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ASAS TN TN ASAS TN by nikeborome


        ASAS R&D

       Michael H. Durham
       Kenneth M. Jones
        Thomas J. Graff
       September 28th, 2005
 Video - “Capacity Takes Flight”
    A long-term vision for a Distributed Approach to ATM

 NASA ASAS R&D Concepts
    Enroute -
      Autonomous Flight Management
    Terminal -
      Airborne Precision Spacing (Phased Approach)
      Trajectory Oriented Operations with Limited Delegation
    Oceanic -
      In-Trail Procedures (Phased Approach)

    Airborne Separation Assistance Systems

Future NAS will be required to handle two to three times
 more traffic than today‟s system
   Proposed solutions include greater delegation of appropriate
    air traffic management responsibilities to the flight deck of
    appropriately equipped aircraft
   Airborne Separation Assistance Systems (ASAS) are an
    essential component in a “Transformed NAS”

ASAS will be implemented only after:
   Technical and operational challenges are addressed
   ASAS is proven to be safe
   Operational experience with ASAS is gained

                       NASA ASAS R&D Elements


       Current Separation

Enhanced Oceanic Operations

                                           Autonomous Flight Management

                                                              Meter fix

Airborne Precision Spacing           Trajectory Oriented Operations
                                         With Limited Delegation
    Autonomous Flight Management (AFM)

Automatically, safely, and cost-effectively adapt to significant
changes in air traffic demand.
                                    Cost is shouldered primarily by the
                                    aircraft operators that benefit from the
                                  Safely supplements ATC
                                    The traffic burden exceeding ATC‟s
                                    capacity is distributed among the
                                    watchful systems and flight crews of
                                    those aircraft, resulting in more „eyes‟
                                    focused on safety.
                                    Trajectory decisions are made and
                                    monitored by pilots, informed by
                                  Self-elected aircraft operators
                                    Not a mandate. AFM is an investment
                                    decision made per aircraft at each
                                    operator‟s discretion. AFM serves those
                                    who need it, where they need it, without
                                    disrupting those who don‟t.

 AFR: A New Class of En Route Operation
Controller workload for increased          Autonomous
demand is off-loaded to pilots / systems
                                           Flight Rules
of new “AFR” aircraft

                                    Autonomous Operations Planner
                                    (AOP): Airborne research tool set
                                    supports flight crew decision-
                                    making for AFR operations

                                     Airborne conflict management
                                     Conflict-free maneuvering
                                     Flow constraint conformance
                                     Airspace restriction avoidance

            Trajectory Oriented Operations
          With Limited Delegation (TOOWiLD)

Concept: Integrate “absolute” 4-D trajectory oriented operations with
 “relative” spacing operations
   Use time-based metering to regulate traffic flow,
   Use trajectory-based operations to create efficient, nominally conflict-free
    trajectories that conform to traffic management constraints and,
   Maintain local spacing between aircraft with airborne separation assistance systems
   Develop near-term concept for procedural integration of near-term technologies
   Develop medium-term concept with data link-supported technology integration of
    advanced air/ground automation
   Develop site-specific implementations that address local opportunities and
   Use human in the loop simulation to develop, test and refine operational concepts

                     Basic TOOWiLD Scenario

1. Time-based traffic management regulates inbound flow.
2. 4-D trajectory-based operations used to plan and execute conflict free flight paths.
3. Together, these operations put flight crews in a position to utilize Airborne Separation Assistance
   Systems (ASAS) to deal with local spacing issues, if instructed or permitted by the controller to do so.

 Time-based metering provides meter fix arrival
 schedule and time constraint for inbound

 AOC, flight crew or controller can develop
 efficient, conflict-free trajectory to satisfy meter
 fix arrival time constraint.

               Controller may assign limited delegation
               clearance to pass behind traffic.                                Meter fix

               Controller may issue merging and spacing
               instructions to flight crews of equipped
               aircraft when within ADS-B range of leader.

          Airborne Precision Spacing (APS)
•   Increase throughput for arrivals in capacity-constrained terminal
•   Enable growth in arrival traffic without equivalent growth in ATC
    infrastructure (Reliever airports, uncontrolled airports)
 Controller clears participating flight
  crews to space on aircraft ahead in
 Controller defines the optimal
  sequence and spacing requirements
  for each aircraft and communicates
  these to the flight crew; controller
  provides either a time or a distance
  spacing, to be achieved at threshold
 New airborne guidance and
  procedures allow the pilots to meet
  their assigned spacing and
  sequence requirements with high
  precision                                 B777 navigation display view of merging and
                                                         spacing operation

                     Airborne Precision Spacing
      Improve Capacity-Constrained Terminal Arrival Operations

 Phased Approach
    Phase 1 – Final Approach Spacing Tool (completed flight demo under AATT)
    Phase 2 – Include approach spacing and merging
    Phase 3 – Include maneuver corridors

                                                                Phase 2

                                     Unequipped Aircraft

             Adhere to metering
            assignment for initial
           spacing and sequence
                                                                        Merge with
          Adhere to runway
                                                                      traffic streams
           assignment and
          sequence for load
                                           Fly with precision
                                          for optimal spacing
             throughput                                         Phase 1 – Completed flight demo
                                                                          under AATT
                                      Terminal airspace

                     Airborne Precision Spacing
    Improve Capacity-Constrained Terminal Arrival Operations

      Maneuver corridors (phase 3)

Metering             ATSP-defined
boundary                                  Maneuver within
                                         prescribed corridors
                                         for optimal spacing

      Adhere to metering
     assignment for initial Unequipped Aircraft                       Merge with
    spacing and sequence                                              converging
                                                                    traffic streams
       Adhere to runway
        assignment and
                                           Fly with precision for
       sequence for load
                                             optimal spacing
     balancing, throughput

                                       Terminal airspace

  Integration of Airborne Spacing with
Continuous Descent Approaches (CDAs)
Continuous Descent Approaches (CDAs)
  RNAV procedure for idle power descent from cruise to
   final approach
  Result in lower noise around airports, fuel savings, fewer
   emissions, and less time in the air
     Aircraft at near flight-idle during descent
     Aircraft stay high longer, have steeper / faster descent

However, uncertainty in trajectories requires large
 spacing buffers between aircraft, thereby
 preventing high throughput
Goal: Integrate APS and CDA low-noise guidance
 to achieve optimal balance
  High throughput
  Low noise and emissions

                   Enhanced Oceanic Operations
              Oceanic Technical Characteristics and Challenges

 Extended periods out of radar coverage
 Large longitudinal and lateral                                            NATOTS

  separation minima required for safe               PACOTS              EUR-NAM

  procedural separation                           CENPAC           WATRS EUR-CAR

 Most airlines want the same tracks and                 SOPAC

  altitudes  results in altitude
 Safe operations but often not fuel
  efficient operations
                                            Aircraft “stuck” at a non-optimal
                               Solution      altitude due to traffic “congestion”
                                               For efficient operations, aircraft need
                 Optimal                        to climb as they burn fuel
                                               Due to traffic congestion at higher
                              Compromise        altitudes, aircraft often restricted from
                                            Use airborne surveillance and
                                             onboard tools to facilitate altitude
                                             changes for greater fuel efficiency
          Enhanced Oceanic Operations
                      Phased Approach

Phase 1 – Altitude Change Request Advisory Tool
  Tool that advises pilot of available altitudes for altitude changes
  Advisory information only (low certification requirements)
Phase 2 –ASAS In-Trail Procedures
  Altitude changes allowed based on cockpit derived data
  No delegation of separation authority
Phase 3 – Enhanced ASAS In-Trail Procedures
  Active monitoring of other traffic during altitude change
  Limited delegation of separation authority to cockpit
  Reduced separation criteria
Phase 4 – Airborne self-separation on a track
  Aircraft allowed to maneuver on specially approved tracks
  Closer to optimal fuel burn profiles

 NASA is conducting R&D across all levels of ASAS
    Started with a vision of a mature ASAS implementation
    Studied ASAS implementations in Enroute, Terminal, and
     Oceanic operations
    Developed frameworks for phased implementations in each
 ASAS will be implemented only after:
    Technical and operational challenges are addressed
    ASAS is proven to be safe
    Operational experience with ASAS is gained

 R&D must be driven by requirements of mature ASAS
  concepts capable of 2-3 times capacity

 Implementations must be phased in small increments to
  gain operational experience


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