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									Effective Teaching and Learning
"A lecture is a process in which
 information passes from the
 notes of the lecturer into the
 notes of the student without
 passing through the minds of
 either." (Gilstrap and Martin,
      Effectiveness of Lectures

• Outmoded, ineffective and inefficient
• Attention span declines after at most 20-
  25 minutes
• Lack of interactivity leads to passivity and
  inefficient recall
• 5% retention rate compared to 10% for
  reading or 50% for group discussion
(Catherine Matheson, University of Nottingham, The
  educational effectiveness of lectures)
    Effective Teaching and Learning
    Learning Objectives
• Start to understand what makes effective
    teaching and learning with links to:
    – some psychological theories of how learners construct
      individualised knowledge, accrue skills and develop
    – what goes on in schools
• Be interested enough to think about these issues
    for yourself and want to find out more about
    these issues and developments
•   Be able to name 15 philosophers
Teaching and Learning

• What do we teach?

• Why do we teach it?
• How do we teach it?
John Holt, educationist

• “Since we cannot know what knowledge
 will be most needed in the future, it is
 senseless to try and teach it in advance.
 Instead we should try to turn out people
 who love learning so much and learn so
 well that they will be able to learn
 whatever needs to be learned.”
Charles Darwin

• “It is not the strongest of the species that
  survives, nor the most intelligent, but the
  ones most responsive to change.”
Neil Postman & Charles Weingartner
Delta (July 15, 1971)
  He (Marshal Mcluhan) contends that most of us are
  incapable of understanding the impact of new media
  because we are like drivers whose gaze is fixed not on
  where we are going but on where we came from. It is
  not even a matter of seeing through the wind-shield but
  darkly. We are seeing clearly enough, but we are looking
  at the rearview mirror. Thus, the locomotive was first
  perceived as an 'ironhorse', the electric light as a
  powerful candle. and the radio as a thundering
  megaphone A mistake, says McLuhan. These media
  were totally new experiences and did to us totally new
What’s more important?

• Attitudes?
• Skills?
• Knowledge?
       Learning readiness

• Hierarchy of needs – Abraham
Hierarchy of Needs
“One cannot
think well,
love well,
sleep well if
one had not
dined well.”
Brain food (and Brain gym)

• Hydration
• Nutrition
• Sleep
• Physical exercise
• Music
• Laughter
• Mental performance can fall by 10% when your
  pupils are thirsty and it will also add to tiredness,
  headaches and irritability. Having water readily
  available to children links well with learning
  programmes as well as promoting healthy lifestyles
  in your school. Frequent small intakes of water are
  better for learning than limiting drinks to breaks and
  lunchtimes, with children needing to drink a total 8
  glasses of water during the day.

• “Jeeves takes a size 14 hat, eats tons of fish,
  and works in mysterious ways his wonders to
• When creating his immortal, all-knowing valet Jeeves, author
  P.G. Wodehouse gave the character a steady diet of brain-
  enhancing fish. Eating fish can make you brainy. Actually, it’s
  not the fish, but the Omega -3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic
  acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) that do the trick.
  These fatty acids keep the dopamine levels in the brain high,
  increase neuronal growth in the frontal cortex of the brain,
  and increase cerebral circulation.
       Sleep and Physical Exercise
• Brain Gym
The program is based on the premise that
all learning begins with movement, and
that any learning challenges can be
 overcome by finding the right movements,
to subsequently create new pathways in the
Founders: Paul and Gail Dennison, 1981
 The ‘Mozart Effect’
 “Listening to Mozart makes you smarter", or that early childhood
  exposure to classical music has a beneficial effect on mental
 The term was first coined by Alfred A. Tomatis who used Mozart’s
  music as the listening stimulus in his work attempting to cure a variety
  of disorders.
 The approach has been popularized in a book by Don Campbell, and is
  based on an experiment published in Nature suggesting that listening
  to Mozart temporarily boosted students' I.Q. by 8 to 9 points.
 As a result, the Governor of Georgia, Zell Miller, proposed a budget to
  provide every child born in Georgia with a CD of classical music.
            Rewards and Success
 The prospect of a reward makes learning more effective. Experience
  tells us this, and the effect has also been demonstrated in scientific
 People who are rewarded for making correct decisions learn faster. This
  has been known for a long time. “If a decision leads to a successful
  outcome, it is registered in the brain’s reward system,” explains
  Burkhard Pleger, a researcher at Leipzig’s Max Planck Institute. The
  reward stimulus is then relayed to the area of the brain which was
  responsible for making the decision. In this way, the brain optimises its
  processes so that a process can be performed better each time. “It was
  not known until now, however, whether this mechanism also applied to

• Setting a range of tasks and providing a
 variety of resources to allow students of
 different abilities to succeed.
Bloom’s Taxonomy - Original
Bloom’s Taxonomy – Updated,
 Market demand for blargles is increasing. Taldit
 blargles are less gleedish than deedle blargles. Of the
 two, taldit blargles have more offlinks but fewer plaps.
 Buyers prefer heavy plapping, and the lack of offlinks
 can be overcome by pre-grippling at an early stage of
 negotiation. Gleed loading factor is not important.

1) What are the two kinds of blargle?
2) What are the three main differences between
3) Which do buyers prefer?
4) What is a blargle?
   Passive v. Active: Language
 Lev Vygotsky (1934) ‘Thought and Language’

 Connection between speech (both silent inner speech
 and oral language), and the development of mental
 concepts and cognitive awareness.
 Irony can be regarded as having a tripartite division.
    Verbal irony comprises a spoken or written statement
     which is the antithesis or proximate antithesis of the
     intended semiotic signification of the perpetrator.
    Dramatic irony occurs when one person is unaware of
     the significance of his or her own utterance or that of a
     second person but a third person is fully conversant of
     its full purport, often with risible results.
    Situational irony is a happening or development in a
     narrative opposite to and as if in mockery of a
     resolution anticipated or considered appropriate.
Learning Styles: VAK (or VARK
or VACT)
Howard Gardner – Multiple
 intelligence type      capability and
 Linguistic             words and language
 Logical-Mathematical   logic and numbers
 Musical                music, sound, rhythm
 Bodily-Kinaesthetic    body movement control
 Spatial-Visual         images and space
 Interpersonal          other people's feelings
 Intrapersonal          self-awareness
          Additional Multiple
                        capability and
intelligence type
Naturalist              natural environment
                        religion and 'ultimate
                        ethics, humanity, value of
Involvement, Ownership and
High level participation
 Students own/run activities
Personal input and initiative
 Serotonins?
 Endorphins?
 Dopamine?
 Edinburgh fringe

       The Philosopher’s Song
• Open the white envelopes
• Re-arrange the slips with lines of the
  song into the correct order
• Extension activities:
  – Bonus Question: How many philosophers
    are mentioned in the song?
  – For Philosophy students – what 3 allusions
    are made to particular philosophers’ works?
           The Philosopher’s Song

Immanuel Kant was a real piss-ant
Who was very rarely stable.
Heidegger, Heidegger was a boozy beggar
Who could think you under the table.
David Hume could out-consume
Schopenhauer and Hegel
And Wittgenstein was a beery swine
Who was just as schloshed as Schlegels.
There's nothing Nietzsche couldn't teach ya
'Bout the raising of the wrist.
Socrates, himself, was permanently pissed.
John Stuart Mill, of his own free will,
On half a pint of shandy was particularly ill.
Plato, they say, could stick it away--
Half a crate of whisky every day.
Aristotle, Aristotle was a bugger for the bottle.
Hobbes was fond of his dram,
And René Descartes was a drunken fart.
'I drink, therefore I am.'
Yes, Socrates, himself, is particularly missed,
A lovely little thinker,
But a bugger when he's pissed.
                       15 Philosophers
1. Immanuel Kant
2. Martin Heidegger
3. David Hume
4. Arthur Schopenhauer (some versions)
5. G.W.F. Hegel
6. Ludwig Wittgenstein
7. August Wilhelm Schlegel
8. Karl Wilhelm Friedrich Schlegel
9. Friedrich Nietzsche
10. Socrates (the only one mentioned twice in the song)
11. John Stuart Mill
12. Plato
13. Aristotle
14. Thomas Hobbes
15. René Descartes
  Allusions to Philosophers’ Works
• Kant being "very rarely stable" refers to his
theory of a stable universe.
•John Stuart Mill becoming ill "of his own free
will" alludes to his work On Liberty, which
argues for liberty that does no harm to others.
•The Descartes line, "I drink therefore I am", is a
twist on his well known phrase "Cogito, ergo
sum," or "I think therefore I am".
                     Guy Claxton
• Claxton thinks that the widespread view of intelligence as a
  fixed, innate property is pernicious. It puts a ceiling on what
  students can be expected to achieve and tells them that they
  are either bright or stupid. It leads to resignation among low
  achievers and a lack of resourcefulness on the part of the
  ‘bright’ producing school leavers unequipped for a rapidly
  changing world. What students require is not to be spoon-fed
  facts, many of which they will never make use of, but the
  ability to know what to do when they don’t know what to do.
  This, for Claxton, is true intelligence – something that comes
  from somewhere deeper than the conscious, rational mind.
Guy Claxton – The 5 Rs
• Resilience: 'being ready, willing and able to lock on to learning'.
    Being able to stick with difficulty and cope with feelings such as fear
    and frustration.
•   Resourcefulness: 'being ready, willing and able to learn in
    different ways'. Having a variety of learning strategies and knowing
    when to use them.
•   Reflection: 'being ready, willing and able to become more strategic
    about learning'. Getting to know our own strengths and
•   Relationships (Reciprocity): 'being ready, willing and able to
    learn alone and with others'.
•   Reflectiveness : Being able to ask questions, observe, see
    patterns, experiment and evaluate learning. Setting targets for
    future learning
Metacognition and Learning
about Learning
• Objectives
• Language of learning
• Making links across lessons and subjects
      Current research includes:

• Simplified model – much of the brain is unused
    and many parts can learn to perform new
•   Left and right brain
•   Male and female
•   ...

•Bill Lucas
•Memorable lessons
 (Cardboard box time)
•Planned work and revisiting
              Diamond Nines

• Open the brown envelopes!
• Place the cards of features of learning into
    a diamond nine according to your opinion
    of their importance to effective teaching
    and learning. One card will have to be
•   Extension work: Create one or two cards
    of your own to replace some of the ones in
    your diamond nine.
    Lecture Three - Effective Teaching
        and Learning Bibliography
•   B. S. Bloom (Ed.) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals;
    pp. 201–207; Susan Fauer Company, Inc. 1956.
•   Lorin W. Anderson, David R. Krathwohl, Peter W. Airasian, Kathleen A. Cruikshank, Richard E.
    Mayer, Paul R. Pintrich, James Raths and Merlin C. Wittrock (Eds.)A Taxonomy for Learning,
    Teaching, and Assessing — A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives;
    Addison Wesley Longman, Inc. 2001
•    Guy Claxton, Wise Up – The Challenge of Lifelong Learning (1999), Bloomsbury London
•   Guy Claxton, Expanding Young People’s Capacity to Learn, British Journal of Educational
    Studies, 55:2, 2007
•    Howard Gardner, Multiple Intelligences: Theory in practice, 1993
•   Howard Gardner, Frames of Mind: Theory of multiple intelligences, 1983
•   Howard Gardner, Intelligence Reframed: Multiple Intelligences for the 21st century, 1999
•    John Holt
•   How Children Learn (Penguin Education) by John Holt 1964
•   Learning All the Time by John Holt 1989
•   How Children Fail by John Holt 1967
 Lecture Three - Effective Teaching
     and Learning Bibliography
Bill Lucas
New Kinds of Smart: How the Science of Learnable Intelligence is Changing Education
(Expanding Educational Horizons) by Bill Lucas and Guy Claxton (Paperback - 1 Mar
The Creative Thinking Plan: How to Generate Ideas and Solve Problems in Your Work and
Life by Guy Claxton and Bill Lucas (Paperback - 15 Nov 2007)
rEvolution: How to thrive in Crazy Times by Bill Lucas (Paperback - 27 Oct 2009)
Help Your Child to Succeed: The Essential Guide for Parents (Family learning) by Bill
Lucas and Alistair Smith (Paperback - 1 Sep 2002)
Power Up Your Mind: Learn Faster, Work Smarter by Bill Lucas (Paperback - 20 Jun 2001)
ASK: How to Teach Learning to Learn in the Secondary School by Juliet Strang, Philip
Masterson, Oliver Button, and Bill Lucas (Paperback - 1 Dec 2006)
A. H. Maslow (1943) A Theory of Human Motivation Originally Published in
Psychological Review, 50, 370-396
Neil Postman & Charles Weingartner, Teaching as a Subversive Activity Delta (July
15, 1971)
Rauscher, F., Shaw, G., Ky, K. (1993). Music and spatial task performance. Nature,
365 611
Alistair Smith, Accelerated Learning in the Classroom (1996), Network Educational
Press, Stafford
Lev S Vygotsky Thought and Language 1934

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