pyrodex ® is not
               recommended for use in flintlocks. Follow directions given by the manufacturer.
     C. Non-corrosive black powder (Triple Seven ®): does not leave the corrosive build-up in the
           barrel of the firearm as does black powder. A shooter may be able to reload more times without
           cleaning inside of the barrel. It is not recommended for use in flintlocks. Non-corrosive black
           powder is available in powder form and in pre-measured pellets. Pellets are to be used in in-line
           ignition systems only.
Note: The use of smokeless powder (except in the new Savage designed for it), a mixture of smokeless
and black powder, the wrong type or granulation of black powder, pyrodex®, or overloading may damage
your firearm and cause injury and/or death to the shooter or bystander.
IV. Equipment for Shooting:                                                                   (SM - page 77)
     A. Powder
     B. Either percussion cap of the right size or flints
     C. Patches
     D. Sharp knife to cut patches (optional)
     E. Powder container
     F. Patch puller
     G. Ball puller
     H. Powder measure
     I. Nipple wrench and nipple pick
     J. Cleaning solvent and cleaning patches
     K. Ball starter
     L. CO 2 -type discharger
     M. Possible bag or pouch
V. Projectiles for Muzzleloaders:                                                             (SM - page 77)
     The types of projectiles are:
     A. Round ball, made of pure lead and requiring a lubricated patch
     B. Minie ball made of pure lead and lubricated on its sides
     C. Maxi ball made of pure lead and lubricated on its sides
     D. Sabot, a plastic cup allowing the use of modern handgun bullet of lesser caliber

                                                     44
     E. PowerBelt Bullet, also has a plastic cup but is attached to the bullet allowing for the same caliber
         bullet to be used in the firearm
     F. Shot Pellets, designed to spread, just as with today’s shotguns

VI. Basic muzzleloader safety and skills:                                                    (SM - page 77)
     A. Pre-Loading Check:
          1. Place the stock on the ground between your feet, with the muzzle pointed in a safe direction.
          2. Remove ramrod, insert into barrel, and mark rod at the end of the muzzle.
          3. Place rod along the outside of the barrel on the same side as the action and to the same
               depth as indicated by your mark.
          4. If the ramrod tip reaches the flash hole in a flintlock or within 1/4 inch of the breech plug
               (nipple) in a caplock, the gun is empty. If it does not, it is loaded.
          5. If it is loaded, and is an antique gun, take it to a reputable black powder gunsmith to unload
               it.
     B. Loading and Firing a Muzzleloader:                                                    (SM - page 77)
          Loading or charging a muzzleloading firearm presents some special concerns, because it
           requires the muzzle to be pointed upward.            (Demo on the range only)
         1. Place the firearm on half cock (safety), and then place the stock on the ground between your
              feet with the muzzle pointed in a safe direction.
         2. Be sure the barrel is clean and dry by running dry patches down the barrel until they return
              dry.
         3. Cap the nipple, or prime a flintlock, and point the muzzle at the ground and fire it to complete
             the drying process. Do this at least two times.
         4. Do not smoke. Black powder is explosive.
         5. Place the firearm on half cock and place the stock back on the ground between your feet with
              the muzzle pointed upward and away from your body.
         6. Measure powder charge and close powder container.
         7. Pour powder down the muzzle and tap on the side of the barrel to settle powder to the
              bottom. When using pellets place the darker end in the muzzle first on each pellet being
              used.
         8. Place lubricated patch on muzzle when shooting a round ball.
         9. Place the ball (spur up) on the patch.
        10. Place the short end of the ball starter on the projectile and drive ball into muzzle with one
              sharp blow so that the top of the ball is even or just below the muzzle.
        11. Cut off patch even with the muzzle if making your own lubed patches. Look out for fingers.
        12. Place the longer end of the ball starter on the projectile and with one sharp blow to the starter,
             drive the ball five to six inches into the barrel.
        13. Place the ramrod on the ball using the concave end to push the ball down to the powder
              charge. Push the ramrod in short strokes, gripping it a few inches above the muzzle. Using
              longer strokes may accidentally snap the rod and cause injury to your hand or arm. The ball
              must go down to the powder. Do not pound the ramrod on the ball.
        14. Prime or cap.
        15. Shoot in a safe direction
VII. The Damascus Barrel:                                                                    (SM - page 78)
     Damascus or “Damascus twist” barrels are older shotgun barrels that were typically made before
     1900. Iron and steel ribbons were twisted and welded together. Damascus barrels are weaker than
     modern barrels and are not designed for the high gas pressures created by modern ammunition.
     Damascus barrels have a distinctive, irregular pattern of short, streak-like marks around the barrel. If
     you have a Damascus barrel gun, don’t shoot it. The barrel may burst slightly ahead of the chamber,
     crippling the shooter’s hand or forearm. If you have an older firearm and are not sure if it has a
     Damascus barrel, before shooting it go to a qualified gunsmith to identify its make.




                                                     45
VIII. Modern Muzzleloaders:                                                               (SM - page 78)
     Modern muzzleloaders are reproductions of original muzzleloaders.
     A. Muzzleloaders made today are quality reproductions of the originals and are the safest ones to
          shoot.
      B. They are made of modern steel by modern methods, which make them stronger and usually
           safer than the originals.
      C. In selecting a reproduction muzzleloader for hunting or target shooting, it is best to contact a
           reliable retail store and get with someone knowledgeable about muzzleloaders. You may be
           able to contact a local club and get reliable information from its members. There are many
           different models available.
IX. Cleaning of a Muzzleloader:                                                            (SM - page 79)
     After firing a muzzleloader it should be thoroughly cleaned to help it function properly and to
      keep it clean and rust free, because black powder is very corrosive.
     Follow the following procedures:
     A. Be sure it is unloaded.
     B. Remove the barrel if possible.
     C. Wash the inside of the barrel with hot soapy water (best method) or a commercial
         cleaning solvent. Wash the nipple area also with an old toothbrush.
     D. Rinse with scalding hot water.
     E. Dry with clean patches until the patches comes out dry.
     F. Run several damp patches of bore butter or good grade black powder gun oil inside the barrel.
     G. When the barrel has cooled put a light coat of good grade gun oil on the outside of the barrel.
X. Unloading a Muzzleloader:                                                              (SM - page 79)
      If you load your muzzleloader and do not have the opportunity to fire it while hunting, you will
      need to unload it safely before entering camp, home or vehicle.
      A. Unload a muzzleloader by discharging it into a suitable backstop. Do not fire into the air or into
          the ground at your feet in case the projectile ricochets.
      B. Alternatively, a CO 2 -type discharger may be used to remove projectiles from the bore without
          firing. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
      C. When a muzzleloader is unloaded, place your ramrod or loading rod in the barrel before leaning
          it against a good rest – this will prevent debris from falling down the barrel and blocking the
          touch hole.
XI. Basic Muzzleloader Safety                                                              (SM - page 79)
      Muzzleloaders take significantly more knowledge to operate than modern firearms. They also
      present greater risks. Several rules must be followed to ensure safe operation.
      A. Keep the muzzle pointed in a safe direction. Do not lean over, stand in front of or blow down
           the muzzle.
      B. Use only black powder or safe substitute in a muzzleloading firearm.
      C. Wait until you’re ready to fire before you prime or cap a muzzleloader.
      D. Always wear shooting glasses and ear protection when shooting a muzzleloader; a long sleeve
           shirt is also advisable.
      E. Never smoke while shooting or loading or when near a powder horn or flask.
      F. Load a muzzleloader directly from a calibrated powder measure – do not load from a horn, flask
          or other container. A loose spark or glowing ember in the barrel can cause the powder to
          explode.
      G. Load only one charge at a time and load only from a calibrated measure.
      H. Unload a muzzleloader before bringing it into your home, camp or vehicle.
      I. Stay with your charged muzzleloader at all times.
XII. Review (brief)                                                                       (SM - page 94)




                                                    46
CHAPTER 9                                BOWHUNTING BASICS




     OBJECTIVES
                        Show a basic understanding of the history of archery

      LEARNING
                        Identify the parts of a bow
                        Identify the parts of an arrow
                        Be able to identify basic bow hunting equipment
                        Know safety rules
                        Know tree stand safety rules


I.  History of the Bow and Arrow:                                                             (SM - page 80)
    The use of the bow and arrow is recorded as early as 3,000 B.C.
    A. The Egyptians used bows shorter than a man’s height, with arrows two feet long or more.
    B. Early bows were “C” shaped. When shooting these bows, the archer would pull the string with a
        ring held around the thumb. The early longbow was 5-6 feet in length and was usually made of
        yew. The legend of Robin Hood romanticized the longbow.
    C. Native Americans were America’s first bow hunters. European settlers brought their skills to
        America and contributed to the development of bows and arrows in the U. S.
    D. In 1879 the National Archery Association was founded. It initiated the first U. S. sponsored
        tournament in 1879.
    E. Bowhunting did not really take off until the 1950s and 1960s as hunters learned more about this
        sport and about newer bows that were developed.
    F. Like other methods of hunting, the bowhunter must first acquire the knowledge and skills
        necessary to be a safe and responsible hunter.
II. Know Your Bow and Arrow:                                                                 (SM - page 80)
    Modern bows can shoot arrows more than 200 yards, at speeds more than 135 miles per hour. Any
    bow can be dangerous at any range and should be handled responsibly. However, the bow is a short
    range hunting tool. Shots are usually limited to 40 yards or less, and at this range the arrow
    penetrates and can even pass through an animal. However, most shots are taken at 20 yards or less.
    A. Common Bow Types: Proper bow selection and fit are essential to your accuracy and
       performance when bowhunting.
       1. Longbow (Stick Bow):
          a. The “traditional” bow, which has straight limbs that form an arc when strung.
          b. Used by those interested in traditional shooting with little additional equipment.
       2. Recurve Bow:
          a. Much like the longbow, but the limbs curve back away from the belly of the bow, which can
             provide more power in a shorter bow than the longbow.
          b. A popular choice because it’s smooth and
          c. Parts: Lower limb, grip, arrow rest, upper limb and string.
       3. Compound Bow:                                                                      (SM - page 81)
          a. The most popular bow for both hunting and target shooting
          b. A bow with many styles, but they work basically the same. It has wheels, cams or pulleys
             and cables attached to the limbs making it easier to hold at full draw, (pulled completely
             back) and able to propel an arrow faster than either a longbow or recurve bow.
          c. Parts: grip, arrow rest, upper limb, lower limb, cables, wheel, sight and string.
    B. Accessories:                                                                           (SM - page 81)
       1. To protect the three fingers that draw the bowstring, archers wear three-fingered gloves, finger
           tabs, or use mechanical releases.
       2. A mechanical release snaps on the string and is pulled back with the shooting hand. The archer
           fingers a trigger to release the string.
       3. An armguard protects the inner part of the bow arm during release, as the string snaps back.
           The armguard protects the bowstring from hitting loose clothing, and also helps protect the
           arm if an arrow breaks during release.
    C. Stringing a Bow: The safe and easy way to string a recurve or longbow is to use a
        bowstringer. The push-pull or step-through method can be hazardous to yourself or your bow.
                                                    47
         1. A bowstringer is simply a strong cord with a loop or pocket at each end that fits over the limb
             tip of recurve and some longbows. By standing on the loose middle of the cord after it’s
             attached to the tips, the limbs can be flexed as the handle is pulled. This allows the
             bowstring to be safely slipped into place.
         2. To replace compound bow strings you must use a bow press or have double tears at the end
             of each cable end. Double tears allow you to change strings by stepping on the string being
             replaced first, then the new string second. A bow press is used to place and hold tension on
             the limbs, allowing the strings to be changed. Inexperienced bowhunters should have a
             qualified dealer or individual replace the string on a compound bow.
     D. Parts of an Arrow: Arrows have four parts:                                             (SM - page 82)
         1. Shaft: the long body of the arrow. Modern arrow shafts are made of wood, fiberglass,
             aluminum or carbon. The arrow, regardless of shaft material, must have the correct stiffness
             (spine) to match the bow. As an arrow is released, the shaft ends before straightening in
             flight. Incorrect stiffness will cause the arrow to fly erratically and inaccurately.
         2. Fletching: the plastic vanes or feathers on an arrow. Fletching creates wind drag and can also
             cause the arrow to spin similar to a rifle bullet, providing stability and accuracy in flight.
             Fletching is made up of three or more vanes or feathers. One of the feathers will be a
             different color, and is called the “index” feather. The remaining feathers are referred to as
             the “hen” feathers.
         3. Arrowheads: the point of the arrow. Many different kinds of arrow points are available, each
             with a different purpose and advantage.
         4. Nock: a slotted plastic tip located on the rear end of the arrow that snaps onto the string and
             holds the arrow in position. There is a certain point on the bowstring, called the “nocking
             point,” where arrows are nocked. Fine tuning of this location, by moving it up or down the
             bowstring, is usually required.
     E. Nocking an Arrow:
         1. A nocked arrow should be positioned about a quarter inch above the arrow rest on the bow
             handle. On most bows, a small brass band called a “nock set” is crimped onto the bowstring
             to mark the correct position.
         2. To nock the arrow:
             a. Grasp the arrow between the thumb and index finger of the right hand (if you’re a right-
                 handed shooter).
             b. With your left hand, hold the bow parallel to the ground about waist high, string toward
                 the body.
             c. Lay the arrow shaft on the bow’s arrow rest.
             d. Align the slot in the nock with the string, while making sure that the index feather points
                 up (while the bow is parallel to the ground).
             e. Pull the arrow back until the string snaps into the slot.
     F. Common Types of Arrowheads:                                                            (SM - page 83)
         1. Bullet Point: steel point used for target shooting and small game hunting
         2. Blunt Point: used for small game hunting and some types of target shooting; made of steel,
             hard rubber or plastic
         3. Field Point: steel point used for target shooting and small game hunting
         4. JUDO ®Point: designed with spring arms attached to catch in grass and leaves preventing
             arrow loss; used for “stump ” shooting and small game hunting
         5. Fish Point: long, barbed or spring-loaded arrowhead that spears fish and secures them until
             landed with an attached line
         6. Broadhead: used primarily for big game hunting. The number of steel blades it contains
             may vary. The only arrowhead that may be used for big game hunting is the broadhead. It
             must be solidly built and always razor-sharp. Many states have laws governing the minimum
             diameter and number of cutting edges of the broadhead used to hunt big game. Broadheads
             take game by cutting blood vessels.
III. Know Your Crossbow: A crossbow is a bow with a rifle-like stock that shoots short arrows.
      Starting in the early nineties more states started recognizing them for hunting and many states now
      have designated dates for a crossbow season. Many other states, including Florida, allow their use
      by anyone during general gun seasons, and hunters with recognized disabilities can apply to their
                                                     48
     respective states for a permit for their use during archery seasons. There are some states that will
     not let you use a crossbow for hunting at any time.
    A. Modern crossbows are either of the straight or recurve limb variety and some have incorporated
        compound bow technology into their design.
    B. Draw weights for modern crossbows range from fifty to two hundred pounds. The arrows they
        shoot are designed to accept either field points or broadheads. They have an effective accuracy
        range of approximately thirty yards.
IV. Bowhunting and Crossbow Safety and Skills:                                               (SM - page 84)
    Many states require a bowhunter education course to legally hunt with archery equipment. Even if
    not required, taking a course will give you an excellent start to becoming a safe and skillful
    bowhunter.
    A. Bow Shooting Safety: An arrow is as deadly as a bullet, so the basic safety rules that govern
         firearm shooting also apply to archery. Although shooting accidents are rare among
         bowhunters, they do happen. Archers must obey a few common safety rules, whether on the
         range or in the field:
         1. Release an arrow only when the path to the target and beyond is clear.
         2. Make sure there’s something to stop the arrow if you miss – never shoot over the horizon.
         3. Avoid shooting an arrow in the general direction of another person. Arrows are easily
             deflected. A small twig, unseen by you, can cause an arrow to veer dangerously off course.
         4. Don’t shoot straight up. A falling arrow carries enough force to penetrate the human skull.
         5. Carry arrows in the nocked position only when slowly approaching game – never nock an
            arrow or draw a bow if someone is in front of you.
         6. Use a haul line to raise a bow and quiver into a tree stand to avoid serious injury.
    B. Archery Equipment Safety: Before practice or hunting, an archer must examine each arrow to
         make certain there are no cracks or breaks in the shaft and that the nock is in good condition. A
         cracked or broken nock can be replaced, but a shaft that has cracks or breaks should be
         discarded. Never use a cracked arrow. The shaft may shatter on release and be driven into the
         shooter’s wrist or arm. Some common types of damage to look for are:
         1. Cracks and splinters in wood arrows
         2. Creases, dents, or cracks in aluminum arrows
         3. Crushed sidewalls on fiberglass or graphite arrows.
    C. Broadhead Safety: Many archers’ injuries come from broadheads. Broadheads must be kept
        razor-sharp for hunting, which creates a safety problem if they are handled carelessly. To
        prevent injury:
        1. Use a special wrench to screw on broadheads. This device covers the blades while a
              broadhead is being tightened on an arrow. If a wrench isn’t used, the slightest slip can
              cause a serious cut. When sharpening broad-heads, always stroke the blade away from
              hands and body.
        2. Keep broadheads covered while traveling to and from the field. Many arrow injuries occur
              while loading or unloading equipment in vehicles.
        3. Remember, while dressing bow-killed game that the broadhead may remain in the animal.
              Use great caution until all parts of the broadhead have been found.
        4. Keep broadheads in a quiver to protect yourself from cuts, and to keep arrows quiet
             and easy to reach.
    D. Bow Shooting Position: To be demonstrated on the range:                               (SM - page 84)
        Stand at a right angle to the target with your feet approximately shoulder-width apart. The stance
        should feel comfortable and balanced. If you prefer, you may slide your front foot back a little,
        creating a slightly open stance.
    E. Drawing and Anchoring the Bow:                                                        (SM - page 85)
        1. To draw the bow:
             a. Grip the bow handle firmly in the left hand, but don ’t squeeze.
             b. Raise your left hand above eye level. Your left arm may be slightly bent or straight out
                 from your body.
             c. Raise the bow as you pull back the string with the three drawing fingers.
                 Simultaneously extend your left arm.
             d. Bring the three drawing fingers back to touch the “anchor point ” on your face..
                                                    49
                  The anchor point may be the corner of your mouth, your cheekbone or your chin.
         2. Practice will help you determine your best anchor point – one that’s both comfortable and
              provides the most accurate shooting. Your fingers should touch the same anchor point each
              time you draw the bow.
     F. Aiming the Bow:                                                                       (SM - page 85)
         There are two main methods for aiming bows – bowsights and instinctive aiming.
         1. Bowsights work best when the distance to the target is known. For instance, when hunting
              from a tree stand or blind, you can measure the distance to the area where you expect the
              game to appear. Then it ’s a matter of lining up the appropriate sight pin on the target. In
              hunting situations where it ’s hard to know the exact distance to the target, bowsights may
              not work well. The key to using bowsights is to practice judging distances.
         2. Instinctive aiming is more versatile than the bowsight method. You simply look at the
              intended target with both eyes open and release. You adjust the aim for different distances
              by instinct developed with practice. Instinctive aiming takes longer to perfect than the
              bowsight method, but it eliminates much of the guesswork from shooting under some
              hunting conditions.
     G. Holding and Releasing the Bow:                                                        (SM - page 86)
         1. Allow your fingers to slip quickly away from the string. This gives the arrow a straight, stable
              flight.
         2. Keep your bow arm pointed directly at the target after the release. If the bow is jerked on
              release, the arrow will fly off target.
         3. Follow through by leaving your drawing hand at the anchor point well after the string is
              released.
         Remember: Never dry fire a bow.
V.   Hunting From Elevated Stands:                                                            (SM - page 86)
     Elevated stands are permanent or temporary stands placing the hunter above ground level. They
     come in the form of a tree stand placed in or against trees, or as a freestanding structure. They have
     become increasingly popular in recent years with both firearm and bow hunters. While they offer
     certain advantages, they also have some drawbacks, including safety issues.
     A. Advantages:                                                                           (SM - page 86)
         1. Wider field of vision – game is spotted sooner than at ground level
         2. Earlier detection of game allows time to plan for best shot
         3. Elevation makes hunter’s scent harder to detect, and movement less noticeable
         4. Hunter more visible to other sportsmen; less likely to be hit by stray bullet
         5. Good backstop because usually shooting at a downward angle
     B. Disadvantages:
         1. Risk of injury from falling, particularly in wet or icy weather
         2. Difficult to carry large, portable stands
         3. No protection from cold or wind
         4. Little room for movement
         5. Remember that most tree stand falls occur when a hunter is climbing up or down a tree. Wear
             a safety harness at all times when your feet are off the ground.
     C. Types of Elevated Stands:                                                             (SM - page 87)
         1. Permanent Tree Stand:
             The oldest type of tree stand is the permanent tree stand. It’s not recommended because it’s
             difficult to build safely, requires frequent repair due to weather, and damages trees. It also
             limits a hunter to one site. Permanent tree stands are illegal in some states.
         2. Portable Tree Stand:
             Portable tree stands are safer and more environmentally friendly. Commercially made stands
             certified by the Treestand Manufacturers Association (TMA) are best. Homemade stands
             should be avoided. Portable tree stands come in three basic types:
             a. Fixed-Position: These simple platforms provide about two square feet of space. They must
                 be hauled into place and secured with belts or chains. Because they restrict movement,
                 they can cause fatigue in a short period of time, heightening the risk of falls. This type of
                 stand requires separate climbing aids such as steps.

                                                     50
           b. Self-Climbing: Best for the athletically inclined, self-climbing platforms allow a hunter to
               “walk” a stand up a tree. Not suited for trees with shaggy bark, such as some pines or
               hickories, or for trees with branches close to the ground.
           c. Ladder Stands: Ladder stands provide a platform 10 to 15 feet above ground.
               Usable with a wider range of trees than other platforms, they also provide easier, safer
               access.
           d. Tower Stand (Free-Standing): An alternative to a tree stand is a tower stand. These
               stands are similar to a ladder tree stand, but are freestanding and can be placed anywhere
               that has a firm base.
     D. Safety Harnesses:                                                                      (SM - page 88)
        Safety harnesses must be worn at all times while climbing a tree and when on a tree stand.
        1. Simple Belt Harness: wraps around the chest, but in the event of a fall, it can ride up under
             the arms and restrict breathing; if the belt is worn too low, a hunter can be suspended upside
             down after a fall. Not recommended for use.
        2. Chest Harness: safer than a simple belt because it will hold a hunter upright after a fall. Can
             also restrict breathing in the event of a fall. Not recommended for use.
        3. Full-Body Harness: safest, because a hunter’s weight is evenly distributed.
     E. Elevated Stand Location:                                                               (SM - page 88)
        1. Stands can be placed by clearings, cut paths, or anywhere that gives hunters a clear,
             unobstructed view.
        2. Never place stands on fence lines or near another landowner’s property.
     F. Elevated Stand Safety:
        1. Choose a live tree that’s big enough to support you and your equipment.
        2. Always do a safety check of the stand before each use.
        3. Wear a safety harness when climbing a tree and when in a tree stand.
        4. Use a haul line to raise an unloaded firearm or bow into the stand.
        5. Have a plan to safely get down to the ground in case of a fall or a tree stand failure.
     G. Hauling a Firearm Into a Stand:                                                        (SM - page 88)
        1. Unload the firearm and leave the action open. Lay it on the ground with the muzzle elevated
           and pointing away from the stand.
        2. If your firearm has a sling, tie a sturdy hauling line to the sling, such that the firearm hangs
           with the muzzle pointed down. If your rifle doesn't have a sling, you can make one by tying a
           yard-long piece of cord to the wrist of the stock and the barrel, just forward of the forearm.
        3. Slip the end of the haul line through your belt – leave it untied so it can pull free if you fall.
           Put on your safety harness, secure yourself to the tree and climb to your stand.
        4. After you’re in your stand and secure, haul up the firearm and untie the line from your gun.
           Check for obstructions before you load.
        5. When hauling a firearm or bow into a stand, make sure it is unloaded. Also you can avoid
           getting debris in the barrel by placing a balloon over the muzzle.
VI. Show the video “Safe treestand hunting”
VII. Review (brief)                                                                            (SM - page 95)




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