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					KAIZEN
                        2




GROUP MEMBERS

NIKHIL JAIN – 4

DANISH MEMON – 9

SAKET NANDWANI – 13

PREETI MANOHARAN – 24

MILONI SHAH – 32

AZIM SHEIKH – 38

HIRAL SONI – 45
                                                                           3




                                               INDEX

SR.NO.   PARTICULARS                                            PAGE NO.

1        Introduction                                           4

2        History                                                5

3        Kaizen – concept                                       6

4        Kaizen focusing on small and continuous improvements   7

5        Key features of kaizen                                 8

6        Maintenance, innovations and kaizen                    9

7        Reasons for implementing kaizen                        9

8        5‟s of kaizen                                          13

9        The seven wastes                                       15

10       Value stream mapping                                   19

11       The Toyota way                                         20

12       Kaizen at taj hotels                                   21

13       Gujarat government implanting kaizen                   22

14       Maruti udyog limited implementing kaizen               23

15       Aditya birla group with kaizen implementation          24

17       Benefits of implementing kaizen                        25

18       Basic tips for kaizen activities                       27

19       webiliography                                          28
                                                                                                                   4

INTRODUCTION

Kaizen was created in Japan following World War II. The word Kaizen means "continuous improvement". It
comes from the Japanese words 改 ("kai") which means "change" or "to correct" and 善 ("zen") which
means "good".


Kaizen is a system that involves every employee - from upper management to the cleaning crew. Everyone
is encouraged to come up with small improvement suggestions on a regular basis. This is not a once a month
or once a year activity. It is continuous. Japanese companies, such as Toyota and Canon, a total of 60 to 70
suggestions per employee per year are written down, shared and implemented.

In most cases these are not ideas for major changes. Kaizen is based on making little changes on a regular
basis: always improving productivity, safety and effectiveness while reducing waste.

Suggestions are not limited to a specific area such as production or marketing. Kaizen is based on making
changes anywhere that improvements can be made. Western philosophy may be summarized as, "if it ain't
broke, don't fix it." The Kaizen philosophy is to "do it better, make it better, and improve it even if it isn't
broken, because if we don't, we can't compete with those who do."

Kaizen in Japan is a system of improvement that includes both home and business life. Kaizen even includes
social activities. It is a concept that is applied in every aspect of a person's life.

Kaizen involves setting standards and then continually improving those standards. To support the higher
standards Kaizen also involves providing the training, materials and supervision that is needed for
employees to achieve the higher standards and maintain their ability to meet those standards on an on-going
basis.
                                                                                                             5

HISTORY

After World War II, to help restore Japan, American occupation forces brought in American experts to help
with the rebuilding of Japanese industry. The Civil Communications Section (CCS) developed a
Management Training Program that taught statistical control methods as part of the overall material. This
course was developed and taught by Homer Sarasohn and Charles Protzman in 1949 and 1950. Sarasohn
recommended William Deming for further training in Statistical Methods. The Economic and Scientific
Section (ESS) group was also tasked with improving Japanese management skills and Edgar McVoy is
instrumental in bringing Lowell Mellen to Japan to properly install the TWI programs in 1951. Prior to the
arrival of Mellen in 1951, the ESS group had a training film done to introduce the three TWI "J" programs
(Job Instruction, Job Methods and Job Relations)- the film was titled "Improvement in 4 Steps" (Kaizen eno
Yon Dankai). This is the original introduction of "Kaizen" to Japan. For the pioneering, introducing, and
implementing Kaizen in Japan, the Emperor of Japan awarded the Second Order Medal of the Sacred
Treasure to Dr. Deming in 1960. Consequently, the Union of Japanese Science and Engineering (JUSE)
instituted the annual Deming Prizes for achievements in quality and dependability of products in Japan. On
October 18, 1989, JUSE awarded the Deming Prize to Florida Power & Light Company (FPL), based in the
United States, for its exceptional accomplishments in its process and quality control management. FPL was
"the first company outside of Japan to win the Deming Prize."
                                                                                                      6

KAIZEN - THE CONCEPT

     KAIZEN means continuous improvement. No one can dispute value of the improvement. The
      KAIZEN philosophy is based on the fact that our life-be it our working-life, our social-life, or
      our home-life-needs to be constantly improved. This means, whether you are in a
      manufacturing industry or service industry (associated with quality field or not) you must
      enlighten yourself on KAIZEN and apply in all walks of life.



     KAIZEN signifies small improvements made in the status-quo as a result of on-going efforts.
      Improvement can be split between KAIZEN and INNOVATION. The improvement of small
      KAIZENs is clarified as „KAIZEN is prevention!‟
     INNOVATION looks for quantum jumps & involves drastic improvement in the status-quo
      as a result of large investment in new technology and/or equipment.
     KAIZEN diagnoses the major root cause of inefficient working in organizations and offers a
      systematic approach to changing the attitudes of people, leading to miraculous organizational
      change. Once KAIZEN is installed, JIT, TQM, KANBAN, FIVE-S, TPM, POKAYOKE,
      SMED, QUALITY CIRCLE and even procedure oriented systems such as ISO 9000, can be
      introduced easily.
                                                                                                              7

KAIZEN IS FOCOUSED ON MAKING SMALL IMPROVEMENTS ON A
CONTINOUS BASIS

Kaizen involves every employee in making change--in most cases small, incremental changes. It focuses on
identifying problems at their source, solving them at their source, and changing standards to ensure the
problem stays solved. It's not unusual for Kaizen to result in 25 to 30 suggestions per employee, per year,
and to have over 90% of those implemented.

These continual small improvements add up to major benefits. They result in improved productivity,
improved quality, better safety, faster delivery, lower costs, and greater customer satisfaction. On top of
these benefits to the company, employees working in Kaizen-based companies generally find work to be
easier and more enjoyable--resulting in higher employee morale and job satisfaction, and lower turn-over.

With every employee looking for ways to make improvements, you can expect results such as:

Kaizen Reduces Waste in areas such as inventory, waiting times, transportation, worker motion, employee
skills, over production, excess quality and in processes.

Kaizen improves space utilization, product quality, use of capital, communications, and production capacity
and employee retention.

Kaizen provides immediate results. Instead of focusing on large, capital intensive improvements, Kaizen
focuses on creative investments that continually solve large numbers of small problems. Large, capital
projects and major changes will still be needed, and Kaizen will also improve the capital projects process,
but the real power of Kaizen is in the on-going process of continually making small improvements that
improve processes and reduce waste.




http://www.google.co.in/imgres?imgurl=http://static-
p3.fotolia.com/jpg/00/23/35/86/400_F_23358686_XwAMl03gIkFb42Doy
                                                                                                            8




http://genobz.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/kaizen-continuous-
improvement.jpg?w=640&h=392&crop=1




KEY FEATURES OF KAIZEN

      Improvements are based on many, small changes rather than the radical changes that might arise
       from Research and Development
      As the ideas come from the workers themselves, they are less likely to be radically different, and
       therefore easier to implement
      Small improvements are less likely to require major capital investment than major process changes
      The ideas come from the talents of the existing workforce, as opposed to using R&D, consultants or
       equipment – any of which could be very expensive
      All employees should continually be seeking ways to improve their own performance
      It helps encourage workers to take ownership for their work, and can help reinforce team working,
       thereby improving worker motivation
                                                                                                               9

MAINTENANCE, INNOVATION AND KAIZEN

In our concepts, three functions should happen simultaneously within any organizations: Maintenance,
Innovation, and KAIZEN. By maintenance, we refer to maintaining the current status, the procedures are set
and the standards are implemented. People in the lower level of organization mostly do that, they maintain
their standards.

By Innovation, we refer to breakthrough activities initiated by top management, buying new machines, new
equipment, developing new markets, directing R&D, change of strategy etc.

In the middle there is KAIZEN, small steps but continuing improvement. KAIZEN should be implemented
by the lower/middle management and the workers, with the encouragement and direction of the top. The top
management responsibility is to cultivate a KAIZEN working climates and cultures in the organization.




FIVE REASONS TO IMPLEMENT KAIZEN


Kaizen is a proven performance improvement tool. Adopted from modern Japanese manufacturers, like
Toyota, Kaizen generates breakthrough improvements quickly, without huge capital investments and/or
extensive commitments of employ time. Kaizen is an efficient, effective technique for producing change in
manufacturing operations.


Kaizen improves performance in non-manufacturing situations as well. Ideal for a wide variety of industries,
it‟s well suited for non-manufacturing situations like those found in professional services, corporate
headquarters, and branch offices. Entities like finance departments, corporate headquarters, national banks,
and hospital emergency rooms all benefit from it.


Kaizen is appropriate for relatively straightforward, simple problems, problems that don‟t involve numerous
functions or complex processes. It is also appropriate for well-defined problems or when the dissatisfactory
performance of the current state is due to only a few factors that don‟t vary widely over time. The format for
Kaizen can be individual, suggestion system, small group, or large group.




Reasons why would the organizations implement Kaizen include the following:
                                                                                                              10

Lowers costs


Services differ from manufacturing. More variety exists in services than production. With manufacturing,
the ideal is to produce the same product at the rate of customer demand. Manufacturers abhor variety
because it slows production and creates the potential for incurring costs.


With services the ideal is to accommodate variety. A call centre, for example, must handle as many different
types of customer events as possible. Many events are the result of something not done or something not
done right. Thus, services generate costs by "failure demand."


Kaizen focuses on eliminating failure demand. Employees make suggestions on how to do things right and
use Kaizen to make changes. By helping workers get it right, Kaizen minimizes the need for, as well as the
cost of, doing something or providing a service. Obviously, the more things a service or non-manufacturer
does right, the less cost it generates.


Immediate Results



Kaizen takes place one small step at a time. It‟s driven to resolve specific problems. Instead of tackling large
improvements, Kaizen makes minor enhances that solve large numbers of small problems. Thus, firms see
Kaizen results quickly, encouraging them to make more suggestions. Large capital projects and major
changes are still needed, but the real power of Kaizen is in making small improvements continually that
improve processes or reduce waste. In short, Kaizen concentrates on making fast changes cost-effectively.


Reduces waste


Kaizen methodology involves making alterations, looking at the results, and then making additional
alterations to improve the processes. These changes reduce waste, that is, eliminate activities adding cost
only. Waste includes activities like overproduction; people, materials, or information waiting; unnecessary
motions by workers; and unsynchronized transportation. It also includes excess inventory, correcting
defective work, and unnecessary processing steps.


Energizes Employees


Kaizen depends on employees suggesting changes. For example, in 1999 alone, 7000 employees at a Toyota
plant in the U.S submitted over 75,000 improvement suggestions, of which 99 percent were implemented.
                                                                                                           11

Kaizen encourages employees to come up with more and more of these small improvements, motivates them
to improve their work lives, excites them about their work, and challenges them to be responsible for
change. In other words, it empowers employees, enriches the work experience, and motivates workers.


Increase Productivity


A major national bank used Kaizen whenever it wanted to attack process speed and efficiency problems.
The projects were all well defined, involved participants pulled off their jobs for only a few days, and
included a cross-functional team. The projects also supported a cross-functional view of the process or work
area.


Using Kaizen, the bank achieved cycle time improvements ranging from 30 percent faster to nearly 95
percent faster, measured sometimes in minutes and other times in days. One administration process went
from 20 minutes to 12, and a complaint resolution process dropped from 30 days to 8. An added bonus for
the bank was an increase in revenues. One high level project enabled the bank to charge for a service it had
never charged for before. New revenues ran between $ 6 million and $9 million.


Kaizen produced similar results in an emergency room application. Standardizing layouts and stocking exam
rooms increased nurse availability by 35 hours per week. Establishing a transportation procedure increased
availability of patient care associates and nurses by 84 hours per week. Leveraging the existing ED
information system reduced cycle time 71 per cent, to an average of 42 minutes.


Kaizen is a powerful improvement tool. It isolates employees from day-to-day tasks for a few days so they
can concentrate on specific activities, like problem solving and improvement exclusively. Companies using
kaizen find that they not only reduce waste and see immediate results; they also increase productivity, lower
costs, and energize employees.
                                                                                                                12

5’ S OF KAIZEN

There are 5 primary phases of 5S: sorting, straightening, systematic cleaning, standardizing, and sustaining.
Additionally, there is an additional phase - safety that is sometimes included.


Sorting (Seiri)

Eliminate all unnecessary tools, parts, instructions. Go through all tools, materials, etc., in the plant and
work area. Keep only essential items. Everything else is stored or discarded.


Straightening or Setting in Order / stabilize (Seiton)

There should be a place for everything and everything should be in its place. The place for each item should
be clearly labeled or demarcated. Items should be arranged in a manner that promotes efficient work flow.
Workers should not have to repetitively bend to access materials. Each tool, part, supply, piece of
equipment, etc. should be kept close to where it will be used (i.e. straighten the flow path). Seiton is one of
the features that distinguishes 5S from "standardized cleanup". This phase can also be referred to as
Simplifying.


Sweeping or Shining or Cleanliness / Systematic Cleaning (Seiso)

Keep the workplace tidy and organized. At the end of each shift, clean the work area and be sure everything
is restored to its place. This makes it easy to know what goes where and ensures that everything is where it
belongs. A key point is that maintaining cleanliness should be part of the daily work - not an occasional
activity initiated when things get too messy.


Standardizing (Seiketsu)

Work practices should be consistent and standardized. Everyone should know exactly what his or her
responsibilities are for adhering to the first 3 S's.


Sustaining the discipline (Shitsuke)

Maintain and review standards. Once the previous 4 S's have been established, they become the new way to
operate. Maintain focus on this new way and do not allow a gradual decline back to the old ways. While
thinking about the new way, also be thinking about yet better ways. When an issue arises such as a
suggested improvement, a new way of working, a new tool or a new output requirement, review the first 4
S's and make changes as appropriate.
                                                                                                             13

Safety

A sixth phase, "Safety", is sometimes added. It is reasonable to assume that a properly planned and executed
5S program will inherently improve workplace safety, but some argue that explicitly including this sixth S
ensures that workplace safety is given at least a senary consideration.'

It is important to have continuous education about maintaining standards. When there are changes that affect
the 5S program such as new equipment, new products or new work rules, it is essential to make changes in
the standards and provide training. Companies embracing 5S often use posters and signs as a way of
educating employees and maintaining standards.




http://www.shmula.com/http://www.shmula.com/wp-content/uploads/Image/2010/04/shmula-
standard-work-kaizen.jpg
                                                                                                                  14

THE SEVEN WASTES

5S can be used to setup rules for storing, define space and places. These rules have to be widely
communicated so that everyone knows where is what, why and for how long. While continuously improving
the situation, the rules have to be updated and stick to the newest state


Waste from overproduction

It may sound surprizing, but many companies are producing more than necessary because they loose parts,
products, material! Without order, care and discipline in storage, inventories will fill all available space.
Temporary storing a batch in a non defined / dedicated area is risky, as someone could move the batch
without care nor notice in such a case, it is likely to loose its track, all ending in a waste of raw material,
energy and man power. It may lead to a double waste if the lost batch requires to produce a new one be
delivered! Eliminating the wasted space and valuable surface by excess inventories and overproduction is
another potential improvement.


Waste from waiting times

Waiting is a consequence of poor synchronization between process stages or bad preparation. Waiting for
parts, material, tools, instructions, etc... can be caused by a lack of rules about storage places, when people
have to search everywhere.

Are the item you are waiting for really necessary ? If they're not, if they do not add value to the job or the
product, it it wise to try to eliminate them or at least reduce the wait time and storage distances.

Computers with plenty and poorly ordered data on hard disk drives slow down.
Did you consider directories and files as candidates for 5S?

Searching for files or documents will cause waiting time. A simple trick will help: draw a colored slant line
on the back of the files:
                                                                                                                 15




      The place of any missing file is immediately visible
      A file in wrong place displays a broken line




Better than numbering, which requires to read and "translate" the information, the color line is a part of
visual management: fast and simple. All search is reduced if the searcher knows where to search.


Waste from transportation and handling

The necessity to move and transport can be caused by the previously mentioned wastes. All transportations
may not be eliminated, but they have to be kept to the very minimum.

Looking for a pallet truck to move crates or pallets is a common occupation in the workshops. People most
often claim for more trucks, but a proper set of rules, parking areas and discipline to bring them back after
use is enough to solve availability problems.


Waste related to useless and excess inventories

"Useless"! the name itself gives the solution. In the 5S way, anything that is useless is to be eliminated. In
case of inventories, the gain is the value of the goods stored and the regained spaces, which must be
dedicated preferably to value creating activities.

Paper documents and their numerous copies, catalogues and calendars of previous years, files and data, dry
and worn out pens and pencils... all excess inventories!


Waste in production process

Procedures and work guides which are not constantly updated are likely to let useless operations be
performed in the process. Sorting and ordering applies also in the sequences of the process and the related
documents.
                                                                                                               16

This type of waste is also common in administration processes and office work. Old rules still remain even if
the causes of their creation disappeared a while ago. As long as nobody will update the set of rules, everyone
will carry on, sticking to the olds with application and discipline.


Useless motions

Ergonomics of the work place is certainly the most popular and "visibles" application of the 5S. The layout
and display of the area will follow the 5S logic, favouring availability of necessary items, distance of reach,
ease for tending. Among useless motions, do not forget the walks to search for missing items, data,
instructions, complementary information.


Waste from scrap and defects

Quality defects resulting in rework or scrap are a tremendous cost to organizations. Associated costs include
quarantining inventory, re-inspecting, rescheduling, and capacity loss. In many organizations the total cost
of defects is often a significant percentage of total manufacturing cost.




An easy way to remember the 7 wastes is TIMWOOD.

T: Transportation

I: Inventory

M: Motion

W: Wait

O: Over-processing

O: Over-production

D: Defect
                                                  17




http://www.wcmfg.com/images/KaizenCardSide1.JPG
                                                                                                             18

VALUE STREAM MAPPING

Value Stream Mapping is a method of visually mapping a product's production path (materials and
information) from "door to door". VSM can serve as a starting point to help management, engineers,
production associates, schedulers, suppliers, and customers recognize waste and identify its causes. The
process includes physically mapping your "current state" while also focusing on where you want to be, or
your "future state" blueprint, which can serve as the foundation for other Lean improvement strategies.

A value stream is all the actions (both value added and non-value added) currently required to bring a
product through the main flows essential to every product:

·     The production flow from raw material into the arms of the customer

·     The design flow from concept to launch

Taking a value stream perspective means working on the big picture, not just individual processes, and
improving the whole, not just optimizing the parts.

Within the production flow, the movement of material through the factory is the flow that usually comes to
mind. But there is another flow - of information - that tells each process what to make or do next. You must
map both of these flows.

Value Stream Mapping can be a communication tool, a business planning tool, and a tool to manage your
change process. The first step is drawing the current state, which is done by gathering information on the
shop floor. This provides the information needed to map a future state. The final step is to prepare and begin
actively using an implementation plan that describes, on one page, how you plan to achieve the future state.
                                                                                                        19

THE TOYOTA WAY

Toyota is well-known as one of the leaders in using Kaizen. In 1999 at one U.S. plant, 7,000 Toyota
employees submitted over 75,000 suggestions, of which 99% were implemented.

The Toyota Production System is known for kaizen, where all line personnel are expected to stop their
moving production line in case of any abnormality and, along with their supervisor, suggest an improvement
to resolve the abnormality which may initiate a kaizen.




The PDCA cycles

The cycle of kaizen activity can be defined as:

      Standardize an operation
      Measure the standardized operation (find cycle time and amount of in-process inventory).
      Gauge measurements against requirements.
      Innovate to meet requirements and increase productivity.
      Standardize the new, improved operations.
      Continue cycle ad infinitum.

This is also known as the Shewhart cycle, Deming cycle, or PDCA.
                                                                                                          20

KAIZEN AT TAJ HOTELS

The Hotel Taj President, Mumbai - part of the Rs 687 crore Indian Hotels Corporation Ltd (IHCL) - recently
witnessed a peculiar problem at its main kitchen. Breakages in the main kitchen were high due to incorrect
flow of cutlery and crockery during washing. The Konkan Cafe and the Thai Kitchen, two restaurants at Taj
President, were also facing problems due to the depth of the sink and mixing up of metal and chinaware. The
hotel decided to set up a Kaizen team comprising - Chef Ananda Solomon, Rajkishore Mahto and Wilfred
Rebello - who immediately sprung into action. The team studied the problem and set about to rectify it.

The system of “one piece at a time” into the dishwasher was implemented. The layout of the dishwashing
area was changed to facilitate single-piece flow. But the result: The breakage of crockery came down by 28
per cent. Savings from the stoppage of breakages are at Rs 6 lakh per annum. In the main kitchen, gains are
around Rs 1.75 lakh per annum and in the Konkan Cafe and Thai Kitchen, the gains are around Rs 2 lakh
each.
                                                                     21

THE GUJARAT GOVERNMENT IMPLEMNETING KAIZEN




Source - http://www.kaizen.com/business-sectors/public-sector.html
                                                                                                                22

MARUTI UDYOG LIMITED ADOPTING KAIZEN

In its bid to meet limited capacity challenges at its existing plants, Maruti Suzuki has said that it will be
adopting „Kaizen‟ methodologies in its production processes that would help it to rationalize its assembly
lines


I. V. Rao, managing executive officer, Engineering, Maruti Suzuki India Ltd (MSIL), said, “This will be a
major milestone for the company and also brings new challenges as we could face some capacity
constraints. By using the Japanese Kaizen production methodologies, we are working to bring about
incremental gains in production at Gurgaon and Manesar plants.” He added, “The Manesar plant is faced
with serious capacity constraint. Therefore, we are in the process of further streamlining operations.
However, we have no plans to add a third shift. We are actively considering expansion and a decision is
likely by next fiscal. The company accounts for 54 per cent market share and we will continue to bring in
new products to retain our hare,” he said.
                                                                                                           23

ADITYA BIRLA GROUP IMLEMENTING KAIZEN

OBJECTIVE:
The purpose of the Scheme is to motivate our employees for innovation & creativity through focused
improvement. Cost Effectiveness through loss reduction, product quality improvement etc. leading to overall
enhancement in Organisational competitiveness and customer delight and motivate team building & group
activities

Aditya birla group says:

We can achieve following through Kaizen Culture among all of us -



            Reductions in cost of manufacturing by direct reduction in power consumption, energy
             consumption or increase in productivity by that specific focused improvement projects
            Reduction in Off Grade Generation
            Reduction in Energy Consumption (Total)
            Reduction in Total Repairs and Maintenance Cost (Excluding Dredging, Dry Dock and
             Special Repair)
            Reduction in Total Stores and Spares Inventory
            Reduction in Average Raw Material Inventory
            Increase in Plant On Stream Days
            Increase Sales Volume
            Increase in Revenue Generation from new initiatives


            Reduction in customer complaints, resulting into direct saving of money
            Reduction in cost of selling & marketing, logistics or enhancing value from the money spent
             in selling & marketing by doing the things differently.
            Modification in system to improve profitability
                                                                                                              24

HOW CAN KAIZEN HELP

The Benefits Resulting From Kaizen

Kaizen involves every employee in making change--in most cases small, incremental changes. It focuses on
identifying problems at their source, solving them at their source, and changing standards to ensure the
problem stays solved. It's not unusual for Kaizen to result in 25 to 30 suggestions per employee, per year,
and to have over 90% of those implemented.

For example, Toyota is well-known as one of the leaders in using Kaizen. In 1999 at one U.S. plant, 7,000
Toyota employees submitted over 75,000 suggestions, of which 99% were implemented.

These continual small improvements add up to major benefits. They result in improved productivity,
improved quality, better safety, faster delivery, lower costs, and greater customer satisfaction. On top of
these benefits to the company, employees working in Kaizen-based companies generally find work to be
easier and more enjoyable--resulting in higher employee morale and job satisfaction, and lower turn-over.

With every employee looking for ways to make improvements, you can expect results such as:

Kaizen Reduces Waste in areas such as inventory, waiting times, transportation, worker motion, employee
skills, over production, excess quality and in processes.

Kaizen Improves space utilization, product quality, use of capital, communications, production capacity
and employee retention.

Kaizen provides immediate results. Instead of focusing on large, capital intensive improvements, Kaizen
focuses on creative investments that continually solve large numbers of small problems. Large, capital
projects and major changes will still be needed, and Kaizen will also improve the capital projects process,
but the real power of Kaizen is in the on-going process of continually making small improvements that
improve processes and reduce waste.

Someone is going to come up with a better, faster or cheaper way. It will either be you or your competition.
Look at your lead time from 5 years ago and compare that to how you perform today. Chances are you're a
lot faster, now. When you look ahead 5 years; will you be where you need to be? Adaptation of a philosophy
of continuous improvement and Kaizen will help you:

      Proactively improve production
      Reduce manufacturing waste
      Increase employee involvement
                                                                                                              25

      Increase customer satisfaction

Companies that continuously improve, continuously succeed.




CRITICISMS

Some critics of kaizen claim that the cost-cutting measures come at the expense of fair labor practices and
quality products. Examples include:

      Accusations of death by overwork at Toyota that included unpaid "so-called voluntary quality
       control meetings held after regular work hours"
      Suppliers refusing to accept orders from Toyota or its affiliates due to successive price cuts
      A four-year-old memo from Japanese factory workers warning that safety was being put at risk by
       aggressive cost-cutting
      In healthcare, direct-care providers such as nurses have struck over these streamlining procedures,
       because "procedure times can‟t always be standardized". Hospitals have used these streamlining
       procedures as an excuse to cut patient-care staff.
      Although Kaizen is supposed to involve input from all employees, critics claim that in reality front-
       line workers are not consulted.




Lean Kaizen / DMAIC process

   1. Define (D) Define the scope and set objectives in project charter
   2. Measure (M) Measure the current state process map such as process steps, process
       time, lead time, WIP, etc from the work place or gemba
   3. Analyze (A) Analyze current state, i.e. value and non-value added processes,
       bottleneck constraint and process efficiency
   4. Improve (I) Improve process by designing a future state map
   5. Control (C) Control and hold the gain with metrics to monitor results over time
                                                                           26

BASIC TIPS FOR KAIZEN ACTIVITIES

Discard conventional fixed ideas.

Think of how to do it, not why it cannot be done.

Do not make excuses. Start by questioning current practices.

Do not seek perfection. Do it right away even if for only 50% of target.

Correct it right away, if you make mistake.

Do not spend money for KAIZEN, use your wisdom.

Wisdom is brought out when faced with hardship.

Ask 'WHY?" five times and seek root causes.

Seek the wisdom of ten people rather than the knowledge of one.

KAIZEN ideas are infinite.
                                                                                     27

WEBILIOGRAPHY

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kaizen#Implementation

http://www.shmula.com/2035/no-standard-then-no-kaizen

http://www.graphicproducts.com/tutorials/kaizen/index.php

http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/6-21-2006-100037.asp

http://www.docstoc.com/docs/DownloadDoc.aspx?doc_id=2642271

http://www.google.co.in/search?hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=jPs&rls=org.mozilla%3Aen-
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posted:3/28/2011
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