Learning Center
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out
Your Federal Quarterly Tax Payments are due April 15th Get Help Now >>


VIEWS: 561 PAGES: 336

  • pg 1
									53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

                                  MAY 17 – 21 TORONTO

International Association for Great Lakes Research
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

                                       TABLE OF CONTENTS

      Conference Abstracts…………………………………………………….             5

      Author Index………………………………………………………………                  304

      Keyword Index……………………………………………………………                  322

May 17-21, 2010                                  3         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

May 17-21, 2010                                  4   Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      ADAMS, N.S., HOLBROOK, C.M., and HATTON, T.W., USGS Western Fisheries Research
      Center, 5501A Cook-Underwood Road, Cook, WA, 98605. From Fine-Scale Fish Behavior to
      System-Wide Survival: Acoustic Telemetry Studies in Large Regulated Rivers.

              Advances in acoustic telemetry technology have allowed fishery researchers and
      managers to gather data that were previously unattainable using other methods. In addition to
      characterizing movements over large scales (e.g., passage routes and survival of fish during
      migration) acoustic telemetry can provide two- and three-dimensional fish location data at small
      scales. The ability to obtain fine-scale fish position data has greatly expanded our knowledge of
      fish behavior in complex environments. Our objective is to demonstrate how this technology has
      advanced our knowledge of fish behavior in a variety of environments and aided in the
      development of management strategies designed to improve survival of juvenile fish in heavily
      managed rivers. We will review studies that evaluate fish passage, behavior, and survival of
      juvenile fish in the Snake and Columbia rivers as well as in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River
      Delta. In the last ten years, studies have evolved from behavioral analyses in the forebays of
      large dams to integrated behavior and survival studies that encompass river systems. We will
      discuss the challenges we have encountered and the benefits associated with the evolution of the
      application of this technology. Keywords: Acoustics, Fish populations, Fish behavior.

      AGHSAEE, P.1, BOEGMAN, L.1, and LAMB, K.G.2, 1Department of Civil Engineering,
      Queen's university, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6; 2Department of Applied Mathematics, University
      of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1. Instability mechanisms and reflection of internal
      solitary waves shoaling upon coastal boundaries of lakes and oceans.

              The instability and breaking of fully nonlinear internal solitary waves shoaling upon a
      uniformly sloping boundary was investigated using high resolution two-dimensional numerical
      simulations. The simulations were performed for a wide range of boundary and wave slopes
      (0.01 < S < 0.3). Over steep slopes (S > 0.1), three distinct breaking processes were observed;
      surging, plunging and collapsing breakers which are associated with reflection, convective
      instability and boundary layer separation, respectively. Over mild slopes S < 0.05 nonlinearity
      varies gradually and fission results from dispersion. The dynamics of each breaker type were
      investigated and the predominance of a particular mechanism was associated with each breaker
      type. The breaking location was modeled as a function of wave amplitude (a), characteristic
      wave length (Lw) and the isopycnal length along the slope (Li). The breaker type was
      characterized in wave slope (a/Lw) versus S space and the reflection coefficient (R) was
      modelled as a function of the internal Iribarren number. High Reynolds numbers (Re > 10^4)
      were found to trigger a global instability, which modifies the breaking process, relative to the
      lower Re case, but not necessarily the breaking location and results in an increase in the
      reflection coefficient by approximately 10%. Keywords: Coastal processes, Waves.

      AHMED, S.I., RUDRA, R.P., HUE, R., DICKINSON, W.T., and GHARABAGHI, D., SWchool
      of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G2W1, Canada. The Possible Impact of
      Changing Climate Characteristics on Soil and Water Resources in the Ontario Great Lakes

May 17-21, 2010                                      5                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of climate change on soil erosion,
      and water quality and quantity in the Ontario Great Lakes Basin. The approach followed includes
      the development of future precipitation and temperature scenario using CGCM, downscaling the
      generated data, calibration and validation of watershed scale model, Soil and Water Assessment
      Tool (SWAT), and a field scale model, Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator (EPIC), using
      historical data, and simulations of future scenarios using SWAT and EPIC for soil and water
      quality. The results of the modeling study using SWAT with future weather predictions showed
      more evapotranspiration and thus the total water yield may decrease significantly. Also, the
      future stream flow may have longer low flow periods which may result in severe annual water
      deficiency by 2030 in streamflow. It could also result in a decrease in stream sediment transport
      capacity. The evaluation of changing climate impact on soil and water quality at field scale using
      EPIC model is expected to shed light on soil and water quality at field scale. Keywords: Water
      quality, Water Buget, Watersheds.

      AHRENSTORFF, T.D. and HRABIK, T.R., Department of Biology, University of Minnesota -
      Duluth, Duluth, MN, 55812. Seasonally Dynamic Diel Vertical Migrations of the Opossum
      Shrimp Mysis relicta, Coregonids Coregonus spp., and Siscowet Lake Trout Salvelinus
      namaycush in the Pelagia of Western Lake Superior.

              Diel vertical migrations of organisms are often associated with changing light levels,
      while the underlying mechanisms are generally attributed to optimizing foraging efficiency or
      growth rates, while avoiding predation risk. From 2005–2008, we used an optical plankton
      counter, hydroacoustics, and midwater and bottom trawls to assess seasonal changes in vertical
      migration patterns of the Lake Superior pelagic food web containing opossum shrimp Mysis
      relicta, kiyi Coregonus kiyi, cisco C. artedi, and siscowet lake trout Salvelinus namaycush. In
      addition, we applied foraging, growth, and predation risk models to provide insight into why
      observed migration patterns vary between species and seasons. Our results suggest that mysis,
      kiyi, and siscowet lake trout migrate concurrently during each season, but to a lesser extent in
      spring compared to summer and fall. In comparison, cisco migrate less extensively regardless of
      season. Our modeling approach suggests that foraging potential and predation risk influences the
      movement patterns of mysis, kiyi, and cisco, while foraging potential alone describes the vertical
      movements of siscowet lake trout. Cisco movement patterns also relate to highest growth
      potential, while for the other species higher growth rates could be achieved at various other
      depths. Keywords: Hydroacoustics, Fish behavior, Lake Superior.

      ALADIN, N. and PLOTNIKOV, I., Universitetskaya nab. 1, St.-Petersburg, 199034, Russian
      Federation. Changing of the biodiversity (paleo and recent) in the Caspian Sea.

              The Caspian Sea is the world's largest lake and one of the most ancient lakes. It is the
      remnant of Paratethys. The whole Caspian area can be divided by three parts differing in
      hydrology. An important feature great diversity of physico-chemical conditions. Salinity differs
      in different parts of the lake. Recent biodiversity reflects the story of Palaeo-Caspian
      transgressions and regressions followed by freshening and salinization. Four main components

May 17-21, 2010                                       6                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      form the present biodiversity of the Caspian Sea: Caspian, Arctic, Atlantic and Mediterranean,
      fresh-water. Biodiversity began increase after building the Volga-Don canal due to invasions
      with boat ballast water or in biofouling. At the end of the 20th century ctenophore Mnemiopsis
      leidyi has invaded the Caspian Sea. In 2000 it was numerous in the Middle and Southern and
      appeared in the Northern Caspian. Due to recent Mnemiopsis invasion we have a great risk for
      Caspian Sea ecosystem. This organism could harvest nearly all plankton and due to this all
      ecosystem could collapse. In waters of Azerbaijan nearly all endemic Onychopoda already
      disappeared because of predation. Introduction of Beroe ovata to prevent catastrophe is
      discussed. Keywords: Invasive species, Caspian Sea, Biodiversity.

      ALI, K.A., WITTER, D.L., and ORTIZ, J.D., 221 McGilvrey Hall, Department of Geology,
      Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242. An improved method for optical-feature extraction
      from multi-spectral data.

              Remote sensing has become very promising in providing temporal and spatial
      information regarding biogeodynamics in large, and open freshwater bodies. However, in
      optically complex environments, such as in the Western Basin of Lake Erie, the water contains
      multiple constituents including phytoplankton, sediment, and organic carbon. Identifying and
      analyzing in-water constituents in such waters is crucial for understanding and assessing the
      biogeochemical process of interest, i.e., phytoplankton and sediment dynamics. Determining the
      in-water constituents from satellite observations is complicated when working with mixed
      spectral signatures. This study focuses on improving the quantification of phytoplankton and
      sediment concentrations, independently, by applying signal decomposition to the reflectance data
      using spectra transformation. This study indicates that applying spectral transformation using
      wavelet analysis, results in increased accuracy as compared to using other feature extraction
      methods such as the principle component analysis of untransformed spectra and conventional
      spectral indices. The superior results of the wavelet technique in discriminating between the
      various water constituents can be attributed to the frequency content retrieved by the wavelet
      technique combined with the localization property of wavelets. Keywords: Remote sensing, Lake
      Erie, Water quality.

      ALLAN, B.V.1, POND, B.R.2, GEE, K.R.1, HERNANDEZ, P.A.3, and MEYER, S.A.1, 1Ministry
      of Natural Resources, Midhurst District Office, 2284 Nursery Road, Midhurst, ON, LOL 1XO;
        Ministry of Natural Resources, Wildlife Research and Development Section, Peterborough, ON,
      K9J 7B8; 3Ministry of Natural Resources, Aurora District Office, 50 Bloomington Road, Aurora,
      ON, L4G 0L8. Monitoring the Terrestrial Natural Heritage and Hydrologic Features in the
      Lake Simcoe Watershed.

             The Lake Simcoe Protection Plan (LSPP) commits the Ministry of Natural Resources
      (MNR), and its partners the Ministry of the Environment (MOE) and the Lake Simcoe Region
      Conservation Authority (LSRCA) to develop and implement a monitoring program that
      measures the state of the natural heritage and hydrologic features in the terrestrial landscape of
      the Lake Simcoe watershed. This task was broken down into two phases, a program development
      phase and an implementation phase. A framework was drafted that uses a Pressure-State-

May 17-21, 2010                                       7                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Response model to develop and organize a suite of state indicators. The framework calls on the
      creation of a foundation report to provide the background materials and options for a watershed-
      wide monitoring plan. The foundation report is a technical report that outlines the information
      for a theme that can be used to identify appropriate indicators for monitoring. Themes in the
      foundation report include natural cover, valleyland, riparian habitat and ecological health. Once
      the development phase is complete, an implementation report will guide phase 2 of the
      monitoring program. Through the LSPP, outputs of this monitoring program will help inform
      government policy and decision making. Keywords: Ecosystem health, Monitoring, Lake

      SEYSMITH, C.E.2, and OSMOK, J.P.1, 1Ministry of Natural Resources, Midhurst District
      Office, 2284 Nursery Road, Midhurst, ON, LOL 1XO; 2Ministry of Natural Resources, Aurora
      District Office, 50 Bloomington Road West, Aurora, ON, L4G 3G8; 3Minsitry of Natural
      Resources, Southern Science and Information Section, 659 Exeter Road, London, ON, N6E 1L3.
      Wetland and Riparian Habitat Restoration in the Lake Simcoe Watershed.

              The Lake Simcoe Protection Plan sets a number of targets and indicators to minimize
      future impacts on the lake and to protect and restore natural heritage features. Some of the
      natural heritage targets will be achieved through a strategy to delineate priority areas for wetland
      and riparian restoration. A thorough analysis of potential wetland and riparian restoration sites in
      the watershed was conducted and priority sites were established through a series of ecological,
      social and historical analyses. Initial scoping of the 18 Lake Simcoe subwatersheds was
      undertaken to identify 3 candidate subwatersheds. White‘s Creek, Innisfil Creeks and
      Maskinonge River were identified. From preliminary scoping within those three sub-watersheds
      approximately 75 potential sites were found. Data were collected on over 25 attributes for the 3
      subwatersheds in three main categories: biological, water quality/quantity and social/political.
      This analysis will provide a foundation for long-term wetland and riparian rehabilitation efforts
      by numerous partners and will help to inform future land management and planning decisions.
      Keywords: Wetlands, Tributaries, Lake Simcoe.

      ALLAN, J.D., HAN, H., and BOSCH, N.S., School of Natural Resources and Environment,
      University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109. Spatial and Temporal Variation in
      Phosphorus Budgets for 24 Lake Erie and Lake Michigan Watersheds.

              We estimated net anthropogenic phosphorus inputs (NAPI) to 18 Lake Michigan (LM)
      and 6 Lake Erie (LE) watersheds for 1974, 1978, 1982, 1987, and 1992. NAPI quantifies all
      anthropogenic inputs of P (fertilizer use, atmospheric deposition, and detergents) as well as trade
      of P in food and feed, which can be a net input or output. Fertilizer was the dominant input
      overall, varying by three orders of magnitude among the 24 watersheds, but detergent was the
      largest input in the most urbanized watershed. NAPI increased in relation to area of disturbed
      land (R2=0.90) and decreased with forested and wetland area (R2= 0.90). Export of P by rivers
      varied with NAPI, especially for the 18 watersheds of LM (R2=0.93), whereas the relationship
      was more variable among the six LE watersheds (R2=0.59). On average, rivers of the LE

May 17-21, 2010                                        8                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      watersheds exported about 10% of NAPI, whereas LM watersheds exported 5% of estimated
      NAPI. A comparison of our results with others as well as nitrogen (N) budgets suggests that
      fractional export of P may vary regionally, as has been reported for N, and the proportion of P
      inputs exported by rivers appears lower than comparable findings with N.
      Keywords: Watersheds, Nutrients, Phosphorus.

      ALLEN, J.1 and AUSTIN, J.A.2, 1Department of Geology, University of Minnesota, Duluth,
      Duluth, MN, 55812, USA; 2Large Lakes Observatory, University of Minnesota, Duluth, Duluth,
      MN, 55812, USA. The sensitivity of lake thermal structure to changes in meteorological

              The formation of thermal structure in large lakes is dependent on complex interactions
      between the surface and the atmosphere. In order to gain an understanding of the sensitivity of
      the lake to various atmospheric inputs as well as seasonal variables we use numerical modeling
      techniques as well as observed data. We use a one dimensional model, forced with realistic
      meteorological measurements, to determine sensitivity of summer lake thermal structure
      including surface temperature, heat content, and mixed layer depth. Forcing parameters: air
      temperature, wind speed, and previous winter ice cover, are varied here to replicate long term
      trends over the past few decades. Average summer surface temperature increased with increased
      air temperatures, decreased ice cover, and decreased wind speeds. Heat content responded most
      significantly to ice cover variations, with changes in initial water temperatures (a proxy for
      winter ice cover) maintaining throughout the summer season. Mixed layer depth responded to
      wind speed, with increases in wind speed leading to increased depth of the surface mixed layer.
      Keywords: Hydrodynamic model, Climate change.

      ANDERSON, E.J.1 and SCHWAB, D.J.2, 1University of Michigan - CILER, 4840 S. State Rd,
      Ann Arbor, MI, 48108; 2NOAA - Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab, 4840 S. State Rd.,
      Ann Arbor, MI, 48108. Hydrodynamic Modeling and Contaminant Tracking in the St.
      Clair River for Public Water Safety and Spill Response.

              The Huron-Erie Corridor (HEC) is home to commercial shipping and industrial plants in
      the St. Clair River and serves as source water for numerous surrounding communities. As such,
      the potential for contaminant spills in the river to reach public water intakes along the corridor is
      of great concern. In order to assess possible contaminant trajectories and provide information for
      public water management and spill response, a hydrodynamic model of the HEC has been
      developed for real-time predictions of currents and water levels. In August 2009, dye
      experiments were carried out to mimic a spill in the St. Clair River. Observations of travel time
      and plume dispersion were compared to computer simulations of dye and particle releases using
      the Huron-Erie Connecting Waterways Forecasting System (HECWFS). Overall, the path and
      concentrations of a potential release may be highly dependent on the location of the spill. A
      series of spill scenarios were carried out to quantify a range of potential releases in the river.
      These simulations have been incorporated into a library of spill scenario forecasts that can be
      used at the time of a spill to estimate travel time, peak concentration, and exposure time of the

May 17-21, 2010                                        9                                          Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      spill at numerous water treatment plants along the corridor as well as for spill response.
      Keywords: St. Clair River, Drinking water, Hydrodynamics.

      APFELBAUM, S.I.1, DEKKER, T.J.2, and VANVALKENBURGH, M.3, 1Applied Ecological
      Services, Brodhead, WI, 53520; 2LimnoTech, Ann Arbor, MI; 3Michale Van Valkenburgh and
      Associates, New York, NY. An Ecologist‟s Perspective on the Don River Naturalization:
      Toronto, Canada.

              As urban rivers in the Great Lakes have been altered by the effects of shoreline
      development and watershed urbanization, many problems, including damages from flooding,
      impaired water quality, and impacts to biological communities have resulted. Like most urban
      rivers in the Great Lakes, the Don River in Toronto is impacted by a complex combination of
      factors that have not been successfully addressed historically. Solutions have typically focused
      only on a single aspect of the problem, rather than the complex whole. The Don River
      naturalization project design attempts to understand the challenges of restoring river function in a
      constrained urban setting, where urban infrastructure and land use contribute to extreme
      flooding, high sediment loads, compromised water quality, and limited biodiversity. Instead of
      the single problem, single solution, we have optimized a suite of solutions that first are driven by
      the site constraints and limitations, secondly by solving mandatory problems such as flooding,
      and then by conceptualizing a ririver restoration. The result is what may be the first-ever
      reconstruction and restoration of a new Great Lakes river mouth, with an associated park system
      that would accommodate floodwaters, create a restored river mouth ecology, and provide habitat
      for species diversification. Keywords: Habitats, Ecosystems, Lake Ontario.

      S.3, 1University of Toronto, Toronto, ON; 2University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 3Ontario
      Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON. Should We Trust the Phosphorus Loading
      Models? A Bayesian Hierarchical Reassessment.

               We revisit the phosphorus retention and nutrient loading models in limnology using a
      Bayesian hierarchical framework. This methodological tool relaxes a basic assumption of
      regression models fitted to data sets consisting of observations from multiple systems, i.e., the
      systems are assumed to be identical in behaviour, and therefore the models have a single
      common set of parameters for all systems. Under the hierarchical structure, the models are
      dissected into levels (hierarchies) that explicitly account for the role of significant sources of
      variability (e.g., morphometry, mixing regime, geographical location, land use patterns, trophic
      status), thereby allowing for intersystem parameter differences. Thus, the proposed approach is a
      compromise between site-specific (where limited local data is a problem) and globally-common
      (where heterogeneous systems in wide geographical areas are assumed to be identical) parameter
      estimates. Finally, our analysis demonstrates how the Bayesian hierarchical framework can be
      used for assessing the exceedance frequency and confidence of compliance of water quality
      standards. We conclude that the proposed methodological framework will be very useful in the
      policy-making process and can optimize environmental management actions in space and time.

May 17-21, 2010                                       10                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Keywords: Water quality criteria, Eutrophication, Bayesian inference, Phosphorus, Risk
      assessment, Model testing.

      ARMENIO, P.M. and MAYER, C.M., Department of Environmental Sciences and the Lake Erie
      Center, The University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, 43616. Nutrient contributions from Dreissena
      to the benthic cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei.

               The cyanobacterium Lyngbya wollei has recently become abundant on the bottom of
      Lake Erie; it becomes a nuisance because it floats to the surface and can form meter-deep masses
      along the shoreline. Dreissena spp. (zebra and quagga mussels), clear the water column and
      increase light to the benthos and may also contribute a limiting nutrient to the benthic algae,
      facilitating blooms. Manipulative experiments showed that Lyngbya had higher chlorophyll a
      and phycocyanin in tanks with live dreissenid mussels than tanks without live mussels. Lyngbya
      also had a higher concentration of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur in the
      tanks with live Dreissena. However, Lyngbya had a lower concentration of calcium in the tanks
      with live mussels. None of the tanks had a phosphorus deficiency, but did have a moderate
      nitrogen deficiency; although, Lyngbya from the live Dreissena tanks had less of a nitrogen
      deficiency, and was borderline no deficiency. These results suggest that Dreissena give nutrients
      to Lyngbya thereby making it photosynthetically healthier. Since Dreissena give these resources
      to the benthic algae, the mussels can therefore promote algal growth and productivity and aid in
      bloom formation. Keywords: Invasive species, Productivity, Algae, Nutrients.

      ARNOLD, R.T., Drinking Water Source Protection, Grey Sauble Conservation Authority, Owen
      Sound, ON, N4K 5N6. On certainty economics of integrated data management for Drinking
      Water Source Protection.

              The Clean Water Act was passed by the Province of Ontario in 2006, leading to the
      Drinking Water Source Protection (DWSP) Program. After the Terms of References were
      negotiated, this program produces a science-based assessment report and then develops policies
      to protect drinking water sources through a committee of local stakeholders. The program legally
      establishes modeling as tool for planning and zoning. Scientific uncertainties remain, related to
      data sources and the conceptualization of the area. Regular improvements of model results and
      thus zoning are anticipated – either as part of the 5-year update cycle, or in cases where scientific
      knowledge may be legally challenged, for example before the Ontario Municipal Board. How
      can the public agencies that oversee this process of regular updating minimize the costs of
      model- and data management over such time horizon, while ensuring that the certainty of
      information is actually improved? The certainty of information can be regarded as a good that a
      public agency generates. Certainty improvements should be optimized economically to minimize
      the costs for DWSP. This article discusses options for model and data management. A process is
      outlined that guarantees past knowledge is not lost in update cycles and ensures that information
      is generated consistently and transparently. Keywords: Economic evaluation, Model testing,
      Drinking water.

May 17-21, 2010                                        11                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      M.2, LIU, X.2, PARKER, G.2, and PARSONS, D.5, 1University of Western Ontario, London;
        University of Illinois, Urbana-Chapaign; 3U.S. Geological Survey, Urbana-Champaign; 4U.S.
      Geological Survey, Woods Hole; 5University of Leeds, Leeds, UK. Morphology,
      sedimentology and dynamics of the upper St. Clair River.

               Recent video and acoustic surveys of the upper St. Clair River, as part of the International
      Upper Great Lakes Study, have revealed new information about the geology, morphology and
      substrate of this unusual, non-alluvial, river. The upper 1-2 km of the river is underlain by a
      considerable thickness of fluvio-glacial gravel, which thins downstream, with clay till beneath.
      The river bed is dominated by this coarse gravel-cobble material but, where this deposit thins-
      out, glacial till is exposed in some areas. Bed material grain size appears to be in equilibrium
      with prevailing flows, transport of the gravel is minimal and sediment load is restricted to low
      intensity background sand flux and suspension of fines in the lake. Features of the bed include
      local scour around obstacle (e.g. ship wrecks), deep pools in the bends, linear grooves and ridges
      in till, and some areas of transverse bed waves in gravel and sand. Hydraulic and grain size
      analysis indicates that much of the bed material is not erodible under present flow conditions,
      leading to the hypothesis that the bed waves and ridge-groove features are related to propeller
      wash and other ship effects that disturb the bed. Keywords: St. Clair River, Acoustics, Sediment

      ASPINALL, J.D.1, THUSS, E.P.2, and SWEENEY, S.J.1, 11 Stone Rd W, Guelph, ON, N1G4Y2;
        200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON, N2L3G1. Addressing soil landscape database
      challenges: an application of predictive soil mapping in the Lake Simcoe watershed.

              The digital soil landscape database information for the Lake Simcoe watershed in
      southern Ontario requires significant improvements to facilitate meaningful multi-scale water
      quality modelling. This paper describes the approaches taken to address this issue. Legacy soil
      landscape information for this watershed included a digital elevation model (DEM) built from
      elevation contours in 2002 and a series of digitized county-level soil survey maps (1950‘s
      originals at 1‖:1mile). A predictive soil mapping method was employed to maintain the essence
      of the original soil map unit (soil series) concepts but automate the shifting on their digital
      polygon boundary positions into appropriate landscape positions as represented on the detailed
      DEM framework. A Laplacian operation was performed on the DEM to characterize landform
      feature curvatures – concavities and convexities. The LandMapR toolkit of programs for
      processing DEM‘s and classifying soil landscapes was applied to extract terrain attributes. The
      SoLIM (Soil Land Inference Model) was then employed in setting up a sequence of rules to
      assign soil catenas to their proper landscape positions. The resulting seamless, digital soil map
      layer now positions the legacy soil map units in correct alignment with the landscape feature
      resolution of the DEM. Keywords: Pollution sources, Digital soil mapping, GIS, Lake Simcoe.

      AUER, M.T.1, BOWEN, G.2, and HOWELL, E.T.3, 1Department of Civil & Environmental
      Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, 49931; 2Toronto and Region
      Conservation, Downsview, ON, M3N 1S4; 3Environmental Monitoring & Reporting Branch,

May 17-21, 2010                                        12                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Etobicoke, ON, M4V 1P5. Monitoring, Modeling &
      Management of Water Quality in the Lake Ontario Nearshore at Ajax, Ontario.

              Water quality improvements achieved for the Lake Ontario offshore have not been
      universally realized in nearshore waters. Lost beneficial uses relate to proliferation of
      Cladophora, levels of fecal bacteria and poor clarity. Management of the system‘s ‗land side‘
      derives guidance from models supported by a comprehensive and sophisticated suite of
      monitoring and remote sensing capabilities. No comparable platform is widely available for the
      ‗water side‘, i.e. to assess the response to ‗land-side‘ management. Toronto and Region
      Conservation (TRCA), responsible for 60 km of Lake Ontario waterfront, presently manages
      watersheds including the Duffins/Carruthers Creek system located near Ajax, Ontario. Pollutant
      loads from this system have been reduced through a proactive program of education, land use
      management and land acquisition. Further progress would be facilitated by application of a tool
      quantifying the relative roles of lakewide, regional and local stressors in mediating water quality.
      Here, we describe a steady-state, 2D model applied for that purpose. The model uses loading
      estimates and field data from TRCA‘s monitoring program to compare the impact of local
      (stormwater inputs, the Duffins and Carruthers Creek discharges and a treatment plant point
      source), regional (longshore) and lakewide (offshore) stressors. Keywords: Lake Ontario,
      Nearshore, Model studies, Monitoring.

      AUSTIN, J.A., Large Lakes Observatory, University of Minnesota, Duluth, Duluth, MN, 55812,
      USA. Resolving a persistent offshore temperature maximum using an Autonomous
      Underwater Glider.

             In November 2009, we deployed a Webb Research Autonomous Underwater Glider in
      western Lake Superior. It continuously occupied a 12-km long cross-shelf section of the
      Wisconsin shelf for 12 days, making 26 full surveys of the section. The shelf waters were
      cooling off steadily during this period. We observed a persistent offshore temperature maximum
      on the order of 0.5C above the coastal or offshore surface temperature. This appears to be due to
      the competing effects of more rapid cooling in shallow, onshore water, and the mixing of deep
      cold water into offshore surface waters. While this temperature maximum may not be of
      fundamental importance in and of itself, it represents a phenomenon that would be difficult to
      resolve through more familiar sampling schemes, such as shipboard CTD surveys or moored
      instrumentation. Keywords: Lake Superior, Thermal structure, Atmosphere-lake interaction,
      Coastal processes.

      AVON, L., KENNEDY, I., and MALIS, G., Health Canada, Pest Management Regulatory
      Agency, Environmental Assessment Directorate, 2720 Riverside Dr., Ottawa, ON, K1A 0K9.
      Estimation of Pesticide Concentrations in Surface Water and Groundwater for Human
      Health and Ecological Exposure.

             Estimating concentrations of pesticides in water bodies is an integral part of the
      environmental risk assessment process conducted by Health Canada‘s Pest Management
      Regulatory Agency (PMRA). The PMRA has developed a methodology for estimating pesticide

May 17-21, 2010                                       13                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      concentrations in relationship to proposed and registered pesticide application practices across
      Canada. Computer simulations are used to estimate pesticides concentrations in surface water
      and groundwater. For surface water, PMRA uses the linked PRZM and EXAMS models. For
      groundwater, PMRA uses the LEACHM model. Concentrations in surface water and
      groundwater are estimated for a series of agricultural scenarios that are typical of the major crop-
      growing areas in Canada using regional meteorological data, characterisation of soils and crops,
      and chemistry and environmental fate data from the PMRA review process. For surface water,
      PMRA currently uses three scenarios, a small reservoir, prairie dugout and a small pond. Daily
      pesticide concentrations in surface water and groundwater are estimated for a multi-year period
      and summary statistics computed. These results are used to assess risks to human health and the
      environment in the context of registration decisions. Keywords: Pesticides, Risk assessment
      methods, Assessments.

      AWAD, E., MAHON, C., BHAVSAR, S., and PETRO, S., Ontario Ministry of Environment,
      125 Resources Road, Etobicoke, ON, M9P 3V6. Contaminants in Sport Fish from the
      Toronto Waterfront.

              The Toronto area watershed was identified as an Area of Concern by the International
      Joint Commission in 1985 due to various impairments including restrictions on fish
      consumption. The Ontario Ministry of Environment has been collecting and analyzing fish from
      the Toronto waterfront since 1975 and this data has been used to assess this Beneficial Use
      Impairment. Currently, consumption restrictions exist for most species, but are most stringent for
      salmonids (i.e., salmon and trout) and other lipid-rich species. Restrictions are mainly caused by
      PCBs, with some species/sizes restricted due to elevated mercury and dioxins/furans. In July
      2009, a comprehensive sport fish sampling program was conducted in the Toronto waterfront in
      collaboration with the Toronto and Region Conservation Authority. In total, 217 samples of 10
      fish species were collected from 24 locations. These samples will result in over 8000 data points
      for various legacy and emerging-concern contaminants. This presentation will include the results
      of some of these chemical analyses as well as a comparison to previous data to evaluate
      contaminant trends. Updated sport fish consumption advisories, based on these new
      measurements, and a comparison to previous advisories will also be presented. Keywords: Fish
      toxins, Urban watersheds, PCBs.

      AZIM, E.1, KUMARAPPAH, A.1, BHAVSAR, S.2, and ARHONDITSIS, G.B.1, 1University of
      Toronto, Toronto, ON; 2Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON. Spatiotemporal
      Trends of Mercury in Lake Erie Fish Communities.

              Founded upon Bayesian inference techniques, we introduce a modeling framework to
      evaluate the spatio-temporal trends of total mercury (Hg) in several pelagic and benthic fish
      species in Lake Erie. First, we use the exponential and mixed-order decay models to assess the
      declining rates in three intensively studied species, i.e., walleye, yellow perch, and smallmouth
      bass, over the last 35 years. Because the two models postulate monotonic decrease of the Hg
      levels, we included first- or second-order random error terms in our statistical formulations to
      accommodate any non-monotonic patterns in the time series data. Our analysis indeed reveals an

May 17-21, 2010                                       14                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      increasing trend in the Hg concentrations, which becomes particularly evident after the mid-90s.
      Then, we introduce a Bayesian hierarchical model structure to infer about the Hg trends in less
      intensively studied species (coho salmon, lake trout, white bass, rainbow trout, northern pike,
      and freshwater drum) by "borrowing strength" from the three well-studied species. Finally, we
      argue that the recent increase in fish Hg may be explained by the Hogan et al. (2007) conceptual
      model that invokes the role of invasive species (dreissenid mussels and round goby) in inducing
      structural shifts of the Lake Erie food web. Keywords: Mathematical models, Environmental
      contaminants, Bayesian inference, Fish management, Lake Erie, Mercury.

      BADE, D.L., CLEVINGER, C.C., and HEATH, R.T., Kent State University, Box 5190, Kent,
      OH, 44242. A Review of Nitrification and Its Role in Lake Erie.

              Nitrification is the oxidation of ammonium to nitrite or nitrate. Nitrification is an
      autotrophic process, yet unlike photosynthesis, it consumes oxygen. This process, carried out by
      prokaryotes, has been studied extensively in soil and marine environments. However, relatively
      little work has been done to quantify nitrification and its limitations in freshwater habitats. Here
      we provide a review of knowledge about limitations to nitrification from other environments, and
      summarize rates of nitrification. These rates and limitations are then considered in the context of
      Lake Erie and compared with our own measurements. Limitations suggested from the literature
      include ammonium and oxygen availability, prokaryote density, and light. In Lake Erie we were
      not able to show limitation related to ammonium concentration. Rates from the literature are
      variable, but within a magnitude that could have significant influence on the biogeochemistry of
      Lake Erie. For example, literature results from a eutrophic lake found rates that ranged from .03 -
      .62 μg N L-1 hr-1 . In Lake Erie this would account for 4-80% of the average biological oxygen
      demand in the Central Basin. Our own measurements confirm that rates of this magnitude do
      occur in the lake. Keywords: Biogeochemistry, Nitrogen, Lake Erie.

      BADIOU, P.1, PAGE, B.1, BOYCHUK, L.2, GABOR, S.1, YANG, W.3, and WANG, X.4, 11.
      IWWR, Ducks Unlimited Canada, Stonewall, MB, R0C 2Z0; 2Ducks Unlimited Canada, Regina,
      SK; 3Department of Geography, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON; 4Department of Engineering
      and Physics, Tarleton State University, Stephenville, TX. Discharge and water quality in a
      highly drained landscape: Impacts of Wetland Loss in South-Western Manitoba and
      implications for Lake Winnipeg.

              Ducks Unlimited Canada has been studying the Broughton‘s Creek watershed for the last
      several years in order to determine the impacts of wetland drainage on water quality and
      downstream flows. Our results indicate that discharge in this prairie watershed occurs over a
      relatively short period of time in the spring when melt water is high in dissolved nutrients. Based
      on these findings protecting and restoring wetlands in the Canadian prairies is a cost effective
      way to help reduce nutrient loading to Lake Winnipeg. Our results also suggest that current water
      quality monitoring strategies in the Canadian Prairies should be revisited in order to accurately
      determine nutrient loading to rivers and lakes. Keywords: Wetlands, Watersheds, Nutrients.

May 17-21, 2010                                       15                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      BAI, X.1 and WANG, J.2, 1CILER, University of Michigan, 4840 South State Rd., Ann Arbor,
      MI, 48108; 2NOAA/Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab., 4840 South State Rd., Ann
      Arbor, MI, 48108. Simulations of water circulation and temperature in the Great Lakes
      with FVCOM.

              An unstructured Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM) was applied to all five
      Great Lakes to simultaneously simulate water circulation and temperature conditions over a
      seasonal cycle. Lakes Michigan, Huron, St. Clair and Erie were connected, while Lakes Superior
      and Ontario were kept disconnected with others due to the nature of human management. Daily
      means of winds, air temperature, specific humidity and cloudiness from the North American
      Regional Reanalysis (NARR) dataset were used to force the model. Seasonal cycle of circulation
      and water temperature of the Great Lakes were obtained. Response of each lake to atmospheric
      forcing was studied. Using the simulations, a comparative investigation of water circulation and
      temperature was conducted to study the horizontal and vertical structures of temperature and
      circulation under the same synoptic atmospheric forcing. Lake-wide measurements were
      collected to validate the model. This model will serve a backbone model for future coupling to a
      lake ice model, and ecosystems models. Keywords: Great Lakes basin, Water temperature,
      Hydrodynamic model, Water currents.

      BAILEY, S.A.1, DENEAU, M.G.1, JEAN, L.2, WILEY, C.J.3, LEUNG, B.4, and MACISAAC,
      H.J.5, 1Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada,
      867 Lakeshore Road, Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Transport Canada, 901 Cap-
      Diamant, Québec City, QC, G1K 4K1; 3Fisheries and Oceans Canada/Transport Canada Marine
      Safety, 100 Front Street South, Sarnia, ON, N7T 2M4; 4Department of Biology & the McGill
      School of Environment, McGill University, 1205 Docteur Penfield, Montréal, QC, H3A 1B1;
        Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Ave,
      Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4. Have Ballast Water Policies for the Great Lakes Reduced the Risk
      of Ship-mediated Aquatic Invasions?

              Measuring the impact of environmental policy is particularly challenging for regulations
      targeting prevention of aquatic nonindigenous species (ANS) introductions due to a dearth of
      comparative data and the absence of direct indicators of successful management. Yet,
      understanding policy efficacy is essential for productive management decisions, especially given
      inadequate funding. International ballast water discharge standards have been proposed to
      minimize spread of ANS. In order to evaluate the efficacy of the proposed standards, we must
      first have a comprehensive understanding of current risks. Here, we explore the efficacy of
      ballast water management policies in the Great Lakes using four lines of evidence. First, we
      extend previous analyses of rates of discovery of ANS to determine if a decline is evident. We
      then examine the theoretical efficacy of ballast exchange by modeling expected loss ratios based
      on empirical data. Third, we examine vessel compliance statistics and, finally, compare biotic
      composition of ballast water collected before and after the introduction of regulations. Our
      results indicate that ballast water exchange and tank flushing provide robust protection for the
      Great Lakes, but that the proposed international standards would further reduce the number of
      individuals transported in ballast tanks. Keywords: Ballast, Biological invasions, Zooplankton.

May 17-21, 2010                                     16                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      BAKELAAR, C., DOOLITTLE, A., and DOKA, S., Fisheries & Oceans, 867 Lakeshore Rd,
      Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Integrated Spatial Framework for Storage & Analyses of Fish
      Habitat Data in Hamilton Harbour, Lake Ontario.

              Hamilton Harbour (Lake Ontario) has been identified as a Great Lakes‘ Area of Concern
      (AOC) signifying that its ability to support aquatic life has been impaired. Contributing to
      science and restoration efforts in this degraded area reflects Fisheries & Oceans Canada‘s (DFO)
      commitment to ensuring healthy and productive ecosystems. In 2006, DFO‘s Great Lakes
      Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences (GLLFAS) began a number of projects to assess
      the current state of Hamilton Harbour. Together, they will assess progress toward Remedial
      Action Plan (RAP) targets for fish habitat and populations of phytoplankton, zooplankton,
      benthos and fishes, and evaluate the ability of the ecosystem to meet all of the RAP's targets. An
      integrated spatial framework approach has been used to assemble physical and modelled fish
      habitat data into a geographic information system (GIS). This approach synthesizes data from
      different projects, and is used as a guide in standardizing formats, data structures and data layers
      that are used in generating and mapping key habitat features (vegetation, substrate, depth), as
      well as supporting fish habitat, population and ecosystem modelling needs. Difficulties
      encountered will be discussed as well as rationale for the approach used. Keywords: Ecosystem
      modeling, Spatial analysis, Fish habitat, GIS.

      BAKER, D.B., RICHARDS, R.P., and CRUMRINE, J.P., Heidelberg University, 310 E. Market
      Street, Tiffin, OH, 44883. Causes of Increased Dissolved Reactive Phosphorus Loading to
      Lake Erie.

               After declining between 1975 and 2005, concentrations and loads of dissolved reactive
      phosphorus to Lake Erie from predominantly agricultural watersheds in Ohio have increased
      sharply during the past ten years. Suggested causes include increased soil phosphorus
      concentrations, focusing of phosphorus in the upper several centimeters of the soil
      (stratification), application of fertilizer and manure in the fall and winter, and application of
      fertilizer and manure to the soil surface without incorporation. The objectives of this presentation
      are to communicate results of recent research into the extent of soil phosphorus concentration
      increases and stratification in these watersheds, to evaluate the probable relative importance of
      the causes for increased phosphorus loading proposed above, and to suggest better management
      practices and explore why they are not already in place. Keywords: Eutrophication, Phosphorus,
      Lake Erie.

      BALDWIN, B.S., 123 Johnson Hall, St. Lawrence University, Canton, NY, 13617. Are
      Ecosystem Impacts of Exotics Pronounced Near Confluences of the St. Lawrence River and
      its Tributaries?

              Populations of exotic dreissenid mussels and round gobies vary in density along the
      international section of the St. Lawrence River as well as those tributary rivers that drain the
      Adirondack mountains. Densities appear to increase in confluence areas, where seston load is

May 17-21, 2010                                       17                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      high, and decrease within tributaries, where water conductivity is very low. As a result,
      ecosystem impacts of these exotics may be pronounced near tributary confluence areas, where
      energy and contaminant transfer to sport fish and birds may be elevated. Although these
      predators may benefit from the additional forage round gobies provide, mercury levels,
      especially those of sport fish, appear high enough to cause them reproductive problems. As a
      consequence, resource managers might focus their efforts to regulate fisheries and to limit human
      fish consumption in confluence areas. Keywords: St. Lawrence River, Round goby, Exotic

      University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8, Canada. Concentration and
      Isotope Ratios of Zinc in Streams Along a Gradient of Agricultural Land Use.

              With recent advances in mass spectrometry it is now possible to measure differences in
      isotopic ratios of metals and track pollution pathways. Here, we used high precision MC-ICP-
      MS to quantify Zn concentration and isotope ratios in 12 streams in southern Ontario flowing
      through variable agriculture land use. Zinc isotopic ratios have been used to track pollution
      derived from mining practices and waste but less is known about how fertilizer and pesticide
      pollution can affect Zn ratios and fractionation based on geochemical and biological processes.
      We measured and traced the potential accumulation and isotope ratio variation of zinc in an
      indicator species Unionoida (freshwater mussels) along a gradient of agriculture. Preliminary
      analysis on water samples show that water column zinc is variable across sites. Several other
      metals were highly correlated with agricultural land use, including molybdenum which ranged
      from 0.02 ppb to 0.16 ppb with increasing monoculture. The study will contribute to the
      understanding of how land use can affect amounts of metals leached from soils into streams and
      lakes. The techniques used in this project will also contribute to how metal accumulation in
      aquatic organisms may be facilitated by nutrient loading and landscape changes associated with
      agriculture. Keywords: Metals, Agriculture, Stable isotopes, Mussels.

      MATISOFF, G.4, 1Department of Biology, Niagara University, Lewiston, NY, 14109;
        Department of Geosciences, DePauw University, Greencastle, IN, 46135; 3USGS Great Lakes
      Science Center, 1451 Green Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 4Department of Geological Sciences,
      Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106. Internal nutrient recycling by
      burrow irrigation in Chironomus spp.: implications for eutrophication.

               Chironomus spp. were shown to have an impact on Lake Erie hypoxia via burrow
      irrigation and that impact is altered by environmental conditions. However, it was unclear how
      changing seasonal environmental conditions alter burrow irrigation and thus their potential
      impact on recycling of nutrients from the benthic sediments. We conducted laboratory
      experiments to determine the effects of changing oxygen, food and temperature on both burrow
      irrigation activity and nutrient flux from the sediment. Forth instar larvae were placed in two
      dimensional mesocosms in defaunated sediment. After acclimation, larvae were exposed to
      changing food, temperature and oxygen regimes. Burrow velocities were measured using hot

May 17-21, 2010                                      18                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      film anemometry and incurrent and excurrent oxygen concentrations were measured using Clark
      style micro electrodes. Nitrate, ammonia, TP and SRP were measured in both experimental
      treatments and controls. Higher temperatures resulted in higher pumping activity, but food
      quantity did not. Low oxygen concentrations resulted in increased irrigation. Increases in
      irrigation resulted in increased nutrient flux from the sediment, relative to controls. These results
      indicate changing temperature, oxygen and food availability in the hypolimnion will alter the
      effects of macrobenthos on nutrient recycling from the sediment. Keywords: Benthos,
      Eutrophication, Nutrients.

      BARBIERO, R.P.1, SCHMUDE, K.2, LESHT, B.M.3, RISENG, C.M.4, WARREN, G.J.5, and
      TUCHMAN, M.L.5, 1CSC and Loyola Unversity, 1359 W Elmdale #2, Chicago, IL, 60660;
        University Wisconsin-Superior, 801 North 28th St., Superior, WI, 54880; 3CSC and University
      of Illinois Chicago, 845 W. Taylor St., Chicago, IL, 60607; 4University of Michigan, 440 Church
      St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109; 5US EPA Great Lakes National Program Office, 77 W. Jackson
      Blvd, Chicago, IL, 60604. Trends in Diporeia populations across the Laurentian Great
      Lakes, 1997-2008.

              Diporeia populations have been monitored in all five great lakes by the US EPA since
      1997. No Diporeia have been found in Lake Erie during the twelve years of our study,
      corroborating that Diporeia is now effectively absent from that lake. Populations have also
      largely disappeared from shallow (< 90 m) sites in lakes Ontario, Huron and Michigan. As of
      2008, mean population densities at deeper (> 90 m) sites in lakes Huron and Michigan were
      554/m2 and 370/m2, respectively, similar to those found in Lake Superior (average = 442/m2),
      while densities were somewhat lower in Lake Ontario (average = 134/m2). Deep populations in
      lakes Michigan and Huron were relatively stable between 2004 and 2008. No evidence of
      declines was seen in Lake Superior. Regressions between average May chlorophyll
      concentrations and Diporeia densities at deeper (> 90 m) sites in lakes Huron and Michigan were
      highly significant, and explained a substantial amount of variability (adjusted r2 for Lake Huron
      and Lake Michigan = 0.58 and 0.44, respectively, the latter with a one-year time step). We
      believe that decreases in the supply of spring phytoplankton may have contributed to the declines
      in deep populations in those lakes. Keywords: Benthos, Productivity, Diporeia.

      BARNES, R.1, ROY, J.W.2, and BICKERTON, G.2, 1McMaster University, Hamilton;
        Environment Canada, Burlington. Groundwater contaminants affecting urban streams in
      the Lake Simcoe watershed.

              In this study, we investigated the potential risk posed by groundwater contaminants
      discharging to two urban streams that drain into Lake Simcoe. These contaminants may pose a
      direct toxicity threat or lead to eutrophication in the streams, potentially affecting aquatic and
      riparian plants, benthic organisms and fish spawning areas, with secondary influences on the lake
      ecosystem. For each stream, groundwater samples from below the stream bed (typically 25-75
      cm) were collected using a drive-point mini-profiler at intervals of 10-15 m for 100s-1000s m
      and were subsequently analysed for a wide range of urban contaminants. This screening
      technique focuses on detection of potential areas of concern rather than precise quantification of

May 17-21, 2010                                        19                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      contaminant concentrations or fluxes. Identified contaminants at both streams included
      perchlorate, various pesticides (e.g. glyphosate, glufosinate), and elevated levels of nitrate,
      phosphate, and chloride (may be road salt). Both sites also had samples with artificial
      sweeteners, suggesting the influence of septic systems or leaking sewers or old landfills. One
      stream also had multiple locations (along a 500-m section) with detections of chlorinated
      solvents, specifically trichloroethene (TCE) and its daughter products, and petroleum
      hydrocarbons, such as benzene, toluene, and naphthalene. Keywords: Environmental
      contaminants, Groundwater-surface water interaction, Lake Simcoe, Streams, Urban areas.

      BARTLETT, A.J., BROWN, L.R., and STRUGER, J., 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050,
      Burlington, ON, L7R4A6. In situ exposures of Hyalella azteca: A tool to assess the impacts
      of pesticide use on freshwater ecosystems.

              Previous studies have shown that in situ exposures of Hyalella azteca can be used to
      evaluate the impacts of pesticide use in freshwater streams. This study examines sites in southern
      Ontario where acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibiting pesticides (organophosphates [OPs] and
      carbamates [CBs]) are consistently measured in surface waters. One-week exposures were
      conducted in 2008 and 2009 at two agricultural sites (Two-Mile and Vineland Creeks), one
      urban stream (Indian Creek), and one reference site (Spencer Creek). Two additional agricultural
      sites were added in 2009: Richardson Creek and Twenty-Mile Creek (at Bailey Bridge).
      Exposures were conducted monthly during the growing season: once pre-pesticide use (May),
      four times during peak pesticide use (June-September), and once post-pesticide use (October).
      Significant mortality and AChE inhibition occurred during peak pesticide use at Two-Mile and
      Vineland Creeks, where OPs and CBs were consistently measured in surface waters. Significant
      AChE inhibition also occurred in some cases at sites where survival was not impacted and lower
      levels of OPs and CBs were measured, which may indicate that AChE inhibition occurs before
      effects on survival. The validity of using in situ methods to evaluate pesticide impacts on
      freshwater ecosystems will be discussed. Keywords: Bioindicators, In situ, Amphipods,
      Acetylcholinesterase, Pesticides.

      BARTON, D.R.1, EVANS, D.O.2, and OZERSKY, T.1, 1Deptartment of Biology, University of
      Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada; 2Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Trent
      University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8, Canada. Changes In The Benthic Invertebrate
      Community And Trophic Relationships In The Nearshore Of Lake Simcoe Following The
      Introduction of Dreissena polymorpha.

              Dreissena polymorpha was probably introduced into Lake Simcoe in about 1991, and
      was well-established by 1996, primarily in rocky nearshore areas. We compared air-lift samples
      of benthic macroinvertebrates and stable isotope analyses of invertebrates and fish collected in
      1993 and 2008, to evaluate the impact of zebra mussels on nearshore (2 - 6 m depths) community
      structure and trophic relationships. No dreissenids were found in 1993. The mean density of D.
      polymorpha was 3439 individuals m-2 in 2008, and the densities of other invertebrates were 40x
      greater than in 1993. With the exception of substantial shifts in the absolute abundance and
      species composition of the amphipod assemblage, there was no evidence of change in overall

May 17-21, 2010                                      20                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      diversity or the relative abundances of the major groups of invertebrates. Stable isotopes
      indicated a less diverse trophic base in 2008, with most consumers depending primarily on
      mussel biodeposits and periphyton. Our results provide strong support for the nearshore shunt
      hypothesis and the status of dreissenid mussels as "ecosystem engineers". Keywords: Lake
      Simcoe, Food web, Benthos, Dreissena, Stable isotopes.

        Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, 48858; 2Charlevoix Fisheries Research
      Station, 96 Grant Street, Charlevoix, MI, 49720; 3Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Bayfield
      Institute, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. A Comparison of Egg Bag and Funnel Estimates of
      Native Fish Egg Deposition Rates in Grand Traverse Bay, Lake Michigan.

              Native Great Lakes fishes such as lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and lake whitefish
      (Coregonus clupeaformis) use reefs for spawning in the Great Lakes. These hard substrates are
      difficult to sample using traditional sampling gears. Two gear types, egg bags and egg funnels,
      were used to measure egg deposition rates to determine site selection by spawning fish. In
      addition, the efficiencies of the egg bags and funnels was measured by seeding each gear type
      with artificial eggs of lake trout and lake whitefish in situ. Artificial egg recovery data suggests
      similar recoveries in egg bags and egg funnels; however, egg funnels were more useful because
      they could be checked weekly while the egg bags collected one sample between deployment and
      retrieval. Estimates of natural egg deposition from egg bags were higher than the funnel
      estimates, likely resulting from gear avoidance or other limitations in 2008. However, in 2009,
      further modifications were made upon the egg funnels to decrease gear avoidance. Accurate
      estimates of native fish egg deposition rates and spawning habitat use will assist fisheries
      managers in making more informed decisions for management actions such as stocking and
      habitat protection. Keywords: Gear comparison, Egg deposition, Trout.

      BASSINGTHWAITE, M.F.1 and HELKA, J.2, 1Cole Engineering Group Ltd., 100-100 Renfrew
      Drive, Markham, ON, L3R9R6; 2City of Hamilton, 700 Woodward Ave, Hamilton, ON,
      L8H6P4. The Enhancement of Windermere Basin - Sediment Management, Habitat
      Restoration and Aesthetic Improvement within the City of Hamilton.

               Windermere Basin, located at the outlet of Red Hill Creek to Hamilton Harbour in the
      City of Hamilton, was re-constructed in 1990 to act as a sediment trap to prevent sedimentation
      in downstream shipping routes near Pier 25 within Hamilton Harbour. The Basin has reached its
      capacity as a sediment trap and is no longer functioning effectively. In its current state, the Basin
      is degraded habitat with low diversity. Enhancement of the Basin is proposed by the City through
      sediment management and construction of a wetland. In order to regulate water quality, the
      wetland area will be isolated from Red Hill Creek by construction of a dyke. Distinct habitat
      zones will be created in the wetland supporting a wide range of vegetation and wildlife species.
      Existing sediment will be capped with clean fill and planted with native wetland vegetation. A
      fishway will also be installed to assist entry of desired species while discouraging undesirable
      species. Ecological success of the project will be measured by growth of diversified aquatic and
      terrestrial habitat. The Enhancement of Windermere Basin will create passive recreational

May 17-21, 2010                                        21                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      opportunities by tying into existing trails and habitat corridors and contribute to the delisting of
      Hamilton Harbour as an Area of Concern. Keywords: Coastal wetlands, Biodiversity, Sediments.

      BAZZARD, A.R.1 and BOURBONNIERE, R.A.2, 1McMaster University, School of Geography
      and Earth Sciences, 1280 Main Street, Hamilton, ON, L8S4L8; 2Environment Canada, National
      Water Research Institute, Burlington, ON, L7R4A6. Carbon Dioxide and Nitrous Oxide
      Accumulation in Lake Erie‟s Central Basin Hypolimnion.

              In the 1960s and 1970s phosphorus loadings to Lake Erie promoted increased
      productivity which led to hypolimnetic anoxia, particularly in the central basin. Although
      significant efforts reduced anthropogenic inputs, the central basin continues to develop
      hypolimnetic hypoxia during summer stratification. To determine the course and extent of
      greenhouse gas (GHG) accumulation in the central basin hypolimnion, samples collected on ten
      cruises from January – October 2009 were analyzed for dissolved CO2, N2O, NO3-, Dissolved
      Oxygen (DO) and other water chemistry parameters. We observed that decreases in DO and
      NO3- concentrations were accompanied by increases in CO2 and N2O in the hypolimnion.
      Sustained hypoxia in the hypolimnion promoted the accumulation of CO2 and N2O until it was
      interrupted by a period of cold weather in July and August. This phenomenon is pronounced in
      the central basin, non-existent in the western basin and subdued in the eastern basin.
      Keywords: Hypolimnion, Oxygen, Greenhouse gases.

      BECHLE, A.B.1, WU, C.H.1, and LIU, P.C.2, 11415 Engineering Drive, 1269D Engineering Hall,
      Madison, WI, 53706; 2NOAA/GLERL 4840 S. State Rd, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108. Automated
      stereo imaging system for three-dimensional surface wave measurements in Lakes.

              Instantaneous and irregular wave phenomenon such as freak waves are insufficiently
      characterized by conventional sensors. The spatial and temporal measurements necessary to
      describe these processes are attained with stereo imaging, a highly flexible remote sensing
      technique. Using an automated trinocular stereo imaging system (ATSIS), a stereo-triplet of
      images is analyzed using a triangulation procedure to produce a 3D map of the water surface.
      When sequential time series of stereo-triplet video are processed, four-dimensional wave data
      can be obtained to reveal non-stationary wave phenomenon in a random sea state. Several
      examples including freak waves in Lake Superior, breaking waves and capillary waves in Lake
      Mendota, and waves interacting with ice floes will be given in this talk. Finally an innovative
      virtual wave gauge arrays will be introduced so that real-time wave monitoring can be realized.
      Keywords: Waves, Remote sensing, Measuring instruments.

      BELETSKY, D.1, SCHWAB, D.2, RAO, Y.R.3, HAWLEY, N.2, VANDERPLOEG, H.2, and
      BELETSKY, R.1, 1CILER, University of Michigan, 4840 South State Rd., Ann Arbor, MI,
      48108; 2Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 4840 South State Road, Ann Arbor,
      MI, 48108; 3National Water Research Institute, Burlington, ON. Thermocline of Lake Erie.

May 17-21, 2010                                       22                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

             In most thermally stratified lakes, the summer thermocline has the shape of a "dome",
      being shallower offshore and deeper nearshore. Lake-wide observations of subsurface
      temperature at several moorings in central Lake Erie in 2005 revealed a traditional dome-shaped
      thermocline in May-early July and an unusual "reversed" or "bowl-type" shape of the
      thermocline during about half of the time during the late July-September period, with deeper
      thermocline in the middle of the lake and shallower thermocline nearshore. We also note that
      currents measured in the central basin when the bowl-shaped thermocline was observed were
      strongly anticyclonic, forming a single basin-wide gyre. Analysis of 2007 data confirmed these
      findings, although the occurrence of a bowl-shaped thermocline was less frequent than in 2005.
      We hypothesize that the unusual bowl-shaped thermocline is a result of the so-called Ekman
      pumping (upwelling nearshore, downwelling offshore) during passages of atmospheric
      anticyclones intensified over the lake surface in summer. Keywords: Hydrodynamic model,
      Coastal processes, Lake Erie.

      GARRAWAY, M.4, and MILFORD, L.4, 1AquaResource Inc., Waterloo; 2EBnFLO
      Environmental, Waterloo; 3Environment Canada, Waterloo; 4Ministry of Natural Resources,
      Peterborough. Development of a Climate Change Hydrologic Assessment Framework for
      the Province of Ontario.

              The Province of Ontario has developed a comprehensive guidance manual for the
      assessment of climate change impacts on surface water and groundwater resources. This guide is
      aimed towards water resources engineers and hydrologists responsible for watershed-based water
      budget studies under the Clean Water Act (2004) as well as similar types of investigations such
      as subwatershed planning studies and hydrologic impact assessments. The guidelines are
      developed specifically to aid in the estimation of the impact of climate change on hydrologic
      processes relating to precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff, and groundwater recharge. This
      presentation provides a brief summary of several aspects related to the guidance document,
      including: the recommended guidelines which includes a methodology for representing the
      predictive variability of water budget parameters associated with alternative Global Climate
      Model scenarios; a summary of a case study; and current efforts to develop a database of climate
      scenarios for climate stations across the Province. Keywords: Climate change, Hydrologic
      budget, Watersheds.

      BENNINGTON, V.1, MCKINLEY, G.A.1, WU, C.2, DESAI, A.1, URBAN, N.3, and KIMURA,
      N.1, 1University of Wisconsin-Madison, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Madison, WI,
      53706; 2University of Wisconsin-Madison, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Madison, WI,
      53706; 3Michigan Technological University, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Houghton,
      MI, 49931. Lake Superior Circulation 1979-2006: a Modeling Study.

             From direct observations and previous modeling studies, we have a limited understanding
      of the climatology and variability of large-scale circulation in Lake Superior. We use a 3D
      hydrodynamic model (MITgcm) at 2km horizontal resolution to study the structure and driving
      mechanisms of Lake Superior circulation from 1979 to 2006. The model is forced by 3-hourly

May 17-21, 2010                                     23                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      atmospheric conditions from the North American Regional Reanalyis Project. Modeled thermal
      structure and circulation compare well to observations throughout the lake. We examine lake-
      wide circulation patterns above and below the thermocline; the relative effects of temperature
      gradients, wind, and bathymetry on currents; and trends in lake temperature, speed, evaporation,
      and mixed layer depth. We find temperature gradients control currents near shore, but winds
      drive currents offshore. From a uniform bathymetry simulation, we conclude topographic effects
      are responsible for small-scale structures in the open lake and set up nearshore-offshore
      temperature gradients. In the 28 years, wind speed increases 0.18 m/s/decade causing an increase
      in surface speeds of 0.37 cm/s/decade. Lake surface temperatures increase 0.34°C/decade.
      Increasing winds and surface temperatures counteract each other, causing mixed layer depths to
      remain unchanged. We find no trend in evaporation. Keywords: Hydrodynamic model, Large-
      scale circulation, Lake Superior, Climatology, Water currents.

      BENOIT, N.B.1 and BURNISTON, D.1, 1Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources
      Rd, Etobicoke, ON, M9P 3V6; 2Water Quality and Surveillance Office, Ontario Environment
      Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Tracking PCB Contamination in
      Great Lakes Tributaries.

              Project Trackdown is an investigative monitoring program aimed at tracking sources of
      PCB contamination in Great Lakes tributaries. Throughout the development of the program, our
      approach has focused on using an assemblage of matrices in a concentration-based weight of
      evidence approach, combined with simple chemometric analyses of PCB congener profiles to
      derive information on potential ongoing and locally controllable sources of contamination. The
      program has also emphasized defining background conditions in typical urban areas, and
      differentiating these from ongoing and locally controllable sources of contamination to Great
      Lakes tributaries. A collaborative initiative between the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and
      Environment Canada, Project Trackdown has successfully identified several areas of PCB
      contamination that have led to substantial cleanup efforts aimed ultimately at reducing PCB
      contamination to the Great Lakes. Keywords: Watersheds, Pollution sources, PCBs.

      BERGER, A.M. and JONES, M.L., Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State
      University, East Lansing, MI, 48824. Decision Analysis and the Central Role of Uncertainty
      in Quantitative Models Used to Evaluate Management Strategies.

              Applications of decision analysis methods to resource management are becoming more
      commonplace and are often used to identify management strategies that perform well despite
      uncertainties about the managed system. These approaches often use quantitative models to
      forecast the expected outcome of different management actions. A major advantage of using
      quantitative models is the ability to explicitly incorporate uncertainty into the process.
      Uncertainties are pervasive in resource management and can have important effects on the
      performance of management options. Explicitly including uncertainty in models can be very
      useful for identifying the most robust management strategies to uncertain future system states.
      Decision analyses should incorporate, in addition to key uncertainties, objectives that include the
      full suite (biological, economic, social, and cultural) of stakeholder values. This also helps

May 17-21, 2010                                       24                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      inform good decisions, by allowing explicit consideration of the trade-offs that commonly exist
      among objectives. We review the role of uncertainty in developing management strategies and
      highlight several quantitative approaches used to aid complex resource management decisions.
      Keywords: Policy making, Fish populations, Fish management.

      BETZHOLD, L.D. and MATAOSKY, R.L., 2234 S. Hobson Ave, Charleston, SC, 29412.
      Topographic and Bathymetric Inventory for the Great Lakes.

              The Topographic and Bathymetric Data Inventory, newly available for the Great Lakes
      region, is a national-scale online viewer that serves as an index to the best-available elevation
      data sets by region. The Inventory is designed to increase awareness of existing elevation data
      sets, identify gaps in coverage, and encourage collaboration for collection of new data sets. Since
      data sets are often hosted in many locations or are not directly accessible, the Inventory seeks to
      provide a snapshot of data availability, accessibility, type, and quality. Users can zoom in to an
      area on the map and click on the data set to access up to 20 attributes, including vertical
      accuracy, datums, collection date, and point spacing. This work was completed with input from
      several federal, state, local, and regional groups and with support from EPA‘s Great Lakes
      Restoration Initiative. The Topographic and Bathymetric Data Inventory can be accessed online
      at www.csc.noaa.gov/digitalcoast/tools/topobathy/index.html. Keywords: Benthos, Coasts,
      Coastal engineering.

      BHAGAT, Y. and RUETZ III, C.R., Annis Water Resources Institute, Grand Valley State
      University, 740 West Shoreline Drive, Muskegon, MI, 49441. Assessing patterns of spatial
      and temporal variation of fish assemblages in a drowned river mouth (DRM) system of
      Lake Michigan.

              Drowned river mouth (DRM) lakes serve as unique ecosystems to investigate patterns of
      fish community composition because they contain wetland-type habitats as well as open
      lacustrine areas and as such, can serve as refugia for juveniles, act as spawning grounds, and
      provide alternate food sources for several species. Muskegon Lake, a DRM system connected to
      Lake Michigan, has received much focus in recent years due to its history of anthropogenic
      influences and its subsequent classification as an Area of Concern. Yet, little is known about the
      spatial and temporal variation in species assemblages and how it relates to environmental
      variation. We used overnight fyke nets to sample fish communities at four littoral sites in the
      spring, summer and fall of 2003-2009. Ordinations showed that fish assemblages most strongly
      differed by season and location sampled but were also influenced by conductivity, dissolved
      oxygen, temperature and macrophyte coverage. While lepomis sp. were positively correlated
      with macrophyte density and fall sampling season, round gobies were negatively correlated with
      temperature and pH. Overall, our results suggest that patterns in species distribution and
      abundance respond more strongly to short term, seasonal variation rather than long term annual
      variation in the environment. Keywords: Fish, Drowned river mouth systems, Lake Michigan,
      Environmental variation, Distribution patterns, Temporal and spatial patterns.

May 17-21, 2010                                       25                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      FLETCHER, R., Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Monitoring Reporting
      Branch, Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6. Risk-based fish consumption advisories for the Canadian
      Great Lakes (2009-2010).

              About 4-5 million adults living in the U.S. and Canada consume sport fish from the Great
      Lakes. Risk-based fish consumption advisories are issued to advise the public on
      eliminating/restricting consumption of certain fish species/sizes in order to avoid adverse health
      effects due to elevated contaminant levels. To establish how restrictive the advisories are and
      which contaminants are causing these restrictions on a lake-wide as well as a smaller scale basis
      for both the general and sensitive population (women of child-bearing age and children under
      15), we examined fish consumption advisories issued by the Ontario Ministry of the
      Environment through the 2009-2010 Guide to Eating Ontario Sport Fish. The restrictions are
      generally in the order of Lakes Superior < Huron < Erie < Ontario and are primarily caused by
      PCBs and secondarily by dioxins/furans and mercury. Toxaphene is the only other contaminant
      causing restrictions for Lake Superior fish (<8% contribution to the restrictions). Restrictions for
      salmon species, which are expected to contain relatively higher levels of beneficial Omega-3
      fatty acids, generally ranged from 33-100% (except 9% for pink salmon in Superior) with little
      difference for the general and sensitive populations. Keywords: Fish, Fishing, Environmental

      and DRIZA, K.M., Annis Water Resources Inst., Grand Valley State U, 740 W. Shoreline Dr,
      Muskegon, MI, 49441. Balance of Production and Respiration in Lake Michigan: Insights
      into Land-Lake Linkages and the Carbon Cycle.

              Respiration (R) and primary production (P) are the major pathways for carbon and energy
      flow in ecosystems. A series of measurements of planktonic R made in southeastern Lake
      Michigan over the past decade demonstrate that the major fate of the P in this large lake is indeed
      R. Annually, input of nutrients and carbon from the watershed and major rivers may support
      substantial autotrophy (~20%) as well as heterotrophy (~10%) in southern Lake Michigan. Thus,
      microbial lake plankton (autotrophs and heterotrophs) link terrestrial nutrients and carbon to
      aquatic metabolism. Other trends that were observed include decreasing R (on a volumetric
      basis) and increasing R (relative to ambient primary production) along a gradient of decreasing P
      extending from land to lake in this Great Lake watershed. Indeed, preliminary evidence from
      simultaneous measurements of R and P show that R/P ratios were greater in offshore waters
      relative to near shore waters and that R/P ratios are higher in summer than in winter. It appears
      that the open lake system tend to be a source of carbon in the summer, whereas the nearshore
      ecosystem tends to be a sink for carbon especially during the winter. In this paper, we discuss
      some of the implications of these observed trends to our understanding of carbon cycling and
      food webs in this Great Lakes basin. Keywords: Biogeochemistry, Carbon cycle, Lake

May 17-21, 2010                                       26                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      BISHOP, R.1, SNODGRASS, W.J.2, DEWEY, R.3, CHARRON, A.4, LI, A.2, and D‘ANDREA,
      M.2, 1MMM Group Limited, 100 Commerce Valley Drive West, Thornhill, ON, L3T 0A1; 2City
      of Toronto, Metro Hall, 55 John Street, 18th Floor, Toronto, ON, M5V 3C6; 3City of Toronto,
      Metro Hall, 55 John Street, 27th Floor, Toronto, ON, M5V 3C6; 4BPR Inc., 1100 Burloak Drive,
      Suite 301, Burlington, ON, L7L 6B2. Forecast Receiving Water Response to alternative
      Control Levels for Combined sewer overflows discharging to Toronto‟s Inner harbour.

              This paper evaluates the role that different levels of control of combined sewer overflows
      have in addressing the recreational water quality objectives for the Inner harbour of the Toronto
      AOC. Three models were used to establish the predictive methodology – the Infoworks model to
      address rainfall – runoff processes for combined sewer overflows and storm sewer discharges
      within the combined sewer service area, the HSPF model to evaluate runoff and water quality
      from separated storm sewer areas and compute river water quality, and the MIKE 3 computer
      code to evaluate Lake Ontario water quality. Each model was calibrated with E Coli levels
      observed respectively in discharges, instream, and in the Inner Harbour and near-by beaches.
      Cost – effectiveness curves have been constructed, and used to evaluate two alternative Inner
      Harbour response indices – fraction of surface area under Blue Flag status, and portion of
      swimming season above recreational objectives. Economic analysis leads to the recommendation
      that one overflow per year strategy should be pursued, rather than the lower level of control of 90
      % volume control, which is the minimum provincial environmental requirement.
      Keywords: Water quality.

      BLACK, T.J., 10701 Murphy Road, Roscommon, MI, 48653. Karst Water Input to Lakes
      Huron and Michigan.

              Over 200 major surface and ground water swallowing sink holes are visible in Michigan.
      Three discharging sink holes in Lake Huron have been studied. One known as the El Cajon Bay
      Sink has a discharge over 10 cu ft/sec (Curl, 1980) which matches the volume of the only
      measured swallow at Rainy Lake (MDNR, 1982). This author estimates that the three studied
      discharge points account for less than one percent from the known karst system to lakes
      Michigan and Huron. The inland swallows represent significant bypass and divergence of
      surface and ground water through a major karst system. Swallows occur from near lake level
      near the shoreline to 290 feet above 20 or more miles inland (50 miles along the sink hole trend).
      One stream swallow is 10 miles from the shoreline and less than 50 ft above lake level, an
      underground gradient of less than 5 ft/mile. Swallowed water travels vertically downward to the
      Detroit River Group of rock formations (over 1,000 ft in areas) where gypsum and other minerals
      are dissolved. It then flows laterally to the lakes and discharged as far as 3.4 miles (13.5 Km)
      from shore. Water flowing out of these sink holes was uniformly DO 0.1-2 and sulfate near
      1,600 mg/l (Biddanda, 2006; Morrow, 1967). Work is progressing to identify the locations, flow
      volume, and water chemistry of more submerged sink holes. Keywords: Geochemistry, Karst,
      Lake Huron, Ground water, Water quality.

May 17-21, 2010                                       27                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      BLUKACZ, E.A.1 and KOOPS, M.A.2, 1Environment Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada; 2Fisheries
      and Oceans Canada, Burlington, ON, Canada. A Mass-Balance Remediation Approach
      towards Reaching Delisting Targets in Areas of Concern.

              The International Joint Commission (IJC) identified the Bay of Quinte as an Area of
      Concern (AOC) due to its degraded ecosystem. A Remediation Action Plan (RAP) was
      established with delisting targets including the goals of decreasing phosphorous loading and
      restoring the upper (fish and wildlife) and lower (phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthic
      invertebrates) trophic levels. The ultimate goal is to delist the Bay of Quinte as an AOC. To date,
      phosphorous control efforts have reduced phytoplankton abundance; however invasion by non-
      native species (e.g., zebra mussels, cormorants) has led to further disruption. We use a mass-
      balanced ecosystem modelling approach to examine the feasibility of reaching the current
      delisting targets for the upper Bay of Quinte. We modified an Ecopath model representing the
      post-zebra mussel invasion period (1995-2002). To address specific delisting targets, we
      modified the functional groups in the original model to examine how readily we can re-balance
      the model under the current remediation plan. The re-balanced model will help determine
      whether the current targets are feasible and help revise targets if necessary.
      Keywords: Ecosystem modeling, Recovery targets, Bay of Quinte.

      BLUKACZ, E.A.1, SPRULES, W.G.2, and SHUTER, B.J.3, 1Environment Canada, 4905
      Dufferin St., Toronto; 2University of Toronto at Mississauga, 3359 Mississauga Rd N,
      Mississauga, ON; 3University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks St., Toronto. Wind-driven patchiness;
      spatial-patterns, trophic interactions and monitoring implications.

              Wind creates, maintains, and destroys plankton patchiness which can affect predator-prey
      spatial overlap and consequently trophic interactions. To assess these relationships, we
      repeatedly sampled the same linear transects in two basins of Lake Opeongo (ON, Canada) over
      100 times at various times of day and many days throughout the summer so we could follow
      spatial patterns under changing wind conditions. Spatially explicit in situ simulations that include
      activity costs associated with feeding were used to examine the effects of chlorophyll patchiness
      on the energy gain in different zooplankton communities. Simulations were repeated for all
      combinations of zooplankton size-classes (bulk, small, and large) and for each simulated
      combination, a spatial energetic differential (SED) was estimated. Large zooplankton had the
      greatest SED with a maximum increase of 20% while small zooplankton showed a marginal
      increase. High SED were frequent when zooplankton and chlorophyll were positively correlated
      as shown by wavelet analysis, indicating that predator-prey spatial overlap is an important
      determinant of high SED values. We discuss the implications that such patterns can have on
      monitoring both nearshore and offshore spatial patterns. Keywords: Waves, Zooplankton,

      BOCANIOV, S.A.1, LEON, L.F.1, SILSBE, G.M.1, ZHAO, Y.2, SMITH, R.E.H.1, and LAMB,
      K.3, 1Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L3G1, Canada; 2Aquatic
      Research and Development Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Wheatley, ON,
      N0P2P0, Canada; 3Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1.

May 17-21, 2010                                       28                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Modelling the three dimensional spatial dynamics of nutrients, phytoplankton and
      dissolved oxygen in Lake Erie.

              Hypoxia continues to be a concern in many large aquatic ecosystems, including Lake
      Erie. In large systems, the distribution of hypoxic water masses can be very dynamic and can
      have serious ecological consequences. One such consequence is fish mortality due to upwelling
      of hypoxic water, which is suspected to occur in parts of the central basin of Lake Erie. We show
      here that a three dimensional model (ELCOM-CAEDYM) captures the major patterns of
      variability in phytoplankton and nutrients (important drivers of hypoxia) in two years of
      observation (2002 and 2005) in Lake Erie. Observations of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration
      profiles provided snapshots of the vertical distributions of DO and the seasonal progression of
      hypolimnetic hypoxia in the central basin of the lake. We document here the correspondence
      between modeled and observed DO. We then use the model to characterize the spatial dynamics
      of DO and examine the potential for intrusion of hypoxic layers into surface and/or nearshore
      waters. Keywords: Nutrients, Model studies, Lake Erie.

      BOEGMAN, L.1 and YERUBANDI, R.R.2, 1Department of Civil Engineering, Queen‘s
      University, Kingston, ON; 2National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington,
      ON. Process oriented modeling of Lake Ontario hydrodynamics.

             A three-dimensional hydrostatic Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equation model has
      been applied to simulate the ice-free hydrodynamics of Lake Ontario during 2006. The model is
      compared to field observations to assess its ability to reproduce the fundamental physical
      processes driving hydrodynamics. The model correctly simulates the seasonal stratification,
      surface seiches and internal Poincaré waves without adjustment. Scaling of inflows is required to
      reproduce water levels. Surface topographic and internal Kelvin waves are simulated; however,
      these motions are under-resolved with the 2 km horizontal grid used in this study.
      Keywords: Lake Ontario, Hydrodynamic model, Hydrodynamics.

      BOEHRER, B., Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research - UFZ, Brueckstrasse 3a,
      Magdeburg, D-39114, Germany. Lakes density stratified by biogeochemical processes.

              Biogeochemical reactions change the composition of the dissolved substances. Solutes
      may be transformed into insoluble forms, and hence be removed from the water column.
      Redissolution may enhance the concentration of dissolved substances in other parts of the lake.
      In some cases, gradients are created which suffice to inhibit the vertical full circulation of the
      lake during the annual cycle. Such lakes are termed biogenically, internally or geochemically
      meromictic. A small number of geochemical cycles are known to produce meromixis. We
      present an overview of these known processes, such as oxic decomposition and iron meromixis.
      We show data about special stratification and the dynamics of the chemocline over several
      annual cycles. Finally, the reactivity of dissolved substances even enhances the double diffusive
      convection in the deep water body, that under favourable circumstances, a full monimolimnetic
      overturn can occur. This overturn redistributes the solutes in the monimolimnion and hence is of
      great importance for the evolution of water quality in the entire lake. Reference: Boehrer, B., S.

May 17-21, 2010                                      29                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Dietz, C. von Rohden, U. Kiwel, K. D. Jöhnk, S. Naujoks, J. Ilmberger, and D. Lessmann
      (2009), Double-diffusive deep water circulation in an iron-meromictic lake, Geochem. Geophys.
      Geosyst., 10, Q06006, doi:10.1029/2009GC002389. Keywords: Hydrodynamics, Meromixis,
      Biogeochemistry, Physical limnology, Iron, Density stratification.

      BOOTSMA, H.A.1 and HECKY, R.E.2, 1Univeristy of Wisconsin-Miwlaukee, 600 E. Greenfield
      Ave., Milwaukee, WI, 53204; 2University of Minnesota-Duluth, 2205 East Fifth Street, Duluth,
      MN, 55812. Mechanisms Controlling Carbon Dynamics in Lake Malawi.

               Although photosynthetic rates have been measured in many tropical lakes, few studies
      have examined other carbon input and output processes in these systems. We present the results
      of a multi-year study in which photosynthesis, river inputs, atmospheric deposition,
      sedimentation, and burial were measured in Lake Malawi. High organic carbon concentrations
      and high particulate:dissolved organic carbon ratios in rivers reflect a large impact of land-use
      practices on allochthonous carbon inputs . However, most organic carbon input to the lake is via
      algal photosynthesis. A comparison of inputs and outputs indicates that photosynthesis and
      respiration are approximately balanced, with permanent burial representing about 10% of total
      organic carbon input. Dissolved inorganic carbon profiles suggest that the lake is a carbon sink
      during the productive period following mixing, and a carbon source to the atmosphere during the
      stratified season. Sediment profiles suggest that carbon burial is tightly coupled to silica burial.
      We present a simple model to illustrate how the ultimate fate of carbon (burial versus respiration
      and degassing) may be controlled by silica dynamics. Keywords: Lake Malawi,
      Biogeochemistry, Carbon.

      BOOTY, W.G.1 and BOWEN, G.S.2, 1867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON, L7R4A6; 25
      Shoreham Drive, Downsview, ON, M3N1S4. Watershed Nutrient and Sediment Loadings on
      the Canadian Side of Lake Ontario.

              The nearshore of Lake Ontario is a valued amenity. It is an area of contrasting uses,
      including public green spaces, Provincially Significant Wetlands, recreational boating, municipal
      and private sector infrastructure related to the treatment of wastewater and potable water, and the
      generation of electric power. There is a shared interest in the health of the nearshore areas of
      Lake Ontario. In order to understand conditions in the nearshore, estimates of contaminant loads
      and watershed pollutant transport mechanisms are required. As part of the 2008 International
      Special Year of Study for Lake Ontario, Environment Canada and the Toronto and Region
      Conservation Authority have completed watershed loadings analysis for six representative
      tributaries to the Canadian side of Lake Ontario. For the Lake Ontario Drinking Water
      Collaborative Study, we previously developed estimates of pollutants loads for Canadian
      tributaries between the Niagara River and Prince Edward County, based upon event mean
      concentration and unit area methods. These load estimates have been verified with 2008 and
      2009 sampling data and our revised estimates will be compared with previous published studies
      for the Great Lakes. Keywords: Nutrients, Lake Ontario, Watersheds.

May 17-21, 2010                                       30                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      BOSCARINO, B.T.1, RUDSTAM, L.G.1, WALSH, M.G.2, and LANTRY, B.F.2, 1900
      Shackelton Point Road, Cornell Biological Field Station, Bridgeport, NY, 13030; 2USGS Lake
      Ontario Biological Station, 17 Lake Street, Oswego, NY, 13126. Substrate preference and
      benthic predator avoidance responses of Great Lakes mysids.

              We examine the substrate preferences of both species of Great Lakes mysid shrimp,
      Mysis diluviana and Hemimysis anomala, and determine how these preferences are altered by
      both light and predator presence. Mysis showed no substrate preference when given the choice of
      quagga mussel or sandy bottoms under dark conditions in the laboratory, but strongly preferred
      sandy substrates under simulated daytime light conditions. Alternatively, Hemimysis preferred
      sandy bottoms relative to quagga mussel, rock or cobble substrates in the dark only. Hemimysis
      shifted from preferring sandy substrates to rocky habitats in the presence of either pumpkinseed
      sunfish or round goby predators or in lighted conditions. Rocky habitat was most preferred when
      both light and fish were present. Mysis also responded to fish by choosing positions in the water
      column that were as far away as possible from their predators. This shift was even more
      pronounced under simulated daylight conditions relative to complete darkness. These results
      suggest that both species of Great Lakes mysids respond to predators by selecting habitats that
      either provide cover or are furthest away from fish, but differ in terms of their habitat preferences
      in lighted versus dark conditions in the absence of predators. Keywords: Habitats, Predator
      avoidance, Benthos, Invasive species, Experimental design.

      BOSCH, N.S.1, ALLAN, J.D.2, HAN, H.3, and RICHARDS, R.P.4, 1Grace College, 200
      Seminary Drive, Winona Lake, IN, 46590; 2University of Michigan, 440 Church Street, Ann
      Arbor, MI, 48109; 3University of Michigan, 440 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109;
        Heidelberg University, 310 E. Market Street, Tiffin, OH, 44883. Using the Soil and Water
      Assessment Tool (SWAT) to Evaluate the Impact of Agricultural BMPs on Riverine
      Nutrient Export to Lake Erie.

              We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) applied to six watersheds draining
      into Lake Erie to simulate implementation of various agricultural best management practices
      (BMPs). The SWAT watershed models were calibrated and validated for stream discharge and
      water quality parameters using data from 1998-2005 by using time series plots and statistical
      measures to verify model predictions. The models were calibrated and validated against daily
      flow measurements and near-daily sediment and nutrient concentration measurements near the
      watershed outlets. Simulated hydrology and water quality parameters closely resembled
      observed data overall. For a number of BMP scenarios we predict changes in daily and annual
      streamflow and sediment and nutrient loads in river export. SWAT scenarios showed that the
      implementation of agricultural BMPs had a marked effect on sediment and nutrient export from
      all watersheds. Furthermore, certain BMPs were shown to be much more effective at reducing
      riverine sediment and nutrient fluxes than others. For example, we predicted that adding 10 m
      grass filter strips to agricultural land in one watershed would result in 22%, 27%, and 3%
      reductions in annual river loads for total phosphorus, total nitrogen, and sediment respectively.
      Keywords: Lake Erie, Agricultural BMPs, Watersheds, SWAT, Nutrients.

May 17-21, 2010                                        31                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      BOUCHARD, R.R.1 and MOORE, L.2, 1Regional Municipality of Peel, Brampton, ON, L6T
      4B9; 2Ontario Clean Water Agency, Toronto, ON. The "Collaborative" - Purpose, Structure
      and Objectives.

             The Collaborative Study to Protect Lake Ontario Drinking Water identifies and evaluates
      both local and lake-wide drinking water hazards. This Collaborative includes 19 municipalities
      (population of 6 million) in the Province of Ontario, stretching from Niagara Region to Prince
      Edward County, as well as 9 Source Protection Authorities. Scientists from government,
      universities and consultants support the Collaborative. The Ontario Ministry of Environment
      funded Phase 1 and 2 technical studies to support the development of source protection plans for
      each member of the Collaborative. The Phase 3 study was initiated in 2009 to address rules
      released by the Ontario Ministry of Environment in November 2008. Studies have focused on:
      1)Lake Ontario physical processes and lake-wide hydrodynamic modeling; 2)Lake Ontario
      Watershed/Tributary Pollutant Loading Studies; 3)Pathogen monitoring and source tracking; and
      4)Spill Scenario Modeling for Identification of Drinking Water Issues and Threats. The
      Collaborative is a model of cooperative effort and is making a contribution to sound decision
      making on protection of Lake Ontario as a critical source of drinking water. Keywords: Drinking
      water, Collaboration, Lake Ontario, Management.

      BOUFFARD, D.1, BOEGMAN, L.1, and YERUBANDI, R.2, 1Civil Engineering Department,
      Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6, Canada; 2National Water Research Institute,
      Burlington, ON, K7LR 4A6, Canada. Spatial and temporal variability of turbulent hot spots
      in Lake Erie.

              Recent temperature microstructure profiles from central Lake Erie have shown more
      unstable small scale density inversions than expected near the thermocline. These observations
      raise questions about the required spatial and temporal sampling to capture mixing events. Data
      is presented from two intensive measuring campaigns during the summers 2008/2009 in Lake
      Erie. The primary objective of the study is to investigate the spatial and temporal variability of
      turbulent events with respect to two processes. First, the role of the lateral boundaries are
      demonstrated with an increase of unstable profiles in the nearshore region. Second, the question
      of enhanced turbulence induced by the large internal wave is addressed. The main wind driven
      oscillation was identified as a Poincaré wave and overturning events are in phase with the crest
      of the wave. Gradient Richardson numbers in this region were not below the canonical 1/4 value
      for instability during these events. We believe that the spatial (1 m) and temporal (15 min)
      averaging associated with the resolution of the ADCP prevented the instrument from capturing
      the low Ri thin layers that have been observed by others to be associated with shear instability.
      For this reason, we investigate the link between induced turbulence and large scale internal wave
      activity using Thorpe scale. Keywords: Lake Erie, Patchy mixing, Measuring instruments.

      BOWEN, G.S.1 and BOOTY, W.G.2, 1Toronto and Region Conservation Authority, 5 Shoreham
      Drive, Downsview, ON, M3N 1S4; 2Environment Canada Canada Centre for Inland Waters,
      National Water Research Institute, 867 Lakeshorer Road PO Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R

May 17-21, 2010                                      32                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      4A6. Watershed Pollutant Loadings Estimates Developed for Lake Ontario Intake
      Protection Zone Studies.

              Lake Ontario is the source of drinking water for over 6 million residents. There are
      special provisions under Ontario‘s Clean Water Act, 2006, the Provincial Source Water
      Protection Legislation, to ensure that Lake Ontario continues to be a safe and reliable supply.
      This paper will describe water quality studies conducted by Environment Canada and the
      Toronto and Region Conservation Authority for the Lake Ontario Drinking Water Collaborative
      and the Source Protection Areas for Lake Ontario to provide estimates of watershed pollutant
      loading to Lake Ontario. This paper will describe how the loading estimates will be incorporated
      into the Drinking Water Intake Protection Zone 3 regulatory approach for the Great Lakes. Based
      upon sampling completed in 2008 and 2009, differences in pollutant contribution due to
      watershed size and land use patterns will be discussed for watersheds entering the lake on the
      Canadian side, between the Niagara River and Prince Edward County. Comparisons will be
      presented for non point source and sewage treatment plant loads. Recommendations will be
      provided for cost effective strategies to track future watershed loads and approaches for
      interfacing watershed water quality contributions with lake wide water quality modelling as an
      approach for understanding threats and risks to nearshore intakes. Keywords: Lake Ontario,
      Pollutant loads, Tributaries, Water quality.

      BOWEN, G.S.1 and HOWELL, T.2, 1Toronto and Region Conservation Authority, 5 Shoreham
      Drive, Downsview, ON, M3N1S4; 2Ministry of Environment, 125 Resources Road, Etobicoke,
      On, M9P 3V6. Spatial and temporal patterns in E. coli, across the Ajax-Pickering
      Waterfront of Lake Ontario.

              For the past four years, we have been monitoring water quality and fecal pollution
      indicators such as E.coli and Enterococcus over onshore-offshore transects across the largely
      urban waterfront of Lake Ontario adjacent to the communities of Ajax and Pickering. Surveys
      were undertaken during dry weather and 24 hours after major rain storm events. Samples were
      also collected in embayment‘s (Frenchman‘s Bay), watershed outlets and coastal marshes
      (Rouge, Duffins and Carruthers). Situated along these transects, are the water intake for the Ajax
      Drinking Water Treatment Plant, the Duffin Creek Water Pollution Control Plant effluent
      diffuser and the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. Distinct onshore - offshore gradients in
      E.coli counts were observed, with plate counts meeting Ontario recreational swimming
      objectives usually within 100m of the shoreline. During periods of extended dry warm weather,
      background levels of E.coli were below method detection. Water temperature, currents and water
      quality were used to provide insight on transport and dilution of fecal pollution as inferred from
      levels of E.coli. Keywords: Pollution sources, Microbiological studies, Coastal processes.

      BOWEN, K.L., JOHANNSSON, O.E., BEDFORD, A., and GERLOFSMA, J., Fisheries and
      Oceans Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Changes in Zooplankton
      Production and Biomass in the Bay of Quinte, 1975 to 2008.

May 17-21, 2010                                      33                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              Cultural eutrophication has been a concern in Lake Ontario‘s Bay of Quinte since the
      early 1970s. Weekly or biweekly zooplankton samples have been collected at 3 stations in the
      eutrophic upper bay (Belleville - B), mesotrophic middle (Hay Bay - HB), and meso-oligotrophic
      lower bay (Conway - C) from 1975 to the present. Water depths are 5 m at B, 12 m at C and 32
      m at C. The zooplankton community is constantly changing in response to phosphorus control
      and invasion by new species. Following dreissenid mussel invasion, dry zooplankton biomass
      averaged 166, 192 and 48 mg.m-3 at B, HB, and C, respectively, between 1995 and 2008 (01
      May to 06 Oct). The lowest biomass values were from the coldest years, 1992 and 2000. Both
      zooplankton production and biomass have declined since the post-phosphorus control, pre-
      dreissenid period of the 1980s and early 1990s. Cladocerans dominate zooplankton biomass,
      averaging 78% at B, 71% at HB and 55% at C during the 1995-2008 period. Rotifers have been
      collected since 2000, but their biomass is low compared to that of crustacean zooplankton and
      veligers. Measured zooplankton lengths in the Bay of Quinte (taken since 1995) were often much
      lower than mean species dry weights for the Great Lakes. Cladoceran mean lengths were usually
      <0.5 mm, indicating high rates of planktivory. Keywords: Zooplankton, Bay of Quinte, Invasive

      ARTS, M.T.3, 1Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON, L7R 4A2;
        University of Stirling, Stirling, FK9 4LA, Scotland; 3Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd.,
      Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Nucleic Acid Ratios and other Growth Indicators in Great Lakes

              The native opossum shrimp Mysis diluviana fills a critical intermediate position in the
      pelagic food web of the Great Lakes. Mysids have been collected in the spring, summer and fall
      as part of the Great Lakes Binational Monitoring Program – Ontario in 2003 and 2008, Superior
      in 2005 and Huron in 2007. Mysid densities are typically lowest in the spring and increase in the
      summer and fall. Mysid densities at depths <100 m were similar across lakes, but in deeper
      water, numbers were lowest in Huron. Nucleic acid and protein content are presented as
      indicators of growth and condition in mysids. For example, total RNA decreases rapidly with
      starvation. In Huron in 2007, juvenile RNA levels were highest in August, intermediate in
      October, and lowest in May, when zooplankton was scarcer. There were no consistent
      differences in mysid RNA levels between 2007 and 2002 in Huron. In August, the station with
      the lowest mysid RNA (station 138 in 2002) also supported mysid densities over 4 times greater
      than the other stations sampled. This suggests that even in the summer of 2002, prior to the lower
      food web collapse, mysids at the highest observed densities may be food-limited and
      experiencing reduced growth. Further insight may be gained by comparing Huron nucleic acid
      levels to those in mysids from other lakes. Keywords: Mysids, Food chains, Indicators.

      BOWERING, T.1, D‘ANDREA, M.1, DEWEY, R.2, BISHOP, R.3, and SNODGRASS, W.J.4,
        City of Toronto, Metro Hall, 55 John Street, 18th Floor, Toronto, ON, M5V3C6; 2City of
      Toronto, Waterfront Remodeling Consultant, Metro Hall, 55 John Street, 27th Floor, Toronto,
      ON, M5V 3C6; 3MMM Group Limited, 100 Commerce Valley Drive West, Thornhill, ON, L3T
      1A1; 4City of Toronto, Metro Hall, 55 John Street, 18th Floor, Toronto, ON, M5V 3C6.

May 17-21, 2010                                      34                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Toronto Wet Weather Flow Management Master Plan : Status of Its implementation and
      Anticipated receiving water Benefits.

              This paper outlines the projects which have been implemented during the first 5 year of
      the 25 year Master Plan and documents the anticipated benefits toward delisting the associated
      beneficial use impairments (beach closures, combined sewer overflow control). It evaluates the
      relative role that source controls (including low impact development practices), conveyance
      control, and end-of pipe solutions have in achieving these benefits. Keywords: Impared water

      BOWLBY, J.N. and HOYLE, J.A., Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, R.r. 4, Picton,
      ONTARIO, K0K 2T0, Canada. Distribution and Movement of Bay of Quinte Walleye in
      Eastern Lake Ontario.

             Gillnetting during summer 1992-2008 in the Bay of Quinte and eastern Lake Ontario
      described the distribution of walleye and prey fish. All age classes of walleye were caught in the
      Bay of Quinte during April, May, October, and November. During June to September fewer
      mature walleye were caught in the Bay of Quinte, but dominated the catch outside the Bay.
      Walleye catches were greater in the eastern basin than central and western basins of Lake
      Ontario. From 1998 to 2003, we marked 50,948 walleye in the Bay of Quinte and eastern Lake
      Ontario and tagged 9,161 of them. Anglers and commercial fishermen recaptured 678 tagged
      walleye and our nets recaptured 1,266 marked walleye. Recaptures indicate mature walleye
      migrate from the upper Bay of Quinte to the lower Bay and Lake Ontario, peaking in May and
      continuing into July. Walleye migrate back into the Bay of Quinte starting in September and
      peaking in October. Mature walleye migrate into Lake Ontario toward less optimum water
      temperatures and abundant prey, alewife. Summer temperature of Lake Ontario is optimum for
      walleye growth, and above optimum in the Bay of Quinte. During fall temperature of the Bay of
      Quinte drops faster than Lake Ontario. Again migration is toward less optimum water
      temperature and abundant prey, young-of-the-year alewife and gizzard shad. Keywords: Bay of
      Quinte, Migration, Walleye, Fish behavior.

      BOYER, G.L. and SATCHWELL, M.F., Department of Chemistry, SUNY-College of
      Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY, 13210. Good News for Managers: The
      Cyanobacteria Neurotoxin Beta-Methyl Amino Alanine (BMAA) does not appear to be a
      major new hazard in the Great Lakes.

              Cyanobacteria produce a wide range of natural toxins. The most recently described
      cyanobacterial toxin is the amino acid β-N-methyl amino alanine (BMAA). BMAA is a non-
      protein amino acid produced by a wide range of cyanobacteria (Cox et al., 2005). Originally
      discovered in cyacad seeds from Guam, it has been associated as a possible cause of amyotrophic
      lateral sclerosis or Parkinsonism dementia complex. Many potential BMAA-producing genera
      (e.g. Microcystis, Anabaena) are common in the Great Lakes. To investigate if BMAA is an
      emerging threat in Great Lakes ecosystems, voucher samples from more than 1000 samples
      collected between 2006 and 2009 as part of the NOAA‘s MERHAB-LGL and OHHI

May 17-21, 2010                                      35                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      cyanobacterial toxin monitoring efforts are being retroactively analyzed for BMAA using a
      highly sensitive HPLC-positive ion electrospray mass spectroscopy method. The detection limit
      for free BMAA contained within the cells is generally less than 0.01 μg/L of raw lake water.
      These samples span a wide range of biomass, cyanobacteria species, and many contain one or
      more known cyanobacterial toxins. However results to date suggest that detectable levels of free
      BMAA contained within the cells is extremely rare, indicating that this neurotoxin is unlikely to
      be a major emerging threat to the Great Lakes. Keywords: Cyanophyta, Harmful algal blooms,
      Toxic substances.

      BRAVENER, G.A. and MCLAUGHLIN, R.L., 50 Stone Rd. E., Guelph, ON, ON, N1G 2W1,
      Canada. Behaviour of Sea Lamprey Approaching Traps on the St. Marys River.

              We used acoustic, radio and integrated transponder (PIT) telemetry, along with
      underwater video, to examine the behaviour of sea lamprey approaching traps in the St. Marys
      River. The sea lamprey is an invasive species in the Great Lakes and the target of a bi-national
      control program. Trapping would provide an important control option if trapping success could
      be improved. 3-dimensional movement paths were quantified to test whether individuals used
      common routes to approach trap sites. PIT telemetry and video were used to quantify encounter,
      entrance and retention rates at study traps, including testing for differences between sex and class
      of lamprey. Results suggest that individual sea lamprey differ markedly in their movement paths,
      but generally confine their movements to the boundary layer near the river bottom. Many sea
      lamprey did not encounter traps, and many did not enter upon encounter, but retention of those
      that did enter was high. Differences between sex and class of lamprey were negligible. Our
      findings suggest that trapping success could be improved by adjusting traps in ways that increase
      the probability of encounter and entrance into traps. Keywords: Invasive species, Fish behavior,
      Sea lamprey, Acoustics.

      Natural Heritage, 176 Fellowes Crescent, Waterdown, ON, L0R2H3; 2Baird & Associates, 627
      Lyons Lane, Suite 200, Oakville, ON, L6J5Z7; 3The Planning Partnership, 1255 Bay Street,
      Suite 201, Toronto, ON, M5R2A9; 4City of Brantford Planning Department, City Hall,100
      Wellington Square, P.O. Box 818, Brantford, ON, N3T5R7. Waterfront Master Planning as a
      Tool to Protect and Restore River Ecosystems in an Urban Context.

              Waterfront Master Planning in urban areas present an opportunity for scientists and
      planners to develop outcome based policy direction for the protection and restoration of river
      ecosystems. A 35 km stretch of the Grand River, a Heritage River, flows through the City of
      Brantford, and provides important habitat for a diversity of species, including species at risk. The
      Grand River is also the source of drinking water for the City of Brantford. A multi-disciplinary
      team is developing a Master Plan framework and policy direction for future land use decision
      making along the waterfront. Initiatives put forward by the team include: 1) use of bio-swales to
      polish urban runoff 2) provision of 30 m riparian buffers 3) changes to turf grass management
      practices in urban parks 4) creation of an urban forestry program to increase tree cover 5) public
      stewardship and education along a 70 km trail system 6) protection of key natural areas and

May 17-21, 2010                                       36                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      groundwater recharge zones 7) use of Stormceptors to polish runoff from older neighborhoods 8)
      strict controls to mitigate siltation and erosion during land development and 9) performance
      monitoring. Key to the success of these initiatives will be the formulation of ―outcome‖ based
      policies    to    achieve     environmental     sustainability  in   a    waterfront   context.
      Keywords: Remediation, Planning, Urban watersheds.

      CHAFFIN, J.D.1, PANEK, S.E.1, and MAYER, C.M.1, 1Dept. of Environmental Sciences and
      Lake Erie Center, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, 43606; 2Dept. of Civil Engineering,
      University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, 43606; 3Aquatic Ecology Laboratory, The Ohio State
      University, Columbus, OH, 43212; 4Division of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Defiance
      College, Defiance, OH, 43512; 5National Center for Water Quality Research, Heidelberg
      University, Tiffin, OH, 44883. Lake Erie Algal Source Tracking (LEAST): Contributions of
      the Maumee River and Lake Sediments to Microcystis Blooms.

              The LEAST project was initiated in summer 2009 with several objectives: identifying
      potential Microcystis ―seed‖ populations that initiate summer blooms in western Lake Erie,
      tracking the biovolume and toxicity of the bloom, and the partitioning of phosphorus into various
      categories. Coordinated river (5 sites) and lake (6 sites) sampling activities were conducted
      during 3 periods, pre-bloom (mid-June), early bloom (early August), and late bloom (early
      September). Only trace Microcystis was detected in the river and lake water in June, however
      sediment from 2 of 6 lake sites contained significant Microcystis (10,000 cells/g wet sediment).
      On August 6-9, high Microcystis counts were obtained sediments at all lake sites and overlying
      waters (4 of 6 sites), and at 2 of 5 river sites. The visible bloom had decreased by September 9-
      11 in the water column at all lake sites, but high Microcystis counts continued to be obtained
      from the lake sediments and Maumee River. Microcystin LR was dectected at all river and lake
      sites, with highest concentrations measured in Maumee Bay during August bloom conditions.
      Keywords: Harmful algal blooms, Lake Erie, Microcystis.

      BRIGGS, W.E.1 and ANDERSON, J.2, 1733 Exeter Road, London, On, N6E 1L3; 2867
      Lakeshore Road, Burlington, On, L7R 4A6. Lake Huron Southeast Shore Working Group -
      A Multi-stakeholder Effort to Address Nearshore Water Quality Issues.

             The Southeast Shore Area of Lake Huron (Sarnia to Southampton) has seen ongoing
      issues with respect to beach postings (from pathogens) and algal fouling at various locations
      along the nearshore which has prompted various complaints from the public and response from
      various agencies, municipalities and organizations over the past few years. The Southeast Shore
      Working Group was created in July 2002, in response to these issues under the Lake Huron Bi-
      national Partnership. The Southeast Shore Working Group is co-chaired by the Ministry of the
      Environment and Environment Canada and membership includes various federal and provincial
      government agencies, conservation authorities and local health units. The group is looking at
      ways to better identify sources of pollution, as well as working at implementing Best
      Management Practices (BMP) within the region. A Technical Committee of this working group
      was formed in 2005 to help move forward some of the technical issues that were identified in the

May 17-21, 2010                                      37                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      area, with membership including technical resource people from the various groups on the
      Working Group. This presentation will outline some of the multi-partnered activities that have
      occurred through this effort and some of the plans for future activities. Keywords: Watersheds,
      Multi-stakeholder, Lake Huron, Water quality.

      BROUSSEAU, C.M.1, RANDALL, R.G.1, MINNS, C.K.1, and HOYLE, J.A.2, 1Fisheries and
      Oceans Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Ontario Ministry of Natural
      Resources, 41 Hatchery Lane, Picton, ON, K0K 2T0. Fish community indices of ecosystem
      health: Are Index of Biotic Integrity values at Bay of Quinte relatively high compared to
      other coastal sites in Lake Ontario?

               Fish survey data from the Bay of Quinte, together with data from Hamilton Harbour and
      Severn Sound, were used to develop a Great Lakes Index of Biotic Integrity (Minns et al. 1994)
      for littoral fish assemblages. Despite being a degraded area (designated as an Area of Concern by
      the International Joint Commission), the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI) values were relatively
      high at the Bay of Quinte. Fish survey data collected since 1988 at the Bay of Quinte and
      elsewhere indicated that: 1) Quinte IBI scores have remained high and increased at certain
      locations; 2) IBI values at Quinte were similar to reference sites (in the vicinity but outside the
      Area of Concern); and 3) IBI and fish catches varied along the Canadian shoreline of Lake
      Ontario. IBI and fish catch values were correlated with physical and biological attributes at the
      survey locations, both spatially and temporally. The littoral fish community data confirmed that
      the Bay of Quinte continues to be a highly productive and diverse ecosystem, and that the Index
      of Biotic Integrity is a useful index of ecosystem health. Keywords: Fish, Bay of Quinte,
      Ecosystem health.

      BROWN, H.C.1, SHUCHMAN, R.A.2, and MEADOWS, G.A.1, 1University of Michigan:
      Marine Hydrodynamics Laboratories, 1085 South University Avenue, West Hall, Room 126,
      Ann Arbor, MI, 48109; 2Michigan Tech Research Institute, 3600 Green Ct., Ste. 100, Ann Arbor,
      MI, 48105. BathyBoat: Autonomous Survey Platform. Autonomous Environmental Surveys
      of Nearshore Regions, Lakes, and Rivers.

              This paper reports the design, construction, and testing of a new autonomous surface
      vessel (ASV) for environmental survey and sampling. The University of Michigan (UMich) as
      partnered with Michigan Tech. Research Institute (MTRI) to design and fabricate the new ASV
      ‖BathyBoat‖ as a targeted remote sensing platform. The BathyBoat is outfitted with depth
      sensors, GPS, a high-accuracy digital compass and accelerometer, water temperature and
      conductivity probes, and other environmental sensors discussed subsequently. An onboard
      wireless data transmission system offers the ability to monitor, in real-time, the BathyBoat vitals
      as well as the current sensor readings. In addition, updated mission objectives can be relayed
      from ship, shore, or aircraft, to the ASV for mid-mission adjustments. Ongoing scientific and
      engineering research missions are discussed, along with an overview of completed missions in
      and around the Great Lakes and a summary of field trials on the North Slope of Alaska.
      Keywords: Observing systems, Autonomous, Assessments, Boat, Arctic, Surface.

May 17-21, 2010                                       38                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      BROWNSCOMBE, J.W. and FOX, M.G., 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8.
       The Rate of Spread of Round Gobies in the Trent Severn Waterway: Modeling Upstream
      and Downstream Movements.

              The round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) is an invasive fish found throughout the
      Great Lakes and is currently expanding its range in the Trent Severn Waterway. Its rate of spread
      through specific habitat types is not well documented in North American rivers. Thus the
      objective of this research is to quantify its rate and pattern of spread in the Trent Severn
      Waterway, and to develop a predictive model for estimating its future distribution. To estimate
      their density and rate of range expansion, round gobies were angled at sites across the edges of
      their range in May and August of 2009. Preliminary results indicate very large increases in round
      goby density at the edges of their range over the summer months, but minimal range expansion
      over this period. In ideal, rocky habitats at the northern edge of expansion the average goby
      density increased from 2/m2 in May to 8/m2 in August with a maximum density of 16.5/m2. At
      the southern edge of expansion, densities increased from 0.5/m2 in May to 3/m2 in August, with
      a maximum density of 6/m2. It is likely that densities were not yet high enough to motivate
      individuals to move further up or downstream, and that more rapid expansion will be observed in
      2010. Keywords: Biological invasions, Ecosystem modeling, Fish populations.

      BRUNTON, A.1, HALEY, D.2, and DION, K.2, 1W.F. Baird & Associates, Oakville, ON;
        Toronto and Region Conservation Authority, Toronto, ON. Numerical Models of
      Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport as Environmental Assessment Tools for the Don
      River Mouth Naturalization.

              Part of the planning for the revitalization of the Toronto Waterfront is the naturalization
      of the mouth of the Don River. Flood protection of the lower Don River is a key component of
      this project, along with sustainable sediment management throughout the study area. TRCA has
      identified the lower Don River as the number one priority for flood protection in their
      jurisdiction. A Class EA was recently completed to provide a solution to flooding west of the
      Don and this project will be soon under construction. Baird and TRCA are part of the team
      undertaking the environmental assessment for naturalizing the Don River and addressing
      flooding in the Port Lands. This presentation presents the analysis of flooding, flood protection
      performance and sediment transport through numerical modeling of the mouth of the Don using
      the Delft3-D hydrodynamic and sediment transport model. This includes sediment trap analysis
      and evaluation of dredging options; assessment of sediment transport and deposition in different
      naturalized channel alternatives, plus geomorphic analysis, analytical modelling of sediment
      transport and deposition, and evaluation of the functional design for the restored channel,
      wetlands and flood spillways. Keywords: Hydrogeomorphology, Hydrodynamics, Sediment

      BRUSH, J.1, JOHNSON, T.2, JAKOBI, N.2, TARABORELLI, C.2, and FISK, A.1, 1Great Lakes
      Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9V 3Y2; 2Ontario

May 17-21, 2010                                       39                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Ministry of Natural Resources, Picton, ON, K0K 2T0. Using Stable Isotopes and Fatty Acids
      to Understand the Influence of Temperature in Structuring Freshwater Fish Communities.

              Abiotic and biotic resources have the ability to significantly impact ecological
      communities. In particular, temperature has been recognized to limit the range of species, affect
      community composition and therefore influence species-interactions. Chemical tracers such as
      stable isotopes and fatty acids provide relatively new tools to assess feeding relationships in
      order to delineate species interactions within a food web and feeding preferences at the
      individual level. This study aims to evaluate the role of temperature on physiologic processes by
      comparing stable isotope values in wild-caught organisms collected from two areas of
      contrasting temperature within the Bay of Quinte and eastern Lake Ontario. We expect to
      observe a decline in δ13C and an increase in δ15N with increasing temperature along the spatial
      thermal gradient in the Bay of Quinte-Lake Ontario ecosystem,corresponding to an increased
      physiological demand associated with inhabiting warmer temperature environments. We will
      evaluate how chemical tracers vary across a temperature gradient and how this influences
      individual level responses as well as food web structure within an ecosystem. We aim to couple
      chemical tracer data with traditional metrics to better understand food web relationships and
      organismal health in large and often complex ecosystems. Keywords: Stable isotopes, Food
      chains, Bay of Quinte.

      BRYANT, J.C., BOLISETTI, T., and BALACHANDAR, R., 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, ON,
      N9B 3P4, Canada. A Case Study on the Impact of the Canard Watershed on the
      Amherstburg Water Treatment Plant (WTP) Intake Water Quality using Finite Volume
      Method in FVCOM.

              Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is being used to model hydrodynamics and
      sediment transport in the Detroit River. The purpose of the study is to determine the impact of
      the Canard Watershed on the Amherstburg drinking water intake pipe, located approximately 5
      kilometres downstream of the Canard River outlet. This research will enable insight into intake
      protection zone (IPZ) delineation, which is mandated by O. Reg. 287/07 under the Clean Water
      Act (2006) for all intake pipes in the Great Lakes and Great Lake connecting channels. Finite
      Volume Method is being used in FVCOM to model the hydrodynamics of the Detroit River. The
      computational domain extends from the connection of Lake St. Claire and the Detroit River until
      Lake Erie. The water surface is divided into approximately 6500 triangular shaped elements with
      sides ranging from 300 m down to 100 m. The vertical domain is divided into equal layers using
      a terrain following sigma-coordinate transformation. Flow and surface elevation are used as the
      inlet and outlet boundary conditions for the Detroit River, respectively, with zero seepage along
      the walls and bed. Canard watershed sediment loadings are injected into a tracer control element,
      where the sediment transport is determined by continuity and momentum transport governing
      equations. Keywords: Detroit River, Hydrodynamic model, Sediment transport.

      BUMSTEAD, N.L. and LONGSTAFFE, F.J., University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A
      5B7. The Stable Isotope Paleolimnology of Lake Simcoe.

May 17-21, 2010                                      40                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              This study examines variations in lake water sources and productivity within the Lake
      Simcoe Basin during the last 10,000 years using the oxygen- and carbon-isotope compositions of
      ostracodes. During the retreat of the Laurentide Ice Sheet there was a minimum of two
      significant meltwater inputs into the basin – as signaled by negative shifts of ~10 ‰ in the
      oxygen-isotope compositions of ostracodes from sediment cores. Periods of more positive
      oxygen-isotope compositions reflect a basin dominated by water originating in the local/regional
      watershed or, possibly, from overflow of 18O-enriched surface waters from a stratified Lake
      Agassiz. The changes in oxygen-isotope composition coincide with shifts in ostracode
      populations. Candona subtriangulata thrived during periods of meltwater influx characterized by
      very low δ18O values while Candona rawsoni, Fabaeformiscandona caudata and/or Cytherissa
      lacustris flourished during periods of limited low-18O meltwater input, during which time
      lakewater δ18O values were much higher. The periods largely free of low-18O meltwater influx
      are also characterized by a ~2 to 3 ‰ decrease in ostracode δ13C values. This difference likely
      arises from elevated levels of decay and respiration within the lake. Keywords: Lake Simcoe,
      Stable isotopes, Oxygen.

      M.M.1, BASILIKO, C.P.1, and CONROY, J.2, 1Great Lakes Center, Buffalo State College, 1300
      Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY, 14222; 2Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal
      Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43212. Dominance Of Exotic Invertebrates
      Changes The Structure Of The Lake Erie Benthic Community.

              To estimate the role of exotic species in the benthic community of Lake Erie, we
      collected samples from all lake basins in the summer of 2009, and compared these data to a 1979
      survey (Dermott 1994). In 1979, 3 exotic species (Gastropoda: Bithynia tentaculata, and
      Oligochaeta: Branchiura sowerbyi, Potamothrix vejdovskyi) constituted < 2% of the total benthic
      density and biomass. The 1979 community was dominated (density) by oligochaetes, the mollusc
      Pisidium and the amphipod Diporeia, while chironomids, oligochaetes, Sphaerium, Diporeia, and
      Pisidium dominated in terms of biomass. Eight exotics were found 30 yrs later, including
      molluscs Dreissena r. bugensis, D. polymorpha, Sphaerium corneum, Cipangopaludina
      chinensis, Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Valvata piscinalis, the oligochaete B. sowerbyi,
      amphipod Echinogammarus ischnus, and numerous shells of B. tentaculata. Exotics were
      disproportionally abundant among molluscs, and were absent from the most diverse group of
      native invertebrates - insects. Benthic invaders now constitute 40% of total benthic density, and
      over 95% of the total wet mass. Benthic community structure and dominance has changed
      significantly since 1979, and the community is currently dominated by exotic species.
      Keywords: Exotic species, Community, Benthos, Lake Erie.

      BURNISTON, D.A., Canada Center for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON,
      L7R 4A6. Contaminants in Hamilton Harbour Water.

            During the 2008 and 2009 field season, WQM&S conducted extensive water quality
      monitoring in Hamilton Harbour to determine ambient contaminant levels in the water column,
      and in support of the proposed Randle Reef remediation project. Polycyclic Aromatic

May 17-21, 2010                                      41                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Hydrocarbon (PAH) and metal concentrations for monthly whole water samples were
      determined at 9 sites in the Harbour. Ambient background PAH levels were roughly 30 ng/L,
      while the Randle Reef and Windermere arm sites were typically 60 and 200 ng/L, respectively.
      Levels of copper were consistently above the CCME guidelines; background levels in the
      Harbour were only slightly lower than concentrations found at Randle Reef, with Windermere
      arm samples generally the highest. Concentrations of PCBs were determined in both dissolved
      and particulate phases at ten sites in the harbour to investigate partitioning between the two
      phases. The whole (combined phase) water ambient background concentrations were typically 2
      ng/L, which included the Randle Reef sites. PCB concentrations at Windermere arm sites
      averaged 15 ng/L; the highest levels of PCBs were associated with boat slips along the highly
      industrialized southern shoreline of the harbour. Keywords: PCBs, Environmental contaminants,

      D.A., Department of Biology Central Michigan University, Brooks 156, Mt. Pleasant, MI,
      48858. Applying Great Lakes Coastal Wetlands Indices of Biotic Integrity to Inland Lakes
      of Beaver Island.

              Biological indicators or indices of biotic integrity (IBI) have been developed for some
      systems for land management and regulatory agencies to categorize the level of degradation of a
      given ecosystem. IBIs are most often used in lotic systems and those IBIs that can be used over
      wide geographic regions and/or many system types are deemed most valuable. Lacustrine
      system‘s intrinsic complexity and multidimensionality greatly affects the transferability of
      particular indices created for certain lakes. The robustness and transferability of IBIs created for
      macroinvertebrates and fish (Uzarski et al. in 2004, 2005) for fringing, lacustrine marshes of the
      Great Lakes are currently being tested on the inland lakes of Beaver Island, Lake Michigan. In
      contrast to many other IBIs that tend to be system specific, Uzarski et al.‘s (2004, 2005) IBIs
      should be transferable since they assess food web structure and are therefore, not dependant on a
      specific species pool. The transferability of both IBIs is probable; however species richness is a
      component that may need to be redefined for the lower diversity found in the inland lakes when
      compared to the Great Lakes. The transferability of both IBIs will be determined by relating
      rescaled scores with an established disturbance gradient. Keywords: Bioindicators, Water
      quality, Wetlands.

      CALDWELL, T.J. and WILHELM, F.M., The University of Idaho, Dept. of Fish and Wildlife
      Resources, CNR Room 105 P.O. Box 441136, Moscow, ID, 83844. The role of the opossum
      shrimp (Mysis relicta) in the nutrient and zooplankton community dynamics of a large and
      deep (>350 m) oligotrophic lake in Northern Idaho, USA.

             In general, Mysis introduced into Pacific Northwest lakes in the 1960‘s disrupted lake
      food webs because of competition with fish fry for zooplankton prey. Additionally, mysids may
      remove nutrients from surface waters via diel vertical migration (DVM) thus limiting lake
      productivity. Lake Pend Oreille (LPO) is a large (38,000ha) and deep (351m) oligotrophic lake.
      We hypothesized and tested that; i) mysids represent a net sink of nutrients from the surface to

May 17-21, 2010                                       42                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      the deep water via DVM in LPO due to its depth; and ii) that mysids compete with fish for
      zooplankton prey. We measured phosphorous (P) release by mysids during stages of DVM and
      compared their gut contents to the natural zooplankton assemblage at two widely separated sites.
      Release rates between ascending and descending phases of DVM were similar (0.66 ±0.13, and
      0.58±0.14 µg P/hr/ind), respectively, for the North site, and (0.73±0.17, and 0.63± 0.13 µg
      P/hr/ind), respectively, for the South site. Analysis of gut contents showed consumption of
      cladocerans, copepods, diatoms, algae and unidentifiable matter. Our results suggest that mysids
      do not represent a net loss of nutrients from surface waters in LPO. However, consumption and
      reduction of zooplankton by mysids could negatively affect fish production. Keywords: Invasive
      species, Mysids, Nutrients, Zooplankton.

      CALVERT, M.B. and MCCARTHY, F.M.G., Earth Sciences, Brock Univeristy, 500 Glenridge
      Ave., St. Catharines, ON, L2S 3A1. When Nanabush wept: Paleodrought-forced early
      Holocene lowstands, and implications under projected climatic scenarios.

              Early Holocene closed basin lowstands (e.g. Lake Hough, Lake Stanley, Early Lake Erie)
      identified in the North American Great Lakes can be explained by paleodrought conditions. The
      existence of brackish water in Lake Hough, for instance, is recorded by microfossils and in the
      oral traditions of the Ojibway, but this paleodrought event has not been well-characterised.
      Transfer function analysis of pollen records from several dozen small lakes in the Great Lakes
      watershed provides numerical estimates of past climate (July temperature, January temperature
      and mean annual precipitation). A statistical model of the hydrological response to the early
      Holocene drought was developed and refined by comparing the climate reconstructions with
      geological evidence of lowstand conditions in the basins of all five Great Lakes. The major
      changes in lake level and water quality that resulted from relatively minor changes in climate
      draw attention to possible declines of the Great Lakes under future climate scenarios.
      Keywords: Paleolimnology, Hydrologic budget, Climate change.

      ARRIBÉRE, M.A.2, 1School of Environmental Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L
      3N6; 2Laboratorio de Análisis por Activación Neutrónica, Centro Atómico Bariloche, San Carlos
      de Bariloche, Argentina. Bioaccumulation and transfer of mercury and silver in an
      ultraoligotrophic lake, Patagonia, Argentina.

             Total mercury and silver concentrations and nitrogen stable isotope ratios (delta-15N)
      were measured in fish muscle and liver, plankton, benthic macroinvertebrates and macrophytes
      in Lake Moreno, an ultraoligotrophic deep lake adjoining one of Argentina´s largest lakes, Lake
      Nahuel Huapi, northwest Patagonia. The delta-15N signature increased with trophic level from
      producers to primary, secondary consumers and fish. The log transformed concentration of THg
      from all the organisms in the food web regressed against delta-15N was not significant (p=0.09).
      On the other hand, silver behaved differently with significant Ag biodilution between
      phytoplankton and zooplankton in the pelagic samples. However, when whole biota from littoral
      areas and fish were analysed, significant Ag biomagnification was observed for the whole food
      web. Both Ag biodilution and biomagnification operates simultaneously in Lake Moreno, while

May 17-21, 2010                                     43                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Hg unexpectedly did not demonstrate significant biomagnification trends. Keywords: Stable
      isotopes, Food chains, Bioaccumulation.

        Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul / Instituto de Biociências, Porto Alegre, RS, 91501-
      970, Brazil; 2Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul / Instituto de Pesquisas Hidráulicas,
      Porto Alegre, RS, 91501-970, Brazil. Hydrodynamics-driven biological processes in two
      subtropical lakes.

               Hydrodynamic processes and biological changes occurred over different spatial and
      temporal scales in two large and long subtropical lakes. In Itapeva Lake, water level and water
      velocity induced short-term spatial gradients, while wind action (namely, turbidity, suspended
      solids, and water level) was most strongly correlated with the seasonal spatial gradient. Diatoms
      and protists were the indicator groups for hydrodynamic, with instant responses in spatial
      distribution. The rate of change in the phytoplankton was very high indicating the occurrence of
      intense, rapid environmental changes, mainly in spring. In Mangueira Lake, wind driven
      hydrodynamics creates zones with particular water dynamics. Velocity and direction of fluxes,
      and water level were changed quickly. Depending on factors such as fetch and wind, areas
      dominated by down and upwelling could be identified in deepest parts. The result was a distinct
      patchiness on phytoplankton and zooplankton. In general, the simulated chlorophyll-a
      concentration increased from the littoral to the pelagic zones. We also found a stronger grazing
      pressure by zooplankton in the littoral zones, indicating a top-down control on phytoplankton
      there. Our simulation indicated also a more extensive submerged macrophyte bed in the south
      littoral zone, probably due to the dominant NE wind. Keywords: Hydrodynamic model,
      Subtropical lake, Plankton, Water level fluctuations.

      CARLSON MAZUR, M.L.1, WILCOX, D.A.2, and WILEY, M.J.3, 1USGS - Great Lakes
      Science Center, 1451 Green Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2SUNY -The College at Brockport,
      350 New Campus Drive, Brockport, NY, 14420; 3University of Michigan, 440 Church Street,
      Ann Arbor, MI, 48109. Water-balance interactions of plants and groundwater in a Lake
      Huron coastal wetland complex.

              Coastal wetland habitat of the Great Lakes likely will experience dramatic changes over
      time due to climate change and related stressors. Because trajectories of vegetation change in
      wetlands are intricately tied to the water balance, ecosystem response will depend, in large part,
      on the interactions between groundwater fluxes and evapotranspiration through their respective
      influences on the water table. The specific dynamics, however, are not well-defined. To this end,
      we investigated the water-balance dynamics of a Great Lakes wetland complex consisting of
      relict beach ridges and intervening swales to explore how variation in swale hydrology arises
      through interactions between plants and site hydrogeology and how inter-annual climatic
      variability affects these interactions. The results of this study suggest that underlying geology
      plays an integral role, but the influence of some plant communities may be equally important.
      Nonetheless, if precipitation in the Great Lakes is reduced over the growing season, groundwater
      likely will buffer climate-change effects in wetlands by slowing vegetation change associated

May 17-21, 2010                                      44                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      with long-term soil drying. This study provides a clearer representation of the present-day
      interactions to help inform our understanding of climate-change effects in wetlands.
      Keywords: Coastal wetlands, Groundwater, Hydrologic cycle, Water table, Climate change,

      MCKAY, R.M.L.3, SAXTON, M.A.4, SMITH, R.E.H.5, TWISS, M.R.6, and WILHELM, S.W.4,
        School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802;
        Environment Canada, Canadian Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, ON; 3Department of
      Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH; 4Department of
      Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN; 5Department of Biology, University of
      Waterloo, Waterloo, ON; 6Department of Biology, Clarkston University, Potsdam, NY.
       Plankton on Ice: Taxonomic Composition, Production, and Grazing Loss of Winter
      Assemblages in Lake Erie.

              Comparatively few winter observations are made for lakes residing in the temperate zone,
      despite the relatively long duration of this season. As such, we hypothesize that the abundance
      and production of winter microbial assemblages are comparable to those present in the summer.
      To test this hypothesis, water samples were collected at 5 offshore stations along an west-east
      transect in Lake Erie. The range in phytoplankton abundance observed here was comparable to
      that measured during the summer (range 20-150 ugC/L), and biomass decreased from west to
      east. Diatoms, cryptophytes and picocyanobacteria dominated the assemblage. Levels of primary
      production were appreciable at the five stations, and ranged from 0.4 to 11 ug C/L/h. These
      values corresponded well with those measured on summer assemblages incubated at low
      irradiance (<80 uEinst/m2/s). Picocyanobacterial growth and loss rates decreased along the west
      to east gradient in the lake. The absolute growth rates were relatively high at three stations in the
      lake (turnover rates ranging from <1 day to 2 days), and were indicative of assemblages that
      were physiologically active. Collectively, these data indicate that winter phytoplankton biomass
      was large, and exhibited production rates comparable to those measured for summer assemblages
      in Lake Erie. Keywords: Climate change, Winter, Plankton, Productivity.

      CHAFFIN, J.D., BRIDGEMAN, T.B., HECKATHORN, S.A., and MISHRA, S., Dept. of
      Environmental Sciences and Lake Erie Center, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH. Western
      Lake Erie Microcystis Nutrient Deficiencies in the Large Bloom of 2008.

              Microcystis blooms in western Lake Erie are supported by high nutrient (nitrogen, N;
      phosphorus, P) concentrations. To determine if N, P, or micronutrients were limiting growth, we
      collected Microcystis during 2008 for analysis of cellular nutrient content. Soluble nutrient
      concentrations were also measured over the entire summer. N content of Microcystis remained
      high over the summer, despite very low nitrate concentrations and low total N to total P ratio in
      the lake during late summer. Ammonium was constant spatially and over the summer, and likely
      provided the N source for Microcystis. P content suggested Microcystis was P limited, but not
      extremely deficient. Offshore Microcystis P content was similar to that of the near shore despite
      soluble P concentrations of offshore waters that were three-fold less than the bay. This indicates

May 17-21, 2010                                        45                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      the potential of luxury uptake of P in Maumee Bay may support offshore growth. Microcystis
      was also analyzed for content of micronutrients. Iron and magnesium decreased as P content
      decreased. All other nutrients had ranges typical for phytoplankton, except nickel, which was 6
      times above typical. These results suggest P limits Microcystis, but micronutrients also have
      impacts on bloom cellular health in western Lake Erie. Keywords: Microcystis, Lake Erie,

      CHALONER, D.T.1, JANETSKI, D.J.1, MOERKE, A.H.2, and LAMBERTI, G.A.1, 1Department
      of Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, 46556; 2Department of
      Biological Sciences, Lake Superior State University, Sault Ste. Marie, MI, 49783. Ecological
      Effects of Pacific Salmon Spawners on Great Lakes Stream Ecosystems.

              Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) are an important Great Lakes resource, but little is
      known of their ecological effects in streams where they spawn. We evaluated four mechanisms
      by which salmon spawners influence Great Lakes streams: nutrient enrichment, substrate
      disturbance, contaminant transport, and competition with native salmonids. Water chemistry and
      biotic responses to salmon runs were studied in Lake Michigan and Superior tributaries. Results
      showed dissolved nutrient concentrations can increase during salmon runs, but the extent can
      reflect ambient concentrations and is not always related to spawner densities. Disturbance effects
      on benthic algae and macroinvertebrates were also variable, with strongest impacts occurring in
      streams with highest spawner densities and smallest sediments. Polychlorinated biphenyl
      concentrations were 2 to 60 times higher in resident fish from sites with salmon spawners than
      those from control sites. Daily long-distance (>200 m) movements of brook trout (Salvelinus
      fontinalis) increased 10-fold after salmon arrived, suggesting displacement. Our results suggest
      that Pacific salmon can have multiple impacts on Great Lakes streams that can be strongly
      influenced by environmental conditions. Great Lakes salmon management should consider
      potential effects on native stream biota. Keywords: Pollutants, Ecosystem engineer, Salmon,
      Fisheries, Ecosystems, Resource subsidy.

      CHANDLER, D.J. and HEATH, R.T., Dept. Biological Sciences, Kent State University, Kent,
      OH, 44242. Evidence of N and P Co-Limitation of Phytoplankton Growth in the Central
      Basin of Lake Erie, Summer 2008.

             For the past decade we and others have observed a decline in physiological indicators of
      phytoplankton P-limitation. We have observed an increase in Phosphate Turnover Time (PTT)
      and Phosphorus Deficiency Index (PDI), and a decrease in Specific activity of Alkaline
      Phosphatase (APA) and Phosphorus Debt (P-Debt)at sites throughout Lake Erie. Each of these
      physiological characteristics indicates that phytoplankton may not be strongly growth limited by
      P-availability. In Schelske-style factorial nutrient amendment experiments in which N
      (ammonium chloride) and P (monobasic sodium phosphate) factorially amended samples drawn
      from selected sites in the Central Basin of Lake Erie and from Sandusky Bay in July to early
      September 2008. We found that neither P-amendments alone nor N-amendments alone
      stimulated phytoplankton growth following 7 days incubation (150 μE m-2 s-1; 16h L: 8h D) at
      24oC. In contrast, we observed that growth over that time (measured as increase in chl a)

May 17-21, 2010                                      46                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      significantly increased when replicate samples were amended with both N and P. Greatest
      stimulation of growth occurred when the total (ambient + amendment) N:P was 10 – 18. These
      findings indicate that phytoplankton in those assemblages examined were co-limited by
      availability of both N and P. Keywords: Biogeochemistry, Phytoplankton growth, Lake Erie,

      CHAPRA, S.C.1, BRADLEY, L.2, BACKUS, S.2, and DOLAN, D.M.3, 1Civil and
      Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA, 2155, US; 2Water Quality
      Monitoring & Surveillance Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6, Canada;
        Natural and Applied Sciences (Math), University of Wisconsin-Green Bay, Green Bay, WI,
      54311, US. Temporal and Spatial Trends of Great Lakes Precipitation Chemistry.

              Data collected over the past 30 years are compiled and analyzed to identify trends in the
      chemistry of precipitation in the Great Lakes region. Measurements are drawn from the National
      Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) for 1979-2008 and the Great Lakes Precipitation
      Network (GLPN) for 1994-2009. Concentration time series are developed for several key
      variables including total phosphorus, nitrate, ammonia, sulfate, chloride, pH and specific
      conductance. In addition, annual loading time series to the Great Lakes are estimated for total
      phosphorus, nitrate and chloride. Spatial isopleths plots and interstation comparisons are used to
      assess spatial patterns. The results indicate declines in several constituents. In particular, sulfate,
      nitrate and chloride levels appear to have declined since the early 1980s.
      Keywords: Atmosphere-lake interaction, Loadings, Mass balance, Nutrients, Deposition, Ions.

      CHARLTON, M.N., 218 Fifth Concession E, Rural Route #1, Waterdown, ON, L0R2H1.
      Prioritization: Are There Any Givens?

              Out of the thousands of potential restoration projects are there any that shouldn't be done?
      Are there any that are obviously high priority? Support of existing programs to clean up
      contaminated sediment and maintain LaMP activities and implementation would seem to be high
      priority. For non-point sources of nutrients large problem areas such as the Maumee River would
      be important but are programs designed to discover whether there have been any fundamental
      errors in land use given long-term experience? Quick results from non-point projects may not be
      apparent and some degree of faith in their eventual efficacy may be required. At the same time,
      effluent standards for sewage plants that were advanced forty years ago are now mediocre.
      Public support and accountability would seem to be important factors as well as the breadth and
      depth of restoration. Keywords: Risk assessment, Restoration, Water quality, Environmental

      CHENG, P. and AUSTIN, J.A., Large Lakes Observatory, University of Minnesota, Duluth,
      Duluth, MN, 55812, USA. The role of ice cover in the response of thermal structure to
      warming climate: a numerical study of Lake Superior.

May 17-21, 2010                                         47                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

               Air temperatures around the globe have increased significantly during the past decades.
      Corresponding to the warming climate, observations showed that summer water temperatures
      have increased rapidly in the Lake Superior, and the ice cover was assumed to be a primary
      factor in controlling the thermal interaction between the lake and the atmosphere. Using a
      coupled ice-lake model, we carried out numerical simulations of Lake Superior with realistic
      meteorological forcing in 2008. The model was validated using observations at several mooring
      stations in the lake. Modeled ice cover, vertical temperature structure and heat content are
      consistent with observations. The model, was run with the same forcing of 2008 and warmer air
      temperatures at an increasing rate of 0.1 degree/yr.Tthe long-term simulation showed that under
      the warming climate ice cover index decreased and the surface water temperatures increased
      significantly during the summer season with a increment four times than that of the winter
      season. The averaged summer surface water temperatures were increasing at a rate of 0.08
      degree/yr in the early period, and at a rate of 0.07 degree/yr at the later period, indicating that
      with ice formation the surface water temperature of the lake responds to warming climate faster
      than it in the absence of ice. Keywords: Ice, Hydrodynamic model, Lake Superior.

      CHENG, S.T. and WILEY, M.J., School of Natural Resources & Environment, University of
      Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109, US. Climate Change: Warming up Muskegon River and
      its Chinook Salmon Community.

              Climate change has become a serious issue globally. To explore long-term, large-scale
      hydrological, thermal, and biological impacts associated with climate change, we applied the
      Reduced Parameter Stream Temperature Model linked to an existing watershed multi-model, the
      Muskegon River Ecological Modeling System. Predictions from the 4th IPCC A1B Scenario
      were used to drive the entire integrated modeling system. Modeling suggested that the Muskegon
      River will experience 2~4.5oC warming in monthly water temperature. The greatest increases in
      water temperature will occur in spring and warm years. Moreover, groundwater fed tributaries
      will experience greater water temperature changes than large channels/reservoirs in winter.
      However, this spacial distinction will be less typical in summer. Results also indicated that
      changes in water temperature significantly alter the timing of Chinook salmon early life history.
      According to the 10-year averaged prediction, warming climate can cause early season spawning
      to be delayed about 2 weeks, and late season one to be delayed about one month. In addition, our
      models predicted that fry emergence would on average occur one month earlier due to warming
      climate. This integrated modeling approach should be useful to fishery managers interested in
      planning adaptations to cope with climate change. Keywords: Water temperature, Modeling,
      Chinook salmon, Climate change.

      CHESSIE, P.1, LIN, G.2, and SNODGRASS, W.J.2, 1City of Toronto, Metro Hall, 55 John Street,
      18th Floor, Toronto, ON, M5V3C6; 2City of Toronto, Metro Hall, 55 John Street, 18th Floor,
      Toronto, ON, M5V 3C6. A Climate Change Adapation Strategy To Address Urban
      Flooding and delisting the Toronto AOC: A City Of Toronto Perspective.

              This paper presents an evaluation of the wide spread surface and basement flooding as a
      result of extreme storm events, which exceed the existing urban system‘s storm drainage design

May 17-21, 2010                                       48                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      capacity, especially the August 19, 2005 storm, which exceeded 1 in 100 year return frequency,
      A comprehensive engineering review of chronic basement flooding areas, in the City of Toronto,
      has shown that, with the lack of a major storm drainage system, the roads do not typically
      provide a continuous flow route, are very flat or have low lying areas with no place for the
      stormwater to outlet. In these areas, stormwater enters the sanitary sewer system from a number
      of sources, leading to the surcharging of the sanitary sewer system and consequently basement
      flooding. IN addition, system improvement works in the past have been insufficient to guard
      against larger more intense rainfall events. An adaptive management strategy to help guard
      against future incidences of basement flooding during extreme storm events has been developed,
      using an integrated (storm and sanitary sewer) systems approach, which includes: source (lot
      level) controls; minor system (storm sewer) improvements; sanitary sewer system improvements;
      and major system (overland flow) control.

      CHIANDET, A.S. and SHERMAN, R.K., Severn Sound Environmental Association, 67 Fourth
      Street, Midland, ON, L4R 3S9, Canada. Metalimnetic Oxygen Minimum and Algal
      Associations in an Isolated Bay of Honey Harbour, Georgian Bay.

              Due to limited water exchange with the open waters of Severn Sound, North Bay, an
      isolated bay near Honey Harbour, experiences metalimnetic and hypolimnetic oxygen depletion
      each summer. We investigate trends in volume-weighted hypolimnetic oxygen (VWHO) and
      areal hypolimnetic oxygen depletion (AHOD), as well as algal associations with the
      metalimnetic minima in oxygen concentration profiles. VWHO ranged from 1-3 mg/L, with no
      trends in 7 sampling years over a 28 year period. AHOD ranged from 15-57 mg/cm2/d, and
      increased slightly over the study period. By late summer, oxygen minima consistently developed
      within the metalimnion at 7-8 m depth, with minimum oxygen concentrations declining to 0.4-
      2.9 mg/L each sample year, with bottom water (18 m) concentrations declining to 0.1-1.2 mg/L.
      Temperatures within these depth zones are suitable for coldwater fish, however the lack of
      oxygen restricts available habitat within the water column. In 2009, biweekly algae profiles were
      taken using a FluoroProbe. Results from these phytoplankton profiles suggest dominance of
      cryptophytes and diatoms. Depth specific sampling within the metalimnion should be done to
      precisely identify the factors responsible for these minima. Keywords: Oxygen, Phytoplankton,
      Trophic level.

      CHILDRESS, E.S., MCINTYRE, P.B., and ALLAN, J.D., University of Michigan School of
      Natural Resources and Environment, 440 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109. Incorporation of
      Nutrients from Sucker Migrations into Great Lakes Tributary Food Webs.

             Catostomid fishes migrate in huge numbers out of the Great Lakes into tributaries to
      spawn, potentially supplementing the supply of carbon and nitrogen to riverine food webs. These
      fish have enriched nitrogen isotope ratios compared to tributary food webs, enabling isotopic
      tracking of nutrient subsidies delivered by the migrations. In addition, sucker migrations differ in
      size among tributaries and in extent of upstream penetration due to barriers. In this study the N
      isotope ratios of Limnephilus caddisflies were tracked in enclosures with and without fish
      carcasses. Additionally isotopic ratios of Limnephilus were tracked over the course of a

May 17-21, 2010                                       49                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      spawning migration upstream and downstream of an experimental barrier to migrations in a
      nutrient-poor stream. Caddisflies rapidly incorporated fish-derived N in both enclosures and field
      conditions. Spawning catostomids represent an important seasonal nutrient source for stream
      food webs. Obstruction of breeding migrations of suckers and other native fishes by dams and
      other anthropogenic barriers is likely to have significantly altered ecosystem processes in Great
      Lakes tributaries. Keywords: Stable isotopes, Nutrients, Food webs, Migrations.

      CHITTIBABU, P., YERUBANDI, R., and ZHANG, W., Aquatic Ecosystem Management
      Research Division (AEMRD), Water Science and Technology Directorate, Environment Canada,
      867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON, L7R4A6. Modelling of Circulation in Lake of the

              A high resolution unstructured grid two dimensional finite element model ( ADCIRC)
      was applied to simulate the water levels and circulation patterns in Lake of the Woods during the
      summer of 2007. A unstructured grid facilitated to represent the complex geometry of Lake of
      the Woods. The model mesh contains a total of 23658 elements. The model was forced with
      water surface elevations at Rainy river inlet , south of Lake of the Woods and at Keewatin , north
      of lake of Woods and a time varying spatially uniform wind field generated has been used. The
      model was validated with the available water levels at several stations. The model was able to
      capture the circulation pattern in the lake reasonably well. Model results are analysed to
      characterize the seiches and inter-basin transports in the basin. Keywords: Seiches, Lake model,
      ADCIRC, Hydrodynamic model, Water level fluctuations.

      CHRISTIE, G.C. and SIEFKES, M.J., Great Lakes Fishery Commission, 2100 Commonwealth
      Blvd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48176. Killing Sea Lampreys to Protect Lake Sturgeon in the Great

              Application of pesticides, called lampricides, to streams has resulted in effective
      suppression of sea lampreys in the Laurentian Great Lakes. The suppression of these parasitic,
      invasive fish from the Atlantic Ocean, protects many native fish in the lakes. Much research has
      focused on the selectivity of lampricides and on techniques for applying them that reduce the
      collateral mortality of other fish in streams throughout the half century of sea lamprey control.
      Lake sturgeon populations in the Great Lakes are listed or under consideration for listing in all
      jurisdictions including recently designation as threatened under Ontario‘s Endangered Species
      Act. Like lampreys, sturgeon are primitive fish and are more sensitive to lampricides than other
      teleosts. Efforts to modify lampricide concentrations to protect lake sturgeon allow more sea
      lampreys to survive and escape to the lakes where they kill more fish, including lake sturgeon.
      The negative effect of increased mortality of adult lake sturgeon from sea lampreys in the lakes
      outweighs the effects of the limited mortality of larval lake sturgeon that may occur during
      intermittent treatments of streams. Sea lamprey control benefits efforts to restore lake sturgeon
      by protecting adult lake sturgeon in the Great Lakes. Keywords: Sea lamprey, Lake sturgeon,
      Invasive species, Endangered species, Fish management.

May 17-21, 2010                                      50                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      M.E.1, 1Great Lakes Fishery Commission, Ann Arbor, MI; 2University of Guelph, Guelph, ON;
        Trent University, Peterborough, ON. Toward an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries
      Management – Henry Regier‟s Influence on the Great Lakes and Beyond.

               With challenging science and catalytic energy, Henry Regier has played a central role in
      the application of an ecosystem approach to fisheries science in the Great Lakes and around the
      world. Our understanding of stress-response in aquatic systems emerged in his early Great Lakes
      fisheries work. The framework from his doctoral research comparing fish ponds formed the basis
      for a comparative ecosystem approach that emerged in the Salmonid Communities in
      Oligotrophic Lakes (SCOL) Symposium in 1971 and has continued to be a foundation for
      evaluating systems responses to human action. From his work, fisheries science on the Great
      Lakes and in Ontario emerged from perceptions of closed, linear and deterministic elements that
      could be described with mathematical equations to new understanding of open, non-linear, and
      self-organizing systems. This systems approach continues to evolve in fisheries science
      extending from its origins with Henry and his colleagues on the Great Lakes to marine systems
      today. Committed to the human dimension of fisheries management, Henry‘s work with
      institutions at all scales shaped governance of the Great Lakes. We will examine the effects of
      this ecosystem approach on successes in fisheries restoration on the Great Lakes and consider the
      direction Henry‘s work points for future challenges.

      CIBOROWSKI, J.J.1, BARKER, N.1, and SHERMAN, R.K.2, 1Department of Biological
      Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4; 22Severn Sound Environmental
      Association, 67 Fourth St, Midland, ON, L4R 3S9. Benthic Invertebrate Community
      Composition in Severn Sound, (Georgian Bay) Lake Huron – 2008.

              Severn Sound was designated an Area of Concern because nutrient enrichment caused
      poor water quality and degraded ecosystem health (including zoobenthos). Benthic community
      composition indicated that waters of Severn Sound were in a state of recovery following
      remediation measures that improved water quality in the 1990s. To determine whether these
      changes have persisted, Ponar grab samples were collected at 25 (locations previously sampled
      in 1994 and 1998) in Midland Bay, Penetang Bay and adjacent open waters in April & August
      2007 and August 2008. In 1998, 34 Hexagenia larvae/m2, were found, at 68% of sites sampled.
      Cluster analysis identified 3 distinctive groups of sites based on relative community composition.
      Shallow water (<4 m deep) sites near shorelines were dominated by crustaceans (Asellus and
      Gammarus) and Dicrotendipes chironomids. A second group of sites characterized by sphaeriid
      molluscs, Tanytarsini chironomids, naidid worms, and Hexagenia mayflies occupied deeper
      parts of Midland and Penetang bays. Hexagenia, Chaoborus, and tubificid worms distinguished
      the deepest sites, characteristic of open waters. In 2007/8, densities of many taxa, including
      Hexagenia were considerably lower than in 1998, although community composition was similar.
      Keywords: Eutrophication, Georgian Bay, Benthos.

      Grant Street, Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Charlevoix, MI, 49720; 2146 Brooks

May 17-21, 2010                                      51                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Hall, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI, 48859; 3867 Lakeshore Road, Dept. of
      Fisheries and Oceans, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Microhabitat Association of Hemimysis on
      Fish Spawning Reefs in Northern Lake Michigan.

              Starting in 2006, the bloody-red mysis (Hemimysis anomala) was discovered as a new
      invasive species in the Great Lakes, specifically found in the Muskegon channel which flows
      into Lake Michigan. As predicted at the time of introduction, the bloody-red mysis has expanded
      its range in Lake Michigan as we have recently documented them in Grand Traverse Bay. Using
      a gear designed to sample lake trout and lake whitefish eggs during spawning, we found variable
      densities of bloody-red mysis within interstitial spaces of substrate particles across three
      nearshore reefs at Elk Rapids, Lake Michigan. The highest densities of bloody-red mysis were
      found at the reef with the highest quality fish spawning habitat defined as rounded cobble/rubble
      with the greatest amount of interstitial spaces, reef depth, and currents. Based on the association
      of bloody-red mysis with these habitat characteristics and the predominance of this type of
      spawning habitat in north-eastern Lake Michigan, we predict substantial expansion of bloody-red
      shrimp in this area. Additional evaluation is needed to determine the potential interactions with
      early life stages of native fishes. Keywords: Exotic species, Hemimysis, Biological invasions,
      Reef, Habitats, Grand Traverse Bay.

      CLARK, M.G., MCGOLDRICK, D.J., KEIR, M.J., and BACKUS, S.M., Water Science and
      Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road. P.O. Box 5050, Burlington,
      ON, L7R 4A6. Organochlorine Pesticides in Whole Fish Tissues, in the Canadian Waters of
      the Great Lakes: 1977 to 2008.

              In 1977, the Government of Canada initiated the Fish Contaminants Monitoring and
      Surveillance Program (FCSP) to monitor various environmental contaminants, including
      concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OC‘s), such as DDT, mirex, and chlordane. In the
      1950‘s, OC pesticides became widely used in agriculture and for disease vector control. Bans
      and restrictions pertaining to their use were put in place in the 1970‘s; however, OC‘s persist in
      today‘s environment. Under the FCSP, the levels of OC‘s have been measured annually in lake
      trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Ontario since 1977, Lake Erie since 1985, Lake Huron
      since 1980 and Lake Superior since 1980. Overall the levels of OC‘s have declined and now
      meet or are approaching targets set in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA). For
      example, total DDT (DDT and its metabolites- DDD and DDE) in whole fish tissue samples
      have been gradually decreasing at an average annual rate of 7.9%, such that the concentration of
      total DDT has not exceeded the GLWQA target of 1.0 µg/g in any individual fish since 2005 in
      the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes. Keywords: Great Lakes basin, Pesticides, Fish.

      CLEVINGER, C.C., BADE, D.L., and HEATH, R.T., Department of Biological Sciences, Kent
      State University, Kent, oh, 44242. AmoA gene quantification, nitrification, and oxygen
      demand in the Central Basin of Lake Erie.

              The role of nitrification in oxygen depletion in Lake Erie has received only limited
      attention. Nitrification is the prokaryotic chemoautotrophic process of ammonium oxidation.

May 17-21, 2010                                       52                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Nitrification was detected using the 14C-method as the difference between samples inhibited
      with N-Serve vs. uninhibited controls. The amoA gene is central in this process by coding for the
      enzyme ammonium monooxygenase that catalyzes the first step of nitrification. Sampling of
      sediments and the water column was performed repetitively during 2008-9 at four Central Basin
      sites to evaluate the contribution of nitrification to the depletion of oxygen and to determine
      amoA gene copy number by qPCR. Nitrification in the water column consumed up to 80% of the
      total oxygen demand, while nitrification in the sediments accounted for up to 50% of the total
      oxygen demand in samples examined. AmoA gene copies in the sediments varied from 105 to
      106 copies per gram dry weight of sediment; amoA gene copies in the water column varied from
      104 to 105 copies per l. The presence of a gene that encodes an enzyme essential in nitrification
      coupled with differential oxygen consumption in inhibited vs. uninhibited samples suggests that
      nitrification was a significant process involved in oxygen depletion of benthic waters.
      Keywords: Nitrogen, Biogeochemistry, Oxygen.

      CLIFFORD, A.M.1, MCCLELLAND, G.B.2, WANG, Y.S.3, and WILKIE, M.P.1, 1Department
      of Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3C5; 2Department of Biology,
      McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1; 3Department of Biology, Queen's University,
      Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6. Responses of Larval Sea Lampreys to Shorter-Term TFM
      Exposure and Restoration of Energy Reserves During a Post-TFM Recovery Period.

              As part of the sea lamprey control program, 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is
      used as a selective pesticide that targets larval lampreys in their nursery streams. The selectivity
      of TFM is related to the lamprey‘s inability to detoxify the lampricide compared to non-target
      organisms. TFM exerts its toxicity in lampreys by interfering with ATP production in the
      mitochondria, leading to increased dependence upon anaerobic glycolysis for energy production.
      As a result, glycogen stores are depleted in brains and liver of lamprey exposed to TFM for 9-
      12h, a typical TFM treatment. Due to their relative inability to detoxify TFM, we predicted that
      lampreys would be unable to replenish energy reserves following shorter periods of TFM
      exposure, and that death would result during post-TFM recovery. Accordingly, 50 larval lamprey
      were exposed to a lethal TFM dose (12h-LC100) for 4h, and recovery followed for 24h.
      Approximately 70% of the larvae survived the shorter-term TFM treatment, and 80% of these
      survived the 24h post-TFM recovery. We suggest that recovery from TFM is probably due to the
      lamprey‘s ability to restore energy reserves when mitochondrial function is restored following
      TFM exposure. Thus, lowering TFM treatment times to 4h would likely reduce the effectiveness
      of lampricide treatments in the field. Keywords: Sea lamprey, Pesticides, Toxicology, Invasive
      species, Metabolism, Lampricide.

      CLUBINE, N.G.1, DESLOGES, J.R.1, and ASHMORE, P.2, 1University of Toronto, 100 St.
      George St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3G3; 2University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond St.,
      London, ON, N6A 5C2. A Quarter Century of Seasonal and Annual Sediment Yield
      Variations into Lake Huron from Ausable River, Ontario.

              Sediment yield into Lake Huron from the 1142 km2 Ausable River watershed, Ontario is
      controlled by suspended sediment response to flood events, hydrologic change and land use.

May 17-21, 2010                                       53                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Twenty four years (1970-1993) of daily suspended sediment observation show that the spring
      nival melt dominates the flood record and yields the majority of annual sediment load. Multiple
      clock-wise hysteresis loops indicate a continuous supply of sediment during the early melt
      period. As the season progresses there is a tendency towards counter-clockwise loops suggesting
      delayed inputs from bank erosion and other watershed-wide sediment storage sinks. A time
      series of exponents for the twenty four spring season rating curves shows a weak trend towards a
      reduced response of sediment input from floods of an equivalent magnitude during the spring
      freshet. River entrenchment and land use changes are possible contributing factors. The Ausable
      River has one of the highest specific sediment yields of rivers flowing into Lake Huron from the
      eastern (Canadian) side. Tall glacial embankments exposed in the lower river reaches are a
      significant sediment source. Total annual sediment loads from the Ausable River have declined
      significantly over the last quarter century and this follows the same trend of several other rivers
      entering the eastern Lake Huron shore. Keywords: Lake Huron, Sediment response to
      hydrologic change, Sediment load.

      COMAN, M. and WELLS, M.G., Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, 1265
      Military Trail, Toronto, ON, M1C1A4. Physical Mechanisms of the Spatial and Temporal
      Water Temperature Variations in Lake Openogo.

               Previous work has found a link between the surface wind direction and temperature
      variation in the littoral zone of Lake Openogo. We aim to understand the physical reasons behind
      the observed spatial and temporal variability. We examine 2009 temperature data from
      thermistor strings in the upper water column of Lake Opeongo, Ontario, Canada. The thermistor
      strings were located at strategic positions throughout the lake, encompassing in-shore and off-
      shore locations and steep and shallow bottom slope conditions. With this array of thermistors and
      surface wind data, we calculate a measure of the temporal temperature variability and compare
      this to the local Lake Number, for each different site. We find low values for the Lake Number in
      the Spring while the thermocline is still developing. In the Summer and Autumn a low Lake
      Number typically relates to high temperature variability and a high Lake Number relates to small
      temperature variability. As has previously been observed, we also find the upwind sites show
      more temperature variability than the downwind sites. Using this data set we present an overall
      picture of the physical processes operating in Lake Openogo. Keywords: Water currents, Lake

      COOKE, S.J.1 and THORSTAD, E.B.2, 1Biology Department, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON,
      K1S 5B6, Canada; 2Fisheries Group, Norwegian Institute of Nature Research, Trondheim,
      Norway. The changing role of radio telemetry in studies of freshwater ichthyofauna
      relative to other tagging and telemetry technology: a review.

              Radio telemetry is now considered a standard tool for fisheries professionals studying
      fish in freshwater systems. However, interest in radio telemetry technology may be waning in
      popularity relative to other technologies (e.g., acoustic telemetry, passive integrated
      transponders) which have recently become popular for tracking studies in freshwater. The
      purpose of this presentation is to identify the unique characteristics of radio telemetry that

May 17-21, 2010                                       54                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      continue to make it an extremely powerful tool for elucidating the fundamental biology of
      aquatic organisms, particularly those living in shallow, fluvial habitats, and in providing
      information to enable effective management and conservation of aquatic resources (e.g.,
      particularly related to the Laurentian Great Lakes). By evaluating the peer-reviewed literature on
      radio telemetry in aquatic systems over a ten year period, we summarized the advances in
      fisheries science owing to radio telemetry and identify trends related to study design, tagging
      techniques, and tracking strategies. Based on this synthesis and our experience, we also
      identified research questions and management needs that can not be effectively addressed using
      technologies other than radio telemetry. Keywords: Fish behavior, Fisheries, Fish tagging.

      COPPAWAY, C.W.1, MCLAUGHLIN, R.1, and MACKERETH, R.2, 1University of Guelph, 50
      Stone Rd. East, Guelph, ON, N1G2W1, Canada; 2Lakehead University, 955 Oliver Road,
      Thunder Bay, ON, P7B5E1, Canada. The Dynamics of Brook Charr (Salvelinus fontinalis)
      „Residency‟ in Lake Superior Tributaries.

              This study investigated the nature of stream residency in migratory populations of brook
      charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) from Lake Superior. Migratory systems can be complex, with
      individuals differing in their propensity to migrate and the form and timing of their migratory
      movements. Some populations of Lake Superior brook charr have two ecotypes: a small form
      that purportedly remains in the stream environment throughout its life and a large ecotype that
      migrates from the stream to the lake (partial migration). We used electro-fishing surveys and
      passive integrated transponder tags, and stable isotopic tissue analysis to test whether individuals
      captured in a tributary remained in that tributary (resident), made diel foraging migrations from
      the tributary to the lake, or moved from tributary to tributary (vagrant stream specialist). Data
      analysis from this two year study suggests most tagged individuals remained in the same
      tributary some moved from the tributary to the lake and returned to the tributary, with few
      moving between tributaries. This data indicates that the movement ecology of purported stream
      residents may be more complex and important to the management of Lake Superior brook charr
      than was previously appreciated. Keywords: Stable isotopes, Remote sensing, Brook charr, Fish

      COPPLESTONE, D. and MACDONALD, F., 4601 Guthrie Dr., Peterborough, ON, K9J 8L5.
       The Invading Species Hit Squad – Spreading Awareness Through Monitoring, Education,
      and Outreach.

              The Invading Species Hit Squad hit the ground running again, with a record 20 students
      working to educate and engage their communities in invasive species prevention, monitoring and
      control activities. Staff worked with local partners in Kenora, Fort Frances, Thunder Bay,
      Nipigon, Sault Ste. Marie, Windsor, Chapleau, Manitoulin, Orillia, Alliston, Aurora,
      Peterborough, Trenton, Picton, Finch, Lanark (2), Ottawa, Pembroke and Hawkesbury. The Hit
      Squad participated in 99 events, providing presentations and displays and watercraft inspections
      at boat launches, and campsite surveys at provincial parks. A new partnership with Ontario Parks
      enabled students to attend 28 provincial parks and assist with interpretive programs. Students
      also engaged numerous volunteers to monitor 147 lakes, and worked hard to attract media

May 17-21, 2010                                       55                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      attention to invasive species issues, writing articles for local papers and doing media interviews.
      These initiatives were made possible through funding from local partners and the Canada
      Summer Jobs program. Keywords: Outreach, Monitoring.

      COTNER, J.B.1, CORY, R.M.2, MCNEILL, K.P.3, JACOBSON, M.1, PETERSON, B.P.3, and
      AMADO, A.M.4, 1Department of Ecology, Evolution and Behavior, University of Minnesota-
      Twin Cities, Saint Paul, MN, 55108, United States; 2Department of Environmental Sciences and
      Engineering, University of North Carolinal, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, United States; 3Department
      of Environmental Science, ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 4Department of Oceanography and
      Limnology, Federal University of Rio Grande of the North, Natal, 59014, Brazil. Fluorescent
      dissolved organic matter helps unravel the carbon cycle in Earth‟s largest lake.

              Lake Superior, an ultra-oligotrophic lake contains a large pool of organic carbon (1.5 to
      1.9 x 1013 g), despite low dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations of 1-2 mg C L-1.
      While Lake Superior is already experiencing climate change impacts such as increasing
      temperatures and extended periods of summer stratification, there remain key uncertainties in the
      carbon and nitrogen cycles that center on the source and quality of dissolved organic matter
      (DOM) in Lake Superior. We employed absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy to asses the
      sources and dynamics of the colored and fluorescent fraction of DOM in Lake Superior and one
      its major tributaries in much greater spatial and temporal resolution than has previously been
      done, by collecting samples throughout the water column on eight cruises spanning May through
      October, 2006-2008. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) of the fluorescent fraction of DOM
      (FDOM) revealed six unique components originating from terrestrial, autochthonous, and/or
      proteinacous precursor material. The general pattern obtained from the CDOM and FDOM
      patterns in Lake Superior was a strong removal of terrestrially-derived humic DOM with
      increasing importance and variability in DOM associated with autochthonous sources along the
      riverine to open Lake Su Keywords: Carbon cycle, Climate change, Dissolved organic matter.

      CREECH, C.C., MCKEEVER, A., SELEGEAN, J.P., and DAHL, T.A., US Army Corps of
      Engineers, 477 Michigan Avenue, Detroit, MI, 48226. The Ontonagon River: A History of
      Sediment Yields in a Geologically Young Watershed.

             Early Great Lakes explorers such as Cass and Schoolcraft found the Great Lakes basin
      predominately absent of anthropogenic alterations including logging, agriculture, and
      urbanization. Despite this fact, when Schoolcraft explored the Ontonagon River in 1820, he
      found significant bank erosion, mass wasting, and gully incision. This study explores the pre-
      European conditions of the Ontonagon River watershed and calculates historic (geologic) and
      modern sediment yields. To quantify geologic erosion rates, a Geographic Information System
      (GIS) model, which reconstructed the likely watershed topography at the start of the Holocene,
      was developed. Modern sediment yields were computed from US Army Corps of Engineers
      harbor soundings and US Geologic Survey sediment data. From this analysis it was found that
      the watershed has not yet reached a point of dynamic equilibrium, but instead can be described
      as being in a ―geologically young‖ state. Keywords: Hydrogeomorphology, Ontonagon,
      Sediment load, GIS.

May 17-21, 2010                                       56                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      CRIMMINS, B.1, XIA, X.1, PAGANO, P.2, MILLIGAN, M.3, HOPKE, P.1, and HOLSEN, T.1,
        Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; 2SUNY Oswego, Oswego, NY; 3SUNY Fredonia, Fredonia,
      NY. Quantitative Screening of Emerging Contaminants in Lake Michigan Lake Trout.

              The Great Lakes Fish Monitoring Program (GLFMP) began in 1980 to assess the
      contaminant burden in Great Lakes fish. During the past three decades an increasing number of
      organic toxics, such as brominated flame retardants, have been identified in biological matrices.
      Recently, a list of potential emerging contaminants was developed (Muir and Howard, 2009,
      http://www.epa.gov/grtlakes/p2/PBT_progress.pdf) identifying individual and classes of
      compounds of concern based on production volume and physical/chemical properties. As part of
      the GLFMP it is imperative to assess the burden of newly identified contaminants in the Great
      Lakes. The not-so-obvious next step is to address the analyzability of each compound to
      quantitatively determine its distribution in lake trout. Currently a detailed evaluation of the
      applicability of current-use methods for the analysis of several halogenated compounds listed by
      Muir and Howard (2009) is underway. These include pentabromochlorocyclohexane,
      hexachlorocyclopentadiene, 2-ethylhexyl-2, 3, 4, 5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB), (2-ethoxyl)
      tetrabromophthalate (TBPH) and pentachloropyridine. The method performance, detection limits
      and measured concentrations of detected analytes in Lake Michigan lake trout will be presented.
      Keywords: Environmental contaminants, Lake trout, Organic compounds.

      CROWE, A.S.1 and ROBINSON, C.2, 1Environment Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters,
      Burlington, ON, L7R4A6; 2Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of
      Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A5B9. Quantification of Groundwater Discharge from
      Beaches into the Great Lakes.

               It is estimated that groundwater contributes much of the water found within the Great
      Lakes. However, there are no estimates of groundwater discharge from beaches along the shores
      of the Great Lakes. Nor is much known about characteristics of groundwater flow below
      beaches. Although the vast majority of beaches occupy only a narrow width of the shore,
      generally 50 m to 200 m wide, beach represent a large proportion of the shoreline of the Great
      Lakes. Field measurements at several beaches throughout the Great Lakes and numerical
      modelling analyses were undertaken to assess groundwater conditions below beaches and
      groundwater discharge to the lakes. Lakeward of the shoreline, groundwater is primarily
      terrestrially derived (e.g., precipitation, inland aquifers). Groundwater flows towards the
      shoreline throughout the year, and discharges within a few meters of the shoreline. Given the
      high hydraulic gradients below beaches and the high hydraulic conductivity of beach sand,
      groundwater velocities below beaches are very high (0.4 to 10 m/d). Thus, contaminants entering
      the shallow unconfined beach aquifer will rapidly end up in the lake. Numerical modelling was
      used to quantify groundwater discharge rates and locations at a number of beaches with different
      morphological, hydrogeological and recharge characteristics. Keywords: Groundwater, Beaches.

May 17-21, 2010                                      57                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      CROWE, A.S.1, LECLERC, N.2, STRUGER, J.1, and BROWN, S.1, 1Environment Canada,
      Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, ON, L7R4A6; 2Wasaga Beach Provincial Park,
      11-22nd Street North, Wasaga Beach, ON, L9Z 2V9. Persistence of Glyphosate in
      groundwater and nearshore lake water following the application of Roundup® to
      Phragmites at a beach on Southern Georgian Bay.

               During the past decade, the invasive Phragmites Australis (common reed) has established
      itself along beaches of the Great Lakes, causing detrimental impacts to the natural ecological
      integrity of the shoreline and the recreational value of the beaches. The most effective method to
      eradicate Phragmites is by the application of the herbicide Roundup®. Phragmites grows within
      a few meters of the shoreline, and thus there is concern that the active ingredient of Roundup®,
      glyphosate, may enter the nearshore lake water via runoff or by groundwater discharge. Wasaga
      Beach Provincial Park applied Roundup® to Phragmites during October 2009, and groundwater
      and lake water was tested to determine if glyphosate enters the groundwater and lake, what are
      its concentrations, and how long it will persist. Glyphosate was detected in the groundwater
      below the Phragmites. Two days after application, the geometric mean concentration was 0.60
      μg/L. However, concentrations declined over the next two weeks to MDL. Glyphosate was also
      detected in the nearshore lake water with concentrations peaking at 0.14 μg/L one week after
      application and declining to 0.039 μg/L 4 weeks after application. Although glyphosate was
      detected in the groundwater and lake water, concentrations never exceeded the water quality
      guideline of 65 μg/L. Keywords: Pesticides, Groundwater, Beaches, Phragmites.

      CSISZAR, S.A.1, DAGGUPATY, S.2, and DIAMOND, M.L.3, 1Department of Chemical
      Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3E5; 2Science
      and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4; 3Department of
      Geogpraphy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G3. BLFM-MUM: A Coupled
      Atmospheric Transport and Multimedia Model Used to Study PCBs in Toronto.

              Urban areas are PCB sources and previous studies using the Multimedia Urban Model
      (MUM) suggest that air transport dominates PCB fate out of urban areas (Diamond et al. 2010).
      To quantify PCB emissions and fate we have coupled the MUM with the boundary layer forecast
      model (BLFM) (Daggupaty et al. 1994; Daggupaty 2001; Ma et al. 2003). BLFM can capture
      lake breeze and urban wind effects on the transport of PCBs to surrounding areas including Lake
      Ontario. The coupled model allows us to simulate interactions between air and the city via the
      MUM compartments water, soil, sediment, vegetation, and film. The model area is divided into
      25 km2 grids allowing us to study PCB movement within the city on a relatively small scale.
      This spatial localization further allows us to estimate chemical emissions coming from different
      areas of the city. Input to the model includes a spatial PCB inventory which indicates that PCB
      usage is concentrated, although not limited to, the city‘s downtown core (Diamond et al. 2010).
      BLFM-MUM can be further used to study other contaminants such as PBDEs.
      Keywords: Model studies, PCBs, Urban areas.

May 17-21, 2010                                      58                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      CUDMORE, B.C., Centre of Expertise for Aquatic Risk Assessment, Fisheries and Oceans
      Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Using Risk Assessment to Inform
      Aquatic Invasive Species Prevention Strategies.

              With Great Lakes resource managers facing the ongoing threat of aquatic invasive
      species in light of limited resources, the most cost-effective solution has been to focus programs
      on prevention. However, if prevention is the key component of an aquatic invasive species
      program, how do we determine what species and pathways to focus on? The solution is to use
      risk assessments to inform aquatic invasive species prevention strategies. The general framework
      on which biological risk assessments are based assesses the probability of an introduction of an
      aquatic invasive species and the magnitude of the consequences of that introduction to conclude
      an overall statement of risk. Risk assessments identify those species of greatest risk and the
      pathways these species use. This enables decision-makers and managers to set up ‗road blocks‘
      to prevent the species‘ movement into an area of concern. Risk assessments can also provide
      information for other preventative strategies, such as monitoring and early detection, rapid
      response, and education and public outreach initiatives. Specific examples from completed risk
      assessments by the Centre of Expertise for Aquatic Risk Assessment will be used to highlight
      how risk assessment can be used to solve problems in identifying prevention strategies.
      Keywords: Biological invasions, Fish management, Risk assessment.

      CVETKOVIC, M., DE CATANZARO, R., and CHOW-FRASER, P., McMaster University,
      Hamilton, ON. Road Density as a Simple Indicator to Assess Habitat Quality of Coastal
      Marshes of the Laurentian Great Lakes.

              We used a Geographic Information System to calculate the road density (RD) of 59 Great
      Lakes coastal watersheds that included heavily impacted areas of Lakes Erie and Ontario, and
      relatively unimpacted areas of Georgian Bay, Lake Huron. RD was an effective measure of
      human disturbance, as primary nutrients and conductivity increased significantly with RD
      (p<0.05), both when data were analyzed separately for Georgian Bay and when they were
      combined with more degraded sites in Lakes Erie and Ontario. Number of exotic fish correlated
      significantly with RD, as did index scores of three published ecological indices. While RD in
      Georgian Bay watersheds was on average 6 times lower than RD in the Lower Lakes, a few
      wetlands with heavy surrounding cottage development showed symptoms of water-quality
      impairment similar to those in settled areas of the lower Great Lakes. Wetlands showed signs of
      degradation above a RD threshold of 14 m•ha-1 and we recommend that this level be used to
      guide conservation efforts to protect Great Lakes coastal marshes. Keywords: Ecosystem health,
      Coastal wetlands, Indicators.

      CYR, H., Dept. Ecology & Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, RWZL, 25 Harbord
      Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G5. The Spatial and Temporal Variability in Nutrient
      Limitation of Phytoplankton in Nearshore Areas: the Importance of Physical Forces.

              Nearshore sediments are a potential source of nutrients to the water column. Under the
      right conditions, phosphorus and nitrogen are released into oxic waters by diffusion, pumping of

May 17-21, 2010                                      59                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      sediment porewater and/or resuspension of sediments. Physical forces (e.g. currents, surface
      waves, upwellings, internal waves) can enhance the exchange of nutrients in nearshore areas, but
      these effects are difficult to measure because bacteria and algae rapidly take up these released
      nutrients. In this study, I compared the type and extent of nutrient limitation in inshore and
      offshore phytoplankton on 8 days with different wind conditions. The magnitude of nutrient
      limitation was measured in 3 ways: 1) in situ chlorophyll-specific alkaline phosphatase activity,
      2) changes in algal growth rates in nutrient addition experiments, 3) suppression of alkaline
      phosphatase activity in nutrient addition experiments. The type and magnitude of nutrient
      limitation varied both spatially and temporally, and was partly related to wind intensity and site
      exposure. Different measures of nutrient limitation complement each other, but must be
      interpreted carefully. Keywords: Phytoplankton, Nutrients, Littoral zone.

      CZESNY, S.1, MICHALAK, P.2, and EPIFANIO, J.1, 1Illinois Natural History Survey,
      University of Illinois, 400 17th Street, Zion, IL, 60099, US; 2University of Texas at Arlington,
      501 S. Nedderman, Arlington, TX, 76010, US. Exploring adaptive plasticity of alewife (Alosa
      pseudoharengus) to better manage fisheries in the Great Lakes.

              Alewife invaded the Great Lakes between 1860 and 1955. Its ecological success and
      adaptive ability offer an intriguing avenue to test for parallel evolution, as a suite of similar traits
      in different lineages provides insights into the mechanism of ongoing natural selection. A long-
      puzzling question is whether convergent suites of adaptive phenotypes are determined by the
      same or different genetic changes. To address this question, we used alewife whose populations
      occur in two discrete morphological and ecological forms, an anadromous (Atlantic Ocean) and a
      landlocked (Lake Michigan). Divergent adaptations to marine vs. freshwater environments result
      in dramatic life-history differences between these two alewife populations. Landlocked alewives
      mature earlier, growth slower, and have reduced fecundity relative to anadromous alewives.
      Unlike anadromous populations, landlocked alewife populations are reproductively isolated and
      thus provide a striking example of rapid parallel evolution. Using high-throughput 454
      pyrosequencing we examined sequence and gene expression polymorphism in relation to
      ecological conditions and the origin of alewives. To test the hypothesis of molecular adaptation
      to marine vs. freshwater environment, tissue specific gene expression profiles of candidate genes
      for local adaptation were compared. Keywords: Alewife, Genetics, Exotic species.

        Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois, lake Michigan Biological Station, 400
      17th Street, Zion, IL, 60099, US; 2The College at Brockport – State University of New-York,
      350 New Campus Drive, Brockport, NY, 14420, US; 3Great Lakes Fishery Commission, 2100
      Commonwealth Blvd, Suite 100, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105, US; 4The Ohio State University, 2021
      Coffey Road, Columbus, OH, 43210, US; 5U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Green Bay Fishery
      Resources Office, 2661 Scott Tower Drive, New Franken, WI, 54229, US. Exploring sources
      of variability in lipid content and fatty acid signatures of Lake Michigan forage fish and

May 17-21, 2010                                         60                                          Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              Non-indigenous species may alter trophic pathways resulting in deleterious impacts to
      native fish communities. To better understand the trophic structure in Lake Michigan, lipid
      content and fatty acid profiles of common forage species/taxa groups were determined.
      Discriminant function analysis performed on 13 species/taxa groups using the 18 most abundant
      fatty acids revealed clear separation among taxa with overall classification success reaching 89%
      in spite of within species variation. Sizable annual (alewife) and seasonal (alewife, rainbow
      smelt, and round goby) variation in fatty acid signatures was also noted allowing for within
      species discrimination based on years and seasons with high classification success. Body size
      (alewife and round goby) and sampling location (alewife) had significant effects on fatty acid
      composition, which likely related to known ontogenetic diet shifts in these species and spatial
      variation in prey assemblage and zooplankton composition between southern and northern sites
      in Lake Michigan. Despite various sources of variation, within-species variability was relatively
      small compared to among-species variability in fatty acid profiles. Thus, fatty acid signatures can
      be used in freshwater systems to study food web interactions and delineate spatial-temporal
      changes in food web structure. Keywords: Food chains, Alewife, Lake Michigan, Fatty acids,
      Round goby.

      D‘ANDREA, M.1, BOWERING, T.1, SHAPIRO, H.2, PATEL, M.2, and EDGE, T.3, 1City of
      Toronto, Metro Hall, Station 1180, 55 John Street, 18th Floor, Toronto, ON, M5V3C6; 2Toronto
      Public Health, 2340 Dundas Street West, Toronto, ON, M6P4A9; 3Environment Canada, 351 St.
      Joseph Boulevard, Place Vincent Massey, 8th Floor, Gatineau, QU, K1A0H3. Toronto
      Beaches: Past, Present & Future Management.

              This paper traces the Beaches and Water Quality Improvement History for Toronto‘s
      over 11 beaches from 1880 to present. It outlines the relative role that direct discharges and more
      recently wildlife and waterbirds play as pollution sources. It presents the Toronto Beaches Plan,
      which is a strategy to make our beaches even more swimmable, as part of a clean, green and
      beautiful waterfront. It summarizes the many ‗softer‘ measures included in Beach
      ―Management‖ Activities which has assisted in achieving the Blue Flag Status of 5 beaches
      (Exploring relocating two beaches, Improved beach grooming, Waterfowl diversion & egg
      oiling, use of Border Collies to control waterfowl/ waterbirds, Public education)
      Keywords: Pollution sources, Water quality, Public education.

      DANESHFAR, B., JARVIS, I., EILERS, W., and HUFFMAN, T., Agriculture and Agri-Food
      Canada, KW Neatby Building, 960 Carling Avenue, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0C6. Agricultural Land
      Use Change at Watershed Level_ Present and Future Possibilities.

              Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, in collaboration with Statistics Canada's Agriculture
      Division, developed a process for "interpolating" (reallocating or proportioning) Census of
      Agriculture information from census polygon-based units to biophysical polygon-based units
      (e.g. soils and watersheds). The Interpolated Census of Agriculture has been the main source of
      information to study spatial and temporal distribution and variation of agricultural land use
      change or derived variables from census of agriculture at watershed levels. In this study it will
      demonstrated how this information can be applied in such analyses. In addition, limitations

May 17-21, 2010                                       61                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      related to spatial and temporal resolution of this source of information will be explained and new
      approaches at Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada to increase both spatial and temporal resolution
      of agricultural land use variables based on processing satellite images will be introduced.
      Keywords: Spatial analysis, Watersheds.

      DAS, S.1, SWEENEY, S.J.1, GOEL, P.K.2, and MCKAGUE, K.1, 1Ontario Ministry of
      Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Guelph, ON, N1G 4Y2; 2Ontario Ministry of Agriculture,
      Food and Rural Affairs, Guelph, ON, N1G 4Y2. Database challenges for modelling efforts in
      southern Ontario Great Lakes-tributary watersheds over the decade from 2000-2009.

              The most recent decade (2000-2009) witnessed tremendous advances in water quality
      model development and implementation throughout the world. Correspondingly, the input data
      used to run these models continued to improve as well – although its quality and availability
      remain as significant challenges for researchers. Coverage of southern Ontario Great Lakes-
      tributary watersheds by modelling efforts also expanded over that time period. To date no
      comprehensive spatial database with model-ready input information has been built for the
      Province. Observed stream flows and pertinent water quality data are essential for calibration and
      validation of models. This paper will describe several modelling projects conducted at a range of
      scales in the 2000-2009 decade for southern Ontario watersheds. This discussion will outline the
      evolution and current availability of the requisite input databases for water quantity and quality,
      climate, terrain models, soils and land management. Keywords: Model studies, Great Lakes
      basin, Water quality.

      DAVIS,, G.1, ZONDAG, R.2, LICHTKOPPLER, F.3, and ORNDORFF, M.4, 1The Ohio State
      University, OSU Extension,, 2120 Fyffe Road,, Columbus, OH, 43210; 2The Ohio State
      University, OSU Extension,, Lake County, Western Reserve EERA, 99 East Erie Street,
      Painesville, OH, 44077; 3The Ohio State University, OSU Extension, Ohio Sea Grant, 99 East
      Erie Street, Painesville, OH, 44077; 4Lake County Soil and Water Conservation District, 125
      East Erie Street, Painesville, OH, 44077. Lake County Nursery Industry Survey: A Case
      Study of Applied Research.

              The unique soils and micro-climate of coastal Great Lakes counties make them a prime
      spot for growing nursery stock and other high value agricultural products. This industry is facing
      increased economic pressures and needs applied economic research information if it is to survive
      as a viable part of the coastal community. Information on the economic impact of the industry is
      valuable in developing strategies to help protect and preserve this unique coastal agriculture. The
      average Lake County Nursery Industry (LCNI) firm has sales of $605,000 of container grown
      crops and $488,000 of field grown crops. The typical firm has been in business almost 35 years,
      is headed by an owner over 50 years of age, and employs about 2 family members, 11 permanent
      full time employees and about 23 seasonal employees. Total LCNI employment in 80
      commercial nursery firms is estimated at 1,327 FTE jobs, they have a payroll of over $30 million
      and total estimated annual sales of $87.5 million. Ways in which this information have and will
      be used will be discussed. Keywords: Economics Case Study, Conservation, Education,
      Assessments, Applied Research.

May 17-21, 2010                                       62                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      DE SILVA, A.O.1, SMALL, J.1, WILLIAMSON, M.1, BACKUS, S.2, and MUIR, D.C.G.1,
        Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6;
        Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6.
       Perfluorinated Acids in the Current Lake Ontario Foodweb.

              Recent studies indicate significant changes to the food web structure of Lake Ontario, due
      in part to the proliferation of invasive species. Lake trout are a top predator in Lake Ontario and
      their pelagic fish prey consist of rainbow smelt, slimy sculpin, round goby, and alewife. In this
      research, the extent of perfluorinated acid (PFAs) contamination in the Lake Ontario foodweb
      was evaluated. Whole body specimens were collected in Summer/Fall 2008 by Environment
      Canada‘s Fish Contaminant Monitoring & Surveillance Program. Forage fish were homogenized
      and combined into composite samples. PFAs were extracted using acetonitrile, followed by
      carbon clean-up for LC-MS/MS analysis. Consistent with results by Martin et al. 2004, higher
      PFA concentrations were observed in benthic species, sculpin and the burrowing amphipod,
      Diporeia. Of the PFAs analyzed, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is the predominant
      contaminant. Mean (+/- RSD) PFOS wet wt. concentrations were 52 ng/g (0.2) in trout, 30 ng/g
      (0.5) in alewife, 19 ng/g (0.4) in goby, 34 ng/g (0.4) in smelt, and ng/g (0.5) in sculpin. PFOS in
      invertebrates were 92 ng/g (0.2) in Diporeia, 5.3 ng/g (0.4) in mysis, 4.9 ng/g (0.4) in
      plankton.Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were used to further interpret these results with
      particular focus on changes in trophic levels. Keywords: Biomagnification, Lake Ontario,
      Perfluorooctane sulfonate.

      DE SOLLA, S.R.1, STRUGER, J.2, and MCDANIEL, T.V.2, 1Wildlife and Landscape Science
      Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Water Science and Technology
      Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. The influence of detection limits
      on the interpretation of pesticide data in surface waters, particularly in regards to
      monitoring programs.

              Water quality monitoring programs rely on residue data that are frequently left censored,
      due some observations being below the Method Detection Limits (MDLs). Our objective was to
      determine the influence the MDL has on the interpretation of pesticide residues in surface
      waters. Water samples from tributaries in southern and central Ontario that were collected from
      2003-2007 were analyzed for 36 pesticides, with MDLs that averaged 16.04 ng/L (range 0.37 to
      79.5 ng/L). We then simulated MDLs ranging from 25 to 1700 ng/L, to determine the impact on
      the reporting of pesticides. The mean number of pesticides detected simultaneously declined
      with increasing MDL, from 5.6 pesticides (native MDL) to 0.08 pesticides detected (> 1700 ng/L
      MDL; Fig. 2). Even a seemingly mild reduction in sensitivity, from an average MDL of 16 ng/L
      to 25 ng/L, reduced the number of pesticides detected by 45%. Depending on the method of
      substitution for observations below MDL (replacement with ½× or 0× MDL), the mean and
      median pesticide residues became increasingly over- and underestimated, respectively. Although
      monitoring programs that are focused on exceedences of water quality guidelines may not
      require low MDLs, the achievable goals of monitoring programs oriented towards other
      objectives may be limited by higher MDLs. Keywords: Amphibians, Pesticides, Monitoring.

May 17-21, 2010                                       63                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      DE SOLLA, S.R.1, PELLETIER, E.2, and LETCHER, R.J.2, 1Wildlife and Landscape Science
      Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Wildlife and Landscape Science
      Directorate, Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3. Perfluorinated compounds in
      snapping turtle plasma from two Canadian Ares of Concern.

               Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) are a broad class of chemicals that are used as stain
      repellents, surfactants, flame retardants, and in other applications, but also include degradation
      products of other PFC precursors. Seventeen PFCs were measured in plasma of male snapping
      turtles (Chelydra serpentina) collected from 3 sites in Ontario, including two Areas of Concern;
      the reference site Lake Niapenco (Binbrook), Humber River (Toronto AOC), and Cootes
      Paradise (Hamilton Harbour AOC). Both AOC sites were within large urban areas, and both
      were close to sewage treatment plants (STPs). Lake Niapenco is a rural site, with no nearby STPs
      or local industry. Unexpectedly, mean concentrations were highest at Lake Niapenco (2.1 ug/g),
      compared to the Humber River (0.12 ug/g) and Cootes Paradise (0.53 ug/g). PFOS and PFHxS
      comprised ~99.8% of sum PFCs at Lake Niapenco, and 86-88% at the other two site. PFOS and
      PFHxS were both used in fire fighting foams. There is a important but currently unidentified
      source of PFCs, particularly PFOS, in or upstream of the rural "reference" site. Future work may
      be focused on attempting to identify this source. Keywords: Monitoring, Reptile,
      Perfluorooctane sulfonate, Trophic level.

      J.R.1, CHEN, Q.L.1, and WU, K.J.1, 1Cornell Biological Field Station, Cornell University, 900
      Shackelton Point Rd, Bridgeport, NY, 13030; 2USDA Wildlife Services, National Wildlife
      Research Center, Ohio Field Station, 6100 Columbus Avenue, Sandusky, OH, 44870; 3USDA,
      APHIS, Wildlife Services, 617 Comstock Rd, Suite 9, Berlin, VT, 5602; 4Cornell Biological
      Field Station, Cornell University, 900 Shackelton Point Rd, Bridgeport, NY, 13030. Location,
      Location, Location: Cormorant Diets from Four Sites on Lake Champlain.

              Double-crested cormorants receive much attention due to their increasing population
      numbers in the Great Lakes region and on Lake Champlain. Previous diet studies of cormorants
      on Lake Champlain indicated potential negative impacts to the yellow perch population.
      However, with the invasion of alewives into the lake in 2003, the fish community has changed
      and cormorants may be feeding on the new forage fish available. We examine the diet of
      cormorants from four areas of Lake Champlain to assess the current and potential future impacts
      of cormorants to the changing fish community. During the breeding seasons of 2008 and 2009,
      spatial and temporal differences in cormorant diets were observed, as well as differences
      between the years. Alewives were heavily consumed at Four Brothers Islands (54% and 69%
      yearly weight totals) and South Sea (65% and 61%) sites in both years, with yellow perch
      predominately consumed at Young Island (43% and 58%). Other frequently occurring diet items
      were rainbow smelt, cyprinids, white perch, and Lepomis spp. The relative importance index
      values of specific diet items changed as the season progressed. These data demonstrate that the
      diet of piscivorous birds may vary significantly within a single large water body, and that ideally,
      management efforts should be site specific. Keywords: Cormorants, Diets, Alewife.

May 17-21, 2010                                       64                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      DECATANZARO, R. and CHOW-FRASER, P., McMaster University Department of Biology,
      1280 Main St West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L8. Landscape and seasonal controls on water
      chemistry of coastal marshes in eastern Georgian Bay.

              Water chemistry of Great Lakes coastal marshes can vary considerably in the absence of
      human influence. We surveyed 34 marshes in relatively pristine catchments of eastern Georgian
      Bay in spring and summer of 2009 for nutrient and physical parameters and examined their
      relationships to characteristics of the marsh and its drainage basin. The first principal component
      explained 46.1% of variation in landscape variables and ordered marshes along a gradient with
      high values corresponding to large, high-order watersheds containing extensive upstream
      wetland. This axis was negatively related to specific conductivity, pH, nitrate nitrogen and
      SO42- concentrations and positively related to total phosphorus, colour, suspended solids and
      summer dissolved organic carbon. Drainage basin area or order alone explained up to 44% of
      some marsh water-chemistry variables. Changes in water-chemistry parameters between April
      and July sampling periods were consistent for marshes draining high- and low-order catchments.
      Overall, watershed influence was most evident in marshes draining large, high-order watersheds,
      and during spring snowmelt. These marshes may be most susceptible to impacts from altered
      hydrology and land development in their watershed. Keywords: Coastal wetlands, Water
      quality, Watersheds.

      DEFORE, A.L. and BIDDANDA, B.A., Grand Valley State University, Annis Water Resources
      Institute, Muskegon, MI, 49441. Carbon Cycling in Muskegon Lake: What's Driving It?

              Studies quantifying the annual seasonal cycle of nutrients and carbon by autotrophic and
      heterotrophic communities in gross primary production (GPP) and respiration (R) in the
      freshwater aquatic environment are seriously lacking, but crucial to our understanding of the
      carbon cycle. Beginning in February 2009 changes in lake metabolism, associated environmental
      variables and the trophic relationship between phytoplankton and bacterioplankton were
      investigated to identify events and time frames in which Muskegon Lake (a drowned river mouth
      lake directly connected to Lake Michigan) becomes a source or sink of carbon. GPP and R were
      measured monthly to obtain a complete representation of community metabolism and the rate at
      which these communities control energy flow, nutrients and organic matter storage. Metabolism
      indices show Muskegon Lake as a highly productive autotrophic system in the spring and
      summer with a GPP/R of 2.4 then becoming a heterotrophic system in late fall with a GPP/R of
      .042. Experimental additions of nitrogen and phosphorous, stimulated GPP, whereas dissolved
      organic matter selectively stimulated R. Studies of lake metabolism provide a useful holistic
      indicator of lake response to changing environmental conditions and contribute to our
      understanding of the role of lakes in the regional carbon cycle. Keywords: Metabolism, Carbon
      cycle, Biogeochemistry.

      S.I.2, SHEPARD, G.3, and WEBSTER, B.4, 1LimnoTech, 501 Avis Drive, Ann Arbor, MI,

May 17-21, 2010                                       65                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      48108; 2Applied Ecological Services, Brodhead, WI; 3Michael Van Valkenburgh Associates,
      New York, NY; 4WATERFRONToronto, Toronto, ON. Evaluating Hydrology, Flooding,
      Sediment Transport and Ecology within the Lower Don Lands Naturalization Project.

              The Lower Don Lands Area of Toronto is located at the intersection of three emerging
      Toronto neighborhoods near the mouth of the lower Don River, an industrialized river mouth. In
      recent years, demand for restoration of the river mouth area has increased, while the emerging
      neighborhoods have driven a need for balance between the urban environment and the
      hydrologic and ecologic requirements of the river mouth. The design was developed as a
      multidisciplinary, creative effort supported by a strong understanding of hydrology, freshwater
      estuarine ecology, and hydrologic and ecological interactions with Lake Ontario. The result is a
      proposal to create a restored river mouth with natural meanders, wetland margins, wildlife
      habitat, and recreational opportunities. The plan also retains and enhances the function of the
      lower Don as a floodway, greatly increasing floodwater conveyance capacity to allow passage of
      the most extreme regulatory flood event while incorporating sediment management needs
      through dredging and reuse of recovered solids. These critical elements for project success were
      evaluated through the use of several hydrodynamic and sediment transport models developed by
      the project team and by the TRCA, allowing designers to understand competing site needs, and
      providing confidence in the ultimate site design. Keywords: Ecosystems, Hydrodynamic model,
      Lake Ontario.

      DELONG, E.D.1, BHAVSAR, S.2, MIERLE, G.3, and CAMPBELL, L.M.1, 1Queen‘s University,
      Department of Biology, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6; 2Ontario Ministry of Environment,
      Biomonitoring, Environmental Monitoring & Reporting Branch, 125 Resources Road,
      Etobicoke, ON, M9P 3V6; 3Ontario Ministry of Environment, Dorset Environmental Research
      Centre, P.O. Box 39, Dorset, ON, P0A 1EO. An Evaluation of Model-Based Prediction of
      Mercury Contaminant Concentrations in Ontario Sport Fish.

              Mercury (Hg) levels in sport fish have been continuously collected across Ontario by the
      Ministry of Environment since the mid-1970s. Roughly 165,000+ fish from 86 species and
      1,600+ sites were tested for Hg, with this equating to about 1.5 million database records across
      Ontario. Non-systematic sampling methods, while appropriate for the widely distributed biennial
      publication of the Guide to Eating Ontario Sport Fish, proves troublesome when investigating
      long-term spatial and temporal trends. We present here the result of applying a model developed
      by the USGS to standardize the sampling characteristics of the entire database to a unique length
      and portion type for Walleye (Sander vitreous) and Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens). Our
      findings show that Hg can be reliably predicted by the model for specific location-years. We are
      then able to use a GIS to examine spatial and temporal trends. We present our analysis results
      and discuss the relevance of the trends observed to date. Keywords: Mercury, Spatial analysis,
      Model testing.

      DEPEW, D.C.1, CAMPBELL, L.M.1, and BURGESS, N.M.2, 1School of Environmental Studies,
      Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6; 2Wildlife and Landscape Scientific Directorate,

May 17-21, 2010                                      66                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Environment Canada, Mount Pearl, NL, A1N 4T3. An Introduction to the National Fish
      Mercury Database and CARA Mercury Science Program.

              A substantial amount of data on mercury concentrations in freshwater fish already exists
      in Canada, produced by governmental agencies,universities and mercury research networks,
      hydro electric utilities, consultants and non-profit organizations. Under Environment Canada's
      Clean Air Regulatory Agenda (CARA) Mercury Science Program, we are compiling available
      data into a national level database for a comprehensive spatial and temporal analysis of fish
      mercury burdens in Canada, which will become part of a National Mercury Science Assessment
      Report planned for 2012. An overview of the Ecological Risk Mapping component of the CARA
      Mercury Science Program will be given along with a discussion of the proposed scientific
      outputs and integration with other CARA Mercury Science teams. Keywords: Data storage and
      retrieval, Mercury, Fish.

      Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, 200 University Ave W, ON, N2L 3G1. Some
      observations on the lack of Cladophora growth in Lake Simcoe.

              In recent years, a resurgence of filamentous benthic algae (e.g., Cladophora) in the
      Laurentian Great Lakes has been perceived as a consequence of dreissenid mussel invasion and
      subsequent alterations to ecosystem nutrient and energy cycling. We examined two sites in Lake
      Simcoe using a novel high resolution hydro-acoustic survey method to assess the presence and
      extent of excessive benthic algal growth on hard substratum. Despite comparable dreissenid
      abundance, water clarity and phosphorus concentrations to sites in the lower Great Lakes known
      to suffer extensive Cladophora fouling during the summer months, only trace amounts of
      Cladophora were found in the surveyed areas. The proximal cause for the lack of excessive
      Cladophora growth in Lake Simcoe remains elusive. Differences in the abiotic and biotic
      environment between the lower Great Lakes and Lake Simcoe will be discussed as they pertain
      to nuisance benthic algal development. Keywords: Benthic flora, Lake Simcoe, Ecosystems.

      DEPINTO, J.V., VERHAMME, E.M., and REDDER, T.R., LimnoTech, 501 Avis Drive, Ann
      Arbor, MI, 48108. Calibration and Diagnostic Analysis of SAGEM2, a Fine-Scale
      Ecosystem Model of Saginaw Bay.

              As part of a large project focused on development of an Adaptive Integrated Framework
      for managing the effects of multiple stressors in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron, we have developed a
      fine-scale, three-dimensional linked hydrodynamic – advanced nutrient-lower food web model
      (SAGEM2). This model is intended to analyze the relative contributions of nutrient loads,
      dreissenid density and activity, and hydrometeorological forcing on ecosystem endpoints of
      concern. These responses include: benthic nuisance algal growth, hazardous cyanophyte blooms,
      formation and shoreline fouling of ―muck‖, and production of biomass that can be transferred to
      the upper food web. This presentation will present the calibration of this model to the 1991-1996
      data set acquired during this period of dreissenid colonization in Saginaw Bay. Diagnostics of
      the impacts of the stressors mentioned above indicate significant responses in terms of shift to

May 17-21, 2010                                      67                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      benthic primary production and muck formation and Microcystis blooms to both phosphorus
      loads and dreissenid density. Keywords: Model studies, Dreissena, Algae.

      DERMOTT, R., MARTCHENKO, D., and JOHNSON, M.J., Great Lakes Lab Fish. Aquatic
      Science, Fisheries & Oceans, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6, Canada. Changing Benthic Fauna in
      the Bay of Quinte, 40 years of change.

              One goal of the Quinte Remedial Action Plan is to restore the degraded benthic
      community to a balanced one typical of mesotrophic areas. To verify the improved status of the
      community, data collected from 4 sites over 40 years were analyzed. Habitats range from the
      shallow upper bay(6 m), with easily disturbed sediment, to the more stable environment in the
      lower bay (21 m to 32 m depth) and in Lake Ontario. From 1977 -1990, the worm - chironomid
      community in the upper bay responded to phosphorus reduction with decreased densities and
      mean organism size, increased diversity and return of rare species. This accelerated after the
      arrival of Dreissena in 1993. Epibenthic fauna increased in the upper bay between 1986 - 2001,
      but decreased after arrival of Round Gobies. The lower bay responded slower but underwent a
      major regime change when quagga mussels replaced the glacial relic amphipod Diporeia as the
      dominant taxa. Non-dreissenid biomass decreased in the lower bay since 1990, but changed little
      in the upper bay. Densities in the upper bay responded opposite that in the lower bay (CUSUM
      analysis). Clustering showed the upper community remained different from the lower bay
      community. Since 2000, the upper bay community remained similar, but has diverted far from
      the typical Great Lakes community in the lower bay. Keywords: Benthos, Ecosystem health,

      DERMOTT, R., BONNELL, R., and BEDFORD, A., Great Lakes Lab for Fisheries Aquatic
      Science, Fisheries and Oceans, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6, Canada.
      Possible Factors Allowing Continued Survival of Diporeia. in a Lake withDreissena.

               In large areas of the Great Lakes, dramatic declines of the amphipod Diporeia occurred
      soon after the arrival of Dreissena. The effects often were seen several kilometres offshore from
      expanding mussel colonies. Dreissena polymorpha entered Charleston Lake, a deep lake with
      Lake Trout in eastern Ontario, during 2001. Unlike the resulting extirpation in areas of lakes
      Michigan and Ontario having mussels, Diporeia were still abundant when resurveyed 8 years
      later. Stable amphipod populations at 20 and 40 m are able to survive in Charleston Lake despite
      being encircled by mussels on the numerous islands and shoals. We investigated causative
      conditions that have allowed Diporeia to survive in the Dreissena infested waters. Contributing
      factors considered included organic content of sediment, organic particle size, bathometry
      profiles, riparian composition, and lake use. Keywords: Sediments, Zebra mussels, Amphipods.

      DEWEY, R.1, HOWELL, T.2, BOWEN, G.3, BOOTY, W.4, BISHOP, R.5, BOUCHARD, R.6,
      and SNODGRASS, W.J.7, 1City of Toronto, Metro Hall, 55 John Street, 27th Floor, Toronto,
      ON, M5V3C6; 2Ministry of Environment, 5775 Yonge Street, 8th Floor, Toronto, ON, M2M
      4J1; 3Toronto and Region Conservation, 70 Canuck Avenue, Downsview, ON, M3K 2C5;

May 17-21, 2010                                      68                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      National Water Research Institute, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 5MMM
      Group Limited, 100 Commerce Valley Drive West, Thornhill, ON, L3T 1A1; 6Regional
      Municipality of Peel, 10 Peel Centre Drive, Brampton, ON, L6T 4B9; 7City of Toronto, Metro
      Hall, 55 John Street, 18th Floor, Toronto, ON, M5V 3C6. Importance of Diffuse Sources and
      Direct Point Source Discharges in Lake Ontario Source Water Protection Studies.

              This paper provides a perspective on the distance off-shore that different substances are
      influenced by loadings from watersheds, urban runoff, and direct, mainly wastewater treatment
      plant effluents for representative constituents (nutrients TSS and E Coli) along the north shore of
      Lake Ontario for 2008. This perspective allows us to pilot the intensity of urbanization as an
      index in delineating urban influences as a risk to intakes for potable drinking water production. A
      modelling methodology was used to estimate the relative importance of the largest watersheds
      around the north shore of Lake Ontario (see allied paper, Bowen et al). Discharges from
      wastewater effluents were estimated from monitored information. For the Toronto area
      watersheds, estimates using the HSPF model have also been generated, particularly for E Coli.
      Average seasonal concentrations in the Coastal Zone forecast by a hydrodynamic modelling tool
      (MIKE 3) was compared to 2008 monitoring data. These assessments are used to (i) to link ‗the
      intensity of urbanization‘ to risk to intakes for purposes of Source Water Protection analyses, (ii)
      to address constituents important operators, and (iii) to evaluate delisting criteria for the
      concerned AOC‘s. Keywords: Monitoring, Nutrients.

      DICKINSON, W.T., RUDRA, R.P., AMILI, A., AHMED, M.M., and AHMED, S.I., School of
      Enginereing, University of Guelph, Guelph, OM, N1G2W1, Canada. Trends in Winter
      Precipitation and Temperatures across Ontario.

              There is considerable interest and speculation regarding how and the extent to which
      climate change might alter the hydrologic response. Winter hydrology is of specific interest. This
      study was undertaken to explore trends in winter precipitation and temperatures over the past 60
      years at 13 weather stations located across Ontario. Daily rainfall, snowfall and total
      precipitation amounts for the months of November through April provided winter rainfall,
      snowfall and precipitation totals. The temperature variables included the extreme daily
      maximum, the mean daily maximum, the extreme daily minimum, the mean daily minimum, the
      maximum daily mean, the minimum daily mean and the mean daily temperature. The results
      reveal that snowfall amounts have been decreasing and winter rainfall amounts have been
      increasing consistently across the province, with no consistent trend in total precipitation.
      Relatively few of the trend slopes were found to be significantly different from zero, as the
      variability in the data is extremely large and the trends generally account for less than 5 percent
      of the variability. Winter temperatures have increased consistently across the province. The
      winter temperatures are highly variable. However, many of the trend slopes were found to be
      significant, accounting for higher percentage of the variability. Keywords: Temperature,
      Snowfall - Rainfall, Climate change, Wniter precipitation, Climatic data, Climates.

May 17-21, 2010                                       69                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      DICKINSON, W.T., RUDRA, R.P., PATEL, P., ZHOU, J., and AHMED, S.I., School of
      Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G2W1, Canada. Trends in Rainfall
      Extremes in Ontario.

               Recent reports relating to climate change have drawn attention to the likelihood of
      increases in rainfall amounts in various regions of North America, prompting interest and a need
      to clarify evidence relating to the nature and extent of changes in rainfall extremes in local areas.
      The possibility of changes in short-duration rainfall extremes is of particular interest to persons
      concerned about stormwater management, soil erosion and sediment yield. This paper presents
      results from trend and extreme value of rainfall extremes for 15, 30 and 60 minutes, and 6 and 12
      hours at 15 locations across Ontario. The results reveal considerable variability in change per
      decade for the annual rainfall extremes (20% to +20%, most values between -5% and +5%;, no
      consistent positive or negative trend). Results of the monthly extreme rainfall values offer some
      evidence that the short-duration rainfall extremes in southern Ontario have increased in spring
      and fall. These increases have not had an effect on annual extreme values. Nonetheless, if indeed
      spring and/or fall rainfall extremes continue to increase, there may well be significant impacts on
      soil erosion, sediment yield and other issues. Keywords: Variability, Climatic data,
      Precipitation, Climates, Rainfall extremes, Climate change.

      DIROCCO, J., MCDONALD, K., and TONINGER, R., 5 Shoreham Drive, Downsview, ON,
      M3N1S4. Tommy Thompson Park: Toronto‟s best example of planned habitat restoration
      and adaptive management.

              Tommy Thompson Park, also known as the Leslie Street Spit, is a man-made peninsula in
      Toronto owned and managed by Toronto and Region Conservation (TRCA). TRCA has
      undertaken the restoration and enhancement of fish and wildlife habitat at this unique urban
      wilderness. Through extensive planning and consultation, a strategic Natural Area Enhancement
      Plan for terrestrial and aquatic habitat enhancements has been developed and is currently being
      implemented. General habitat improvements, as well as species specific essential habitats
      targeting a range of life stages for fish, herpetiles, colonial waterbirds, waterfowl, shorebirds and
      mammals, have been created and enhanced. Projects include spawning and nursery habitat,
      isolated amphibian pools, in-water and shoreline structural improvements, island creation, and
      coastal wetland development. A range of monitoring projects are associated with habitat
      restoration, from planning to implementing to adaptively managing for optimal productivity and
      wildlife use. Monitoring includes vegetation mapping, remote camera surveillance, amphibian,
      bird, mammal and fisheries surveys. Data collected show intriguing trends and document
      changes in the biological communities. Habitat restoration contributes to TTP as the most
      significant natural feature along the central Toronto waterfront. Keywords: Monitoring,
      Restoration, Habitat.

      DJOUMNA, G. and LAMB, K.G., Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo,
      Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1. Turbulent and Radiative Fluxes and their Effects on Heating
      Lake Erie.

May 17-21, 2010                                        70                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              Two three-dimensional numerical models, the MITgcm and ELCOM, are used to study
      the effects of momentum, turbulent and radiative fluxes on heating in Lake Erie using observed
      forcing for the year 2002. The MITgcm (MIT General Circulation Model) is an efficiently
      parallelized non-hydrostatic model designed for studying of the atmosphere, ocean, and climate
      while the ELCOM (Estuary and Lake Computer Model) is a hydrostatic lake model. At an air-
      sea interface, the total heat flux consists of both radiative fluxes (short- and long-wave) and
      turbulent fluxes (sensible and latent). Solar radiation is the primary source of energy that drives
      the at- mospheric and oceanic circulations. The absorption of solar energy and its transformation
      to heat has a profound effect on the thermal structure, and circulation pattern of lakes and oceans.
      An accurate parametrization of the radiative fluxes and turbulent fluxes is important for
      modeling physical, chemical and biological processes oceans, and lakes. The MITgcm model is
      used to compare various parametrization schemes for bulk transfer coefficients, the absorption of
      penetrative solar radiation, long-wave radiation and turbulent heat fluxes. Keywords: Lake Erie,
      Air-water interfaces, Waves.

      DOBIESZ, N.E., Large Lakes Observatory, University of Minnesota Duluth, 2205 East 5th St.
      RLB 109, Duluth, MN, 55812. Integrating fisheries data: addressing the challenges and
      creating new tools.

              Management of the Laurentian Great Lakes fisheries is shared by Canada and the US,
      eight states, the province of Ontario, and several Native American tribes. Coordinated fisheries
      management activities occur through the lake committees of the Great Lakes Fishery
      Commission, under the Joint Strategic Plan for Management (JSP) adopted in 1981. One of the
      key elements of the JSP is the sharing of information between the managing agencies. Although
      this process enables information sharing, the newest technologies have yet to be employed to
      create integrated fisheries data. While computer technology has progressed since the 1980s to
      allow large integrated databases capable of storing many types of data, several attempts to
      integrate limited data sets have not been completely successful. We describe the challenges of
      integrating fisheries data including spatial and temporal scales, aggregation versus
      summarization, collection protocols and data validation, and acceptance by the fisheries
      management community. We examine the value of a centralized, web-based system of data
      acquisition, database management, decision support modeling and visualization for aiding
      fisheries managers. We also explore visualization tools as important ways of analyzing, viewing,
      and sharing data, and present new tools under development. Keywords: Data storage and
      retrieval, Integrated data, Great Lakes basin, Management.

      DOBSON, T.1 and MASSON, C.2, 1Michigan State University, 13 Natural Resources Bldg., East
      Lansing, MI, 48824-1222; 2FreshWater Consulting, 341-2 Laird Drive, Toronto, ON, M4G 3T0.
       Research Agenda for Ecosystem Health in Large Lakes: A Partnership between Biological
      and Human Dimensions Science.

             The human dimension (HD) of fisheries management is a clear picture of the complex
      functions of individuals, groups, uses and satisfactions derived from fisheries-related activity.
      Why should fishery managers consider HD? Together with biological and ecological

May 17-21, 2010                                       71                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      information, HD is an active and direct social scientific object of study, subject to rigorous
      observation and description, thorough assessment, recording and documentation using primary
      source material. The array of HD research tools and techniques includes quantitative and
      qualitative data gathering, statistical and geospatial analysis. Decision-makers need to know
      more than catch and effort. They need to understand what fishers and stakeholders think and do
      regarding fishery resources. Social-economic systems inform the decision-making process in two
      ways: 1) Design and operation of oversight agencies, and 2) By providing critical feedback to
      management. This paper reports on human and ecosystem health discussions held at the 2009
      IAGLR meeting. The workshop brought together scholars of diverse disciplines whose research
      focuses on large, freshwater aquatic systems. Here we seek to share key ideas that emerged from
      our analyses towards further efforts to achieve a sustainable basis for satisfactory fisheries policy
      and management strategies in the world‘s great lakes. Keywords: Human Dimensions,
      Ecosystem health, Social-ecological systems.

      DOKA, S.E.1, MINNS, C.K.2, BAKELAAR, C.N.1, LEISTI, K.E.1, and CHU, C.3, 1Fisheries &
      Oceans Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd. Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2University of
      Toronto, 25 Willcocks St., Toronto, ON, M5S 3B2; 3Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources,
      Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8. Predicting the production dynamics of
      selected fish populations in the Bay of Quinte in relation to changes in habitat quality and

              For many fish species in the Bay of Quinte, the quality and quantity of habitats, needed to
      complete life cycles and sustain populations, have varied considerably in response to changes in
      climate, water levels, eutrophication, and species invasions. Multi-stage fish population
      simulation models driven by estimates of suitable habitat supply were used to assess the relative
      impact of the various stressors over the period 1972-2008 when fish communities have been
      continuously assessed by a range of methods. Air and surface water temperatures increased over
      the study period while water levels trended lower on average. Point source phosphorus loading
      began decreasing in the late 1970s and decreases have continued to the present. The invasion by
      dreissenids brought substantial changes to the Bay of Quinte with increased water clarity,
      decreased algal biomass with a substantial expansion of macrophyte coverage. The model
      simulations showed the relative impact of the various factors. The simulated populations tracked
      coarse changes to the species catches in the Bay. Simulation forecasts of periods later in the 21st
      century indicated substantial changes in suitable habitat supply and fish production can be
      expected with continued climate change. Keywords: Fish populations, Habitats, Bay of Quinte.

        University of Wisconsin - Green Bay, Natural and Applied Sciences, Green Bay, WI, 54311;
        Tufts University, Civil and Environmental Engineering, Medford, MA, 2155; 3Univerity of
      Wisconsin-Green Bay, Environmental Science and Policy Program, Green Bay, WI, 54321.
       Nutrient Loading Trends for Lakes Michigan, Superior and Huron.

              Total phosphorus and nitrate loads to Lake Michigan were last estimated on a lakewide
      basis in 1995 as part of the Mass Balance Study. Total phosphorus loads to Lakes Huron and

May 17-21, 2010                                        72                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Superior were last reported for 1991 and comprehensive nitrate loads for these lakes have never
      been reported. Through a grant received from the U.S. EPA, Great Lakes National Program
      Office (GLNPO), an effort has been made to update phosphorus and nitrate load estimation
      efforts for all of the Great Lakes. A combination of modeling and data analysis has been
      employed to evaluate whether target loads for total phosphorus established by the Great Lakes
      Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) have been and are currently being met. A mass balance
      model for phosphorus and nitrate has been used to compare projections with direct estimates
      from measurements obtained primarily from the mid-1970s to the present. The analysis suggests
      that the target phosphorus load has been consistently met for the main bodies of these lakes.
      However, high nutrient levels persist for Green Bay and Saginaw Bay. Components of the total
      loading that will be considered are point sources, tributaries, atmospheric, and unmonitored area.
      Keywords: Nutrients, Mass balance, Pollution sources.

      T.3, 1Biology Department, Concordia University, Montreal, QC, H4B 1R6; 2Department of
      Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1; 3Fisheries and Oceans
      Canada, Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Sault Ste-Marie, ON, P6A
      6W4. Movements of PIT tagged fishes among six Lake Ontario tributaries.

             This three-year study quantified the degree of inter-stream movement made by 26 fish
      species among six adjacent streams in Lake Ontario. Fish movement at this spatial extent is
      potentially important to both ecological (e.g. metapopulation dynamics, responses to habitat
      fragmentation) and micro-evolutionary processes (e.g. gene flow). Yet the occurrence and
      frequency of inter-stream movement remain largely unexamined despite a rich literature
      addressing the movements of fishes. Fish movements were monitored using passive integrated
      transponder (PIT)tags. Thirteen of 26 species, and 10 of 13 species, moved between tributaries
      via Lake Ontario within and across a reproductive season. Proportions of marked individuals
      making inter-stream movements were low and varied among species within and among
      reproductive seasons. Most movements were made between immediately adjacent streams.
      Transplant experiments indicated that many fish were capable of making inter-stream
      movements and that reproductive homing and site fidelity probably account for the low
      frequencies of inter-stream movements. Fish assemblages in these Lake Ontario catchments are
      dynamic and exchange individuals at rates likely to be important for metapopulation dynamics
      and gene flow, but not for populations to respond en masse to in-stream structures that block
      movement. Keywords: Fish tagging, Fish movement, Fish populations, Fish behavior.

      DOLSON, R.1, METCALFE, B.W.2, and LA ROSE, J.K.L.1, 1Ontario Ministry of Natural
      Resources, Lake Simcoe Fisheries Assessment Unit, 26465 York Rd 18, Sutton West, ON, L0E
      1R0; 2Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Aquatic Research and Development Section,
      Glenora Fisheries Station, R.R. #4, 41 Hatchery Lane, Picton, ON, KOK 2T0. Long-Term
      changes in the Biodiversity of the Nearshore Fish Community in Lake Simcoe, Ontario.

             Native species biodiversity is recognized as a key feature of healthy ecosystems. Small
      bodied fishes enhabiting the nearshore zone comprise a significant portion of the overall fish

May 17-21, 2010                                      73                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      diversity in Lake Simcoe, Ontario. In 2006, we developed an assessment program to monitor the
      biodiversity of small bodied fishes in the nearshore zone of Lake Simcoe. This project seeks to
      assess the current state of small fish diversity, as well as trends in diversity through time. We
      sampled the nearshore fish community between 2007 and 2009 at reference sites along south and
      west shores of the lake. Results suggest that the nearshore small fish community was numerically
      dominated by members of the Cyprinidae family, accounting for more than 90% of the total
      catch. We also compared the current state of nearshore diversity between two time periods using
      data collected 20 years prior. Preliminary results suggest that while species richness was similar
      to that observed in the past, indices of evenness and diversity have declined. The abundance of
      some key species has also changed over the past two decades. Keywords: Biodiversity, Fish
      populations, Littoral zone.

      DOMYSHEVA, V.M. and SAKIRKO, M.V., Ulan-Batorskaya, 3, Ulan-Batorskaya, 3, Irkutsk,
      IB, 664033, Russia. Estimation of the modern hydrochemical state of Lake Baikal.

              Monitoring of the chemical composition of the water of Lake Baikal (1999-2009) has
      shown that the concentration of biogenic elements increases with depth and does not exceed 1.9
      mg Si/l for silicon, 0.14 mg N/l for nitrates and 0.020 mg P/l for phosphates. Seasonal variations
      of the content of biogenic elements occur mainly in the upper 300 m layer. The unique
      mechanism of renewal of deep water in spring and autumn leads to the decrease of their
      concentrations in the 100-m near-bottom layer. The content of dissolved oxygen is 9-14 mg/l, the
      value of oxygen saturation of the water of near-bottom layer does not decrease lower than 70%.
      The concentration of biogenic elements in the deep water of the pelagic zone of the lake, which
      is not undergone seasonal variations, is practically constant during the last 60 years. The
      concentrations of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, НСО3–, SO42–, Cl- in the water of Lake Baikal are
      stable. The constancy of the content is caused by insignificance of the annual water sink of the
      tributaries in comparison with the volume of the water mass of the lake, as well as intensive
      water exchange in the lake. Keywords: Geochemistry, Monitoring, Water quality.

      DONNELLY, P.B. and PEACH, G., Lake Huron Coastal Centre, P.O. Box 178, Blyth, ON,
      N0M 1H0. A Decade of Lake Huron Coastal Stewardship.

              The Lake Huron Coastal Centre has been fostering sustainable behaviour towards Lake
      Huron's coastal ecosystem for over 10 years. Serving the Ontario side of the lake roughly from
      Tobermory to Sarnia, the Centre‘s work is science-based which provides a sound foundation
      from which to make management and stewardship recommendations. Being a not-for-profit
      environmental organization also provides opportunities not available to government agencies. It
      acts as an advocate for the health of the coastal ecosystem; regardless of specific programs and
      local agendas. Their focus on grass-roots stewardship provides some stability and resiliency in
      the face of changing climates and changing political directions.The Coastal Centre‘s toolkit is
      extensive as it uses a variety of techniques designed to engage residents through education and
      awareness. Conferences and workshops, such as the biennial conference titled "Is the Coast
      Clear?" have developed into significant local events attracting researchers, politicians, cottagers
      and government technical staff who share coastal problems and discuss solutions. Curriculum

May 17-21, 2010                                       74                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      resources kits have also been successfully developed for elementary schools, designed to bring
      coastal issues into the classroom. Climate change, biodiversity, water quality and coastal
      processes are the Centre's primary topics. Keywords: Coastal ecosystems, Coastal community,
      Biodiversity, Social marketing, Lake Huron, Education.

      DOROSTKAR, A.1, BOEGMAN, L.1, DIAMESSIS, P.J.2, and POLLARD, A.3, 1Department of
      Civil Engineering, Queen's University, Kingston, ON; 2School of Civil and Environmental
      Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, US; 3Department of Mechanical Engineering,
      Queen's University, Kingston, ON, Canada. Comparison of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic
      modeling of internal wave fields in Cayuga Lake.

              The 3D high-resolution simulation of lakes with diameter > 1 km has not been
      performed, with sufficient resolution to resolve small-scale nonhydrostatic processes (e.g. high-
      frequency nonlinear internal waves), due to the computational requirements. In this research, the
      parallel 3D MITgcm is applied to simulate the multi-scale nonhydrostatic response of the
      medium sized Cayuga Lake to the applied surface wind forcing. The model is validated on a
      400x400 m grid against field observations over an 11 day simulation. The phase and amplitude
      of the basin-scale seiche dynamics were well modeled and the r.m.s. error between model results
      and simulations was minimized with a Smagorinsky scheme for the horizontal eddy viscosity
      and a constant vertical eddy viscosity of 10-3 m/s2 with a polynomial Equation of State. Using the
      calibrated model parameters, higher resolution hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic simulations were
      performed on a fine 39x39 m grid. Preliminary nonhydrostatic simulations resolve progressive
      nonlinear internal waves in the 10-4 Hz frequency band, but were unable to simulate shear
      instabilities, which have ~ 20 m wavelengths, well below model resolution. The MITgcm thus
      reproduces the spectrum of internal waves in Cayuga Lake ranging from the basin-scale to the
      nonhydrostatic features. Keywords: Hydrodynamic model, Cayuga Lake, Computer models,
      MITgcm, Internal waves.

      DOUCETTE, J.S.1, VILLARD, P.V.1, and THOMAS, J.S.2, 1Geomorphic Solutions, 141 Brunel
      Road, Mississauga, ON, L4Z 1X3; 2Credit Valley Conservation, 1255 Old Derry Road,
      Mississauga, ON, L5N6R4. The Dynamics of a Barrier Bay Outlet, Rattray Marsh,
      Mississauga, Lake Ontario.

              Rattray Marsh is a coastal wetland separated from Lake Ontario by a barrier spit.
      Sheridan Creek which flows into Rattray Marsh has a densely urbanized watershed lacking in
      stormwater control. Storm flows are extremely flashy. Water levels in the marsh are controlled
      by the opening and closing of the mouth and the relative water level in Lake Ontario. Knowledge
      of the processes governing the opening and closing of the barrier is important to be able to
      evaluate potential impacts due to stormwater management practices, different lake water level
      management scenarios and climate change. Periodic observations were made of the outlet for
      over 2 years. Observations consisted of photographs, and on 6 occasions the detailed
      morphology of the outlet was measured using an RTK GPS with accuracy on the order of
      centimeters. Seasonal conditions were identified. The opening and closing of the outlet was
      evaluated in context of discharge from Sheridan Creek, Lake Ontario water levels, local wind

May 17-21, 2010                                      75                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      speed and direction and estimated wave heights. Keywords: Monitoring, Coastal processes,
      Lake Ontario.

      DRAKE, A.1, MANDRAK, N.E.2, and HARVEY, H.H.1, 1Department of Ecology and
      Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S3B2; 2Great Lakes Laboratory
      for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6.
       From Incidental Harvest to Release: Quantifying the Likelihood of Introducing Aquatic
      Invasive Species through the Baitfish Industry in Ontario.

              Aquatic invasive species (AIS) have negative impacts on the economic and ecological
      integrity of freshwater ecosystems, particularly within the Great Lakes basin (GLB). Therefore,
      preventing further AIS introductions is of utmost importance. The commercial baitfish industry
      in Ontario is one of several secondary pathways that have the potential to transfer AIS within and
      beyond the GLB. Quantifying the relative risk posed by this pathway is a necessary first step to
      prioritize prevention management efforts. We quantitatively examined the risk of AIS
      introduction through the baitfish industry through harvesting in the wild, and subsequent release
      into the wild by the end user (i.e. the angler). We incorporated data from commercial harvest
      simulations, retail tank sampling, retail purchases, and end-user surveys to determine the
      likelihood of AIS occurrence within four key pathway uncertainties: 1) AIS encounter by
      commercial harvesters; 2) AIS occurrence within bait retailers; 3) AIS sale to the end-user; and,
      4) AIS release by the end-user. Although the overall probability of AIS introduction was low, the
      prevalence of end-user release suggests that this pathway is an important secondary transfer
      vector contingent upon the relative abundance of AIS within donor ecosystems, commercial
      harvests and retail facilities. Keywords: Biological invasions, Risk assessment, Fisheries.

      and ZHANG, L.2, 1Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, ON, L0L 1N0, Canada;
        Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4, Canada; 3Environment
      Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON, L7S 1A1, Canada; 4Environment Canada, 401
      Burrard St, Vancouver, BC, V6C 3L5, Canada. Spatial and temporal trends of airborne trace
      metals in the Great Lakes Basin (1988 to 2005).

              Measurements of trace metals on particulate matter (<10 µm) were made at three
      locations within the Great Lakes basin in southern Ontario as part of the Integrated Atmospheric
      Deposition Network (IADN) since 1988. This dataset was used to address the following
      objectives: 1) quantify anthropogenic enrichment; 2) characterize spatial and temporal trends; 3)
      identify potential sources; and 4) calculate dry deposition loads for Lake Ontario and Erie. The
      results showed that the degree of enrichment varied between the different metals, for example:
      Cd>As>Pb>Se. Overall, metal concentrations were slightly higher at the two locations nearer
      anthropogenic activity (Egbert and Point Petre) than at the more remote site (Burnt Island).
      However, the remote site did have higher concentrations of Cu and Ni, which back trajectory
      analysis suggested may have originated from regional mining activity. Temporal trend analysis
      identified a decrease in Pb and an increase in Se concentrations since the 1990s. Calculating
      trace metal dry deposition using a Vd of 0.2 cm/s resulted in fluxes that were <25% of wet

May 17-21, 2010                                      76                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      deposition. However, accounting for the occurrence of some elements associated with larger
      particles resulted in an increase in dry depositional fluxes, which were larger than wet
      depositional fluxes during summer months. Keywords: Airsheds, IADN, Metals.

      R.M.L.1, 1Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green,
      OH, 43403; 2Department of Microbiology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, 37996.
      Psychrophilic Diatoms in Ice-Covered Lake Erie.

             Lake wide surveys conducted in winter 2008 and 2009 documented high phytoplankton
      biomass dominated by a nutrient-replete, low-light adapted, filamentous centric diatom,
      Aulacoseira islandica (O. Müller) Simonsen. Visible Aulacoseira accumulations were present at
      levels exceeding Chl-a concentrations observed in summer and spring. Other taxa included
      Stephanodiscus spp., which accounted for ~20% of the microplankton. Fragilaria spp.,
      Asterionella spp. and Cyclotella spp. were also observed. Total light-saturated winter primary
      production attributed to the microplankton-dominated assemblage ranged from ~2-4 g C/g Chl
      a/h at most central basin sites. Photosynthesis vs. irradiance (PE) curves yielded average Ek
      values of 25-30 µmol photons m-2 s-1, suggestive of a low light-adapted community. A
      fluorophore targeting biogenic silica deposition was applied identifying actively growing cells
      and a modified SEM approach detailed unusual associations between diatoms as well as non-
      uniform bacterial colonization on the diatoms. This physiologically robust assemblage of
      psychrophilic diatoms in Lake Erie represents an important, yet to date poorly documented,
      phytoplankton population that plays an important role in the annual carbon budgets of this large
      lake. Keywords: Lake Erie, Ice, Diatoms.

      J.M.1, 1Lake Erie Management Unit, MNR, 659 Exeter Rd., London, ON, N6E 1L3; 2Ontario
      Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, 1 Stone Rd. West, Guelph, ON, N1G 4Y2;
        Ducks Unlimited Ca., Chatham, ON. A Successful Multi-partnership Initiative Toward
      Restoring Rondeau Bay‟s Ecological Integrity.

              Rondeau Bay is an area of focus for the Lake Erie Management Plan (LAMP) and the
      Canada/Ontario Agreement Respecting the Great Lakes (COA). The Bay contains one of the few
      remaining, hydrologically intact, large coastal wetland systems on Lake Erie. It is recognized as
      a major fish production area and an important refuge for a number of Species at Risk (SAR).
      Results of a two year COA funded ecological assessment revealed severe nutrient management
      issues within this small agriculturally based watershed with direct impacts to biodiversity and
      SAR. A restoration strategy was subsequently developed with concrete initiatives and set targets.
      As a result the Restoration of Rondeau Bay‘s Ecological Integrity Project (The Rondeau Project)
      was commenced in 2007. The Project is lead by the Lake Erie Management Unit (MNR) with
      strong collaborative partnerships between Federal, Provincial, and Municipal agencies, NGO‘s,
      private landowners, and community organizations. To date a number of restoration initiatives
      have been completed including the development of nutrient reduction ponds, in-field
      improvements, buffer strips, wetland restorations, invasive species control, public outreach and

May 17-21, 2010                                      77                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      education programs. A large number of projects have been planned for 2010. A summary of the
      Rondeau Project and successes to date will be discussed. Keywords: Remediation, Watersheds,

      BROWN, S.B., Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Health
      Status of Wild Fish from the St. Lawrence River (Cornwall) Area of Concern - 1. Biological

              Environment Canada has conducted studies evaluating endocrine function and overall
      fish health to readdress fish health issues in the Canadian Areas of Concern. The present study
      reports on brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) and yellow perch (Perca flavescens) collected
      from the St. Lawrence Area of Concern (Cornwall). Fish health assessments used estimates of
      age structure, energy storage and energy utilization. Endocrine assessments included plasma
      concentrations of vitellogenin and major steroids, in vitro steroid synthesis, and thyroid status.
      Liver EROD activity was also measured. The gonads were evaluated histologically for
      developmental stage, and liver samples were collected and evaluated for the presence of tumors.
      Exposure to endocrine disruptors was also investigated by deployment of semi-permeable
      membrane devices (SPMDs), and pooled liver tissues, extracted and analyzed for the presence of
      endocrine active compounds. Preliminary results indicate significant differences between
      exposed and reference sites for several variables, including decreased plasma vitellogenin and
      decreased in vitro steroid synthesis in females collected at the exposed site. Those differences do
      not appear to be attributed to the presence of endocrine active compounds in the water column.
      Keywords: PCBs, Lake Ontario, Areas of Concern, St. Lawrence River.

      Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Health Status of Wild
      Fish from the St. Lawrence River (Cornwall) Area of Concern - 2. PCB body burden and
      hydroxylated metabolites in fish plasma.

              The St Lawrence (Cornwall) Area of Concern has suffered from degradation due to
      contamination from agricultural, industrial and municipal sources, as well as habitat destruction,
      nutrient enrichment and introduction of exotic species. Amongst the contaminants of concern,
      sediment contamination by historical sources of PCBs is thought to pose a potential threat.
      Studies have suggested that hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs), by-products of microbial and
      biological degradation, could also interact with fish thyroid function, and have effects on wild
      fish populations. However, few studies to date have investigated the environmental exposure and
      effects of these metabolites. The present study investigated the environmental occurrence of
      PCBs and hydroxylated metabolites in brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus) from the St.
      Lawrence River (Cornwall) Area of Concern. PCB congener body burdens were determined and
      plasma OH-PCBs concentrations were quantified using GC-high resolution mass spectrometry.
      These data will be compared and contrasted with other sites in the Great lakes, as well as
      measurements of fish health, in the context of potential environmental health effects.
      Keywords: PCBs, Lake Ontario, Areas of Concern, St. Lawrence River.

May 17-21, 2010                                       78                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      EASTLING, P.M. and HORNBUCKLE, K.C., 4114 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts
      and Sciences, Iowa City, IA, 52245. Polychlorinated Biphynols in Cedar Rapids Flood

              Extreme flooding of rivers may contribute to increased loading of persistent organic
      pollutants (POPs) to the Great Lakes, the Mississippi river, and other large lakes and surface
      waters downstream of industrial and urban areas. This study examines the fate of POPs that were
      mobilized during heavy flooding of the Cedar River and the small urban city of Cedar Rapids,
      Iowa during the summer of 2008. This study focuses on three representative organic pollutant
      groups: the pesticide chlordane, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and synthetic musk
      fragrances. We hypothesize that these compounds were mobilized by the flood water and that
      residues of these compounds remained in the soils and sediments of the residential areas of the
      city. To test our hypothesis, soil samples were collected from ~200 of residential locations in the
      downtown Cedar Rapids area and analyzed for the three compound groups. Samples were
      extracted using an accelerated solvent extraction (ASE 300), and analyzed using GC/ECD,
      GC/MSD and GC/MS/MS. This presentation focuses on the PCB analysis. Keywords: Sediment
      transport, Flood, PCBs.

      L.4, NEUMANN, N.5, PAYMENT, P.3, YERUBANDI, R.1, and WATSON, S.1, 1867 Lakeshore
      Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6, Canada; 2Region of Peel, Mississauga, ON; 3Institut national
      de recherche scientific, Laval, QU; 4Ontario Clean Water Agency, Toronto, ON; 5Univrsity of
      Alberta, Edmonton, AB. Occurrence of fecal indicator bacteria and waterborne pathogens
      in Lake Ontario source water of several Drinking Water Treatment Plants.

              Field studies were begun by The Collaborative Study to Protect Lake Ontario Drinking
      Water in 2007 to investigate the occurrence of waterborne pathogens in the source water of
      drinking water treatment plants on Lake Ontario. A pilot study is being conducted at several
      Water Treatment Plants near the mouth of the Credit River to investigate the occurrence of fecal
      indicator bacteria and waterborne pathogens (e.g. Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Giardia,
      culturable enteric viruses). The waterborne pathogen pilot study has been embedded in a water
      research effort characterizing water movements, water temperature profiles, and water quality
      aspects such as turbidity, nutrients, dissolved and particulate forms of carbon, phytoplankton,
      chlorophyll a, algal toxins, and taste and odour compounds. There has been a relatively low level
      of contamination from fecal indicator bacteria and waterborne pathogens in offshore source
      water for the Water Treatment Plants to date. However, all pathogens have been detected at
      times, and E. coli numbers have reached as high as 222 cfu/100mL in surface water 2 km
      offshore. Analyses are ongoing to investigate the nature of waterborne pathogen contamination
      events at offshore drinking water intakes. Keywords: Drinking water, Water quality,
      Microbiological studies.

May 17-21, 2010                                       79                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      PENNUTO, C.5, 1Department of Biology, Niagara University, Lewiston, NY, 14109;
        Deparment of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering, University at Buffalo, Buffalo,
      NY, 14260; 3Department of Biochemistry, SUNY College of Environmental Science and
      Forestry, Syracuse, NY, 13210; 4Department of Evnironmental Science and Biology, SUNY
      Brockport, Brockport, NY, 14420; 5Department of Biology, Buffalo State College, Buffalo, NY,
      14222. Lake Ontario Nearshore Nutrient Transport Study (LONNS): upwelling in the
      nearshore region.

              The Lake Ontario Nearshore Nutrient Transport Study (LONNS) was implemented to
      assess the inadequacy of phosphorus models in predicting Lake Ontario ecosystem changes. The
      LONNS assessed the decoupling of the offshore, where nutrient levels have fallen, water clarity
      increased and nuisance blooms of Cladophora have become important. We combine a
      hydrodynamic model of Lake Ontario with in situ measurements of water velocity in the
      nearshore of Lake Ontario. Water velocity was measured using an Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter
      and concurrent measurements were taken of temperature, phytoplankton (fluoroprobe), nutrients,
      and turbidity across a series of transect perpendicular to the shore around Oak Orchard Creek
      and the Rochester Embayment. The water flow in this region is typically dominated by along
      shore currents. However, the hydrodynamic model predicts strong upwelling events, which were
      confirmed by field measurements. We assess the importance of upwelling events in the nearshore
      nutrient region on nearshore surface flows and test modeled results versus measured in situ data.
      Keywords: Hydrodynamic model, Lake Ontario, Water currents.

      EFFLER, S.W.1, STRAIT, C.M.1, PERKINS, M.G.1, and LESHKEVICH, G.A.2, 1P.O. Box 506,
      Syracuse, NY, 13214; 24840 S. State Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Patterns of Light
      Absorption in Lake Ontario.

               Light absorbing constituents are important regulators of the signal available to assess
      water quality from remote sensing. The magnitudes and spectral features of absorbing
      components, including colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM or gelbstoff; aCDOM),
      phytoplankton (aΦ), and non-algal particles (NAP; aNAP) were determined for near-surface waters
      of Lake Ontario in pelagic and near-shore (off Oswego) areas for samples collected in 2007,
      2008 and 2009. Absorption spectra were obtained on filtrate (0.2 μm pore size) for CDOM, and
      filters for phytoplankton and NAP (0.7 μm; before and after bleaching). Exponential decreases
      with increasing wavelength (400-700 nm range) for aCDOM and aNAP, and bimodal patterns for aΦ,
      are reported. The dependency of aΦ on chlorophyll a is evaluated. Substantial spatial and
      temporal differences in the magnitude of the sum of the three components and their relative
      contributions to overall a are documented. aCDOM was the largest component in the blue
      wavelengths, followed by aΦ. The implications of the observations for remote sensing will be

      ENQUIST, P., BAUTZ, C.R., and WILSON, R., 224 S. Michigan Ave, Chicago, IL, 60604,
      USA. The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Region: Achieving a Sustainable Vision for this
      New Century.

May 17-21, 2010                                      80                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

               The Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River Region holds bi-national and global importance
      as the supplier of 20 percent of the world‘s fresh water. In addition, this region has a rich and
      diverse landscape, key urban centers, productive farmlands, highly ranked educational
      institutions, and established manufacturing centers. Despite the region‘s importance, it faces
      critical environmental and economic issues. There is a great need for a comprehensive and bi-
      national vision that protects and restores this valuable water resource and guides the industries
      and cities within the watershed towards sustainability. Skidmore, Owings & Merrill‘s Chicago
      office has been working with several key stakeholders to develop a vision document titled
      ―Recognizing the Challenge: The Need for a 100-year Vision for the Great Lakes and St.
      Lawrence River Region.‖ The draft aims to begin a bi-national dialogue that will identify
      strategies for city development, water conservation, transportation systems, energy production,
      tourism and recreation, and agriculture. It is a draft that encourages all people who touch these
      waters to engage in conversation, enrich the dialogue, and help bring the vision into action.
      Keywords: Global warming, Vision, Outreach, Future development, Development impact on
      Great Lakes.

      D.R.5, NORTH, R.6, and MAZUMDER, A.7, 1Ministry of Natural Resources, Trent University,
      Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 2Environmental and Life Sciences Program, Trent University,
      Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 3Ontario Ministry of Environment, 125 Resorces Road, Toronto,
      ON, M9P 3V6; 4Lake Simcoe Fisheries Assessment Unit, 26465 Hedge Road, Sutton West, ON,
      L0E 1R0; 5Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1;
        Department of Chemistry, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 7Water and Aquatic
      Research Program, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W 4N5. Foodweb Structure and
      Phosphorus Cycling in Lake Simcoe: Ecosystem Integration of Nutrient Enrichment,
      Species Invasions and Alteration of Predator Prey Dynamics.

              Lake Simcoe has long been subjected to nutrient, sediment and contaminant loadings, and
      more recently to invading species, intensive fishing, fish stocking and climate change. We
      provide a synthesis and integration of long-term monitoring data across trophic levels with
      reference to top-down and bottom up food web processes. Phosphorus loading exceeded 100 t/yr
      during the 1970s, declined in the1980s and since 1998 has varied between 53 and 77 t/yr. Ice-
      free mean chlorophyll a and total phosphorus concentrations declined during the 1980s, but have
      not trended up or down since 1990. Food web changes since 1990, however, have been dramatic:
      natural recruitment of lake trout ceased beginning in the 1980s, lake herring and rainbow smelt
      suffered sequential recruitment failure in the presence of intensive lake trout stocking and both
      Dreissena polymorpha and Bythotrephes longimanus became established in the mid 1990s.
      Water quality improved during the late 1990s with a parallel partial recovery of cold-water fish,
      dramatic changes in benthic invertebrate production, and transformation of the phytoplankton
      and zooplankton communities. While bottom up controls are important, a trophic cascade model
      suggests that top down effects, yet to be considered in nutrient management strategies, have also
      played a significant role. Keywords: Lake Simcoe, Food web, Water quality, Trophic cascade,
      Invasive species.

May 17-21, 2010                                      81                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      FAHNENSTIEL, G.1, POTHOVEN, S.1, and KLARER, D.2, 1Lake Michigan Field St./GLERL,
      Muskegon, MI, 49441; 2Old Woman Creek/NERR, Huron, OH, 44839. Phytoplankton
      abundance, composition and primary production along a nearshore/offshore transect in
      southeastern Lake Michigan, 2007-09.

               As part of NOAA/ GLERL‘s long term monitoring program three stations in southern
      Lake Michigan have been sampled on a bi-weekly basis from March- December, 2007-2009.
      These three stations were located along a transect from Muskegon Pier to the offshore region
      (M15, M45, and M110). Sampling at these stations has included a variety of water quality and
      lower food web parameters. In this poster we present information on phytoplankton abundance
      (chlorophyll a), composition, and primary production (both volumetric and areal integrated)
      along the transect. The Great Lakes Production model (similar to Fee model) was used to
      estimate phytoplankton primary production. Significant differences in all measured parameters
      were noted along the transect. Moreover, during the past twenty-five years significant changes in
      phytoplankton abundance, composition and areal primary production have been observed in this
      region with the most significant changes occurring in the last five years due to the filtering
      activities of dreissinid mussels. Keywords: Algae, Photosynthesis, Diatoms.

      FIELD, L., MACPHERSON, G., HAWKINS, S., ST. JOHN, M., and BACH., C., Toronto and
      Region Conservation Authority, 5 Shoreham Drive, Downsview, ON, M3N 1S4. The Toronto
      Waterfront: An Integrated Management and Restoration Approach.

              Historic degradation of the shoreline of the Greater Toronto Area led to substantive loss
      of aquatic habitat, which in turn was a driver for the designation of Toronto & Region as an Area
      of Concern in 1987. This presentation will provide an overview of the Toronto & Region Area of
      Concern and Remedial Action Plan, as well as outline the implementation of shoreline
      management initiatives on the Toronto Waterfront and integrated bio-physical approach to
      shoreline management that have application throughout the Great Lakes basin. The formation of
      Aquatic Habitat Toronto as a consensus based organization addressing aquatic habitat
      development on the Toronto Waterfront will also be discussed. Keywords: Lake Ontario,
      Coastal ecosystems, Habitats.

      FORRESTER, L.1, MOLOT, L.1, and WATSON, S.B.2, 1Faculty of Environmental Studies, Uork
      University, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3, Canada; 2Environment Canada, CCIW 867 Lakeshore Rd,
      Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Blooms in the Bay: do iron and light affect microcystin levels in
      Microcystis aeruginosa?

             There has been a marked shift in phytoplankton biomass and composition in the Bay of
      Quinte, following nutrient reduction and the invasion of non native species such as dreissenids.
      A disturbing increase in severe late-summer cyanobacteria blooms in the Bay has been
      accompanied by high levels of hepatotoxic microcystins (MCs). Species of Microcystis (M.
      aeruginosa, M. wesenbergii, M. viridis, M. flos-aquae) often dominate these blooms, and are
      suspected as major sources of MC, but our previous data show significant interannual variability

May 17-21, 2010                                      82                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      in bloom severity and MC content. Thus their potential risks to human and aquatic health remain
      unpredictable and the factors influencing their occurrence and toxicity remain largely
      unresolved. We addressed this important issue by investigating the role of light and iron (Fe) on
      growth and toxicity of three M. aeruginosa strains, using combined lab and field work. Results
      showed marked differences among the Microcystis strains in growth and toxicity at different Fe
      and light levels. Field observations showed only very weak correlations between particulate MC,
      light extinction and total dissolved Fe. This suggests that field populations contained a mix of
      Microcystis strains, that other factors regulate MC production, or that total dissolved Fe is not a
      good measure of available Fe. Keywords: Taste odour, Toxins, Cyanobacteria, Bay of Quinte.

      FRENCH, R.P., French Planning Services, RR2 1016 Holiday Park Drive, Bracebridge, ON,
      P1L 1W9, Canada. Engaging People and Partnerships through Collaboration.

             Lake Huron-Georgian Bay Watershed - A Canadian Framework for Community Action.
      The Lake Huron Framework is a Canadian approach to recognize current efforts and engage
      partners across the Lake Huron Watershed. It was created based on the principles of Community
      Based Social Marketing (CBSM) and through the collaborative efforts of Environment Canada,
      Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Ontario Ministry
      of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, conservation authorities and municipal agencies. Its
      premise is to put in place a community based approach to engage and inform everyone so that
      they will participate and become involved in improving the health of Lake Huron. Many projects
      are now in place under the umbrella of the Lake Huron Framework, including annual Lake
      Huron Youth Summits, watershed initiatives, and other pilot projects. Keywords: Policy making,
      Lake Huron, Public education.

      FULLER, M.M., 680 Plains Rd West, Burlington, ON, L8N 3H8, Canada. Successful
      Management of the Invasive Species the Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in the
      Restoration of Cootes Paradise, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.

               Cootes Paradise, located in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada was once a highly functional
      freshwater coastal wetland. However, a combination of decreased water quality and the
      introduction of invasive species has compromised the biological integrity of this marsh. Despite
      this, it remains one of the best sites available to marsh-spawning fish species in western Lake
      Ontario and at 310 ha it is also one of the largest. Cootes Paradise is under the management of
      Royal Botanical Gardens (RBG) and the target of an innovative restoration effort, Project
      Paradise, of which the main focus is the removal of the invasive species the Common Carp
      (Cyprinus carpio). This is accomplished through a two-way fishway structure located at the
      connection between Cootes Paradise and Hamilton Harbour. The fishway prevents the movement
      of the common carp into the marsh, while allowing the passage of native spawning fish. With the
      installation of this structure, RBG has been able to exclude approximately 95% of the carp from
      Cootes Paradise, resulting in a decrease in carp biomass from 800 kg/ha to 57 kg/ha and a
      corresponding increase in water clarity, emergent and submergent plant growth and fish species
      diversity. Already proven to be successful, this project will continue with the ultimate goal of

May 17-21, 2010                                       83                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      restoring biological function to Cootes Paradise. Keywords: Coastal wetlands, Remediation,

      GABRIEL, T.A., Ohio Sea Grant, OSU Extension, 28728 Wolf Rd, Bay Village, OH, 44140.
      Effective Lake Erie Education and Outreach: Aquatic Visitors Center at Put-in-Bay, OH.

              The Aquatic Visitors Center at Put-in-Bay, OH is managed by Ohio Sea Grant and made
      possible through a partnership with the Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of
      Wildlife. Once a state fish hatchery, the facility has been renovated to serve as an interactive
      educational facility for the thousands of tourists that visit South Bass Island every summer.
      Educational topics include historical hatchery operations, Lake Erie ecology, current Lake Erie
      research, and the Lake Erie Sport Fisheries. The goal of the Aquatic Visitors Center is to
      effectively educate the public on key Lake Erie issues while providing an exciting, family
      friendly vacation stop. The facility was managed by Ohio Sea Grant for the first time in 2009,
      and over the course of the season over 12,000 individuals were educated.
      Keywords: Environmental education, Lake Erie, Fisheries.

      GAMBLE, A.E.1, HRABIK, T.R.1, YULE, D.L.2, and STOCKWELL, J.D.3, 1Biology
      Department, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, MN, 55812; 2Lake Superior Biological
      Station, 2800 Lakeshore Drive, Ashland, WI, 54806; 3Gulf of Maine Research Institute, 350
      Commercial Street, Portland, ME, 4101. Nearshore-offshore linkages in Lake Superior:
      potential management implications.

              We use analysis of fish stomach contents to describe Lake Superior nearshore and
      offshore food web linkages. Analysis of over 10,000 diets from 16 species indicates that both
      nearshore and offshore, native Lake Superior fish species appear to rely upon a relatively few
      number of lower trophic level components. Our findings indicate that macroinvertebrates lie at
      the heart of each food web. In both habitats, benthic fish species tended to have a more diverse
      diet (averaging between 2-4 prey species), whereas planktivorous and piscivorous fish species
      diets were less diverse (averaging between 0-2 prey species). Mysis relicta was the primary prey
      item for the majority of offshore fish species (kiyi, deepwater sculpin, and small siscowet). Cisco
      consumed calanoid copepods, but Bythotrephes was also a primary diet component in late
      summer and fall. Diporeia hoyi were the primary prey items for fish species found in shallower
      offshore areas and most nearshore areas (i.e., slimy sculpin, spoonhead sculpin, burbot, lake
      whitefish, rainbow smelt, and nearshore deepwater sculpin). We hypothesize that Mysis and
      Diporeia are keystone species in the Lake Superior food web, both nearshore and offshore, and
      that changes in Mysis or Diporeia populations would have a significant impact on multiple fish
      species. Keywords: Macroinvertebrates, Lake Superior, Fish diets.

      GANNON, J.E., International Joint Commission, 100 Ouellette Ave., 8th Fl, Windsor, ON, N9A
      6T3. How AOCs and RAPs evolved and what is their future?

May 17-21, 2010                                       84                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              THe IJC Great Lakes Water Quality Board in 1973 identified Areas of Concern where
      Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement objectives were not being met. Class A AOCs were
      deemed "severely polluted" and Class B AOCs "polluted. In 1983, the WQB issued a report on
      status and cleanup of Class A AOCs and in 1985 attempted to do so for Class B AOCs, but there
      were insufficient data to do so. To infuse new energy and resources into the restoration of AOCs,
      the WQB introduced Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) that were subsequently incorportated in the
      1987 Agreement revision by Protocol. The WQB then conducted the "How Clean is Clean?"
      project to develop listing/delisting criteria, whereby the 14 Beneficial Use Impairments
      (BUIs)were initially created in a 1986 IAGLR symposium and also included in the Agreement.
      To date, only four AOCs have been delisted, all of them geographically small with few pollution
      sources. AOCs slated for delisting soon are also small. I argue that the large AOCs (bays,
      connecting waterways and large urban centers) will never be delisted using existing criteria. A
      new pardigm is necessary that is based on adaptive management for the large AOCs. In addition,
      a sustainablity protocol is required for all AOCs, including the delisted ones, to guard against
      backsliding and to detect emerging issues. Keywords: Great Lakes basin, Environmental policy,
      Water quality.

      GANNON, J.E., International Joint Commission, 100 Ouellette Ave., 8th Fl, Windsor, ON, N9A
      6T3. Towards Great Lakes Chemical, Physical and Biological Integrity.

               The International Joint Commission in its advice to governments on review of the Great
      Lakes Water Quality Agreement(IJC, 2006) stated that the purpose the the Agreement is still a
      laudable and contemporary beacon for binational cooperation in restoring and maintaining the
      waters of the Great Lakes basin ecosystem. The IJC further noted that the current Agreement no
      longer is a driver for programs and actions, so the Commission welcomed the government's
      announcement (6/09) that they were committed to updating the Agreement. The IJC Agreement
      advisory boards for the past several years have been conducting work and developing reports and
      advice related to the review and updating of the Agreement. Key aspects of this advice relate to
      inclusion of nearshore water and habitat quality and improved linking of watershed and lake
      institutions for research, monitoring, management and policy. Another key message has been to
      strive for adaptive management rather than the rigid procedures in the current Agreement that are
      insufficiently responsive to emerging issues (e.g., invasive species, climate change, etc.) to
      which the current Agreement is silent. New approaches to coherence and accountability in an
      adaptive management framework need to be developed in an updated and revised Agreement to
      replace out-of-date provisions. Keywords: Environmental policy, Ecosystem health, Great Lakes

      GARREAU, D.M., BAULCH, H.M., and DILLON, P.J., 1600 West Bank Dr., Peterborough,
      ON, K9J 7B8. Sediment Phosphorus Fractions of Lake Simcoe Tributaries.

             Phosphorus (P) is frequently the limiting nutrient for algal productivity in Canadian
      freshwaters. In streams, large amounts of P can be stored in sediments. Depending on sediment
      geochemistry and stream water chemistry, sediments may either sequester or release P. In this
      study, we characterized the concentrations of the key forms of P stored in the sediments of 12

May 17-21, 2010                                      85                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      tributaries of Lake Simcoe. Concentrations of total P ranged widely, from 49-251 mg/kg. The
      highest concentrations of total P were observed in the Talbot > East Holland > Maskinonge
      Rivers which drain predominantly agricultural areas as well as urban areas. Inorganic P was the
      dominant species in all tributaries during both spring and fall, constituting 63-92% of the
      sediment total P. Apatite constituted the bulk of the inorganic P fraction (76-100% of inorganic
      P, 64-89% of total P). The low bioavailability of apatite P, when contrasted to other forms of
      sediment P, indicates that although a large mass of P may be stored in tributary sediments, much
      of this P is not readily available to biota. Further, our data suggest that reactions between
      sediments and overlying water may contribute to P removal from the water column, although
      more research on this topic is proposed. Keywords: Lake Simcoe, Phosphorus, Eutrophication,
      Sediment, Geochemistry.

      ROBERTS, P.3, 1University of Guelph, School of Engineering, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1; 2Ontario
      Ministry of Environment, Dorset Environmental Science Centre, Dorset, ON, P0A 1E0; 3Ontario
      Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Guelph, ON, N1G 4Y2. Evaluation of the
      QHEI as a planning and design tool for restoration of rural Ontario waterways.

              The Great Lakes and their tributaries are precious resources that require protection for
      future generations. The Qualitative Habitat Evaluation Index (QHEI) was originally designed by
      the Ohio EPA to provide a quantitative evaluation of the physical characteristics and is used as a
      planning and design tool for stream assessment and restoration. This study evaluates the
      applicability of the QHEI to stream assessments in Southern Ontario. QHEI assessments were
      made at 67 sites in Ontario where benthic data were available. High QHEI scores indicate quality
      streams, whereas low QHEI scores are associated with degraded systems. This study shows that
      only 7 of the 21 QHEI sub-metrics correlate with %EPT, HBI and family richness. Therefore,
      predictive regression equations were developed and can be used to assist in the stream
      assessment and rehabilitation design processes by optimizing sub-index weights, thus giving a
      summation for Ontario streams that is better coupled to biological responses. The design ranges
      for the QHEI sub-metrics for the regression equations have been calculated. However, only
      about 50% of the variance in biologic indices was explained by geomorphic stressors within the
      stream and the other 50% might be related to upstream water quality or land-use.
      Keywords: Streams, Assessments, Rural, Habitats, Remediation.

      GEBBINK, W.A.1, HEBERT, C.E.1, WESELOH, D.V.C.2, and LETCHER, R.J.1, 1Wildlife and
      Landscape Science Directorate, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, National
      Wildlife Research Centre, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3; 2Canadian Wildlife
      Service, Environment Canada, Downsview, ON, M3H 5T4. Spatial Trends of Perfluorinated
      Carboxylates and Sulfonates and Precursor Compounds in Eggs of Colonial Herring Gulls
      and the Influence of Dietary and Food Web Sources.

             Environmentally important perfluorinated carboxylates and sulfonates, as well as
      precursors were determined in herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs collected (in 2007) from 15
      colonies located across the Laurentian Great Lakes. The pattern of perfluorosulfonates (PFSAs;

May 17-21, 2010                                      86                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      C6, C8, C10) was dominated by PFOS (>90% of ΣPFSA) regardless of location. The ΣPFSA
      concentrations were significantly (p<0.03) higher in eggs from Middle Island, Toronto Harbour
      and Strachan Island compared to colonies on Lakes Superior, Michigan and Huron. C8 to C15
      perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were detected in the eggs with PFUnA and PFTrA being the
      dominant compounds. The highest concentrations of ΣPFCA were found in eggs collected from
      Double Island, followed by colonies on Lake Erie and Ontario. These results indicated that the
      spatial distribution of PFSAs and PFCAs in herring gull eggs from the Great Lakes was a
      function of colony location, e.g., egg levels increased from the northwest to the southeast and
      were greater in eggs from colonies in close proximity to highly urbanized and industrialized sites
      in Lakes Erie and Ontario. Stable isotope (δ15N and δ13C) analysis of individual eggs collected
      from 5 colonies indicated that the aquatic component in the gulls‘ diet is the primary source of
      PFCs for most of those colonies. Keywords: Perfluorooctane sulfonate, Herring gull, Spatial

      GEE, J.H.1, DEBARROS, C.A.2, and KOK, S.E.1, 1Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street,
      Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4; 2Ministry of Environment, Box 22032, 1259 Gardiners Road, Kingston,
      ON, K7M 8S5. Status of Canada's Great Lakes Areas of Concern.

              Collaboration among many stakeholders, including federal, provincial and municipal
      governments, First Nations, conservation authorities, non-governmental organizations, industry,
      academia and local citizens has been the key to the significant progress made in restoring
      Canada‘s seventeen Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs). The Canada-Ontario Agreement
      Respecting the Great Lakes Basin Ecosystem between the federal and provincial governments
      fosters such collaboration and capacity building, and contributes to addressing Canada‘s
      commitment under the Canada-United States Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. By the end
      of 2010, three AOCs will have been delisted [Wheatley Harbour (2010), Severn Sound (2002)
      and Collingwood Harbour (1994)]. Remedial actions have been completed for Spanish Harbour
      which was designated an Area in Recovery in 1999. Implementation of remedial actions is
      nearing completion in several AOCs and by 2015, at least two more AOCs will be delisted. This
      paper will present the status of (i) beneficial use impairments in the remaining AOCs, (ii)
      Remedial Action Plan implementation actions and (iii) delisting criteria development and targets.
      The paper will also highlight challenges in addressing delisting of the AOCs. Keywords: Great
      Lakes basin, Areas of Concern, Hydroacoustics.

      GEWURTZ, S.B.1, BHAVSAR, S.P.2, JACKSON, D.A.1, FLETCHER, R.2, MOODY, R.2, and
      REINER, E.J.2, 1Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto,
      Toronto, ON, M5S 3G5; 2Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road, Toronto,
      ON, M9P 3V6. PCBs and mercury in Ontario fish: influence of size and gender and
      implications for fish consumption advisories.

             Occurrence of PCBs and mercury in the Great Lakes is evident from fish consumption
      advisories due to these chemicals. Advice is generally given on a length-specific basis and fish
      gender is usually not considered although the influence of these factors is not well known. Here,
      we use the large dataset generated by the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and collaborators

May 17-21, 2010                                      87                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      to evaluate the relationship between PCB/mercury and length and gender. We evaluated seven of
      the most commonly consumed fish in the Canadian Great Lakes and two inland lakes. A power
      function was used to evaluate the relationship between concentration and length for each
      collection year. For mercury, the relationship between concentration and length was significant
      (p<0.05) in most of the fish species and locations. For PCBs, this relationship was also generally
      significant in chinook salmon and lake trout, which are the species with the most advisories for
      this compound. In contrast, significant relationships were not typically found for whitefish,
      northern pike, smallmouth bass, walleye, and yellow perch, although these species are generally
      of less concern with regard to PCB contamination. Gender differences were common for walleye
      (males>females, p<0.05) but not other species. Keywords: Mercury, PCBs, Fish.

      GILBERT, J.G. and OLDENBURG, K., Lake Erie Management Unit, MNR, 1 Passmore Ave,
      P.O. Box 429, Port Dover, ON, N0A 1N0. Ecological Assessment of Inner Long Point Bay,
      Lake Erie.

              The ability to effectively manage, restore and protect coastal wetland and nearshore
      habitats requires information regarding system health, stressors, and threats to future system
      integrity. Building upon a successful assessment model designed for and undertaken in Rondeau
      Bay (2005/06) a multi-component ecological assessment of Long Point Bay was undertaken
      between 2007and 2009. Supported through funding from the Canada/Ontario Agreement, the
      Lake Erie Management Unit (MNR) along with numerous partners collected information on key
      components within wetlands, nearshore, inner bay and tributary sites. These components
      included fish, birds, anurans, herpetofauna, mussels, zooplankton, vegetation, bathymetry, water
      and sediment physical and chemical conditions, invasive species, species at risk, human
      disturbance, system alterations and development. This information will be collated into a
      comprehensive report to be used as a baseline on the health of the system. It will also be used as
      a basis for developing a strategic ‗best bets‘ document intended to guide future planning and
      management resource decisions which take the entire system into consideration. Some of the
      findings from this assessment work will be discussed. Keywords: Ecosystem health, Coastal
      ecosystems, Assessments.

      GILBERT, J.M.1, LETOURNEAU, F.2, PEACH, G.3, JACOBS, D.4, LOCKE, B.1, and
      DROUIN, R.1, 1Lake Erie Management Unit, MNR, 659 Exeter Rd., London, ON, N6E 1L3;
        Dover Agri-serve, RR #8, Chatham, ON, N7M 5J8; 3Lake Huron Centre for Coastal
      Conservation, P.O. Box 178, Blyth, ON, N0M 1H0; 4Moravian Town, Delaware Nation, R.R. #3
      , 14729 River Line, Thamesville, ON, N0P 2K0. Insight Gained on Effective Control of the
      Invasive Alien Species Phragmites australis subsp. australis (common reed) in Sensitive
      Great Lakes Coastal Habitats.

              Recent invasions by the aggressively spreading invasive Phragmites, within critically
      important and sensitive coastal systems has provided the impetus to pursue control options. At
      issue is the ability to effectively and efficiently control the invasive plant, using current, legally
      available tools, without causing significant harm to the native flora and fauna. Control projects in
      dunes and wetlands conducted over the past few years have resulted in both successes and

May 17-21, 2010                                        88                                          Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      failures. The knowledge gained from these projects has been invaluable and is highly relevant for
      increasing success in similar systems. Factors including chemical and mechanical control
      options, timing, site conditions, pre and post treatment requirements, stand density and height,
      community outreach, legal requirements, and proposed legislation changes will be discussed.
      Keywords: Coastal ecosystems, Phragmites australis sunsp. australis, Invasive species,

      GINN, B.K., DENNIS, M., and BALDWIN, R., Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority,
      120 Bayview Parkway, Newmarket, ON, L3Y 4X1. Sediment phosphorus and the potential
      for internal loading in Lake Simcoe and the Holland River (Ontario, Canada).

              Lake Simcoe has been the focus of many environmental studies due to concerns of
      increased nutrient loading and declines in coldwater fish habitat. One area which has not been
      studied in detail, and a component missing in current water quality models, is the amount of
      phosphorus (P) in sediments and their potential for release (i.e. internal loading). In this study we
      measured sediment P in Lake Simcoe and the Holland River both spatially (20 lake and 6 river
      stations) and temporally (from Feb. to Nov.) in order to assess (1) current P concentrations in the
      lake, as well as differences between areas; and (2) seasonal changes in these concentrations.
      Using a GIS-based kriging approach, we constructed a map of sediment P with statistically
      validated interpolations to identify areas for further study. Our results suggest that while seasonal
      changes in sediment P are relatively minor, there is a significant sediment reservoir and potential
      for release under low oxygen conditions – conditions known to occur in the lake on both a
      diurnal and seasonal basis. Nearshore sample stations consistently had higher P concentrations
      than offshore sites which may indicate the shunting of nutrients by invasive dreissenids. Also of
      interest were very low P concentrations recorded in upper Cook‘s Bay – an area of high aquatic
      P and plant biomass. Keywords: Phosphorus, Lake Simcoe, Sediments.

      GINN, B.K. and YEREX, G., Lake Simcoe Region Conservation Authority, 120 Bayview
      Parkway, Newmarket, ON, L3Y 4X1. Benthic invertebrates, environmental degradation,
      and the extent of Dreissenid colonization in Lake Simcoe (Ontario, Canada).

              Lake Simcoe is the largest inland lake in southern Ontario and one of the foremost
      recreational ice fishing destinations in Canada. While this lake has been the focus of much public
      and scientific attention due to increased nutrient loadings and declines in coldwater fish habitat
      of the offshore zone, the nearshore zone (0-20 m) has, until recently, been virtually ignored. In
      Lake Simcoe, this zone occupies 66% of the lake area, is an important terrestrial-aquatic linkage,
      and is the area of the lake which has likely undergone the most significant environmental
      degradation due to shoreline alteration, land-use changes, and invasive species. In this study,
      benthic invertebrate communites were used to assess the current state of three lake habitats:
      shoreline (0-1 m), littoral (~7 m) and profundal (20-40 m). By comparing with previous studies,
      we were able to track a degradation of nearshore environmental quality: shallow habitats are
      undergoing a loss of species diversity and starting to resemble deeper sites. In addition, littoral
      communities are dominated by two invasive dreissenid species. In order to more fully understand
      the impact these exotics are having on Lake Simcoe, we sampled over 800 sites in the lake and,

May 17-21, 2010                                        89                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      using a GIs-based kriging approach, investigated the distribution and density of zebra and
      quagga mussels. Keywords: Invasive species, Benthos, Dreissena.

      GISLASON, D.1, REID, K.1, and OLDENBURG, K.2, 1Ontario Commercial Fisheries
      Association, 45 James St, Blenheim, ON, N0P1A0; 2Ontario ministry of Natural Resources,
      Lake Erie Management Unit, Port Dover, ON. Assessment and mitigation of the effects of
      commercial fishing activities on aquatic SARs in Long Point Bay.

              The objectives of this project were to assess, reduce or eliminate possible incidental harm
      to aquatic Species At Risk (SAR) that might be associated with commercial fisheries in Long
      Point Bay. Commercial fishing activities were monitored from early April until May 13 (when
      fishers are required to pull their gear), and resumed when commercial activity started again after
      August 31 until fishers pull out their gear for the winter. During the fishing season 368 hoop nets
      lifts were monitored for aquatic SARs, all SARs were documented and geo-referenced and
      photos for later accurate identification of species by specialists taken when conditions permitted.
      Of aquatic SAR's Warmouth (L. gulosus) was in most common in hoop nets, with 0.38
      Warmouth/lift, other SAR fish species were less common with 2 observation of Grass Pickerel,
      (Esox americanus vermiculatus), and 1 observation of Spotted Gar (L. oculatus). Of SAR turtles
      only the Northern Map turtle (Graptemys geographicawas) was frequently caught in nets. A
      invasive species, Rudd, (Scardinius erythrophthalmus), that has not been reported in inner Long
      Point Bay, was observed 3 times and has thus higher frequency in fishing gear than some SARs
      species. All aquatic SAR's survived in the hoop nets for 24 hours and were released alive.
      Keywords: Species at risk, Commercial fisheries, Impacts.

      GLASS, W.R.1, CORKUM, L.D.1, and MANDRAK, N.E.2, 1University of Windsor 401 Sunset
      Ave., Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4; 2Department of Fisheries and Oceans 867 Lakeshore Rd.,
      Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Evaluating Habitat Utilization of the Threatened Spotted Gar
      (Lepisosteus oculatus) in Rondeau Bay with the Aid of Radiotelemtry.

               The Spotted Gar is a species designated as Threatened in Canada under the federal
      Species at Risk Act. Identification and protection of critical habitat is an important component of
      recovering species at risk. Identification of critical habitat requires an understanding of habitat
      utilization by life stage. To better understand the habitat utilization of the Spotted Gar in
      Rondeau Bay, a shallow coastal wetland of Lake Erie, external radio transmitters were surgically
      attached to 37 adult specimens in May of 2007. These individuals were tracked throughout the
      summer and fall of 2007. Habitat and water chemistry data were collected at all gar locations
      found by tracking. Tracking resulted in 212 discrete locations. Preliminary analyses indicated
      that aquatic macrophytes were present at 192 (91%) of these sites. Based on the tracking
      locations, home range was calculated. General movement patterns showed individuals utilized
      nearshore habitat in the spring, and moved offshore as the summer progressed, often taking up
      residence in offshore weedbeds. The results of this study are being used by the Spotted Gar
      Recovery Team to identify critical habitat in Rondeau Bay Keywords: Habitats, Species at Risk,

May 17-21, 2010                                       90                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      GLEASON, M., Great Lakes Naval Memorial and Museum, Muskegon, MI, USA. The use of
      ROV Technology to survey, map and evaluate Great Lakes Shipwrecks while Providing

              Many of Great Lake‘s shipwrecks are rarely visited by the non-diving public or evaluated
      by agencies on a yearly basis. Often agencies visit only the wrecks that are used by the public
      and neither, rarely visit deep wrecks, ones that are in water over 200 feet. Improvements in
      underwater technology in the areas of Remotely Operated Vehicles and Side Scan Sonar result in
      a cheaper, more practical method to evaluate wrecks and the results can be incorporated into
      educational programming. This presentation will review an effort demonstrating the use of
      ROVs and Side Scan to undertake searches and evaluations of shipwrecks while involving the
      public in the efforts.The Great Lakes have thousands of shipwrecks but water borne exotics have
      started to have an effect. While the shipwrecks have survived for decades unchanged the impacts
      of exotics such as the zebra mussels have dramatically change the appearance of our wrecks by
      covering the surface areas. The impacts of exotics, scuba divers and in the case of shallow
      wrecks the weather should be evaluated by the agencies that are responsible for these important
      resources.Today, technology‘s allows results from ROVs to be shared with the public on the web
      or through live broadcasts. Keywords: Education, Management.

      Remedial Action Council, 665 W, Warren Avenue, Detroit, MI, 48201, USA. High residual
      Chlorine from CSO Retention Basins.

              Combined sewer overflows in some cases were corrected by building retention basins.
      The disinfection is accomplished usually by the use of chlorine or sodium hypochlorite. Since
      the disinfectant contact time is short, the residual chlorine is high. Thus, dechlorination facilities
      will have to be built. However, the organochlorines produced will have to be carbon treated. The
      states permitting such disinfection instead of ozonation have injured the Clean Water Act greatly.
      Keywords: Combined Sewer Overflow, Chlorine, Retention Basins.

      GOODWIN, R.A.1, NESTLER, J.M.2, ANDERSON, J.J.3, and SMITH, D.L.2, 1U.S. Army
      Engineer Research & Development Center, CENWP-EC-HD, 333 SW 1st Ave., PO Box 2946,
      Portland, OR, 97208; 2U.S. Army Engineer Research & Development Center, CEERD-EP-W,
      3909 Halls Ferry Rd., Vicksburg, MS, 39180-6199; 3School of Aquatic & Fishery Sciences,
      University of Washington, Columbia Basin Research, 1325 4th Ave., Suite 1820, Seattle, WA,
      98101. ELAM Neurobiology Describing Animal Movement Decision-Making Behavior in
      Changing Environments.

              Movement is a fundamental population process, but a relatively new topic in ecology and
      poorly understood. While studies recognize the importance of population density and social
      forces on movement within and between habitats, management of aquatic habitat is often limited
      to alternatives in geometry, flow, and water quality. Few tools directly relate these managed
      attributes to movement in a manner recognizing the importance of limited information at the

May 17-21, 2010                                        91                                          Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      individual level due to varying sensory acuity and acclimatization based on past experience,
      changes in internal state, irregularity and partial preferences in decisions, interactions between
      physiological and stimulus-related factors affecting motivation, and continuous behavior
      adjustments in response to these factors. Fish are not primitive in these respects. Using field
      movement data we demonstrate the utility of a Eulerian-Lagrangian-agent Method (ELAM) for
      analysis of the process-based relationships between patterns in movement and managed
      environmental stimuli. Simply, an ELAM is a particle-tracking model (PTM) within an
      engineering model of the aquatic environment and algorithms describing how animals perceive
      and respond to multiple environmental stimuli through time developed from emerging theory in
      neurobiology, cognitive ecology, and decision-making research. Keywords: Fish behavior,
      Hydrodynamics, Spatial analysis.

      GORMAN, O.T. and YULE, D.L., USGS-Lake Superior Biological Station, 2800 Lake Shore
      Drive East, Ashland, WI, 54806. Habitat Coupling by Fishes of Lake Superior across
      Inshore, Nearshore, and Offshore Waters.

              We sampled fish with variety of gear types across inshore (0-15 m depth), nearshore (15-
      80 m) and offshore (>80 m) habitat zones of the Apostle Islands region of Lake Superior during
      day and night periods. Bottom trawls were used day and night across all habitat zones and
      midwater trawls and hydroacoustics were used at night in the near- and offshore habitat zones.
      Two common diel patterns of migration were observed, horizontal movement up banks and
      vertical movement up the water column at night and the reverse during daylight. Lake trout, lake
      whitefish, pygmy whitefish, trout-perch, and burbot migrated up the bank at night, while lake
      cisco, bloater, kiyi, and rainbow smelt showed upward vertical migration at night. Sculpins did
      not show migration from their benthic-demersal habitat. Ninespine stickleback showed upward
      vertical migration at night at depths > 60 m but not in shallower zones. Diel movement of the
      fish community serves to trophically link habitat zones and enhance energy transfer throughout
      the lake. Keywords: Lake Superior, Habitat coupling, Habitats, Energy transfer, Fish, Trophic

      GORNEY, R.M. and WATZIN, M.C., Rubenstein Ecosystem Research Laboratory, 3 College
      Street, Burlington, VT, 5401, United States. Diet analysis of invasive planktivorous fish
      species in Missisquoi Bay, Lake Champlain.

              Through stomach content analysis, we evaluated seasonal shifts in diet preferences of two
      species of invasive planktivorous fish in Lake Champlain. Missisquoi Bay is a shallow, eutrophic
      bay that has recently begun to experience toxic cyanobacteria blooms in summer months.
      Alewife (Alosa psuedoharengus) and white perch (Morone americana) have only recently
      entered this system and their respective impacts on the lake food web remain to be fully
      understood. Fish were sampled monthly using multi-mesh gillnets during the summer months of
      2009. Our results indicate remarkable plasticity and high diet overlap between the two species.
      Prey item selection shifts over the growing season are characterized by diets almost completely
      consisting of zooplankton in early summer, followed by a shift to benthic invertebrates in later
      months. High nutrient levels and selective predation on large zooplankton by the fish may be

May 17-21, 2010                                      92                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      leading to a trophic cascade and algal blooms. Our study has implications for better
      understanding the mechanisms controlling bluegreen algal blooms and the impacts of invasive
      fish species. Keywords: Trophic level, Lake Champlain, Invasive species.

      GRABUSKI, J.M., CAGAMPAN, S.J., and STRUGER, J., Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore
      Rd, Burlington, ON, L7R4A6. Automated Solid Phase Extraction and LC-ESI/MS/MS
      analysis of Carbamate Insecticides and Sulfonyl Urea Herbicides in Natural Water

              Identification and determination of certain polar pesticides has presented a challenge,
      both in specificity and sensitivity, when using conventional analytical techniques. Recent
      advances in solid phase extraction (SPE) technology combined with liquid chromatography
      tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) have greatly improved this process. Hence, we have
      developed sensitive and robust analytical techniques with supporting method detection limits
      (MDLs) and stability data using fortified Type I water. Pesticide classes we have focused on are
      the sulfonyl & phenyl urea herbicides and carbamate insecticides. Current lists include twelve
      sulfonyl urea‘s and six related herbicides (henceforth referred to collectively as SUs), and seven
      carbamate insecticides. Each method involves the extraction of 500-800 mL of water using the
      automated Autotrace SPE Workstation at a flow rate of 5mL/min, elution as per each method
      followed by concentration to 1mL for analysis by LC/ESI-MS/MS. Recoveries of SUs from
      spiked Type I water were greater than 75% for all compounds except rimsulfuron (53%),
      nicosulfuron (63%), and tribenuron-methyl (28%). The corresponding MDL ranged from 0.7 –
      22.0 ng/L. Recoveries for the carbamates in spiked Type I water samples were greater than 87%
      for all compounds and the MDL ranged from 0.16 – 0.70 ng/L. Keywords: Environmental
      contaminants, Pesticides.

      GRANADOS, M., McGill University, 1205 Docteur Penfield, Montreal, QC, H3A 1B1.
      Multivariate analysis of fish communities the Toronto Harbour.

              The inextricable relationship between fishes and their habitat permits the interpretation of
      site condition through fishes. Environmental conditions that exceed the thresholds for a given
      species preclude the presence of the species, while conditions within the bounds of the species‘
      tolerance facilitate its persistence. Modification of abiotic conditions can induce changes in the
      fish assemblage, as the fish-habitat association effectively dissolves. Conversely, changes
      towards a reference assemblage can indicate a response to habitat rehabilitation. Multivariate
      analyses allow the visualization of species composition changes in reduced space. Principle
      Coordinates Analysis (PCoA), a multivariate method that permits the expression of site
      similarity as a function of species composition through distance, was applied to a 20-year data
      set from the Toronto Harbour to detect changes in the fish assemblage in response to habitat
      remediation. Reference assemblages were plotted simultaneously with test sites to determine
      whether test sites were approaching the reference assemblages in ordination space. Confidence
      ellipses drawn around the reference assemblages provided delineation of group membership.
      Keywords: Multivariate, Assessments, Indicators.

May 17-21, 2010                                       93                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      GRANADOS, M.1, MANDRAK, N.E.2, and JACKSON, D.A.3, 1McGill University, 1205
      Docteur Penfield, Montreal, QC, H3A 1B1; 2Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road,
      Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 3University of Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3B2.
      Detecting Changes in Fish Communities in Response to Habitat Rehabilitation: A
      Comparison of Multimetric and Multivariate Approaches.

              Bioassessment can be performed through several methods and with different
      bioindicators. In Canadian Areas of Concern (AOC), fishes are used as a proxy for site condition.
      The Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI), a multimetric index for biological assessment, has been
      applied to fish data across Canadian AOCs to detect recovery. Some studies have indicated the
      IBI is not sensitive to assemblage changes characteristic of later stages of recovery. In this study,
      the IBI and multivariate methods were applied to data from two AOCs, the Detroit and St. Clair
      rivers to determine if the IBI is an appropriate assessment method for AOCs. The results
      revealed the IBI is susceptible to species substitutions within metric categories. The substitutions
      produced high variability within narrative ranks and rendered the IBI insensitive to species-
      specific changes in the fish assemblage. Multivariate methods detected changes in the fish
      assemblage over the course of sampling in the Detroit and St. Clair rivers. The direction of the
      change was determined through the development of a reference assemblage constructed from the
      results of a best professional judgment survey. The results of this study indicate multivariate
      methods may be more appropriate than the IBI to monitor responses to remediation over the
      entire course of recovery. Keywords: Indicators, Detroit River, St. Clair River.

      GRANNEMANN, N.G., U.S. Geological Survey, 6520 Mercantile Way, Suite 5, Lansing, MI,
      48911. History of Estimated Rates of Groundwater Discharge to the Great Lakes.

              Although the total amount of direct groundwater discharge to the Great Lakes is not
      known, many local and a few regional estimates of rates have been made and are available in
      published sources. This paper reviews the rates of groundwater discharge estimated from the
      1970s until present. Rates are best known in the Lake Michigan basin. Groundwater is a major
      natural resource in the Great Lakes basin and it is important to have a better understanding of the
      roles that groundwater plays in the over all hydrologic system of the Lakes. Keywords: Great
      Lakes basin, Hydrologic budget, Watersheds.

      GRONEWOLD, A.D.1, HUNTER, T.S.2, and STOW, C.A.2, 1United States Environmental
      Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711; 2National Oceanic and Atmospheric
      Administration, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108. Novel Modeling Tools for Propagating Climate
      Change Variability and Uncertainty into Hydrodynamic Forecasts.

             Understanding impacts of climate change on hydrodynamics and ecosystem response
      within the Great Lakes is an important and challenging task. Variability and uncertainty in
      environmental conditions and model forecasts, coupled with the broad range of spatial and
      temporal scales at which processes can be represented, contributes to significant gaps in this
      understanding. We attempt to close these gaps by first employing an exponential-dispersion (ED)

May 17-21, 2010                                        94                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      model to reconstruct long-term precipitation dynamics throughout the Great Lakes region. The
      parameters of the ED model can be interpreted as linear functions of common precipitation
      metrics (including event intensity, event duration, and duration between individual events)
      allowing us to apply a calibrated ED model under regional scale climate change scenarios to
      simulate future precipitation dynamics. We apply these findings to competing rainfall-runoff
      models across watersheds throughout the Great Lakes region. Our results highlight relative
      magnitudes of intra- and inter-model variability, and how variability propagates into different
      management decisions under future climate change scenarios. Although this work was reviewed
      by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.
      Keywords: Climate change, Hydrodynamics, Model studies.

      GRONEWOLD, A.D.1, NEVERS, M.B.2, and WHITMAN, R.L.2, 1United States Environmental
      Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC, 27711; 2U.S. Geological Survey, Ann Arbor,
      MI, 48105. Improving Recreational Water Quality Assessments through Novel Approaches
      to Quantifying Measurement Uncertainty.

              Bacteriological water quality in the Great Lakes is typically measured by the
      concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), and is reported via most probable number (MPN)
      or colony forming unit (CFU) values derived from algorithms relating "raw data" in a FIB
      analysis procedure (e.g. number and volume of sample aliquots) to the FIB concentration.
      Although this raw data contains all of the information necessary to quantify variability in the FIB
      concentration, it is rarely reported (and commonly discarded) after calculating an MPN or CFU
      value. Here, we introduce a set of novel probabilistic and Bayesian modeling tools for
      propagating FIB concentration uncertainty from this raw data into model-based water quality
      forecasts. Potential benefits of our approach include a more defensible representation of model
      forecast uncertainty, the ability to combine bacteriological water quality data derived from
      different testing procedures (while incorporating their unique intrinsic sources of uncertainty and
      bias), and a potential foundation for establishing new water quality standards based not on
      method-specific MPN or CFU values, but on a probabilistic representation of the FIB
      concentration itself. Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it
      may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy. Keywords: Assessments, Water quality,

      GROOTENDORST, K., DHANJAL, H., and BRUNTON, A., W.F. Baird & Associates,
      Oakville, ON. Use of GIS Tools to Determine a Spatially-Distributed IPZ-3 Area
      Vulnerability Factor in Source Water Studies.

              The area vulnerability factor (AVF) for IPZ-3 source water zones vary spatially with
      watershed hydrologic characteristics and with the distance from the intake. However, many
      studies rely on a ‗lumped‘ approach and determination of scores on a subwatershed basis. In this
      study, the AVF was calculated in accordance with MOE rules within a GIS using raster-based
      datasets and a decision making model. This accounts for within-subwatershed variations in
      controlling factors, and delivers a parcel-based vulnerability raster dataset to support future
      watershed planning decisions. The results are consistent with other IPZ-3 scores, yet deliver a

May 17-21, 2010                                       95                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      much greater resolution. The methodology and rationale for this GIS-supported approach are
      presented, along with results for the Ottawa River Source Protection Region.
      Keywords: Watersheds, Source Water Protection, Water quality.

      GRUSH, J., VERHAMME, E.M., DEPINTO, J.V., and REDDER, T.R., LimnoTech, 501 Avis
      Drive, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108. Application of a Fine-Scale 3-D Water Quality Model to
      Maumee Bay and the Western Basin of Lake Erie.

              Through its participation in the Western Lake Erie Basin Partnership and its
      responsibilities for the WRDA 516(e) and 204 programs, the USACE has been planning and
      working within the Maumee watershed to reduce the loading of solids and nutrients to the
      Maumee River and the western basin of Lake Erie. There is a need, however, to quantitatively
      connect watershed management efforts to ecosystem endpoints in Toledo Harbor, Maumee Bay
      and the western basin of Lake Erie. The ecosystem goals for this project include: reduction of
      sediment deposition in the navigation channel, reduction of hazardous algal blooms of
      Microcystis in the lower Maumee River and its plume, and reduction of nearshore nuisance algal
      growth and its fouling of shorelines. In order to make the quantitative connection between
      watershed activities and ecosystem improvement goals, we have applied a linked hydrodynamic
      – sediment transport – water quality model from the lower dredged portions of the Maumee
      River out into the entire western basin of Lake Erie. This presentation will focus on the
      development of the water quality model and show some preliminary results from model
      calibration and application. Keywords: Water quality, Maumee Bay, Model studies, Lake Erie.

      GUDIMOV, A.1, RAMIN, M.1, STREMILOV, S.1, LABENCKI, T.2, BOYD, D.2, and
      ARHONDITSIS, G.B.1, 1University of Toronto, Toronto, ON; 2Ontario Ministry of the
      Environment, Toronto, ON. Eutrophication Risk Assessment in Hamilton Harbour: System
      Analysis and Evaluation of Nutrient Loading Scenarios.

              Our objective is to develop a biogeochemical model that can effectively describe the
      interplay among the different ecological mechanisms modulating the eutrophication problems in
      Hamilton Harbour, Ontario, Canada. The model is used to address the following questions: What
      is the current status of meeting the objective of delisting the study system as an Area of
      Concern? What is the likelihood of meeting the water quality targets? How fast are we getting
      there? In this regard, the present modeling study undertakes an estimation of the critical nutrient
      loads in the Harbour based on acceptable probabilities of compliance with different water quality
      criteria (e.g., chlorophyll a, total phosphorus). Our model suggests that the water quality goals
      for TP (17 μg L-1) and chlorophyll a concentrations (5-10 μg L-1) will likely be met, if the
      Hamilton Harbour RAP phosphorus loading target at the level of 142 kg day-1 is achieved. We
      provide evidence that the anticipated structural shifts of the zooplankton community will
      determine the restoration rate as well as the stability of the new trophic state in the Harbour.
      Finally, we discuss the next enhancements of the Hamilton Harbour model and conclude by
      emphasizing the importance of rigorously assessing the uncertainty associated with model
      structure and parameters. Keywords: Water quality, Phosphorus, Mathematical models,
      Phytoplankton, Eutrophication, Risk assessment.

May 17-21, 2010                                       96                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      GUTIERREZ, L.1, LIAO, Q.1, and BOOTSMA, H.A.2, 1Department of Civil Engineering and
      Mechanics, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, 53211; 2Great Lakes WATER
      Institute, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI, 53204. Hydrodynamic study
      of mass exchange between nearshore and offshore waters in Lake Michigan.

              Configuration and validation of a 3D model which simulates the nearshore
      hydrodynamics in Lake Michigan near Milwaukee, Wisconsin (USA) is presented using the
      unstructured grid Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model (FVCOM). This model is set in order to
      study the coastal hydrodynamic circulation and exchange of mass between the nearshore and
      offshore waters, as well as the transport and fate of both dissolved and particulate phosphorous in
      the nearshore waters of Lake Michigan. Driven by meteorological forcing observed around Lake
      Michigan and measured from several buoy based sensor network near Milwaukee, the whole
      lake circulation over 2008 is simulated and validated by comparing model simulations of current
      speed /direction and thermal structure with measured values in the lake. The result from the
      whole lake simulation is then used to supply open-lake boundary conditions for the high-
      resolution coastal model near Milwaukee. This detailed nearshore model is applied to examine
      the relative importance of different processes that determine the relation between nearshore
      phosphorus concentration and phosphorus loading from the Milwaukee River. These processes
      include: nearshore hydrodynamics, settling and resuspension of sediment, filtration and excretion
      by invasive zebra and quagga mussels, and the nearshore-offshore exchange. Keywords: Lake
      Michigan, Mass exchange, Hydrodynamic model, Phosphorus.

      GUTOWSKY, L.F.G.1, FOX, M.G.2, and RABY, G.D.1, 1Department of Biology, Carleton
      University, Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6; 2Environmental & Resource Studies Program and
      Department of Biology, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8. Spatio-temporal
      variation in life history traits in an invasive species during its range expansion phase:
      round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in the Trent River.

              We assessed changes in the life history traits of an expanding population of invasive
      round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) in early and newly established sites in the Trent River
      (Ontario), over a two year period. The round goby was introduced in the middle portion of the
      river (CORE area) in 2003. In 2007, round gobies sampled at the upstream edge of their
      expanded range had higher reproductive energy allocation, lower age at maturity, smaller size at
      maturity and faster growth than those resident in the CORE area. In 2008, round gobies sampled
      from the upstream area established in the previous year showed decreased growth from the year
      before, and gobies in both this area and the CORE showed a shift in life history strategy toward
      increased reproductive allocation. Round gobies in the newly established downstream edge had
      the highest reproductive effort, earliest age at maturity and the smallest length at maturity of the
      three area. The dynamic life history changes were generally consistent with shifts in density and
      prey abundance observed during the study period. The decline in goby density and shift in life
      history traits observed in the CORE between 2007 and 2008 may reflect the ‗boom and bust‘
      population phenomenon observed in other species invasions, where abundance of the invader
      declines to an equilibrium level. Keywords: Round goby, Invasive species, Life history studies.

May 17-21, 2010                                       97                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      W.B., and KNIGHTS, B.C., U.S. Geological Survey, 2630 Fanta Reed Road, La Crosse, WI,
      54603. Preliminary Observations on Fish Tissue Lipid Quantity and Quality Associated
      with Spatial Patterns in the Distribution of Asian Carp.

              The planktivorous Asian carps have the potential to sequester large amounts of energy,
      carbon and essential biochemicals from the foodwebs of North American waters because large-
      bodied adults have no natural predators. Relatively few biochemicals are essential to vertebrates,
      and among them the essential omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA are produced, de novo, only by
      certain algae. Therefore the Asian carp, and especially the silver carp, have the potential not only
      to divert energy, but also induce deficiencies in the fatty acids necessary to maintain cell-
      membrane fluidity, neural function, and reproduction. Dorsal muscle tissue of native
      planktivorous bigmouth buffalo, gizzard shad and paddlefish collected from Pool 26 of the
      Mississippi River, where Asian carp were abundant, averaged less than 5% lipid whereas those
      collected from Pool 8, where Asian carp were rare, averaged 7 to 15% lipid. Muscle tissue of the
      Asian carp from Pool 26 had similarly low lipid content suggesting that they may not be more
      efficient than native species in sequestering structural lipids. The essential omega-3 fatty acids
      were also reduced in muscle tissue from the native planktivores in Pool 26. The whole-body total
      lipid content of age-0 bluegill averaged approximately 15% from both Pool 8 and Pool 26.
      Keywords: Invasive species, Lipids, Food chains, Fatty acids, Ecosystems.

      GUZZO, T.M., HAFFNER, G.D., SORGE, S., and FISK, A.T., 401 Sunset Ave., Windsor, ON,
      n9b 3p4. Linking Sources of Primary Production to Fish Production in the Western Basin
      of Lake Erie.

              The Western Basin of Lake Erie is the most productive of the Laurentian Great Lakes and
      supports one of the world most robust freshwater fisheries. The basin is fed by two major rivers,
      the Detroit and Maumee, which create nutrient rich plumes at their effluent. Questions exist on
      the how these two rivers contribute to productivity in the basin and the effect that these river
      plumes have on larval fish survival and recruitment. Spatial and temporal variability of stable
      isotopes of carbon and nitrogen and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were used to delineate the
      relative importance of two major nutrient sources (Detroit and Maumee Rivers) to fish
      production in the Western Basin of Lake Erie. The Maumee River is a major source of
      allochthonous carbon to the system and is predicted to be the primary driver of the basins food
      web. Zooplankton, zebra mussels and young of year (YOY) white and yellow perch were
      collected from June through September 2009. Using isotope and PCB signatures from each river
      plume as references, we will determine the relative contribution of each river to zooplankton and
      zebra mussel biomass and trace YOY fish back to their respective brooding grounds.
      Keywords: Stable isotopes, Lake Erie, PCBs.

      GWYN, E.M.1, FERGUSON, G.1, SCHAEFER, K.2, and KRANTZBERG, G.3, 11 Stone Rd,,
      W., 2nd floor, Guelph, ON, N1G 4Y2; 2867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON; 31280 Main St. W,

May 17-21, 2010                                       98                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Hamilton, ON. Knowledge Translation and Transfer – From Research Topics to Policy and
      Program Development – Examples from Ontario.

              Creating and sharing scientific knowledge is a proactive process. It starts with great
      research. Great research starts with great ideas. Where do these ideas come from? If the research
      project is complete and ends with a scientific publication is that knowledge shared? What needs
      to be done to help research results guide policy development? The arena of knowledge
      translation and transfer (KTT) focuses on enhancing wide input to the process of priority setting,
      of sharing knowledge and on accelerating the uptake by end-users. Ontario Ministry of
      Agriculture, Food and Rural Affair‘s (OMAFRA‘s) renewed focus on KTT within research
      programs is helping to address these questions and others to enhance the linkages between
      research and policy. We will provide examples using OMAFRA‘s environmental sustainability
      research program. This program involves 3 types of research projects: internally and externally
      competitive research, and an OMAFRA-University of Guelph research partnership. Also, to
      optimize end-user receptivity and uptake, more insight is required into their knowledge seeking
      behaviour. Information can then be better packaged to their preferences. We review a recent
      Environment Canada and McMaster University-led study that explores the science-seeking
      behaviour of Conservation Authorities in Ontario. Keywords: Ontario Ministry of Agriculture,
      Food and Rural Affairs, Policy making, Knowledge translation.

      HAGLEY, C.A.1 and SASS, D.J.2, 1144 Chester Park, 31 W. College St., Duluth, MN, 55812,
      UNITED STATES; 2U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Great Lakes National PRogram
      Office, 77 West Jackson Boulevard (G-17 J), Chicago, IL, 60604. Shipboard and Shoreline
      Science on the R/V Lake Guardian.

              The Center for Ocean Science Education Excellence Great Lakes (COSEE GL)
      sponsored two Shipboard and Shoreline Science Workshops in the summer of 2009. The
      workshops provided unique opportunities for educators in grades 4-10 and scientists to spend a
      week at sea together, conducting research and learning side-by-side as the US EPA R/V Lake
      Guardian traversed the Great Lakes. Intensive interactions between scientists and educators
      fostered by these workshops improved educators‘ abilities to use real-world science in the
      classroom and scientists‘ abilities to address broader impacts of their work. Highlights of these
      cruises will be presented, and will include: teacher investigations of the lower food web of Lake
      Superior and impacts of quagga mussels on the ecology of Lake Huron; Great Lakes curriculum
      development; and fostering teacher-scientist interactions. Keywords: Education, Monitoring,
      Environmental education.

        SUNY Buffalo State College, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY, 14222; 2The Great Lakes
      Center, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY, 14222. Hidden Invaders in the Great Lakes:
      Endosymbionts of Non-Native Species.

              Parasites introduced with non-native species may pose serious threat of epizootics to
      wildlife and human population. Surveys of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario, completed summer

May 17-21, 2010                                      99                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      2009, indicated the presence of ciliates, trematodes, nematodes, and oligochaetes associated with
      zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga mussels (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis).
      Chaetogaster limnaei (oligochaete) was found in approximately 4% (n = 25) of zebra mussels
      sampled in Lake Erie's Eastern Basin, but was not present in quagga mussels. Unidentified
      trematodes were present in the Eastern and Western Basins in both zebra and quagga mussels,
      infecting nearly 40% of mussels sampled in the lake. Free-living nematodes were found in the
      mantle cavity of approximately 8% of zebra mussels (n = 25) and 5% of quagga mussels (n =
      60). Additionally, 1.7% of quagga mussels had unidentified free-living oligochaetes. Gastropods
      Bithynia tentaculata and Potamopyrgus antipodarum were also examined. No endosymbionts
      were detected in P. antipodarum. However, a host-specific pathogenic trematode was found in B.
      tentaculata. Additional research and identification of the endosymbions of exotic species is
      needed to shed light on species composition, distribution, abundance and their possible
      ecological impacts. Keywords: Invasive species, Endosymbionts, Lake Erie, Lake Ontario.

      HALL, J.D., Canada Centre for Inland Waters, 867 Lakeshore Rd, P.O.Box 5050, Burlington,
      ON, L7R4A6. Leading with Science: The Hamilton Harbour Remedial Action Plan
      Experience in Integrating Research and Monitoring into Environmental Management

              Hamilton Harbour is the busiest Canadian harbour on the Great Lakes and for many years
      was the centre of heavy industry in Canada. Due to its significantly degraded environment, the
      Hamilton Harbour Remedial Action Plan was initiated in 1985 with its roots in scientific
      evaluation of various environmental conditions. Water quality, sediment toxicity, plant and
      animal communities, and habitat have been studied individually and concurrently over the years.
      Historical records date back to the 19th century with systematic investigations carried out from
      the 1960/70s onward. Hamilton Harbour has been in a unique position to benefit from science
      carried out at the federal Canada Centre for Inland Waters, and by provincial and local
      government agencies and universities. Science has been integrated and applied through technical
      teams, often brought together with members of the public and agency representatives responsible
      for undertaking environmental actions. This presentation will trace the history of Hamilton
      Harbour science and monitoring and describe a system put in place and refined to direct remedial
      actions; an ongoing practice of adaptive management. Keywords: Ecosystem health, Research
      and monitoring, Remediation, Hamilton Harbour, Decision making, Adaptive management.

      HALPIN, K.1, BOSCARINO, B.T.1, RUDSTAM, L.G.1, WALSH, M.G.2, and LANTRY, B.F.2,
        900 Shackelton Point Road, Cornell Biological Field Station, Bridgeport, NY, 13030; 2USGS
      Lake Ontario Biological Station, 17 Lake Street, Oswego, NY, 13126. Age-specific responses
      to light by Great Lakes mysids.

              Light plays an important role in governing the vertical migration behavior and
      distribution of both the native Great Lakes mysid, Mysis diluviana, and the invasive mysid,
      Hemimysis anomala. In this study, we compare and contrast the light preferences and avoidance
      behaviors of adult and juvenile mysids of both species through laboratory observation analyses.
      Juvenile mysids of both species consistently preferred higher light levels than adults. Both age

May 17-21, 2010                                     100                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      classes of H. anomala preferred and were less sensitive to brighter light conditions than their M.
      diluviana counterparts. Vertical plankton tows and benthic sled samples taken in Lake Ontario
      from 2004-2009 at both nearshore and offshore sites suggest that juveniles emerge from the lake
      bottom earlier in the day and inhabit higher light habitats within water column than adults of
      both species. Our laboratory results corroborate the timing of emergence and migratory descent
      observed in the field for both age classes of H. anomala and can predict the nighttime vertical
      distribution of the different age classes of M. diluviana in Lake Ontario. These results have
      important implications for the role and physical presence of both species in benthic and pelagic
      Great Lakes food webs. Keywords: Exotic species, Light, Experimental design, Migrations.

      HANN, B.J., Department of Biological Sciences,, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3T
      2N2. Compound Effects of Eutrophication, Stratification and Hypolimnetic Hypoxia on
      Zoobenthos in Lake Winnipeg.

              Lake Winnipeg has experienced accelerated nutrient loading over the last 30 years
      resulting in significant changes in the zoobenthic community (e,g, increased abundance of
      oligochaetes and chironomids, decline in molluscs) at all depths in the lake. Typically considered
      a cold monomictic lake, well-mixed throughout its entire volume during the open water season,
      during midsummer of 2003, a deep thermocline at 13 -15 m was observed, separating a well-
      mixed oxygenated epilimnion from a cooler, hypoxic hypolimnion. Composition and abundance
      of major zoobenthic taxa at sampling stations within the 15 m isobath in August 2003 were
      compared with August 2002 and 2004 when there was no evidence of stratification of the
      lake.The observed depletion of zoobenthos may have long-term detrimental effects on
      components of the food web, especially lake whitefish. Depending on frequency of occurrence
      and duration of stratification in the north basin, ecosystem processes such as bioturbation of
      sediments, sedimentation of organic matter, and nutrient fluxes from sediments will also be
      negatively affected, with substantial impacts on the overall health of Lake Winnipeg.
      Keywords: Benthos, Eutrophication, Lake Winnipeg.

      HANNA, E.A., REDISKE, R., and O‘KEEFE, J., 2753 Woodlake rd SW, Apt 2, Wyoming, MI,
      49519. PBDEs in the Fish of Lake Huron.

              Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants on a variety of
      products such as textiles, building materials, electronics, furnishings and plastics. Because of
      their endocrine disrupting abilities PBDEs are a concern for human health. Lake Huron and the
      other Great Lakes fish have been shown to accumulate elevated levels of PBDEs which causes
      concern for people who eat fish from this area. Fish were collected from Saginaw Bay and the
      Les Cheneaux islands in Lake Huron during the summer months of 2006. They were analyzed
      for 9 common congeners using GC-MS. Lipid content of the fish were determined to show lipid
      normalized congener concentrations. BDE-47 was the most abundant congener for all species
      and both sites. The fish from Saginaw Bay had a higher total concentration of PBDEs than the
      fish from the Les Cheneaux islands. Large Common Carp were the only fish that contained a
      significant amount of BDE-28. Large Largemouth bass contained a larger amount of BDE-99
      than any of the other fish. This data is important to studying the effects of location, sex, and diet

May 17-21, 2010                                       101                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      on the total PBDE concentration and the congener patterns of different fish. Keywords: Fish,
      PBDEs, Great Lakes basin.

      HANNA, E.E.1, PETRIE, S.A.2, and BADZINSKI, S.S.2, 1The University of Western Ontario,
      1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 3K7; 2Long Point Waterfowl, Box 160, 115 Front
      Street, Port Rowan, ON, N0E 1M0. Population size, fall recruitment, and migratory habits
      of Eastern Population Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) staging and breeding along the
      North Shore of Lake Huron, Ontario.

               Eastern Population (EP) Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) have been increasing rapidly
      in the last 30 years, particularly within the last decade. In Ontario, the population staging and
      migrating along the North Shore of Lake Huron has increased from an estimated 40 breeding
      pairs in the late 1970s to a minimum of 6,200 birds counted in mid-October 2008 on Manitoulin
      Island alone. Increased crane numbers have resulted in a marked increase in crop depredation in
      the surrounding regions, creating distress amongst local agricultural producers. In fall 2009,
      population surveys were conducted over two months to capture the peak migratory period. The
      peak number was recorded October 7-8 (n = 8,895), representing approximately 25% of the EP
      and the highest count ever in Ontario. Fall recruitment was also assessed in 2009 by comparing
      numbers of after-hatch-year (AHY) to hatch-year (HY) birds in the population. Fall recruitment
      was estimated at 10.7%, (AHY: n = 3,594; HY: n = 431) suggesting continued population
      growth. In summer/fall 2010, AHY cranes (n = 10) will be captured and marked with GPS PTT
      satellite transmitters to study migration chronology, habitat use, and philopatry. This research
      will provide information that will assist in the management and conservation of cranes in
      Ontario. Keywords: Satellite technology, Migrations, Avian ecology.

      HANSEN, T.H. and JANSSEN, J., UWM Great Lakes WATER Institute, 600 E. Greenfield
      Ave., Milwaukee, WI, 53204. Creation, Implementation, and Practical Field Use of a Real-
      Time Bathymetry Mapping System Created with Open-Source Tools as an Adjunct to
      Multibeam Surveys.

              Detailed bathymetry is vital to studies of Great Lakes systems. However, the commonly
      available NOAA bathymetry charts are based on data which is typically at least 50 years old. In
      an effort to supplement the NOAA bathymetry, author Hansen, in 2006, installed an open-source
      database on a server computer aboard the R/V Neeskay, and set it to record the GPS and
      echosounder depth data produced by the ship‘s navigational equipment. In 2009, with nearly
      three years of soundings collected, Hansen created a system using all open-source tools, to
      produce bathymetry charts from the data. The system runs on the ship‘s computer, and is capable
      of continuously updating the chart display as the vessel is underway, incorporating the latest
      sounding data. The system proved itself during a recent bathymetric study of Lake Michigan‘s
      Northeast Reef. Co-author Janssen used the real-time bathymetry display to direct the ship‘s path
      to map the sections of highest interest. As a result, Janssen estimated that the cruise took half as
      long as originally planned. The resulting charts also allowed the follow-up multibeam study to
      pinpoint the most important spots, allowing co-authors Janssen and Wattrus to map the reef in

May 17-21, 2010                                       102                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      about one-fourth the time originally estimated. Complete system and platform details will be
      presented. Keywords: Remote sensing, GIS, Spatial analysis.

      HANSON, A.M., YOUNG, E.B., and BERGES, J.A., University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee,
      2200 E. Kenwood Blvd., Milwaukee, WI, 53211. Viral lysis of freshwater bacteria provides
      phosphorus for P-starved eukaryotic algae.

              The ecological relevance of viruses in aquatic ecosystems is well established but not fully
      understood. Viruses in aquatic systems cause mortality and cell lysis of bacteria and
      phytoplankton. Cell lysis can release nutrients, which may be especially important in
      oligotrophic lakes, such as Lake Michigan, where phosphorus (P) availability is often limiting.
      This study examined the bioavailabilty of P released by viral lysis of bacteria, for P-starved
      eukaryotic algae. The heterotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas reactans and its virus PRV1 were
      isolated from Lake Michigan. Infection of P. reactans with PRV1 resulted in cell lysis. The
      lysate was supplied to axenic cultures of Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Chlamydomonas
      reinhardtii, which had previously been starved of P. Cell growth and Fv/Fm were monitored
      using chl a fluorescence. Dissolved and particulate P pools and alkaline phosphatase activity
      (APA) were measured. Addition of lysate to cultures stimulated growth of P-starved cells, but
      not nutrient replete controls. Response of APA varied between species, but general declines
      indicated alleviation of P stress. These results suggest that viral lysis of bacteria can release
      bioavailable P to freshwater algae. Keywords: Microbiological studies, Viruses, Phosphorus.

      HARTIG, J.H.1, ZARULL, M.A.2, COOK, A.1, and BOHLING, M.3, 1U.S. Fish and Wildlife
      Service, 9311 Groh Road, Grosse Ile, MI, 48138; 2Environment Canada, National Water
      Research Institute, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 3Michigan
      Sea Grant, 640 Temple, 6th Floor, Detroit, MI, 48201. Soft Shoreline Engineering: We Built
      It, Have They Come?

              Historically, many urban shorelines were stabilized and hardened to protect
      developments from flooding and erosion, or to accommodate industry (i.e., hard shoreline
      engineering). Today, there is growing interest in developing shorelines using ecological
      principles to reduce erosion and achieve stabilization/safety, while enhancing habitat, improving
      aesthetics, and even saving money (soft shoreline engineering). In 2008–2009, a survey of 36
      soft shoreline engineering projects in the Detroit River-western Lake Erie watershed was
      conducted. In total, $16.5 million was spent on these projects. Of the 36 projects implemented,
      only six (17%) had any quantitative assessment of ecological effectiveness. The remaining 30
      had no post-project monitoring or only a qualitative assessment. Key lessons include: involve
      habitat experts up front in waterfront planning; establish multiple objectives; ensure
      multidisciplinary project support; start with demonstration projects and attract partners; involve
      citizen scientists, volunteers, university students, and/or researchers in monitoring, and obtain
      commitments for post-project monitoring of effectiveness up front in project planning; measure
      benefits and communicate successes; and promote education and outreach, including public
      events that showcase results and communicate benefits. Keywords: Shore protection,
      Rehabilitation, Habitats, Planning.

May 17-21, 2010                                      103                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      HASNAIN, S.S.1, MINNS, C.K.2, and DOKA, S.E.1, 1Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 867
      Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2University of Toronto, 25 Wilcocks Street,
      Toronto, ON, M5S 3B2. Cumulative Impact Assessment of Fish Habitat Changes along the
      Toronto Waterfront: Opportunities and Approaches.

              In Canada, fish habitat changes are assessed under the Fisheries Act and the Canadian
      Environmental Assessment Act. Individual habitat alterations are usually small in area and below
      the scale needed to sustain populations and communities, especially top predators. Such
      improvements are usually assessed only against local conditions in the near-term. Human
      development in the Toronto Region has cumulatively impacted both adjacent watersheds and
      waterfront ecosystems of Lake Ontario. Aquatic Habitat Toronto is mandated to improve, restore
      and help create aquatic habitats along the waterfront. This provides opportunities to develop
      cumulative assessments over broader spatial and temporal scales as long-term action plans are
      developed, implemented and evaluated. Many examples of fish habitat creation along the
      Toronto waterfront provide a basis for developing alternative frameworks of cumulative impacts
      assessment. Initial static assessments of gains and losses were assessed at different scales
      including time lags in habitat creation. As the spatial and temporal scales for assessment
      increase: 1) explicit regional scenarios of development, resource use, and climate are needed; 2)
      static assessment tools must be replaced with dynamic ones; and 3) biotic factors such as
      movement patterns and genetic isolation need to be incorporated. Keywords: Habitats,
      Remediation, Urban areas, Toronto & Region.

      HAWRYSHYN, J., RU¨HLAND, K., and SMOL, J.P., Paleoecological Environmental
      Assessment and Research Laboratory, Department of Biology, Queen‘s University, Kingston,
      ON, K7L 3N6. Diving into Lake Simcoe‟s Past: A Paleolimnological Study of Lake Water

              The multiple stressors impacting Lake Simcoe create challenges for lake and watershed
      management. Long-term perspectives are necessary to place lake water quality and the relative
      influence of different stressors into a historical perspective. Paleoecological data can extend the
      historical record of Lake Simcoe beyond the 30 years of valuable monitoring data to pre-
      disturbance conditions thereby providing insights into how conditions have changed over time.
      This paleolimnological study examines changes in sedimentary diatom assemblage composition
      over the last circa 150 years from a suite of radioisotope-dated cores retrieved from key locations
      in this large lake. Chl-a analysis of the sediment cores is used to track trends in primary
      production and will be presented alongside the diatom data. These high-resolution data provide
      evidence for changes in lake water quality consistent with recorded changes in land-use practices
      in the watershed, phosphorus remediation efforts, and species invasions. A diatom-based total
      phosphorus inference model is applied to all sedimentary sequences to assess changes in the
      lake‘s trophic history. Paleoecological data will be compared to historical and instrumental
      records. The combination of stressors has had cumulative effects on Lake Simcoe, making
      interpretation of results challenging. Keywords: Paleolimnology, Diatoms, Lake Simcoe.

May 17-21, 2010                                      104                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      HAXTON, T.1, BRUCH, R.2, and WHELAN, G.3, 1300 Water St., 4th Floor, S., Peterborough,
      ON, K9J 8M5; 2625 E County Rd Y, Suite 700, Oshkosh, WI, 54901; 3P.O. Box 30446, Lansing,
      MI, 48909. Predicted Sustainable Harvest of Great Lakes Lake Sturgeon as Estimated by
      Markov-Chain Monte Carlos.

               Lake sturgeon were historically overexploited in the Great Lakes and throughout their
      North American range. Current populations in the Great Lakes have been estimated to be less
      than 1% of historical values however, true historically population levels are unknown and
      difficult to ascertain. These levels are of interest and importance when discussing recovery
      strategies. Annual harvest (kgs) has been documented on all Great Lakes and inland waterbodies
      and provides what little information there is available to estimate historical abundance. To
      estimate historical abundance (β0) with associated levels of uncertainty, we used a Markov-chain
      Monte Chain approach using the Surplus-Production model. Effort, harvest and population
      estimates from the Lake Winnebago (WI) system from 1955 through 2008 were used to estimate
      (i.e., determine posteriors) of surplus-production parameters (r, K, β0). In turn, these were used
      as priors when running the Surplus-Production model for the Great Lakes to estimate historical
      biomass. The estimated carrying capacity (assumed also to be β0) of the Great Lakes ranged
      from 313 900 to 6 473 000 kgs, the intrinsic population growth rate ranged from 0.079 – 0.123
      and theoretical sustainable exploitation rate ranged from 2 – 3.1% whereas it was estimated to be
      4% on Lake Winnebago. Keywords: Fish management, Fish populations, Productivity.

      HAYWARD, S.J.1, GOUIN, T.2, and WANIA, F.1, 1Department of Physical and Environmental
      Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Scarborough, ON, M1C1A4;
        Safety and Environmental Assurance Centre, Unilever, Colworth Science Park, Sharnbrook,
      MK441LQ, U.K.. Atmospheric Concentrations, Transport, and Temporal Trends of
      Pesticides in the Great Lakes Region.

              There is intense agricultural activity in the Great Lakes region, with significant amounts
      of pesticides used each year. From 2006-2007 both active and passive air samplers were
      deployed in Egbert, an agricultural area north of Toronto, while from 2007-2008 a set of passive
      samplers were deployed for one year at several sites throughout Ontario. The latter transect
      showed high atmospheric concentrations of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in agricultural regions
      of southern Ontario, with much lower levels in the atmosphere at more remote locations. Only
      CUPs with significant atmospheric lifetimes, such as endosulfan and chlorothalonil are able to
      transport to regions remote from their sources. Higher concentrations of banned pesticides such
      as hexachlorobenzene and hexachlorocyclohexane during 2007 compared to 2006 may be due to
      higher volatilization rates correlated with an El Nino event during the same period. All pesticides
      had higher levels during the growing season compared to winter, but the ratio of concentrations
      during the different seasons was much higher for the pesticides in current use. The four air
      sampling systems deployed at Egbert were evaluated for their ability to accurately measure the
      air concentrations of CUPs, and their individual suitability for use in air monitoring programs
      will be discussed. Keywords: Transportation, Atmospheric circulation, Pesticides.

May 17-21, 2010                                      105                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      HEBERT, C.E.1, PATERSON, G.2, WESELOH, D.V.C.3, and WHITTLE, D.M.4, 1Environment
      Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3; 2University of Windsor,
      Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4; 3Environment
      Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Downsview, ON, M3H 5T4; 4Emeritus Scientist, Fisheries
      and Oceans Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Great Lakes Pelagic Prey Fish Declines and
      Impacts on Top Avian and Fish Predators.

              The Laurentian Great Lakes form the largest freshwater ecosystem in the world and
      support diverse biotic communities. However, anthropogenic stressors have altered the structure
      of Great Lakes‘ food webs. By the 1960s, over-fishing and exotic species introductions had
      resulted in the decline of native Great Lakes piscivorous fish, especially lake trout (Salvelinus
      namaycush). In order to reduce burgeoning prey fish populations occurring in the absence of a
      top predator, fish stocking programs were initiated that introduced Pacific salmonines into the
      lakes. As intended, these stocked predators reduced prey fish populations. However, the
      reduction in prey fish abundance has had unforeseen consequences for other members of the
      biotic community. Here, we present results from long-term monitoring of top trophic level
      seabirds and fish that reveal alterations in energy and nutrient flow over time. Seabird diets
      reflect alterations in prey fish abundance across the Great Lakes basin. Similarly, lake trout
      growth and condition metrics show signs of stress related to declines in prey availability. The
      changes documented here indicate that top avian and fish predators are experiencing serious
      energetic and nutritional constraints. These constraints are likely having population-level
      impacts. Keywords: Great Lakes basin, Ecosystem health, Wildlife, Avian ecology.

      HEDGES, K.J., MANRDAK, N.E., KOOPS, M.A., and JOHANNSSON, O.E., Great Lakes
      Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6.
      If You Build It, Will They Come (or Stay)? Summary and Assessment of Great Lakes
      Aquatic Protected Areas.

              Fishes and their habitats receive various levels of protection at sites throughout the Great
      Lakes. Ecosystem-level management strategies can use Aquatic Protected Areas (APAs) to
      buffer against over-exploitation and uncertainty in population assessments and ecological
      understanding, and to protect aquatic habitats. Given current levels of decline in freshwater fish
      biodiversity and the relative importance of habitat loss in the imperilment of many fish species in
      and around the Great Lakes, the appeal of precautionary ecosystem-level management is
      increasing. To determine the types and amounts of protection afforded to fishes and their
      habitats, we created an inventory of APAs in the Great Lakes and connected waters used by
      Great Lakes fishes, including sites in both Canada and the U.S. Latitudinal trends in APA size
      and number were apparent, with fewer, larger sites at higher latitudes. The relative effectiveness
      of different types of APAs was examined using time series data, and by comparing communities
      within and outside APAs. Fish biodiversity was typically higher within areas that permanently
      protect fish habitats, although a latitudinal trend in species richness was also apparent. Finally, a
      Gap Analysis was conducted to identify species and habitats that are currently under-represented
      within the current APA network. Keywords: Refugia, Protected areas, Conservation,

May 17-21, 2010                                       106                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      HENRY, M.1, WANG, Y.S.2, MCCLELLAND, G.B.3, and WILKIE, M.P.1, 1Department of
      Biology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3C5; 2Department of Biology, Queen's
      University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6; 3Department of Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton,
      ON, L8S 4K1. Differences in the responses of larval and upstream migrant sea lampreys
      (Petromyzon marinus) to the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM).

              The lampricide, TFM, is added to streams infested with larval sea lampreys to control
      populations of these invasive pests in the Great Lakes. We have demonstrated that TFM depletes
      brain glycogen energy reserves leading to death in larval lampreys. Little is known about TFM
      toxicity after lampreys have completed metamorphosis, which leads to development of an oral
      disc for blood-feeding, tidally ventilated gills, and increased metabolic rate. We exposed
      parasitic and upstream migrant lampreys to lethal doses of TFM (12h LC99.9=5 mg/l) to
      determine if it had similar effects on tissue (brain, liver, muscle) energy stores as in larval
      lampreys. Unlike larval lampreys, TFM did not alter brain ATP or phosphocreatine energy
      stores, but did result in 30% reductions in glycogen. Thus, unlike in larvae, glycogen depletion
      may not cause death in upstream migrant lampreys exposed to TFM. However, 3-6 fold increases
      in lactate concentration were observed in tissues of upstream migrant lampreys. Because
      metabolic acid is generated with lactate due to glycogen breakdown, we are testing the
      hypothesis that TFM decreases tissue pH which could contribute to death in upstream migrant
      lampreys. Our findings therefore suggest that the mechanism of TFM toxicity could reflect the
      sea lamprey‘s life history stage. Keywords: Fish, Sea lamprey, Pesticides, Toxicology, Invasive
      species, Lampricide.

      HENSLER, S.R.1, JUDE, D.J.1, WANG, Y.2, and JANSSEN, J.2, 1School of Natural Resources
      and Environment, University of Michigan, 440 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109; 2Great
      Lakes WATER Institute, University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, 600 East Greenfield Avenue,
      Milwaukee, WI, 53204. Offshore Larval Fish Distribution in the Great Lakes.

              Relatively little is known about fish spawning and larval fish ecology in the offshore
      regions of the Great Lakes compared to the knowledge base for fishes inhabiting warmer,
      shallower habitats. Larval fish were collected while conducting vertical net tows of the entire
      water column at night as well as some horizontal, near surface tows during April and August
      2007 and 2008 in association with the U. S. EPA Biological Monitoring Program on the Great
      Lakes as well as other larval fish collections of the mid-lake reef complex in Lake Michigan.
      Unexpected collections of newly-hatched larval fishes included two burbot (Lota lota), one
      round whitefish (Prosopium cylindraceum), and one bloater (Coregonus hoyi) at two deep sites,
      one in southern Lake Michigan and the other in northern Lake Huron, months later than
      previously reported for yolk-sac larvae for these species. These findings suggests that burbot and
      coregonines inhabiting the abyssal regions of the Great Lakes may be separate, reproductively
      isolated populations from shallow spawning members of the same species. More larval fish
      research is warranted, particularly for offshore and abyssal sites in the Great Lakes, as detailed,
      fundamental spawning and early life history knowledge about fishes inhabiting these areas
      remains a mystery of the deep. Keywords: Spatial distribution, Distribution patterns, Fish.

May 17-21, 2010                                      107                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      HERBST, S. and MARSDEN, J.E., Rubenstein School of Environment and Natural Resources,
      University of Vermont, Burlington, VT, 5405. Comparison of Lake Champlain and Great
      Lakes lake whitefish populations following the introduction of dreissenids.

              Recent declines in lake whitefish growth and condition in the Great Lakes have been
      attributed to introduction of dreissenid mussels in the Great Lakes, and the disappearance of
      Diporeia, a once-abundant, high energy prey source. Lake Champlain, similar to the Great Lakes,
      has experienced the introduction and proliferation of zebra mussels, but in contrast, Diporeia
      were not historically abundant. Our goals were to quantify seasonal diet, growth, and condition
      of whitefish in Lake Champlain and compare those results to data from the Great Lakes
      following the invasion of dreissenids. Whitefish were collected using gillnets and bottom trawls.
      Diet was quantified seasonally and expressed as percent composition. Condition was estimated
      using Fulton‘s K and von Bertalanffy growth parameters were calculated. Lake Champlain
      whitefish, unlike whitefish from the Great Lakes, have not shown a dietary shift towards zebra
      mussels, but instead are feeding primarily on fish eggs in spring, Mysis relicta in summer, and
      gastropods in fall. Population trends over time are unknown because of the paucity of historic
      data; however, growth and condition of Lake Champlain whitefish does not appear to have
      declined since a 1930 study. Whitefish diets and growth in Lake Champlain do not appear to
      have been impacted by the zebra mussel invasion. Keywords: Invasive species, Dreissena, Lake
      whitefish, Fish diets.

      HESLIP, L.D.1 and STRUGER, J.2, 1#905 - 3165 Russell St, Windsor, ON; 2Environment
      Canada, Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. A Comparison Between Substitution and
      Survival Techniques for Analyzing Censored Data.

              Three organic compounds (Atrazine, 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and
      Chlorpyrifos) sampled from a long term site (Vineland Creek) located in southern Ontario were
      examined to determine the effect of including and removing censored observations in trend
      analysis. Two methods of analysis were used to assess the inclusion and removal of censored
      observations. The first method substituted censored observations with ½ the method detection
      limit (MDL). The second method involved analyzing censored observations with survival
      analysis techniques, where observations below the MDL were treated as censored data. Atrazine
      (< 20%) and 2,4-D (< 2%) had fewer censored data, while over half (> 57%) of the samples
      collected for Chlorpyrifos contained censored data. Trend analyses were conducted for the
      substitution and survival methods by using generalized linear model (GLM) regression and the
      LIFEREG procedure, respectively. The results of the substitution and survival methods were
      compared to illustrate the differences between the regression results. To further illustrate the
      differences between the results of the substitution and survival analysis methods, censored
      observations were artificially created for Atrazine and 2,4-D, such that at least 50 percent of the
      observations were censored data. Keywords: Organic compounds, Pesticides.

May 17-21, 2010                                      108                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      HICKEY, M.B.C. and RIDAL, J.J., St. Lawrence River Institute of Environmental Sciences, 2
      Belmont St, Cornwall, ON, K6H 4Z1. Addressing the Fish Consumption Beneficial Use
      Impairment in the Bay of Quinte.

              We assessed the state of contamination in Bay of Quinte (BoQ) fish to determine whether
      delisting criteria have been met, and to recommend further studies/actions to be undertaken. We
      examined fish contaminant data collected by the Ontario Sport Fish Monitoring Program
      between 1975 and 2005 for seven sites in Lake Ontario and the BoQ. Our analysis included
      mercury, PCBs, DDT and DDE, and dioxins and furans, and compared contaminant
      concentrations in fish among sites as a function of fish length. While there were no significant
      differences for the majority of contaminants, some species and contaminant combinations at one
      or more of the BoQ sites were elevated compared to reference sites. For instance, levels of
      mercury in walleye and PCBs in chinook salmon from BoQ sites exceeded those from reference
      sites. However, these fish species are large, long-lived and potentially wide-ranging and it is
      difficult to conclusively link elevated levels to local sources. Consumption restrictions for more
      sentinel fish (e.g. brown bullhead) are more severe for fish from the Upper Bay compared to the
      other sites, suggesting possible impacts of local sources. As a result, the fish consumption
      beneficial use continues to be classified as impaired for the BoQ. A sentinel fish monitoring
      program is underway to track local contaminant sources. Keywords: Bay of Quinte, Pollution
      sources, Fish toxins.

      HIGGINS, S.N.1 and HOWELL, E.T.2, 1Center For Limnology, University of Wisconsin-
      Madison, 680 N. Park Street., Madison, WI, 53706, United States; 2Ontario Ministry of the
      Environment, 125 Resources Road, Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6. The current status of
      Cladophora blooms along the northern coastline of Lake Ontario.

              The Laurentian Great Lakes have a long history of problems associated with massive
      blooms of the nuisance alga Cladophora glomerata. Here, we report the status of Cladophora
      blooms and their relationship to water quality variables from 4 sites along the northern coastline
      of Lake Ontario during the Lake Ontario bi-national cooperative monitoring year (2008). At each
      of the 4 survey areas data were collected from 2 transects at multiple depths (approx. 3, 6, 10,
      18m) utilizing SCUBA during the early- (June) and mid-summer (July) periods. Cladophora
      filaments were present at all sites and depths sampled, with areal coverage ranging from 5 to
      100% (mean= 74.9 ± 30.5 %) during the July period. Biomass was strongly depth dependant,
      ranging from 59.0 ± 32.6 g DM/m2 at shallow sites (2-5m) to 5.1 ± 5.2 g DM/m2 at the deepest
      (17-18m) sites. Sites adjacent to highly urbanized areas had biomass levels 2-3 times higher than
      sites adjacent to areas with low urbanization. These data suggest that Cladophora blooms are
      widespread across rocky sites in Lake Ontario, that background nutrient concentrations are
      sufficient to promote nuisance growth, and that nutrient concentrations associated with
      urbanization can exacerbate growth leading to severe blooms conditions (>50 g DM/m2).
      Keywords: Eutrophication, Dreissena, Cladophora, Algae.

      HILDITCH, T.W.1 and HORTON, M.2, 158 Welstead Drive, St. Catharines, ON, L2S 4B2; 2St.
      Mary's Cement/CBM, 55 Industrial Street, Toronto, ON, M4G 3W9. Presqu"ile Bay Species at

May 17-21, 2010                                      109                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Risk Outreach Project Case Study In Endangered Species Act, 2007 Stewardship &
      Outreach Tom Hilditch1, Melanie Horton2 1 Savanta Inc., 2 St Marys Cement.

              Stewardship aspects of the Ontario Endangered Species Act, 2007, led to a project on 4
      linear km of coastal wetlands owned by St Marys Cement in Presqu‘Ile Bay, Ontario. St Marys
      Cement, the largest cement producer in the Great Lakes Region and the Province of Ontario
      jointly funded work between 2007 and 2009, which led to a SAR Conservation and Management
      Plan, a Vegetation Management Plan and a Draft Research Strategy. Technical studies revealed
      the presence of an unexpectedly high population of Least bitterns (Threatened) and King rail,
      (Endangered) on these private lands and more broadly in Presqu‘Ile Bay. Building on work
      completed, a feasibility study is currently investigating the creation of a SAR Centre of
      Excellence on the St Marys Cement lands in Presqu‘Ile Bay. This Centre could become a
      substantial hub for outreach and education activities and would ensure the conservation of
      important populations of waterbirds. The centre would also serve to inspire greater private sector
      investment in Great Lakes wetland conservation. This work has already become a model of
      stakeholder engagement and outreach, gaining the energies and support of many stakeholders
      including the Municipality of Brighton, Friends of Presqu‘ile Park, Northumberland Stewardship
      Council, Lower Trent Conservation Authority and SAR Recovery Teams. Keywords: Outreach,
      Endangered, Coastal wetlands, Threatened, Lake Ontario.

      HILL, R.B., Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7L 6V7, Canada.
      Long Term Contaminant Trends From The Niagara River.

              In the wake of Love Canal and a series of reports on contamination issues in the Niagara
      River, a formal water quality monitoring program was established in 1986 as part of the Niagara
      River Toxics Management Plan (NRTMP). One of the primary goals of the NRTMP was to
      "achieve significant reductions of toxic chemical pollutants in the Niagara River" and the
      ―Upstream/Downstream Program" provides a means of quantifying remedial action success at
      point sources, hazardous waste sites and SuperFund sites along the river. The Program's focus on
      dissolved and particulate phase analysis also helps to establish the existence and relative
      concentrations of contaminants, distinguish between Niagara River contaminant sources and
      upstream sources, identify exceedences to existing water quality criteria, and quantify loadings
      of these contaminants to Lake Ontario. Analysis of Upstream/Downstream Program data taken
      from a 19 year period between 1986/87 and 2004/05 show a significant decrease in concentration
      for most compounds - including the NRTMP's "Priority 18". Analysis also shows that while local
      sources continue to contribute to contaminant levels in the Niagara River, upstream and Great
      Lakes basin-wide sources may be more significant for certain chemicals. Keywords: Niagara
      River, Water quality, Monitoring.

      HILL, S.1, EDGE, T.1, SETO, P.1, MARSALEK, J.1, D‘ANDREA, M.2, BOWERING, T.2,
      SNODGRASS, W.J.2, and STINSON, G.2, 1Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto,
      ON, M3H 5T4; 2City of Toronto, Toronto Water, Metro Hall, 55 John Street, 18th Floor,
      Toronto, ON, M5V 3C6. Microbial source tracking to identify sources of fecal pollution
      contaminating Toronto beaches and rivers.

May 17-21, 2010                                      110                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              This paper summarizes results from the application of microbial source tracking tools to
      identify the sources of fecal pollution contaminating Toronto beaches and the Humber and Don
      Rivers. These tools included antibiotic resistance analysis and DNA fingerprinting of E. coli
      isolates, and assays to detect DNA sequences that are unique to bacteria from the human or
      seagull gut. Application of these tools has been able to identify the significance of waterfowl
      fecal droppings at some beaches, and to identify specific stormwater outfalls and other sources of
      sewage contamination in the Humber and Don River watersheds. Keywords: Pollution sources.

      HINCH, S.G.1, COOKE, S.J.2, FARRELL, A.P.3, and PATTERSON, D.A.4, 1Forest Sciences
      Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z4; 2Institute of
      Environmental Science, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, K1S5B6; 3Land and Food Systems,
      University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z4; 4Canadian Department of Fisheries
      and Oceans, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A1S6. Linking Telemetry, Physiology,
      And Experimental Biology: Novel Approaches For Use In Studying Salmonid Migrations
      And Managing Fisheries.

             Salmonid migrations represent one of the most complex and intriguing biological
      phenomena in the animal kingdom. Telemetry has been used extensively to describe movement
      and survival patterns associated with these migrations but by itself cannot inform the
      mechanisms underlying behaviour or causes of mortality. We summarize advances that have
      been made in understanding the migrations of adult Pacific salmon through the integration of
      broad-scale telemetry systems, including POST and OTN systems, with disciplines including
      physiology, behaviour, functional genomics, and experimental biology. Record high
      temperatures, changing ocean conditions, disease, fisheries and other factors are threatening
      several populations, and challenging management systems. We overview intervention
      experiments and field approaches used to examine these issues and explore hypotheses about
      recent changes in salmon behaviour and mortality. We have identified roles that fish health,
      physiological and reproductive state, physiological stress, and fisheries handling have on
      migration behaviour and survival. Our approaches have uncovered fascinating insights into the
      basic biology of salmonids, as well as generated important information for use by fisheries
      managers in dealing with climate warming and capture-release fisheries. Keywords: Migrations,
      Physiology, Salmon, Experimental biology, Fish management, Telemetry.

      HINDLEY, B.1, GORHAM, B.2, BOWEN, G.2, LIANG, W.3, and SNODGRASS, W.J.3,
        Aquafor Beech Limited, 2600 Skymark Avenue, Building 2, Suite 202, Mississauga, ON, L4W
      5B2; 2Toronto and Region Conservation, 5 Shoreham Drive, North York, ON, M3N 1S4; 3City
      of Toronto, Metro Hall, 55 John Street, 18th Floor, Toronto, ON, M5V 3C6. Time – trend
      Analysis of constituents in Water Courses Discharging to the Toronto AOC over the past 4

              An analysis has been undertaken to document the time- trend of key constituents in water
      courses discharging to Toronto‘s waterfront. The analysis indicates that there are only a few key
      constituents which show trends over the past 3 -4 decades – mainly total phosphorus and

May 17-21, 2010                                      111                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      chlorides (and conductivity). Changes in analytical methods and detection limits limit the
      analysis for constituents such as metals ( copper, zinc, lead), and mask our ability to draw
      conclusion about these substances, even considering that lead removal from gasoline should have
      lead to approximately an order or magnitude decrease in this constituent. The most pronounced
      effect in total phosphorus is a several fold decrease associated with removal of small wastewater
      treatment plant effluents from discharging to water courses in the 1960‘s, the addition of
      phosphorus control to wastewater treatment plants and the removal of phosphorus from
      detergents in the 1970‘s. Chloride trends are increasing in watersheds subject to urbanization, but
      relatively level ( i.e. non – increasing) in watersheds such as the Don River which have been
      dominated by a mature road network. This analysis suggests that a chronic level of impairment
      has been reached,supporting delisting of the applicable BUI's. Keywords: Phosphorus,
      Urbanization, Nutrients.

      HITES, R.A. and VENIER, M., School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University,
      Bloomington, IN, 47405, United States. Harmonic Fitting of Atmospheric POPs‟
      Concentrations Measured Near the Great Lakes Over the Last 17 Years.

              One of the challenges in tracking the atmospheric concentrations of POPs is accounting
      for all of the sources of variation such that changes in these concentrations resulting from the
      elimination of sources can be teased out from other variations. We have previously identified
      time (as Julian Days, JD), local human population (POP), and seasonality (expressed as
      atmospheric temperature) as the most important factors in determining the atmospheric
      concentrations of POPs. Most recently, we have combined these parameters into a single
      harmonic equation of the form: ln(C) = a_0 + a_1 JD + a_2 sin(z JD) + a_3 cos(z JD) + a_4
      log^2(POP), where z = 2 π/365.25. Each parameter is associated with a partial sum of squares
      that indicates the importance of that parameter in the overall regression. The regression was
      applied to vapor, particle, and precipitation concentrations of several POPs measured by the
      Great Lakes‘ Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network every 12 days since 1992. This
      approach allows us to fit both vapor and particle phase concentrations and to determine when
      these concentrations maximize. Most vapor phase concentrations maximize in mid-summer, and
      most particle phase concentrations maximize in mid-winter. Keywords: PBDEs, Organochlorine
      compounds, PCBs.

      HOEKSTRA, P.F. and HARRINGTON, C.R., Syngenta Crop Protection Canada, Inc., 140
      Research Lane, Guelph, ON, N1G4Z3. The Environmental Safety of Pesticides: An Industry

              Pesticides are a valuable tool in modern agriculture and in controlling invasive species.
      The proper use of these compounds promotes human health by providing an abundant, high
      quality and affordable food supply for our growing population. Unfortunately, information
      reported in the media often portrays to the general public that pesticides are poorly regulated or
      not rigorously tested. In reality, the Canadian pesticide industry is stringently regulated by the
      Health Canada as mandated under the Federal Pest Control Products Act. Before a pesticide
      product can be legally sold and used in Canada, it undergoes a comprehensive suite of

May 17-21, 2010                                      112                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      environmental testing (e.g., environmental toxicology, fate parameters) and scientific assessment
      to ensure it does not pose an unacceptable risk to non-target organisms. During this presentation,
      various aspects of the Canadian regulatory process, with emphasis on the environmental effects
      of pesticides, will be discussed. Important aspects to consider when designing post-registration
      monitoring or research programs will also be presented. Keywords: Pesticides, Regulatory, Risk
      assessment, Macroinvertebrates.

      HOLEM, R.R.1, ROARK, S.A.1, NEWSTED, J.1, MATOUSEK, J.1, GIESY, J.P.2, and KAY,
      D.P.1, 1ENTRIX, Inc., Okemos, MI, 48864; 2University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, SK
      S7N. Evaluation of Spatial Variation in Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin Equivalents From
      Dioxins, Furans, and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Fillets of 10+ Fish Species Collected
      From the Saginaw Bay Watershed, Michigan, USA.

               Concentrations of dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and dioxin-like polychlorinated-
      biphenyls were measured in fillets of nearly 1000 fish collected from seven locations on the
      Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers, the Saginaw Bay, and four other rivers within the Saginaw
      Bay watershed. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TEQ) and the concentration of the sum
      of each class (ΣTEQ) of congeners were compared. Concentrations were generally greatest in
      carp and channel catfish while lipid-normalized concentrations were greatest in smallmouth bass.
      In those species, ΣTEQPCB composed about 70% of the ΣTEQtotal at upstream locations, and
      ranged from 40% to 70% of the ΣTEQtotal in the Tittabawassee and Saginaw Rivers. Spatial
      variation was generally the greatest for ΣTEQPCDF and the least for ΣTEQPCB. The maximum
      difference in tissue concentration between collection locations was 4- to 11-fold for ΣTEQPCB,
      5- to 8-fold for ΣTEQPCDD, and 25- to 48-fold for ΣTEQPCDF. Variation in concentrations
      was greatest in smallmouth bass and least in carp. For ΣTEQPCB in carp, there were few
      statistically significant differences between locations, whereas for ΣTEQPCDF in carp nearly all
      comparisons of upstream with either Tittabawassee or Saginaw River locations differed
      significantly. Keywords: Tittabawassee, Lake Huron, PBTs, Fish.

      HOLSEN, T.M.1, HOPKE, P.K.2, AMOS, M.M.3, MILLER, K.M.3, TELECH, J.T.3,
      SCHOFIELD, J.A.3, MILLIGAN, M.S.4, MURPHY, E.W.5, and PAGANO, J.J.6, 1Clarkson
      University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Potsdam, NY, 13699;
        Clarkson University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Potsdam, NY, 13699; 3Computer
      Sciences Corporation (CSC), 6101 Stevenson Avenue, Alexandria, VA, 22304; 4SUNY
      Fredonia, Department of Chemistry, Fredonia, NY, 14063; 5U.S. EPA Great Lakes National
      Program Office, 77 West Jackson Boulevard, Chicago, IL, 60622; 6SUNY Oswego,
      Environmental Research Center, Oswego, NY, 13126. Legacy and Emerging Contaminant
      Concentrations in Great Lakes Fish Between 1991 and 2008 and Evaluation of Differences
      Between Sampling Sites.

             U.S. Environmental Protection Agency‘s Great Lakes National Program Office funds and
      administers the Great Lakes Fish Monitoring and Surveillance Program. This program focuses
      on monitoring contaminant trends in the open waters of the Great Lakes (using fish as
      biomonitors). Direct comparison of contaminant concentrations across lakes is not possible as

May 17-21, 2010                                      113                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      the program was designed to analyze fish of similar size, rather than of the same age. For this
      reason, only general chemical concentration patterns can be observed. Statistical tools and GIS
      were used to evaluate differences in time trends among sites for a suite of legacy and emerging
      contaminants, including PBDE congeners, PCB congeners, mercury, and pesticides. Trends for
      contaminant concentrations in lake trout and walleye in the Great Lakes were assessed from
      1991 to 2008. Results suggest that trends for several contaminants are similar among several
      sites and different between other sites. Time trends among the legacy and emerging contaminants
      are similar for several contaminants and different for other contaminants. Statistical analyses also
      are being applied to assess the differences and describe the relationships among the sites and
      contaminants. These assessments may provide clues to identification of the sources and
      pathways of these contaminants to Great Lakes fish. Keywords: Environmental contaminants,
      Chemical analysis, Fish.

      HOOD, J.L.A., TAYLOR, W.D., and SCHIFF, S.L., University of Waterloo 200 University Ave
      W, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1. Urban waste water effluent has an impact on benthic
      macrophyte communities even in a heavily agricultural watershed: Going beyond
      TP/biomass relationships.

              Benthic macrophyte communities are key to riverine environments. They provide
      complex habitat and food for river inhabitants across multiple trophic levels, additionally they
      modify the river environment by augmenting flow and sedimentation rates and changing the
      dissolved chemistry. In many rivers macrophyte biomass can reach nuisance levels leading to the
      development of night time hypoxia. Many researchers agree that nuisance levels of biomass are a
      result anthropogenic nutrient enrichment, however drawing empirical relationships between
      biomass and nutrients has been difficult. This is because macrophyte communities are likely to
      be space, substrate and light limited, particularly in upstream locations. Additionally there is a
      spatial disconnect between the location of the macrophyte bed and the source of it's nutrient. The
      lack of an empirical link has complicated modeling efforts and hindered riverine eutrophication
      management. Through studies conducted by the Grand River Conservation Authority and our lab
      group demonstrate the enriching effect of sewage treatment plants on macrophyte biomass in the
      Grand River, the largest Canadian tributary to lake Erie. We also show how this effect can be
      obscured by the use a simple linear regression and make suggestions for how macrophyte
      modeling efforts can be improved. Keywords: Spatial distribution, Macrophytes,
      Eutrophication, Hypoxia.

      HORDOWICK, J., DHALLA, S., IVEY, J., and MEEK, S., Toronto and Region Conservation, 5
      Shoreham Drive, Downsview, ON, M3N 1S4. An Integrated Modelling Approach used to
      Identify „Best Bet‟ Areas for Stormwater Retrofits and Low Impact Development
      Techniques in the Don River Watershed.

              The Don River Watershed faces major challenges including aging or inadequate
      stormwater infrastructure, limited natural cover and the pressures of a growing population. The
      recently completed Don River Watershed Plan integrates stormwater modelling with data on fish
      habitat, stream erosion potential, natural heritage and flood risk to prioritize future restoration

May 17-21, 2010                                       114                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      efforts. Two scenarios were examined in the development of management recommendations.
      The future conventional scenario modelled the watershed impacts of approved development and
      intensification using existing stormwater management practices; the future ‗sustainable
      communities‘ scenario modelled the same build out with aggressive implementation of low
      impact development (LID) practices (i.e. green roofs, rainwater harvesting, permeable pavement)
      and expanded urban forest in new and existing urban areas. To better understand the possible
      future conditions, the study also examined existing conditions and trends in the watershed,
      reviewed research and consulted a wide range of experts. This integrated approach led to
      identification of priority basins for LID retrofit practices in the upper Don to complement the
      City of Toronto‘s Wet Weather Flow Management Master Plan recommendations for the lower
      Don, giving a picture of ‗best bet‘ priorities across the watershed. Keywords: Low Impact
      Development, Urban watersheds, Retrofit.

      HORST, G.P. and SARNELLE, O., Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State
      University, East Lansing, MI, 48824. Nitrogen limitation, but not Dreissena grazing, affect
      microcystin quota of Microcystis aeruginosa.

              A main objective in managing harmful algal blooms is determining what factors
      influence the toxicity of bloom-forming species. Most research on environmental factors has
      been limited to laboratory experiments with cultured algal strains. We conducted a large-scale
      field experiment (30 enclosures; 31,000 L each) in oligotrophic Gull Lake to examine the effects
      of nutrient addition and zebra mussels on the production of microcystin (a potent liver toxin) by
      the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. We followed this with a lab experiment using a
      strain of M. aeruginosa isolated from Gull Lake. Both experiments showed that N-limited
      conditions reduced microcystin quota. Data from an extensive field survey in the western basin
      of Lake Erie were congruent with these results in that there were negative relationships between
      nitrate concentration and microcystin per unit biomass of M. aeruginosa. Our results are
      consistent with the hypothesis that production of N-rich secondary metabolites, such as
      microcystin, should be reduced disproportionately by N limitation. Keywords: Phytoplankton,
      Microcystis, Nutrients.

      HOSSAIN, M.1, ARHONDITSIS, G.B.1, MINNS, K.2, and KOOPS, M.2, 1University of
      Toronto, Toronto, ON; 2Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Great Lakes Lab Fisheries and Aquatic
      Sciences, Burlington, ON. Examination of Ecosystem Management Options in Hamilton
      Harbour using Food Web Modeling.

              Hamilton Harbour is an embayment at the western tip of Lake Ontario. The Harbour was
      identified as one of the most polluted sites in the Great Lakes by the Water Quality Board of the
      International Joint Commission in 1985. As a consequence, a multidisciplinary environmental
      remedial action plan (RAP) to restore the ecosystem health and to maintain the integrity of the
      local biotic communities has begun. However, the recent invasion of zebra mussels and round
      goby in the system has called into question the RAP‘s target to successfully create a sustainable,
      self–reproducing native fish community. To assess the potential for success of the RAP's targets
      in the areas of fish and wildlife habitat restoration, an energy budget model has been developed

May 17-21, 2010                                      115                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      using the Ecopath with Ecosim software. Our primary research questions are to examine: (1) to
      what extent the ecosystem functioning has been transformed by the significant anthropogenic
      disturbances and the subsequent restoration efforts, and (2) how realistic is the goal to alter the
      current Harbour ecological state and to meet the objectives of the Hamilton Harbour and
      Watershed Fisheries Management Plan. Our analysis also argues that any further water quality
      improvements in the system should be viewed in the context of a combined bottom-up and top-
      down control. Keywords: Mathematical models, Ecopath with Ecosim, Fisheries, Hamilton
      Harbour, Fish management, Food web dynamics.

      HOWELL, E.T.1 and MAKAREWICZ, J.C.2, 1Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch,
      Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6; 2The College at Brockport,
      SUNY, Brockport, NY; Water Quality on the Shores of Lake Ontario in 2008.

              Multifaceted monitoring of the nearshore of Lake Ontario in 2008 provides insight on
      conditions in this dynamic and changing environment. Aproximately 85 km of shoreline over
      four segments varying in land-use was surveyed. Sharp gradients in water quality were observed
      from the land to the open lake. In contrast to total phosphorus concentrations of <10 μg L-1 over
      most of the nearshore, elevated levels were periodically observed at the shoreline, tributary
      mixing areas and some outfalls. Tributaries near the lakeshore were often turbid, with elevated
      levels of solids and nutrients. The extent to which tributary discharge affected the shores of the
      lake varied widely. Features of land-to-offshore gradients in total phosphorus among areas
      suggested regional differences in nutrient richness. Modification of the nearshore lakebed by
      dreissenid mussels and benthic algae has been extensive. In 2008 Dreissena covered
      approximately 47% of lakebed. Yet unlike previous surveys, little correspondence was observed
      between water clarity and locations of anticipated high grazing rates such as over rock shoals.
      Wide variability in water clarity and levels of particulates in the water column was observed
      driven by combinations of upwelling, shoreline-lakebed disturbance, runoff and whiting.
      Keywords: Coastal ecosystems, Water quality, Monitoring.

      and RANDALL, R.G.2, 1Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 41 Hatchery Lane, Picton, ON,
      K0K 2T0; 2Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Bay
      of Quinte Fish Populations: The Influence of Nutrient Levels and Invasive Species on
      Community Structure.

              Long-term sampling in the Bay of Quinte with multiple gear types allowed examination
      of the fish community and major fish populations in the context of key stressors up to 2009.
      Excessive nutrient input and hyper-abundant exotic fish species shaped the depreciated fish
      community of the 1970s. After implementation of phosphorus input control measures and
      simultaneous ―winter-kills‖ of the hyper-abundant exotics in the late-1970s, walleye recovered
      and served to restore predator prey balance to the fish community by the late-1980s. But, in the
      absence of a significant recovery of submerged aquatic vegetation in littoral areas, off-shore
      species still tended to dominate littoral areas. Water transparency increased and submerged
      aquatic vegetation recovered over broad littoral areas soon after the invasion of dreissenid

May 17-21, 2010                                      116                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      mussels in the mid-1990s. This pivotal event led to a shift in the fish community that included an
      overall decline in walleye abundance, an increase followed by a decrease in yellow perch
      abundance, a delayed increase in white perch abundance, and a dramatic shift in the nearshore
      fish community to one dominated by centrarchids (i.e. bluegill, pumpkinseed, black crappie and
      largemouth bass) dependent upon aquatic vegetation. Round goby invaded in 1999, proliferated
      and became important in the diet of piscivores. Keywords: Bay of Quinte, Invasive Species, Fish
      populations, Nutrient Levels, Lake Ontario, Fish community.

      HOYLE, J.A.1, JOHANNSSON, O.E.2, and BOWEN, K.L.2, 1Ontario Ministry of Natural
      Resources, 41 Hatchery Lane, Picton, ON, K0K 2T0; 2Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 867
      Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Lake Whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) Early
      Life History Studies on the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario.

              In this paper, we describe larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) early life
      history studies conducted in several years over the course of two decades (1991-1993, 1995-1996
      and 2003-2005) on the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario. The larval fish were captured in shallow,
      nearshore waters as early as Mar 27 and as late as May 19 with water temperatures ranging from
      1.2-18.6 oC (mean = 8.3 oC). Mean fish length ranged from 13.6-23.9 mm (mean = 16.4 mm).
      Growth in length accelerated as water temperatures rose above 10 oC. Larval lake whitefish fed
      primarily on cyclopoid copepods and small-bodied cladocerans. Cyclopoid copepods declined by
      nearly an order of magnitude (86% by weight) from the earlier (1992-1996) to the later (2003-
      2005) sampling periods. The larval fish were selective with respect to prey size but smaller
      cyclopoid copepods were selected in the latter sampling period when prey density was much
      lower. Mean copepod prey sizes were 0.72 mm in the earlier time period and 0.57 mm in the
      later years while mean sizes available were 0.49 and 0.45, respectively. Keywords: Cyclopoid
      copepods, Lake Ontario, Larval lake whitefish, Life history studies, Bay of Quinte, Dreissenid

      HU, D. and HORNBUCKLE, K.C., Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, The
      University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA, 52242. 3, 3‟-Dichlorobiphenyl in Lake Erie and Lake
      Ontario Sediment Cores.

              The PCB congener, congener 3, 3‘-dichlorobiphenyl or PCB11, was not present as part of
      the banned Aroclor mixtures. However, it was recently reported in air samples collected in
      Chicago, Philadelphia, Cleveland, the Arctic, and several sites around the Great Lakes. In
      Chicago, PCB11 was found to be the fifth most concentrated congener and ubiquitously
      distributed throughout the urban-industrial complex. More recently, we have found that PCB11
      is originated from current commercial coloring pigments. The pigments are widely used in
      various applications such as paint, inks, textiles, paper, cosmetics, leather, plastics, food and
      many other materials. Our findings also suggest that current commercial paint is an important
      source to atmospheric PCBs. In this study, we analyzed archived sediment cores from Lake Erie
      and Lake Ontario for PCB11 and other PCB congeners. The Lake Erie core represented sediment
      deposited from 1974 at the bottom of the core to the sampling year of 2003. The Lake Ontario
      sediment core spanned a much larger time period which extended to the time prior to the

May 17-21, 2010                                      117                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      production of PCBs. Based on our measurement of PCBs in these archived sediment samples, we
      attempted to shed light on the temporal trends and characterization of emission sources of
      PCB11 accumulation in the Great Lakes. Keywords: Lake Erie, 3, 3’-Dichlorobiphenyl, Lake
      Ontario, Sediment, PCBs.

      HUANG, J.1, CHOI, H.D.1, HOPKE, P.K.2, and HOLSEN, T.M.1, 18 Clarkson Ave., Potsdam,
      NY, 13699-5712; 28 Clarkson Ave., Potsdam, NY, 13599-5708. Ambient Mercury Sources in
      Rochester, NY: Results from Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of Mercury Monitoring
      Network Data.

              Continuous airborne measurements of speciated mercury (Hg) (elemental mercury (Hg0),
      reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate mercury (Hgp)) were made in Rochester, NY
      from Dec 07 to May 09. Continuous measurements of ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon
      monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM2.5), and meteorological data were made by New York
      department of environmental conservation (NYDEC). A principle component analysis (PCA) of
      3886 observations of 13 variables for the period from Dec 07 to May 09 identified 8 factors.Ther
      were snow-melting, coal-fired facilities, gas-phase oxidation, wet deposition, low ozone, clean
      air, liquid phase reduction, and combustion. Conditional probability function (CPF) analysis
      found the factors were associated with different wind directions and suggests that the three
      mercury species often come from different directions. The concentrations of three mercury
      species from the CFPP direction were significantly reduced following the CFPP shut down. This
      result implies the local CFPP caused a significant impact in the downwind area.
      Keywords: Pollution sources, CFPP, Monitoring, Mercury, PCA.

      HÖÖK, T.O.1, SEPÚLVEDA, M.S.1, and NALEPA, T.F.2, 1Purdue University, Dept. of Forestry
      and Natural Resources, 195 Marsteller St., West Lafayette, IN, 47907; 2NOAA, Great Lakes
      Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108. Mapping the condition of

              The holo-arctic amphipod, Diporeia spp., historically constituted a large component of
      benthic invertebrate communities throughout the Great Lakes region. However, since the early
      1990‘s, this species-group has experienced precipitous declines in abundance in not only lake
      Michigan, but also lakes Huron, Erie, and Ontario. While mechanisms of these declines remain
      enigmatic, declines have occurred coincident with establishment of invasive dreissenid mussels,
      suggesting that dreissenid-induced changes to lower trophic levels or alteration of lake physical
      properties may be contributing mechanisms. In 2008, we initiated a broad, collaborative project
      to 1) collect Diporeia spp. from throughout the Great Lakes region, 2) characterize the genetic
      variation and physiological condition of spatially-distinct Diporeia stocks, and 3) conduct a
      series of experiments to evaluate how Diporeia respond physiologically to various stressors. We
      will provide an overview of our project and describe patterns of Diporeia abundance.
      Keywords: Amphipods, Diporeia, Genetics.

May 17-21, 2010                                     118                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      MADENJIAN, C.P.4, 1Department of Biology, University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN, 55812;
        U.S. Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center, Ashland, WI, 54806; 3Great Lakes
      Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Burlington, ON,
      L7R4A6; 4U.S. Geological Survey, Great Lakes Science Center, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105.
       Consumption by the Lake Superior Fish Community: How Important are Mysis relicta?

              Restoration and rehabilitation of native fish communities is an important goal in the
      Laurentian Great Lakes, with emphasis placed on understanding food web stability. We used
      bioenergetics models for the major fish species in Lake Superior to estimate prey consumption at
      nearshore and offshore locations across Lake Superior in 2005. We also estimated the production
      of Mysis relicta, a major component of the Lake Superior food web, and compared it to fish
      consumption estimates to evaluate how Mysis is utilized in terms of demand-supply. On average,
      Mysis was the most consumed prey item at nearshore and offshore locations. Lake whitefish
      Coregonus clupeaformis, bloater Coregonus hoyi and rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax consumed
      the most Mysis at nearshore locations, while kiyi Coregonus kiyi and deepwater sculpin
      Myoxocephalus thompsoni were responsible for Mysis consumption at offshore locations. We
      found that the proportion of Mysis in relation to all prey consumed increased with depth (p =
      0.007). The demand-supply relationship was balanced in most respects, indicating Mysis
      resources are consumed by the current fish community without room for major expansions of
      other fish species that rely on Mysis such as other deepwater ciscoes. Keywords: Ecosystem
      modeling, Mysis relicta, Lake Superior, Fisheries.

      ISELY, E.S. and STEINMAN, A.D., Annis Water Resources Institute, Grand Valley State
      University, 740 W. Shoreline Drive, Muskegon, MI, 49441. Rein in the Runoff Integrated
      Assessment: Stormwater Management in Spring Lake (MI).

              Rein in the Runoff is a collaborative, community-based Integrated Assessment that
      examined the causes, consequences, and corrective alternatives available to the communities
      within and downstream of the Spring Lake Watershed to minimize the negative impacts of
      polluted stormwater runoff to local water bodies. An interdisciplinary team, consisting of
      ecologists, engineers, planners, economists, and lawyers, worked with stakeholders to help
      address management and stewardship issues regarding stormwater discharges. Our Integrated
      Assessment approach synthesized and delivered existing scientific information and ran modeling
      scenarios for future population growth, associated land use change, and the influence of best
      management practices to assess stormwater management alternatives. Because stakeholder
      involvement was essential to knowing what was important to whom and why, we engaged
      stakeholders in development and review of the Integrated Assessment. We anticipated that
      greater stakeholder involvement would also encourage broad-based approval of final outcomes.
      This presentation will describe Rein in the Runoff, highlighting the extent of, and the
      opportunities and challenges associated with, stakeholder participation throughout the process.
      Finally, we will explore ongoing stakeholder activities in light of project outcomes.
      Keywords: Decision making, Integrated assessment, Public education, Stormwater
      management, Public participation, Best management practices (BMPs).

May 17-21, 2010                                     119                                      Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      IVAN, L.N. and HÖÖK, T.O., Purdue University, 195 Marstellar, West Lafayette, IN, 47905.
       Modeling the impacts of zooplankton abundance on walleye and yellow perch YOY
      growth and survival in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron.

              Walleye and yellow perch are economically and ecologically important species in the
      Great Lakes. Saginaw Bay historically supported large commercial and recreational fisheries for
      both walleye and yellow perch, but changes in the environment have altered abundance and
      growth rates for both species. Food availability, and competition between larval walleye and
      yellow perch for zooplankton, may be responsible for slow growth and small end of the year size
      in yellow perch and walleye. To determine how zooplankton availability affects yellow perch
      and walleye growth during the first year of life, we developed an individual-based model of
      walleye and yellow perch populations in Saginaw Bay. The models tracks consumption, growth,
      and survival on a subdaily time step through one growing season. Fish grow via a modified
      bioenergetics subroutine and experience both predation and starvation mortality such that small
      individuals with low storage weights experience higher mortality rates. Simulations included
      varying zooplankton density and altering the timing of peak zooplankton abundance. Results
      from the model will be used to assess likely bottlenecks to growth of yellow perch and walleye
      and focus future research on these species within the bay. Keywords: Model studies, Walleye,
      Yellow perch.

      JAFFE, M.S., University of Illinois at Chicago, UPP, 412 S. Peoria St. (MC 348), Chicago, IL,
      60607. The Illinois Green Infrastructure Study.

              The 2009 Illinois Green Infrastructure for Clean Water Act (P.A. 96-0026) mandates a
      study on the efficacy, costs and benefits, and implementation of Green Infrastructure to manage
      urban stormwater discharges to waterways. The Illinois EPA is to report back to the General
      Assembly by June 30, 2010 its recommendations concerning the use of best management
      practices (BMPs) to promote stormwater infiltration and attenuation by natural processes. To
      assess the efficacy of Green Infrasructure BMPs, faculty at UIC assessed the scientific peer-
      reviewed literature examining TSS, Total Nitrogen and stormwater discharge flow reduction by
      natural systems, including infiltration, detention, buffers, rain gardens, permeable paving,
      constructed wetlands, and green roofs. Simulation models that can estimate water quality impacts
      and stormwater volume flows were also assessed. Staff at the Chicago Metropolitan Agency for
      Planning reviewed the use of Green Infrastructure BMPs in northeastern Illinois, while the
      Center for Neighborhood Technology examined regulatory programs in other states that
      encourage or require Green Infrastructure BMPs as a component of municipal MS4 programs.
      This paper summarizes the Study's findings and assesses its use of scientific information to guide
      urban stormwater management in Illinois. Keywords: Water quality, Management, Decision

      BOSCARINO, B.3, 1Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Glenora Fisheries Station, 41
      Hatchery Lane, Picton, ON, K0K 2T0; 2Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Great Lakes Laboratory

May 17-21, 2010                                      120                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      for Fisheries & Aquatic Science, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 3Cornell Biological Field Station,
      Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University, Bridgeport, NY, 13030. Distribution,
      abundance and production of Hemimysis anomala in Lake Ontario.

               Hemimysis anomala, an invasive species from the Ponto-Caspian region in Europe, was
      first reported in Lake Ontario (Oswego, NY) in the fall of 2006. We assessed the distribution and
      associated density of Hemimysis anomala in the nearshore waters of Lake Ontario at 20
      Canadian and 8 U.S. sites using standardized methodology during the spring, summer and fall of
      2009. Production rates were estimated from biweekly samples collected between early April to
      late November at Bronte, ON. Sampling consisted of three to five vertical hauls with a 0.7m, 400
      μm plankton net off of pier walls at each study site. Water temperatures were recorded and
      Hemimysis were counted, sexed and measured to calculate abundance by sex and life stage.
      Hemimysis density was highest in the northwest and lowest in the northeast. Adult density was
      highest in the spring and lowest in the summer while juvenile density was highest in the summer
      and low in the spring and fall. Adult sex ratio was similar in spring and summer, but females
      outnumbered males in the fall. Our results provide needed information on vital life history
      parameters needed to estimate production and ultimately ecological impacts of Hemimysis in
      invaded waterways. Keywords: Lake Ontario, Hemimysis anomala, Distribution patterns.

      BACKUS, S.2, 1Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line, Egbert, ON, L0L 1N0; 2Environment
      Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Tracing Pathways of HCHs
      Through Lake Superior.

             Hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) are among the most abundant organochlorines in Lake
      Superior. Technical HCH (alpha-, beta-, gamma-HCH and other isomers) was deregistered in the
      U.S. and Canada in the 1970s, but use of lindane (pure gamma-HCH) continued into this decade.
      HCHs in air and precipitation have declined at IADN monitoring stations since the early 1990s.
      Concentrations in Lake Superior have also declined, by factors of 8-10 for alpha-HCH and 3-4
      for gamma-HCH between 1986-87 and 2005. Loss of HCHs from the lake occur through
      outflow, sedimentation, degradation and revolatilization. Microbial degradation in lake water
      depletes (+)alpha-HCH, resulting in nonracemic residues with enantiomer fraction EF = (+)/[(+)
      + (–)] = 0.431 during summer 2005. This is significantly lower than EF = 0.450 in 1996-97,
      suggesting increased microbial degradation over time. Water/air fugacity ratios (FR) in 2005
      ranged from 2.7-7.1 for alpha-HCH and 3.4-9.2 for gamma--HCH, indicating that both HCHs
      were undergoing net volatilization. In 1996-97 conditions were close to air-water equilibrium for
      alpha-HCH (FR = 1.3-1.8) and net deposition for gamma-HCH (FR = 0.5-0.6). EFs of alpha-
      HCH in water and air allowed estimates to be made of the fraction in the air boundary layer due
      to volatilization. Keywords: Pesticides, Gas exchange, Environmental contaminants, Chiral
      compounds, Lake Superior.

      JANTUNEN, L.M.1, BRICE, K.A.2, and SU, K.2, 1Environment Canada, 6248 Eighth Line,
      Egbert, ON, L0L 1N0; 2Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4.

May 17-21, 2010                                     121                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) from the Great Lakes Integrated Atmospheric
      Deposition Network.

              Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB), the active ingredient in quintozene, is a fungicide
      registered for usage in Canada and the U.S.A. It is used as a seed or soil treatment for many
      crops including cotton, potatoes, tulips and onions, and also for mould control on golf courses. In
      contrast to other pesticides, quintozene is applied to golf courses in late fall and early spring and
      not in late spring through summer. It is quite volatile and is expected in ambient air around the
      Great Lakes. The Integrated Atmospheric Deposition Network investigated PCNB in air at three
      Canadian sites from January 2004 to March 2008. Samples were taken on the regular IADN
      schedule of 1 day in 12. The sites were in rural areas, Point Petre is on the north shore of Lake
      Ontario, Burnt Island is in northwestern Lake Huron and Egbert is an agricultural site not
      situated on a lake. Egbert had the highest median air concentration of PCNB (32 pg/m3),
      followed by Point Petre (14 pg/m3) and the lowest levels were seen at Burnt Island (6.8 pg/m3).
      PCNB also showed seasonality, with the lowest levels in June to October at all three sites. Levels
      were highly variable during other times of the year, showing spikes with a maximum
      concentration in November 2006 of 2.9 ng/m3 at Egbert. Keywords: Pesticides, IADN,
      Environmental contaminants.

      JIAO, Y.1 and REID, K.1, 1Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, US; 2Ontario
      Commercial Fisheries Association, Blenheim, ON, N0P 1A0, Canada. Incorporating Bayesian
      Model Selection into Bayesian Decision Making in Fisheries Management.

              Model selection uncertainty can be high if one specific model is selected without
      comparison to other possible models. In this study, using the Lake Erie walleye (Sander vitreus)
      fishery as an example, we compared several statistical-catch-at-age models to assess the
      population dynamics. Models that we used included: a state-space statistical catch-at-age model
      (SCAG) with constant natural mortality, a SCAG with unknown natural mortality but a prior
      distribution from a tagging study, a SCAG with time-varied natural mortality following a random
      walk process, a SCAG with a time-varied catchability coefficient following a random walk
      process, and a SCAG with both natural mortality and catchability following random walk
      processes. A Bayesian approach was used to estimate parameters, and performance of the models
      was compared by goodness-of-fit, the retrospective patterns of the models, and the posterior
      predictive ability. A multi-model inference approach, using a Bayesian model selection
      algorithm with probability of being selected renewed each year, is suggested when more than
      one model is plausible for a fishery. Such an approach provides a coherent mechanism to
      incorporate model selection uncertainty and the decision made based on such an approach is
      more consistent over time, avoiding abrupt changes caused by model changes. Keywords: Risk
      assessment, Bayesian model selection, Decision making.

      JOHANNSSON, O.1, BOWEN, K.1, HOLECK, K.2, and WALSH, M.3, 1Fisheries and Oceans,
      Canada, 867 Lake Shore Rd;,, Burlington, ON, L8s 2A9; 2Cornell Biological Field Station, 900
      Shackleton Point Rd.,, Bridgeport, NY, 13100; 3United States Geological Survey, 17 Lake Str.,

May 17-21, 2010                                       122                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Oswego, NY, 13126. Mysis diluviana Population Dynamics with Dreissenia, Cercopagis and
      Bythotrephes Invasion of Lake Ontario.

              Most impacts of invading species are indirect, mediated through alterations in food
      resources, predator attention, and habitat. None of the above invading species is expected to
      directly impact M. diluviana; however, all are expected to alter its food supply either directly or
      through impacts on competitors (e.g. Diporeia, copepods). A comparison between 1990-1995
      (invaders essentially absent in deep waters) and 2002-2007 (invaders present) indicates a 50%-
      60% decline in density, biomass, and production of M. diluviana. Analysis of cohort mortality
      rates across the 2000s revealed that the population was controlled predominantly by food
      resources, not predation. In comparison, between 1984 and 1995, production was negatively
      related to alewife predation. Declines in food resources likely result from invader impacts: lower
      algal biomass, fewer zooplankton. In addition, near loss of the August cohort correlates with
      high abundance of C. pengoi in mid-summer. Thus control of the population has shifted away
      from top-down forces which are likely unrelated to invader impacts, while the change in cohort
      structure and decrease in total biomass are likely due to invader impacts and mediated through
      bottom-up forces. The M. diluviana population is now near the maximum the lake can support.
      Keywords: Biological invasions, Lake Ontario, Productivity, Mysis, Ecosystem health.

      GIULIANO, A.5, and LUDSIN, S.2, 1Ciler, 4840 South State Rd, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108; 2Ohio
      State University, Aquatic Ecology Lab, Columbus, OH, 43212; 3Noaa Great Lakes Lab, 4840
      South State Rd, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108; 41647 Hart Ct, Crofton, MD, 21114; 5Maryland
      Department of Natural Resources, 580 Taylor Ave, B-2, Annapolis, MD, 21401. Biological and
      Physical Attributes of the Maumee River Plume in Western Lake Erie.

              Western Lake Erie is a dynamic system, owing to wind-driven circulation and stochastic
      river inputs. In turn, the chemical and physical attributes of the system can vary extensively,
      which in turn, is expected to drive spatial and temporal variability in biological production across
      all trophic levels. To better understand this biophysical coupling in western Lake Erie, we used
      1) Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 250-m x 250-m resolution, true
      color, near real-time imagery to map and track river plumes that form in western Lake Erie
      during April through June 2006-2008 and 2) weekly field collections to describe the chemical
      (e.g., nutrients, suspended solids), physical (e.g., temperature, water clarity), and biological (e.g.,
      chlorophyll, zooplankton, larval fish) characteristics of these plumes Keywords: Fish
      populations, Remote sensing, Coastal ecosystems.

      JOHNSON, L.B.1, HOLLENHORST, T.2, CIBOROWSKI, J.J.3, and HOST, G.E.1, 1Natural
      Resources Research Institute, Univiersity of Minnesota - Duluth, Duluth, MN, 55811; 2Mid-
      Continent Ecology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN, 55804;
        Depatment of Biological Sciences, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4. Great
      Lakes Environmental Indicators (GLEI) - An Integrated, Watershed Based,
      Anthropogenic Stressor Scale Approach for the Great Lakes.

May 17-21, 2010                                        123                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              Watersheds are spatially explicit areas within which terrestrial stressors can be quantified
      and linked to measures of aquatic ecosystem condition. We ued elevation data to delineate 6,000
      high resolution Great Lakes coastal watersheds. The watersheds were ordered along the coastline
      so that they can be agglomerated into larger basins for specific applications (i.e., stretches of
      high energy shoreline or embayments). We then summarized US and Canada integrated maps of
      land cover, population density, road density, agricultural land use and point sources to
      characterize types of anthropogenic stress existing in the basin for each watershed. Each stressor
      measure was standardized to a common scale. Three methods were used to combine information
      from the different stressors to form a composite metric; 1) For each watershed the maximum
      scaled stressor metric was identified – ―Max-Rel‖; 2) the scaled stressor metrics were summed –
      ―Sum-Rel‖ and 3) the stressor metrics were processed using principal component analysis –
      ―PC‖. Analyzing the spatial distribution of these scores allows ―a priori‖ identification of the
      most pristine & most disturbed watershed, which then allows stratified selection of field sample
      sites along various anthropogenic stressor gradients as well as identifying benchmarks for
      indicator development. Keywords: Assessments, Watersheds, Great Lakes basin.

      JOHNSON, T.B., Ontario MNR - Glenora Fisheries Station, 41 Hatchery Lane, Picton, ON,
      K0K 2T0. Fish response to aquatic ecosystem change in the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario.

              The Bay of Quinte (Lake Ontario) has undergone dramatic change in the past 3 decades
      following phosphorous abatement, establishment of numerous aquatic invasive species including
      dreissenid mussels and round gobies, and associated effects on aquatic habitat and fish
      community composition. Bioenergetic models were combined with extensive fishery monitoring
      data from the Bay of Quinte to analyse numerical and growth response of key fish species
      (walleye Sander vitreus, yellow perch Perca flavescens, smallmouth bass Micropterus
      dolomieui, white perch Morone americana, bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus, alewife Alosa
      pseudoharengus, and round goby Apollonia melanostomus) to changes in the quantity and / or
      quality of prey and thermal habitat. By looking across thermal and trophic guilds of fishes, I
      expect to interpret results more broadly in terms of possible future states of the fish and fish
      community resulting from ongoing and predicted changes in temperature, productivity, and
      establishment of additional invasive species. Keywords: Bay of Quinte, Bioenergetics, Fish.

      JOHNSTON, D.P., PITTS, L., CARTER, M., and MCGAULEY, E., Otonabee Region
      Conservation Authority, 250 Milroy Drive, Peterborough, ON, K9H 7M9. Linking Ecology
      and Hydraulics in Urban Watersheds – Riverview Creek Naturalization Case Study.

              As urban development continues to intensify in the Great Lakes basin, the stresses placed
      upon urban watercourses increases. Anthropogenic changes adjacent to these watercourses
      including increased impervious surfaces, increased rainfall runoff and temperature have the
      ability to alter the natural hydrologic and hydraulic characteristics of the river or stream.
      Increased flows typically lead to higher velocities and degradation of water quality within these
      systems. These factors create conditions, which are beyond the natural erosion and temperature
      thresholds of the system, leading to scour and erosion of the natural substrate and vegetal
      materials. Erosion of the substrate materials within the watercourse typically results in highly

May 17-21, 2010                                       124                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      turbid waters, lower oxygen levels and destruction of vegetal materials and cohesive root-zones.
      These changes can have a significant impact on the natural ecosystem of the watercourse.
      Typically these impacts result in tributaries with a reduced ability to sustain benthic macro-
      invertebrate, fish and vegetation communities. The Riverview Creek Naturalization Case Study
      will be used to illustrate the design considerations and methods incorporated into a project
      completed in 2009 in Peterborough, Ontario. Keywords: Naturalization, Ecosystem health,
      Riparian, Hydrogeomorphology, Biodiversity, Bioengineering.

      JONAS, J.L., Michigan Department of Natural Resources, 96 Grant Street, Charlevoix, MI,
      49729, USA. Methods for adopting and evaluating lake trout size regulations in Lake

              Size limits provide some of the few options that fisheries managers have to meet defined
      fishery management objectives. In 2005 a series of public workshops were held to evaluate size
      regulation strategies for two regions of northern Lake Michigan (Grand Traverse Bay, and the
      area from Frankfurt to Leland). Management goals were: 1) to meet fish population objectives
      (mortality, protection of spawning stocks), 2) stay below the allowable weight based harvest
      limits, and 3) maximize harvest within these constraints to address socio-political concerns. Data
      from lake trout population models were used to predict the likelyhood of meeting the stated
      management objectives under different size limit scenarios. In 2006, a harvestable slot limit was
      implemented in Grand Traverse Bay (20-24" and 1 fish >34"), and a maximum size limit adopted
      in the area from Leland to Frankurt (23" max. and 1 fish >34"). We summarize the results after
      three years of regulation and compare to predicted output from model simulations, and expected
      verses observed changes in lake trout population structure and harvest. Keywords: Lake
      Michigan, Regulations, Fisheries.

      JUHASZ, M. and CUMMINGS, F.H., School of Environmental Design and Rural Development,
      Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada. Evaluation of agri-environmental program performance:
      Lessons learned from the EFP and Two Ontario Watersheds.

              This presentation aims to provide an overview of primary research conducted by the
      presenters through semi-structured interviews, focus groups and a survey between the spring of
      2009 and the spring of 2010 with hundreds of dairy farmers in both the Grand River and South
      Nation watersheds in Southwestern and Eastern Ontario. The goal will be to share findings from
      an evaluation of three specific agri-environmental programs; the Ontario Environmental Farm
      Plan, the Grand River Rural Water Quality Program and the South Nation Clean Water Program.
      Our objectives have been to gain deeper awareness of the factors leading to farmer participation
      in these programs. With dairy farming sharing a significant portion of active land use in these
      watersheds, our aim has been to see the effectiveness of programs in improving water quality and
      overall ecosystem health through continual improvement. This presentation will review dairy
      farmers‘ (qualitative and quantitative) responses to and perceptions of program development, the
      capacity of existing management methods and the potential for new approaches to farmer
      collaboration, program design and adaptiveness. Keywords: Policy making, Adaptiveness,
      Ecosystem health, Public Policy, Decision making, Ecological Restoration Incentives.

May 17-21, 2010                                      125                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      KANDEL, H. and GOMEZDELCAMPO, E., Bowling Green State University, Department of
      Geology, Bowling Green, OH, 43403-0211. Spatial Variability of Sediment Delivery in the
      Sandusky Watershed, Ohio.

              The Sandusky Watershed is part of the Great Lakes Basin, and contributes a large
      sediment load to Lake Erie. Eight Ohio counties drain into Lake Erie via the Sandusky River.
      Most of the research carried out in the Sandusky River watershed has been on water quality or
      the effects of dam removal. A few studies have focused on the hydrologic and sediment
      characteristics of the watershed, but their spatial variability has not been investigated. SEDMOD
      was applied by subwatershed to determine the high and low sediment delivery zones in the
      whole watershed. Typically, the till portion of the watershed has higher sediment yield than their
      non-till counterparts. Since the Sandusky River Watershed is equally divided into southern and
      central till plain, and northern lake plain, that would indicate that the higher sediment producing
      zones are in the southern and central part of the watershed. However, some researchers have
      found that a shift in the proportion of coarse grained to fine grained sediment loading in parts of
      the Sandusky Watershed could be due to a change in agricultural crops. Information on the
      spatial distribution of sediment delivery may help watershed managers determine the best
      management practices to protect the Sandusky River and ultimately Lake Erie. Keywords: GIS,
      Watersheds, Sediment load.

      KANE, D.D.1, CONROY, J.D.2, CHAFFIN, J.D.3, WAMBO, K.4, GRUDEN, C.L.4, and
      BRIDGEMAN, T.B.3, 1Natural Sciences and Mathematics Division, Defiance College, Defiance,
      OH, 43512; 2Aquatic Ecology Laboratory, Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal
      Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43212; 3Department of Environmental
      Sciences and Lake Erie Center, University of Toledo, Oregon, OH, 43616; 4Department of Civil
      Engineering, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, 43606. The LEAST We Can Do Is Study
      HABS: Tracking of Harmful Algal Blooms in the Maumee River.

              Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) composed of the cyanobacterium Microcystis have
      consistently occurred in the western basin of Lake Erie during the last decade. To determine the
      source of nutrients and algae that initiates these blooms in the Maumee River-Maumee Bay-
      Western Lake Erie coupled ecosystems we sampled five sites in the Maumee River (MR), two in
      Maumee Bay (MB), and four in Western Lake Erie (WLE) during summer of 2009. During three
      sampling periods (early June, early August, early September), we quantified numerous water
      quality parameters including Secchi depth (SD) soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), chlorophyll a
      (chla) concentrations, and phytoplankton community composition. Sites upstream on MR
      contained varying amounts of Microcystis, which was unknown before the current study. We
      found that mean SD was typically shallow in MR and mean SRP was greatest in MR, when
      compared to MB and WLE stations. Finally, mean chla varied temporally with MR having high
      concentrations in August and September but MB having greatest concentrations in June. These
      results suggest that high MR nutrient levels support algal biomass (including Microcystis)not
      only in the river and MB but may also provide a source of algae to the western basin of Lake
      Erie. Keywords: Nutrients, Microcystis, Lake Erie.

May 17-21, 2010                                      126                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      KANE, D.D.1, TABIT, M.M.1, DALKE, D.E.1, BURDEN, S.R.1, CARLISLE, K.M.1,
      M.C.2, STOUDER, F.M.2, RENO, H.H.2, MAYGARDEN, D.F.3, EGGER, H.L.3, and
      SCHIEBLE, C.S.3, 1McMaster School for Advancing Humanity, Defiance College, Defiance,
      OH, 43512; 2Turtle Cove Environmental Research Station, Southeastern Louisiana University,
      Hammond, LA, 70402; 3Pontchartrain Institute for Environmental Studies, University of New
      Orleans, New Orleans, LA, 70148. Collegiate Service Learning Using Large Lake

              Science as a component of service learning has recently been brought to the forefront by
      programs such as SENCER (Science Education for New Civic Engagements and
      Responsibilities). For the past three years, the McMaster School for Advancing Humanity at
      Defiance College has sent students and faculty to Louisiana to assist with ecological restoration
      in the Lake Pontchartrain ecosystem. Projects have varied from bald cypress (Taxodium
      distichum) planting, wetland surveys, and salinity studies to the production of environmental
      brochures and documentaries. These projects were undertaken with community partners in
      Louisiana and demonstrate that large lake restoration can be a component of service learning
      programs at the collegiate level. Keywords: Education, Lake Pontchartrain, Restoration.

      KANE, D.D.1, CONROY, J.D.2, BADE, D.L.3, EDWARDS, W.J.4, and CULVER, D.A.5,
        Division of Natural Science and Mathematics Division, Defiance College, Defiance, OH,
      43512; 2Aquatic Ecology Laboratory, Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal
      Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43212; 3Department of Biological Sciences,
      Kent State University, Kent, OH, 44242; 4Department of Biology, Niagara University, Lewiston,
      NY, 14109; 5Limnology Laboratory, Department of Evolution, Ecology, and Organismal
      Biology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, 43212. The problem starts earlier and
      farther upstream than expected: Microcystis upstream in Lake Erie tributaries early in the

              To connect phosphorus load, transport, and use in the western Lake Erie basin, we
      sampled sites (stream, river, bay, and lake) in both the Maumee and Sandusky ecosystems
      monthly during spring, summer, and fall 2009. We found high water-column chlorophyll
      concentrations throughout these coupled systems, even in low-order stream adjacent to
      agricultural fields. Additionally, chlorophyll concentrations were strongly related to nutrient
      concentrations, indicating that nutrient concentrations greatly affect phytoplankton abundance.
      We also found Microcystis in these low-order streams early in the season, contrary to
      expectations. Consequently, decreasing phosphorus loads to remediate Harmful Algal Blooms
      (HABs) may need to begin with managing runoff from agriculture early in the year. Further
      sampling and integration of the above observations with physical transport models, productivity
      measurements, and possibly genetic analyses should assist in informing management strategies
      to control HABs in western Lake Erie. Keywords: Phosphorus, Lake Erie, Microcystis.

May 17-21, 2010                                     127                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      KAPUSCINSKI, K.L. and FARRELL, J.M., State University of New York, College of
      Environmental Science and Forestry, 1 Forestry Drive, Syracuse, NY, 13210. Description and
      Comparison of Fish Assemblages at Muskellunge Nursery Sites in the Buffalo Harbor
      (Lake Erie), Upper Niagara River, and St. Lawrence River.

              Successful management of piscivorous fishes requires understanding the prey
      assemblages they rely upon, especially during the critical first growing season. However,
      relations between piscivores and supporting fish assemblages in littoral zones of the Great Lakes
      have been little studied relative to the pelagic. For example, incomplete knowledge of
      assemblages at muskellunge nursery sites makes it difficult to manage for favorable nursery
      conditions. Therefore, we sought to (1) describe fish assemblages at muskellunge nursery sites in
      the Buffalo Harbor, upper Niagara River, and St. Lawrence River, and (2) compare assemblages
      among sites and water bodies. Assemblage indices that quantified species richness, diversity,
      evenness, and dominance were used to describe nursery sites and compare site averages among
      water bodies. The percent similarity of species among sites was used in a cluster analysis and a
      nonmetric multidimensional scaling model to visualize and compare relations of assemblages
      among sites. Principal component analysis of species densities was used to quantify variation
      among sites and provide insight as to the sources of variation among sites and water bodies.
      Results were used to determine if assemblage structure at nursery sites was related to habitat
      differences and year class production of muskellunge. Keywords: Assemblages, Niagara River,
      Muskellunge, Fish populations, St. Lawrence River.

      HAJDUK, M.1, 1Great Lakes Center, Buffalo State College, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo,
      NY, 14222; 2Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY,
      11794-5245. Contrasting Survival And Growth Of Zebra Mussels And Quagga Mussels
      Under Different Temperature Regimes.

              The exotic zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and its congener the quagga mussel
      (Dreissena rostriformis bugensis) have very different invasion histories, with zebra mussels
      attaining substantially faster rates of spread at virtually all spatial scales. However, in
      waterbodies where they co-occur, D. r. bugensis often displaces D. polymorpha. To determine if
      the mechanisms for this displacement are associated with temperature dependent survival and
      growth, we kept mussels in flow-through tanks with two temperature regimes that are similar to
      the natural surface-water and hypolimnion conditions of Lake Erie. For each of these
      temperature regimes we used 3 replicate tanks with only zebra mussels present, 3 replicates with
      only quagga mussels (150 individuals in each tank), and 3 replicates with both species (75 of
      each species in each tank). Both species had significantly higher survival at lower temperatures,
      but zebra mussels had consistently higher mortality than quagga mussels across all treatments.
      Quagga mussels had significantly higher growth rates than zebra mussels, and both species grew
      faster at higher temperatures. All results were consistent among replicates, and survival and
      growth rates did not depend on whether mussels were kept separately or together, suggesting no
      direct competition. Keywords: Invasive species, Quagga mussel, Dreissena, Zebra mussel,
      Macroinvertebrates, Growth.

May 17-21, 2010                                     128                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

        City Honors School, 186 East North Street, Buffalo, NY, 14204; 2Great Lakes Center, Buffalo
      State College, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY, 14222; 3Department of Ecology and
      Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, 11794-5245. Dominance Within The
      Lake Does Not Represent Invasion Potential For Dreissenids.

              Despite similar dates of initial invasion in the Great Lakes, the two species of Dreissena
      show different patterns of invasion. Dreissena polymorpha has thus far spread across numerous
      waterbodies of North America, while the spread of Dreissena rostriformis bugensis has been
      much more limited. In the recent years, Dreissena r. bugensis has been observed to dominate the
      lower Great Lakes in terms of biomass and density of dreissenids. Considering the main vectors
      of the dreissenids‘ spread throughout the United States from the Great Lakes, this study
      examined the abundances and sizes of the two species on recreational boats from lakes Erie and
      Ontario. In glaring contrast to the ratios of the dreissenid species in the Great Lakes, Dreissena
      polymorpha was found to obtain similar or larger sizes and density than Dreissena bugensis on
      examined boats - the main vectors of spread for the two species. Thus, we can determine that,
      despite the dominance of D. r. bugensis among dreissenids in these lakes, the introduction of D.
      polymorpha may be just as likely as that of D. r. bugensis. Keywords: Quagga mussels, Zebra
      mussels, Spread, Biological invasions, Vectors.

      KARSIOTIS, S., BROWN, J.E., PIERCE, L., and STEPIEN, C.A., Lake Erie Center and Dept.
      Environmental Sci., University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, 43616. Salinity Tolerance
      Experiments of the Round Goby: Implications for euryhaline habitats and ballast water
      exchange control.

              The Eurasian round goby invaded the North American Great Lakes in ~1990 via ballast
      water introduction from the Black Sea area (0-15 ppt salinities), and since spread throughout
      watersheds and adjacent riverine systems. Legislation now requires oceanic ballast water
      exchange of vessels entering the Great Lakes, whose salinity effects are unknown on gobies. We
      tested 230 juvenile and adult round gobies in salinity tolerance experiments with 20 per
      treatment at 0 (control), 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 ppt - with 32 ppt being average oceanic
      conditions - in immediate immersion versus longer-term acclimation experiments (increasing 5
      ppt every 3 days). Immersion experiments yielded 95-100% survivorship at 0-10 ppt, 70-80% for
      15-20 ppt, 20% at 25 ppt, and 0% in 30-40 ppt. Acclimation experimental results were 95-100%
      survival in salinities of 0-20 ppt, 80% in 25 ppt, and 0% at 30 ppt. In long-term experiments,
      Lake Erie round gobies lived at salinities to 20 ppt for 4 months. Thus, round gobies readily
      tolerate and acclimate to estuarine conditions, and are unlikely to be affected by oceanic ballast
      water exchange. We predict that the round goby will spread to estuaries along North American
      coasts, where their success will be enhanced by their native mytilid mussel prey.
      Keywords: Round goby, Salinity tolerance, Biological invasions, Control efforts, Ballast.

      KEESHIG-TOBIAS, L., Department of Geology, Univ. of Toronto, 22 Russell Street, Toronto,
      ON, M5S 3B1. Geomythology and the Great Lakes.

May 17-21, 2010                                      129                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              Over the last 85 years, the Great Lakes has been the subject of geological and historical
      research. Aboriginal peoples have inhabited the Great Lakes watershed since time immemorial
      and hold significant knowledge, pre-contact information, about the geologic history of the area in
      myths and legend, a potentially huge untapped source of scientific information. Geomythology, a
      relatively new discipline, is the study of geological occurrences and events recorded in myth and
      legend. Indigenous Aboriginal geomyths have given scientists valuable insight into certain
      geological features and events; such as, the volcanic eruption that created Crater Lake, Oregon,
      some 7500 years ago. In 1999, the frozen remains of Kwaday Dan Sinchi (―Long Ago Person
      Found‖) was discovered in melting glacial ice between the Yukon and Alaska. Carbon dating by
      verifying that this person had lived during the 1400s, and affirmed the First Nations‘ oral history
      about ancestral trade routes over the glaciers. More recently, a possible connection between
      Anishnabe myth and legend and recent lakebed research in Lake Huron has come to light. This
      presentation will seek to show that Aboriginal traditional knowledge can interface with western
      science and contribute to a greater understanding of the Great Lakes. Keywords: First Nations,
      Geology, Great lakes, Traditional knowlegde, Aboriginal.

      KELLY, M.D.1, CAMPBELL, L.M.1, CUMMING, B.F.1, KIRK, J.2, and MUIR, D.2,
        Biosciences, 116 Barrie Street, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6, Canada; 2Environment Canada, 867
      Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6, Canada. Methyl Mercury Regulation within
      Sediments via Cycling Sulphur.

              The bioaccumulation of mercury in aquatic systems is controlled in part by sulphur
      speciation and cycling. Sulphur fractionation between anoxic sediments and water partitions alter
      the rate of formation for methyl mercury and chromium reducible sulphides (CRS). Stabilization
      of mercury depositions generally reduce biotic concentrations; however, little understanding is
      available for the sulphur trends influencing biotransformations of inorganic mercury. The
      strength of control over biotic uptake will be described by the efficiency of conversion to methyl
      mercury. This study seeks to provided annual approximations for sediment sulphur and mercury
      corresponding to fish which pre-date contaminant regulations. Sediment collections from several
      Ontario lakes are expected to reveal gradients of sulphur concentrations as measured by
      chromium reducible sulphur. Fish collections available through the Royal Ontario Museum will
      be used to assess temporal differences of this transference rate. Low concentrations of mercury
      sharing high CRS levels are expected to reduce observed biotic accumulation. The control
      strength of sulphur is thus expected to vary with CRS and will be demonstrated using the
      gradient observed within Ontario. Keywords: Sediment control, Biotransformation,

      KELLY, N.E.1, YAN, N.D.1, YOUNG, J.D.2, and WINTER, J.2, 1York University, Department
      of Biology, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3; 2Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Rd,
      Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6. Dynamics of the Invasive Spiny Water Flea, Bythotrephes
      longimanus, in Lake Simcoe.

May 17-21, 2010                                      130                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              Bythotrephes longimanus is an invasive, predaceous zooplankter that is associated with
      reductions in crustacean zooplankton diversity and Cladoceran standing stocks. It also competes
      with small fish for zooplankton prey, which in turn may influence water quality and recruitment
      of fish stocks. Bythotrephes invaded Lake Simcoe in 1993, and given the potential impacts of its
      invasion, there is a pressing need to evaluate the Bythotrephes population in order to manage the
      Lake Simcoe ecosystem successfully. To further this goal, we examined spatial and temporal
      trends in Bythotrephes abundance, body size, and reproduction, at three spatially separated sites
      from 1999 – 2007, and used multivariate statistical techniques to identify the biotic and abiotic
      factors influencing its abundance phenology. Bythotrephes exhibited large spatial and temporal
      variation in abundance, but also a mid-season population crash and concurrent decrease in body
      size which was consistent across all sites. Both males and resting eggs occurred prior to these
      population crashes in most years. The inter-annual variation in abundance and seasonal timing of
      population crashes suggest both physical and biological factors may be significant drivers of
      Bythotrephes distribution within the lake. Keywords: Lake Simcoe, Zooplankton, Invasive

      KENDALL, S.T.1, BIDDANDA, B.A.1, RUBERG, S.A.2, NOLD, S.C.3, GREEN, R.4,
      LUSARDI, W.4, CASSERLY, T.4, and NEWMAN, S.4, 1GVSU Annis Water Resources
      Institute, 740 West Shoreline Dr, Muskegon, MI, 49441; 2Great Lakes Environmental Research
      lab, 4840 South State Rd, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108; 3Biology Department, University of
      Wisconsin-Stout, Menomonie, WI, 54751; 4Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary, 500 West
      Fletcher St., Alpena, MI, 49707. Production and Respiration of Microbial Mats in the
      Groundwater Layer of Submerged Sinkholes in Lake Huron.

              Groundwater from deep within the Silurian-Devonian carbonate rocks is continuously
      flowing through and along the floor of Lake Huron at several submerged sinkhole sites. A sharp
      chemocline with the overlying lakewater is easily visible with shimmering and color changes.
      The unique chemistry of the groundwater (no dissolved oxygen, lower pH and ORP, and higher
      sulfates and other ions) has given rise to spectacular microbial mats whose type, extent of
      growth, and metabolic processes is dependent, in part, on available sunlight. The combination of
      low oxygen and elevated sulfate levels appears to be a significant factor in driving the energy
      flow in these ecosystems; however, the degree of sunlight penetration is clearly involved.
      Metabolic studies conducted in situ on microbial mats using benthic metabolic chambers and ex
      situ experiments using 14C-bicarbonate with benthic cores and overlying water show that
      shallow sunlit springs are clearly photosynthesis dominated, while production processes in the
      deeper aphotic sinkhole is chemosynthesis dominated. Preliminary data suggest that purple
      cyanobacterial mats with underlying sediments from Middle Island sinkhole carryout oxygenic
      and anoxygenic photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, and sulfate reduction. Keywords: Metabolism,
      Biogeochemistry, Lake Huron.

      KENNEDY, J.A. and VALENTA, T.J., Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District, P.O. Box
      19015, Green Bay, WI, 54307. GBMSD Long Term Monitoring Program on lower Green
      Bay and the Fox River: 2010 and Beyond.

May 17-21, 2010                                     131                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              The Green Bay Metropolitan Sewerage District (GBMSD) has conducted voluntary water
      quality monitoring on the waters of the lower Green Bay and the Fox River since 1986. The
      program provides high quality data which helps to determine the impact of our discharge on the
      Fox River and Green Bay. Historically, 18 sites have been sampled during the open water season
      12-16 times per year. Surveys collect whole water column physical profile and solar radiation
      measurements. Water samples are collected for analysis of conventional parameters and
      nutrients. Organic and inorganic pollutant surveys for water and sediment are conducted on a
      less frequent basis. All monitoring data is maintained in an Access database at GBMSD.
      Historically GBMSD has collaborated with other agencies that conduct monitoring or research
      on the Fox River and Green Bay (eg. the State of the Bay website which is maintained by the
      University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institute). In early 2009 the GBMSD Commission authorized
      an expansion of the monitoring program, including the purchase of a new work boat. The new
      vessel will have increased monitoring capabilities and extended range. GBMSD will pursue
      future opportunities for collaboration with other researchers or agencies who plan to conduct
      field activities within the Lower Fox River/Green Bay ecosystem. Keywords: Nutrients, Green
      Bay, Monitoring.

      KENNEDY, S., HODSON, P.V., BROWN, S., and CASSELMAN, J., Bioscience complex,
      Queen's University, Kingston, On, K7L 3N6. Are dioxin-like contaminants contributing to
      the population decline of L. Ontario eels (Anguilla rostrata)?

              Recruitment of American eel, Anguilla rostrata, to L. Ontario has declined by almost
      90% since the 1980s. One hypothesis to explain this crash is embryo mortality due to maternally-
      derived contaminants, specifically TCDD and dioxin-like chemicals accumulated by eels as they
      grow and mature in L. Ontario. We tested this hypothesis with bioassays of eel tissue extracts
      injected into embryos of a surrogate species, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). By injecting
      eel extracts into medaka, we assessed developmental problems associated with the maternal
      transfer of dioxin-like toxicants to embryos. On day 11 post fertilization, injected eggs were
      scored for signs of toxicity including blue sac disease, a hall-mark sign of dioxin-induced
      toxicity. The ED50 of the extracts, expressed as TCDD equivalents, varied with the degree of
      chemical contamination, as influenced by location of capture. The most toxic eel extracts came
      from L. Ontario with an ED50 equivalent to 3.79 pg/mg TCDD. This indicates that eels residing
      in L. Ontario accumulate sufficiently high concentrations of dioxin-like contaminants that their
      body tissues are toxic to embryonic medaka and probably to their own offspring as well. These
      results will influence eel remediation programs and management of chemical contamination in
      Lake Ontario. Keywords: Lake Ontario, Dioxin, Environmental contaminants, American eel.

      KHOURY, M., SOWA, S.P., BOWMAN, R., and KENDY, E., 101 E. Grand River Ave.,
      Lansing, MI, 48906. Principles of Environmental Flows In the Great Lakes Region.

             The scientific principles of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water
      Resources Agreement (The Compact) are consistent with the fundamental principles of
      Environmental Flows. However, additional principles of the Compact that emphasize ensuring
      multiple benefits of water availability, accounting for other factors that alter groundwater and

May 17-21, 2010                                     132                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      surface water supplies such as climate change, using coordinated and consistent approaches, and
      promoting efficiency of water use hold the Great Lakes states and provinces to a higher standard.
      The multitude of scientific approaches that could be used to implement the Compact in
      conjunction with data disparities and time constraints under the Compact make it difficult to
      meet this higher standard. Yet, scientific frameworks exist and efforts to foster collaboration to
      meet this higher standard are underway that are helping those charged with implementing the
      Compact adhere to this higher standard. This presentation will cover basic principles of
      Environmental Flows and the Compact and discuss what these principles mean collectively for
      developing operational programs under the Compact. Keywords: Environmental policy, Great
      Lakes basin, Water distribution.

        Kilgour & Associates Ltd., Ottawa, ON, K1H 1B8; 2Environment Canada, Gatineau, QC, K1A
      0H3; 3University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1; 4Toronto and Region Conservation
      Authority, Downsview, ON, M3N 1S4. Quantifying Road Salt Impacts in Toronto-Area
      Streams, and Ecological Benefits of Reducing Salt Loads.

              Environment Canada declared road salt a toxic substance in 2001, implemented the Road
      Salt Code of Practice in 2004, and will be reporting on the ecological benefits of the Code in
      2010. This study supports the understanding of the ecological benefits of implementation of the
      Code. Field data collected by Toronto and Region Conservation Authority between 2000 and
      2008 demonstrated significant associations between chloride concentrations in streams and
      diversity and composition of fish and benthic communities. Streams with high chloride
      concentration tended to have lower diversity and more ―tolerant‖ taxa. Changes in benthic
      community composition since implementation of the Code have been significant but subtle,
      potentially being masked by other stressors such as high nutrient concentrations. Toxicity data
      can be further used to quantify potential ecological benefit, assuming all other factors are
      controlled. Species sensitivity distributions predict a benefit of up to 30% of potential taxa in the
      region, given observed reductions in chloride loadings. Keywords: Fish, Tributaries, Benthos,
      Urban areas, Species composition.

      KING, L.E.1, DE SOLLA, S.R.2, and QUINN, J.S.1, 1McMaster University, Department of
      Biology, Hamilton, ON; 2Environment Canada, Wildlife and Landscape Science Division,
      Burlington, ON. DNA mutation rate in Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus)
      associated with exposure to PAH's on Lakes Ontario and Erie.

              Pollution from steel production is a threat to nearby wildlife and a serious concern near
      Hamilton, Ontario, home to two integrated steel mills. Research suggests this air pollution causes
      higher DNA mutation rates in herring gulls and mice, with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
      (PAH's) as a suspected cause. Cormorants are an excellent species in which to study airborne and
      dietary exposure as they eat almost entirely fish, simplifying the tracing of the aquatic route of
      contaminant exposure. We collected blood and regurgitated samples from Double-crested
      Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus) families in two colonies adjacent to steel mills in Hamilton
      Harbour (Lake Ontario) and one colony at our reference site on Mohawk Island (Lake Erie),

May 17-21, 2010                                       133                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Ontario, and will continue similarly next season. DNA from the blood samples is being used to
      determine the germline mutation rate in each colony using several microsatellite loci. To
      understand dietary exposure, we will investigate whether adult cormorants are foraging from
      littoral or pelagic food webs, and whether varying diets can cause differing contaminant uptake.
      Red blood cells used for analyzing stable isotopes and essential fatty acids, along with
      regurgitated samples, will help further our understanding of diet composition in order to better
      answer these crucial questions. Keywords: Cormorants, Mutation, PAHs, Toxicology,
      Environmental contaminants, Waterbirds.

      KISH, J.L.1, REED, A.J.1, OSTER, R.J.1, WERNE, J.P.2, and HICKS, R.E.1, 1Department of
      Biology, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, MN, 55812; 2Large Lakes Observatory and
      Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth, MN,
      55812. Planktonic Archaeal Communities Related to Nitrogen Cycle Processes Change
      Seasonally in Lake Superior.

              Molecular information about planktonic microbial communities can aid our
      understanding of in-lake processes like nitrogen cycling. Archaeal abundance and community
      structure were examined in Lake Superior during 2007 and 2008. T-RFLP fingerprints of
      planktonic archaeal communities were compared during stratified and mixed lake conditions.
      Two discrete clusters of archaeal assemblages were present under stratified conditions but only
      one cluster was evident during mixed conditions. One stratified cluster was associated with water
      above the deep chlorophyll maximum, and the other with archaeal assemblages found throughout
      the deep hypolimnion. The composition of archaeal communities changed in surface waters after
      the epilimnion formed, but deeper communities remained unchanged in the hypolimnion.
      Analysis of 16S rDNA clones indicated many non-thermophilic crenarchaea were present and
      similar to Nitrosopumilus maritimus strain SCM1, a marine crenarchaeal ammonia oxidizer.
      After stratification, copies of the archaeal 16S rDNA and amoA genes were more abundant
      below the deep chlorophyll maximum but much less abundant in the epilimnion. The
      composition of the archaeal community changes seasonally in the surface waters of this lake and
      some members of these planktonic communities may contribute to nitrification in the water
      column. Keywords: Nutrients, Microbiological studies, Lake Superior.

      KIVI, M. and DELORME, P., Health Canada, Pest Management Regulatory Agency,
      Environmental Assessment Directorate, 2720 Riverside Dr, Ottawa, ON, K2J 2W3, Canada.
      Scientific evaluation and decision-making process for pest control products in Canada-
      Environmental Risk Assessment for pesticides in Canada.

              Health Canada's Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) is responsible for
      pesticide regulation at the federal level in Canada under the authority of the Pest Control
      Products Act (PCPA). The PMRA registers pesticides only if a stringent, science-based
      evaluation shows they will pose no unacceptable risks to human health or the environment and
      will have value. Under the PCPA, HC-PMRA evaluates new products, new uses of existing
      products and undertakes a mandated re-evaluation for products on a 15year cycle to ensure they
      continue to meet current scientific standards; promotes sustainable pest management; and

May 17-21, 2010                                     134                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      promotes and verifies compliance with the Act. The Environmental Assessment Directorate
      (EAD) evaluates data on environmental toxicology and environmental fate of pesticides, and
      uses this information to conduct and environmental risk assessment. Steps within the risk
      assessment framework include exposure assessment, hazard assessment, risk characterization
      and risk mitigation/risk management to address any environmental concerns that may arise from
      the intended use of a product. Mitigative measures are specified on the product label and can
      include a variety of measures depending on the risks identified. EAD maintains contacts with
      other agencies by providing up-to-date information, science, standards and protocols.
      Keywords: Risk Assessment, Pesticides.

      KLEIN, D.1, DORAN, P.J.2, MAYNE, G.3, READ, J.4, DEROSIER, A.5, LAPENNA, A.6, and
      KRAUS, D.7, 1The Nature Conservancy, 1048 University Avenue, Rochester, NY, 14607; 2101
      East Grand River Avenue, Lansing, MI, 48906; 3Environment Canada, Ontario Region, 867
      Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R4A6; 4Michigan Sea Grant, Samuel T. Dana Building, 440
      Church St., Suite 4044, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-1041; 5Michigan Department of Natural
      Resources, Wildlife Division, PO Box 30444, Lansing, MI, 48909; 6Natural Heritage
      Information Centre, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 41 Hatchery Lane, RR4, Picton, ON,
      K0K2T0; 7The Nature Conservancy of Canada, RR#5, 5420 Highway 6 North, Guelph, ON,
      N1H 6J2. Developing and Implementing Biodiversity Conservation Strategies for Lakes
      Ontario and Huron.

              The primary goal of conservation planning efforts is the development of strategies for the
      protection and restoration of biological diversity and the ecosystem services it supports. The
      Lake Ontario Biodiversity Conservation Strategy was released in 2009, based on the input from
      experts in Canada and the U.S., representing over 50 agencies and organizations. A similar
      strategy for Lake Huron will be released in mid-2010. These lake wide strategies used the
      Conservation Action Planning process to assess the health and conservation needs of key
      ecosystem components. These efforts also identified five critical threats imperiling the health of
      the lake ecosystems: incompatible development, invasive species, dams and barriers, non point
      source pollution and climate change. The final reports provide recommendations to protect and
      restore, to the full extent possible, the native biodiversity and critical natural processes of the
      Lake Ontario and Huron basins. These efforts identified, through analysis of biological data and
      expert judgment, priority watersheds and coastal reaches of the ecosystem that most urgently
      require conservation action. This presentation will provide a summary of strategy
      recommendations and priority areas, and discuss how the strategies can be implemented through
      both local and international initiatives. Keywords: Planning, Lake Ontario, Lake Huron,

        Algal Taxonomy and Ecology Inc, 31 Laval Dr., Winnipeg, MB, R3T2X8, Canada; 2Fisheries
      and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6, Canada; 3Department
      of Geography, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada; 4Environment Canada, Canada
      Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, ON, Canada. Eutrophication, Algal Microfossils and
      Cyanobacteria in Central Canadian Lakes.

May 17-21, 2010                                      135                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              Short sediment cores from Lake Winnipeg ( LWPG ) Manitoba, Lake of the Woods (
      LOW) and L227, Experimental Lakes Area are all located in central Canada. Lead 210 and
      cesium 137 dated cores from these lakes were analyzed for chemical composition and algal
      remains including both soft tissue and siliceous microfossils. This presentation focuses on the
      distribution of soft tissue microfossils such as cyanobacteria remains( akinetes, sheaths and
      mucilaginous sheaths) chlorophyte remains, and dominant planktonic diatom ( siliceous
      microfossils) in the cores related to climate change, as well as experimental and anthropogenic
      eutrophication. Changes in assemblage composition of microfossils in the cores indicate an
      increase in lake trophic levels beginning in the mid 60's in LWPG, mid 70's and 80's in LOW (
      area dependent) and post 1969 in L227. Significant shifts were found in cyanobacterial akinetes (
      particularly those of Anabaena and Aphanizomenon). The L227 core microfossil history
      correlates well with the changes found in the plankton record post 1969 depicting the
      experimental eutrophication and know changes in the nitrogen and phosphorus loading ratios.
      This study documents the sensitivity of both small and large water bodies to nutrient loading
      including natural ( climate driven)and cultural or experimental eutrophication.
      Keywords: Aphanizomenon, Eutrophication, Cyanobacteria, Sediments, Algae, Anabaena.

      KLUMP, J.V., Great Lakes WATER Institute, University Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee,
      WI, 53204. The Stoichiometry and Magnitude of Carbon Transport and Cycling in the
      Green Bay Ecosystem of Lake Michigan.

              The areal average for carbon burial for the southern Green Bay as a whole is ~12 g C m -2
      yr-1, roughly twice the average for large lakes and equivalent to 0.015 Tg per year or 0.25% of
      the global large lake carbon sink term. The maximum organic carbon burial rate in Green Bay is
      80 g C m-2 yr-1, the result of > 6 fold focusing of fine grained materials with organic carbon
      concentrations reaching 10%. A key to the role of large lakes as carbon sinks or sources is the
      stoichiometry of inputs relative to burial and export. The character and magnitude of inputs is
      determined by biogeochemical processes within the watershed. The Fox River basin of Green
      Bay is heavily impounded and these reservoirs affect both the residence time and the
      stoichiometry of nutrient and carbon loading. Keywords: Biogeochemistry, Carbon cycle, Green

      KLUMP, J.V.1, PADDOCK, R.W.1, ANDERSON, P.D.1, RUBERG, S.2, JOHENGEN, T.2, and
      BIDDANDA, B.3, 1Great Lakes WATER Institute, University Wisconsin-Milwaukee,
      Milwaukee, WI, 53204; 2Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI,
      48108; 3Annis Water Resources Institute, Grand Valley State University, Muskegon, MI, 49441.
       Tracking the Rate of Groundwater Mixing in a Lake Huron Sinkhole Using Rn-222.

             As part of an interdisciplinary investigation of the biogeochemical processes active in a
      series of sublacustrine sinkholes recently discovered in Lake Huron, we have attempted to
      quantify the rate of groundwater mixing using Rn-222 as a tracer. Rn-222 is a conservative,
      radioactive noble gas with a half life of 3.8 days. By comparing the observed Rn-222 activity in
      sinkhole waters collected from a remotely operated vehicle with the activity expected based upon

May 17-21, 2010                                     136                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      groundwater and lake water end member concentrations and mixing based on conservative ions
      (e.g. Cl-), an estimate of the time of mixing may be derived. These mixing times may then be
      applied to non-conservative constituents, like methane or nutrients, to estimate removal, uptake
      or oxidation rates as these waters mix. Keywords: Biogeochemistry, Groundwater, Lake Huron,

      KOPF, V.E. and EVANS, D.O., Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 2140 East Bank Drive,
      Peterborough, ON, K9J 6Y3. Influence of changing climate and lake thermal regime on
      spawning time of lake trout, Salvelinus namaycush, in Lake Simcoe, 1976-2003.

              Lake trout spawning time has been delayed by warming atmospheric conditions and
      related changes in the thermal regime of Lake Simcoe. Standard ten foot trap nets were set at two
      sites, Blackbird Point and Strawberry Island, from 1976 to 2003. Nets were installed in mid
      September to early October prior to the onshore movement of lake trout and fished until late
      November. Nets were lifted on average every 2.8 and 3.8 days and a total of 17,092 and 24,841
      lake trout were captured. Catches were classified by sex and maturity and cumulative catch
      curves were fitted to characterize the spawning runs. Atmospheric temperature data was obtained
      from weather stations at Angus, Barrie and Midhurst, Ontario. The total run duration averaged
      35 and 37 days at Georgina and Strawberry, respectively. The timing and duration of the male
      component of the runs were similar between sites. Spawning time was delayed by about two
      weeks from the 1970s to 2000s and was correlated with warmer atmospheric and epilimnetic
      temperatures, but not hypolimnetic temperatures. This suggests that warmer surface waters are
      now delaying inshore movement of spawning lake trout. Keywords: Lake trout, Thermal regime,
      Lake Simcoe, Climate change.

      KRAMER, J.W. and RICHARDS, R.P., Heidelberg University, 310 E. Market Street, Tiffin,
      OH, 44883. Atrazine in Northwest Ohio Rivers: Long-Term Trends.

              The National Center for Water Quality Research at Heidelberg University has monitored
      atrazine concentrations in the Maumee and Sandusky Rivers since 1983, with a program focused
      on storm runoff during the post-application season. This program has generated atrazine
      concentration data from more than 2000 samples for each river. The watersheds of these rivers
      have about 80% row-crop agricultural land use, corn is a major crop, and atrazine is widely
      applied in these watersheds. Concentrations in the rivers are usually highest during runoff from
      the first several storms following application, usually in May and June, and are generally low
      from about September to the following May. Overall, linear regression analysis of the data shows
      a slight but significant increase in concentration. However, LOWESS smooths indicate a slight
      decrease during the past ten years. The increasing trend is due to increased frequency of
      observations above 15 µg/L, and is probably more related to weather patterns than changes in
      use. Monthly analysis shows increasing trends in April and May, no change in June, and
      decreasing trends in other months. Keywords: Atrazine, Trends, Tributaries, Lake Erie.

May 17-21, 2010                                     137                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      KRANTZBERG, G.1 and GANNON, J.2, 1ArcelorMittal Dofasco Centre for Engineering &
      Public Policy, McMaster University, Hamilton, on; 2Great Lakes Regional Office, IJC, Windsor,
      ON. Innovation, Evolution and Applications of the Ecosystem Approach.

               Henry Regier marshaled the concepts of ecosystem and integrity into the binational
      regime in the Great Lakes Basin in the early 1970's. We discuss how they were made explicit
      under the 1978 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement. The 1987 Protocol helped to make
      explicit practical meaning of ecosystem integrity of the Great Lakes Basin in practical terms. The
      Great Lakes Research Advisory Board of the IJC, which had Dr. Regier‘s scholarship at its core,
      saw the ecosystem approach as a "necessary integrative framework" linking many human
      activities with the non-human parts of the Ecosystem and biosphere. The main conclusion of the
      GLRA was that the "accent on water quality objectives in the absence of an ecosystem approach
      was constraining the ability to prevent pollution of the Great Lakes". We discuss the evolution of
      the approach and its revolutionary contributions to resource management around the globe at a
      myriad of scales.

      KRAUSE, A.E.1 and FRANK, K.F.2, 1University of Toledo, Department of Environmental
      Sciences, Toledo, OH, 43606; 2Michigan State University, Department of Fisheries and Wildlife,
      East Lansing, MI, 48824. The Importance of Network Properties for Understanding Great
      Lakes Food Webs: A Case Study of Southeastern Lake Michigan.

              Finding holistic measures of ecosystem dynamics is challenging. We present multiple
      holistic measures from network analysis to evaluate the dynamics of a food web network across
      time for southeastern Lake Michigan. Our analysis showed that the food web was divided into
      one subsystem contained predominantly pelagic taxa and another contained benthic taxa. We
      calculated measures to determine a taxon's position in the system. One measure indicated
      whether a taxon was central to its subgroup sharing strong feeding interactions with other
      members of its subgroup. The other measure indicated if a taxon helped to bridge energy
      exchanges between subsystems. We incorporated uncertainty into the following analyses. We
      found that central taxa had greater biomass change in the pelagic subsystem whereas the
      peripheral taxa had greater biomass change in the benthic subsystem. Taxa in the pelagic system
      also had greater changes in biomass than those in the benthic system. Our previous results
      suggest that the benthic subsystem had more changes in system properties in the same time
      period based on system properties. Overall, these results indicate that individual taxon biomass
      change is not necessarily a good indicator of system property change and a taxon's subsystem
      and position are relevant to the measures of interest to managers. Keywords: Management,
      Ecosystem modeling, Food chains.

      CAGAMPAN, S.1, SMALL, J.1, and JANTUNEN, L.2, 1Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore
      Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Environment Canada, 6248 8th LINE, Egbert, ON, L0L 1N0.
      DICHLORPROP and METOLACHLOR in ONTARIO STREAMS; 2006-2007 vs 2003-

May 17-21, 2010                                      138                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              Concentrations and stereoisomer compositions of mecoprop, dichlorprop and metolachlor
      were determined in Ontario stream samples in 2003-2004 and 2006-2007. Median concentrations
      of dichlorprop and metolachlor in 2006-2007 were not significantly different from those in 2003-
      2004, however mecoprop concentrations were higher in 2006-2007 (p =0.03). The median
      enantiomer fraction (EF) of mecoprop was higher in 2006-2007 (0.599) than in 2003-2004
      (0.490) (p<0.001). Samples with higher concentrations showed nearly racemic compositions (EF
      = 0.5) in 2003-2004, while nonracemic compositions in 2006-2007 reflected the switch in usage
      from racemic mecoprop to single enantiomer mecoprop-P in Canada after 2004. The
      stereoisomer fraction of metolachlor, was slightly but significantly lower in 2006-2007 (0.863)
      than in 2003-2004 (0.880) (p=0.002). Samples with higher concentrations showed SFs similar to
      that of enantioenriched S-metolachlor (0.880). Residues of all three herbicides in low
      concentration samples showed an increased proportion of the herbicidally inactive stereoisomers.
      Stereoselective degradation and/or rearrangement in the watersheds might explain these
      observations. Results show the value of stereoselective analysis to probe changes in product
      usage and provide toxicologically relevant data for residues of chiral pesticides.
      Keywords: Pesticides, Enantioselective degradation, Watersheds, Great Lakes basin.

      J.1, 1Environment Canada, AEPRD, 867 LakeShore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6;
        Environment Canada, CARE, 6248 8th LINE, Egbert, ON, L0L 1N0. Current-Use Pesticides
      in Ontario Remote Lakes and Precipitation Samples.

              Seasonal variation and regional variation of current use pesticides (CUPs) was studied in
      a 3 year study conducted between 2003 and 2005. A total of 163 large water samples from 10
      lakes and 51 precipitation samples were analyzed. The frequency of detection of the 26 CUPs
      (including 3 degradation products) for all 3 years ranged from 0 to 99% in water and from 0 to
      100% in precipitation. High frequency chemicals (>60%) were -endosulfan, metolachlor,
      atrazine, chlorpyrifos, desethyl atrazine, endosulfan sulphate, trifluralin and dacthal. In general,
      median values of compounds of interest were higher in 2005 than in 2003 or 2004 (p<0.05).
      Concentrations were generally higher in the southern lakes. Two major herbicides, metolachlor
      and atrazine showed higher concentrations in southern and central Ontario lakes compared to
      northern lakes which are far from intensively farmed areas. Average stereoisomer fractions of
      metolachlor, SF = sum of 2 active/(2 active+2 inactive) isomers, in lake water ranged from 0.720
      to 0.890 while it ranged between 0.799 and 0.928 in precipitation samples, which was close to
      SF of product in use, S-metolachlor (0.880). Keywords: Assessments, Precipitation, Pesticides,
      Ontario remote lakes, Great Lakes basin, Current-use pesticides.

      KUTOVAYA, O.A., MCKAY, R.M., and BULLERJAHN, G.S., Bowling Green State
      University, Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green, OH, 43403. Detection and
      expression of genes involved in organic P utilization by freshwater picocyanobacteria.

             We are examining the genetic potential of picocyanobacteria to recruit different sources
      of organic phosphorus in both Lake Erie and Lake Superior. The pelagic regions of Lake

May 17-21, 2010                                       139                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Superior and eastern Lake Erie are typically P-limited environments, and picocyanobacteria of
      the genus Synechococcus are the dominant primary producers during the summer. Specifically,
      we are examining the ability of endemic microbes to assimilate organic phosphates and
      phosphonates. As a proxy for their utilization of these substrates, we are monitoring the
      expression of two genes, phnD and phoX. The phnD gene encodes the phosphonate binding
      protein of the ABC-type phosphonate transporter, whereas the phoX gene encodes a calcium-
      dependent alkaline phosphatase. We have developed PCR primers to detect the presence of both
      genes in the endemic picocyanobacteria, and RT-PCR is being used to examine the patterns of
      expression that serve to assess the degree of P-stress experienced in the phytoplankton.
      Keywords: Phosphorus, Cyanophyta, Microbiological studies.

      LA ROSE, J.K.L.1, ROBILLARD, M.1, MOLES, M.1, DOLSON, R.1, and WILLOX, C.C.2,
        Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Lake Simcoe Fisheries Assessment Unit, 26465 York
      Rd 18, Sutton West, ON, L0E 1R0; 2Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources,Southern Science
      and Information Section, Aquatic Science Unit, 26465 York Rd 18, Sutton West, ON, L0E 1R0.
       Natural Reproduction in the Lake Simcoe Coldwater Fish Community.

              Lake Simcoe‘s coldwater fish community has experienced drastic change over the past
      four decades. Long term fisheries monitoring programs conducted by the Ontario Ministry of
      Natural Resources, Lake Simcoe Fisheries Assessment Unit (LSFAU), have documented
      recruitment failures in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), lake whitefish (Coregonus
      clupeaformis) and lake herring (Coregonus artedi). Following this, striking declines and long
      periods of low abundance were observed for these species into the early 2000s. Lake Simcoe‘s
      populations of lake trout and lake whitefish have been supported through intensive stocking. The
      abundance of burbot (Lota lota), two native sculpin (Cottus sp.) species and the invasive rainbow
      smelt (Osmerus mordax) also declined during this period. Monitoring conducted since 2001 has
      confirmed the presence of young, naturally reproduced lake trout, whitefish, herring, rainbow
      smelt and sculpins. Monitoring data also confirms the survival of multiple year classes of wild,
      lake trout to adulthood. We will review the timing and extent of this change in the status of Lake
      Simcoe‘s coldwater fish community. Keywords: Lake Simcoe, Fish populations, Monitoring.

      LABENCKI, T.L. and BOYD, D., Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Road,
      Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6. Tracking down potential sources of PCBs in the Hamilton
      Harbour Area of Concern (AOC).

              In the Hamilton Harbour AOC, the BUI Restrictions on Fish and Wildlife Consumption is
      driven by elevated levels of PCBs in sport fish. An event-based survey conducted during 2007
      found that PCB concentrations were higher in the Harbour relative to inflow waters. Follow-up
      in 2008 included five water quality surveys and two 28-day SPMD deployments at 10 Harbour
      stations. Total PCB concentrations in water and SPMDs varied over two orders-of-magnitude
      among Harbour stations, with maximum concentrations of 387 ng/L and 23,000 ng/g triolein,
      respectively. Strong spatial gradients, patterns in temporal variability and PCB congener
      signatures suggested that Windermere Arm remains the primary PCB source area for the
      Harbour, and that further investigation was warranted for the Strathearne Ave Slip. In 2009,

May 17-21, 2010                                      140                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      sediment coring in this Slip demonstrated that total PCB concentrations as well as the proportion
      of less-chlorinated congeners increased towards the south end of the Slip to a maximum of
      24,000 ng/g. Interpretation of Harbour-wide PCB dynamics remains complex; however both
      resuspension processes and ongoing inputs may be contributing to the BUI and will continue to
      be investigated to determine what remedial actions should be taken for this AOC.
      Keywords: Source trackdown, Hamilton Harbour, PCBs.

        School of Public Health, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60612; 2Bureau of
      Environmental Health, Wisconsin Division of Public Health, Madison, WI, 53703. Uterine
      Leiomyoma in a Cohort of Female Great Lakes Sport Fish Consumers.

              Diet and endocrine disrupting persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been associated
      with gynecologic conditions including uterine leiomyomas. Great Lakes fish consumption
      (GLFC) is a source of exposure to POPs such as p,p‘-diphenyldichloroethene (DDE) and
      polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study was designed to examine the effects of sport fish
      consumption (FC), DDE and PCB levels on prevalent leiomyomas and to examine
      retrospectively the effects FC on incidence of leiomyomas in women participating in the GLFC
      Study. We hypothesized that associations are modified by age, obesity, and breastfeeding.
      Effects of FC and POP exposures on leiomyomas were modeled using multiple logistic
      regression and effects of years of FC were modeled using time-dependent Cox proportional
      hazards regression. FC was associated with prevalent and incident leiomyoma. In stratified
      analyses, the association of FC with prevalent and incident leiomyomas was significant in the
      BMI ≥ 30 strata. DDE and sum PCBs were not associated with prevalent leiomyomas. However,
      sum PCBs and antiestrogenic PCB congeners were related to leiomyomas in women who never
      breastfed. This study demonstrates an association of FC with both prevalent and incident
      leiomyomas. Stratified models for fish and PCBs support our hypothesis of effect modification.
      Keywords: Fibroids, Fish, Uterine leiomyoma, Great Lakes basin, PCBs, DDE.

      LOWER, N.2, MCLAUGHLIN, R.L.2, and COOKE, S.J.1, 1Biology Department, Carleton
      University, Ottawa, ON, K1S 5B6, Canada; 2Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph,
      ON, N1G 2W1, Canada. A review of fish movement and migration studies in the Laurentian
      Great Lakes: historical perspectives, management needs, and future research

              There are a variety of tools available for studying fish movement and migration that
      range from ―low-tech‖ mark-recapture tagging to more expensive and ―high-tech‖ electronic
      tagging (e.g., acoustic and radio telemetry, passive integrated transponders, archival loggers).
      Resource management agencies in the Great Lakes routinely conduct such studies in order to
      understand the temporal and spatial distribution of fish to identify critical habitats and to
      determine the connectivity of the different lakes and their tributaries, as well as mixing of
      different stocks and species. Indeed, knowledge of the movement and migratory biology of fish
      is fundamental to understanding their ecology and natural history. Despite a long history of

May 17-21, 2010                                     141                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      studying the movement of fish in the Great Lakes, this body of knowledge has never been
      summarized and critically evaluated to identify common themes and reveal future research
      opportunities. We conducted a literature review with the goal of summarizing existing studies on
      the movement and migration of fish in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Where appropriate, we also
      considered studies in tributaries if they were directly related to connectivity with the Great Lakes
      themselves. Keywords: Conservation, Fish management, Fish behavior.

      LANGAN, J.S.1, SEABROOK, S.2, and MCCORQUODALE, J.A.3, 1Stantec Consulting, 800-
      171Queens Ave., London, ON, N6A 5J7; 2HCCL, 248 Bagot St., Kingston, ON, K7K 3B7;
        University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, 70148-0001. Evolution of Approaches to
      Delineating Source Protection Vulnerable Areas about Great Lakes Water Treatment
      Plants Intakes.

              One of the key elements of the Ontario Source Protection process is the delineation of
      vulnerable areas about the raw water intake. In accordance with the Technical Rules some
      vulnerable areas are prescribed or taken from available mapping. Others are calculated using
      water movement vectors and a time factor. The approach to delineating the calculated vulnerable
      area about the intakes for Great Lakes water plants in Ontario has evolved in an iterative process
      from basic perusal of available data and ―professional judgement‖ to map an area about the
      intake to application of sophisticated hydrodynamic models with outputs validated with site-
      specific water movement data to calculate an area in a quantified manner. This presentation
      reviews the history of approaches used and technical findings to determine the vulnerable areas
      for a selection of Great Lakes and connecting channel water plants in Ontario. Benefits,
      limitations, challenges and lessons learned in the Ontario process will be discussed and
      similarities and differences to that found in the US Great Lakes states‘ work will be covered.
      This presentation will be of interest to utility owners and operators with water plants on the Great
      Lakes and connecting channels, federal, and provincial regulators and associated source
      protection committees. Keywords: Regulations, Hydrodynamics, Drinking water.

      LANGSETH, B.J., JONES, M.L., and IRWIN, B.J., Department of Fisheries and Wildlife,
      Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824. Evaluation of Harvest Policies for the
      Lake Huron Cold-Water Fish Community in a Changing Food Web.

              Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and bloater
      (Coregonus hoyi) have historically been important to Lake Huron‘s cold-water commercial
      fisheries. With the near-extirpation of lake trout in the mid 1900‘s, lake whitefish began to
      dominate commercial harvests. Efforts to rehabilitate lake trout are ongoing, but are hindered by
      bycatch in the lake whitefish fishery, setting up potential tradeoffs between continued harvest of
      lake whitefish and restoration of lake trout. In addition to lake trout-lake whitefish interactions,
      the food-web in Lake Huron has undergone substantial changes. The influence that these food-
      web changes will have on the interactions among fished species remains uncertain. An
      ecosystem model was built using the Ecopath with Ecosim software to describe the effects
      possible harvest policies will have on the cold-water fish community. This modeling framework
      accounts for direct interactions through fishing as well as indirect interactions through food-web

May 17-21, 2010                                       142                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      dynamics. Results from policies with varying levels of fishing pressure are presented, and the
      influence of alternative hypotheses about food-web structure and ecosystem productivity are
      explored. Keywords: Harvest policies, Ecosystem modeling, Lake Huron.

      Lake Ontario Biological Station, 17 Lake St., Oswego, NY, 13126; 2Cornell University
      Biological Field Station, 900 Shackelton Point Road, Bridgeport, NY, 13030. Consumption of
      the Recent Great Lakes Invader, Hemimysis anomala, by Fish in the Nearshore Waters of
      Eastern Lake Ontario.

              The Ponto-Caspian mysid, Hemimysis anomala, was first observed in southeastern Lake
      Ontario in May 2006 and in the diets of alewives there by summer 2007. During June-September
      2009, gillnets were fished in areas of known Hemimysis colonization east of Oswego, NY to
      determine if fish that consume macroinvertebrates were preying upon this new mysid. Three
      species consumed Hemimysis: alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus), rock bass (Ambloplites
      rupestris), and yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Hemimysis were observed from alewife
      stomachs from all months, from rock bass in August and from yellow perch in August and
      September. Alewife stomachs contained the most Hemimysis (up to 482 individuals in one
      stomach), while yellow perch and rock bass stomachs were never observed with more than 2
      individuals. The percentage composition of Hemimysis in alewife diets was greatest in August
      (55.2%), while chironomids were most important in June (65.8%) and Bythrotrephes longimanus
      was an important component in all months (26.1-93.4%). The predominant prey of both rock
      bass and yellow perch were round gobies. Although Hemimysis were observed only sparsely in
      the diet of most nearshore fish, their prevalence in alewife diets indicates that they have the
      potential to alter Great Lakes' foodwebs. Keywords: Fish diets, Invasive species, Alewife.

      LAWRENCE, P.L., University of Toledo, Dept of Geography & Planning, Toledo, OH, 43606.
      Completion of a Watershed Restoration Plan/Stage II Report for the Maumee Area of

              Since 2004 the Maumee RAP Advisory Committee has been working towards the
      completion of a watershed restoration plan for the Maumee Area of Concern that will also serve
      as its Stage II report. The planning process was lead by a plan development team lead by
      watershed coordinators from Ohio EPA and the Toledo Metropolitan Area Council of
      Governments (TMACOG) and a series of watershed teams. The plan consists of a volume of
      background information on the AOC, including detailed descriptions, mapping, assessment of
      BUIs, and relevant data on water quality issues and concerns for each of the seven watersheds
      within the Maumee AOC. Volume II of the report contains a comprehensive list of projects to
      address BUIs and water quality issues and concerns for each watershed. The plan was submitted
      to the State of Ohio for review by the area assistance team in 2006 and received partial
      endorsement as a watershed restoration plan. This presentation will provide highlights of the
      plan/stage II report and recent progress to complete the remaining aspects of the report,
      subsequent re-organization of the MRAC into Partners for Clean Streams, the implementation of

May 17-21, 2010                                    143                                      Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      projects from the plan and future prospects for delisting efforts within the Maumee AOC.
      Keywords: Management, Decision making, Watersheds.

      LEADBEATER, D.A. and ROY, M.B., 300 Town Centre Blvd., Suite 300, Markham, ON, L3R
      5Z6. Drowned River Mouth Restoration on the Great Lakes – Exploring the links between
      hydrology and biology in past restoration projects and demonstrating their influence on
      the design of current projects.

              Wetlands around the Great Lakes have been subjected to not only controls to basin
      hydrology and development pressure, but also changes to the watersheds they subtend as the
      receiving bodies. Several restoration projects have been implemented over the past 20 years with
      varying objectives and outcomes that feature this interplay of riverine and lacustrine
      environments. This presentation will provide an overview of the projects, the role that control of
      hydrology played in the projects and the outcomes to date. The projects will include Cootes
      Paradise and Grindstone Creek in Hamilton, Oshawa Second Marsh (Phases I and II), Cranberry
      Marsh, Carruther‘s Creek Marsh and projects currently in design at the mouth of the Don River.
      The objective of the presentation will be demonstrating how lessons learned from past
      experiences have informed the design of current and future projects from the perspective of
      aquatic habitat and vegetation and the importance of a comprehensive understanding of the link
      between hydrology and biology. Keywords: Lessons, Hydrogeomorphology, Don River Mouth,
      Wetlands, Coastal wetlands.

      LEE, P.F. and STILES, S.A., Department of Biology, Lakehead University, Thunder Bay, ON,
      P7B 5E1. Point and Non-point Sources of Eutrophication on the Thunder Bay Waterfront.

               The cause(s) of elevated N and P levels in the water column along the Thunder Bay
      waterfront were determined. There were two point sources for these nutrients – a paper mill
      located on the Kamanistiquia River and the Thunder Bay Water Pollution Control Plant. The
      main suspected source of non-point nutrients was Canada Geese. In order to separate out the
      likely origin of the nutrients, samples were collected below and above the paper mill and along
      the waterfront including the location of water intake for the city of Thunder Bay at Bare Point.
      The nutrient levels along the waterfront were often higher than near the point source sites
      indicating that non-point sites were also contributing to the nutrient levels. Coefficients of
      variation for the N and P parameters showed that the sites on the water front exhibited much
      higher levels of variation than did the sites near the point sources. Similarly, non-metric
      multidimensional scaling for the data showed that the scatter for sites along the waterfront was
      much greater than for the point source sites indicating that non-point eutrophication, caused by
      Canada Geese, was a major source of eutrophication. The study showed that in spite of major
      improvements to the Thunder Water Pollution Control Plant, non-point sources of nutrient inputs
      can still result in eutrophic conditions. Keywords: Lake Superior, Eutrophication, Nutrients.

May 17-21, 2010                                      144                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      LEISTI, K.E.1, MILNE, S.2, and DOKA, S.E.2, 1867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R
      4A6; 2PO Box 237, Keene, ON, K0L 2G0. Assessment of the Offshore Fish Community in
      Toronto Harbour Using Hydroacoustics and Bottom Trawling.

              Although many studies have documented the nearshore fish community of Toronto
      Harbour, little is known about the offshore fishes. In September 2009, a daytime hydroacoustic
      and concurrent bottom trawling program was undertaken. A total of thirty-eight 750 m long
      transects were trawled in the Inner and Outer Harbours, Outer Islands, Ashbridges and Humber
      Bays in water depths of 6, 10 and 15 m. Temperature and oxygen profiles were also recorded at
      the beginning and end of each transect. From the 36,398 fishes caught in the trawls, 56% were
      alewife, 23% were round gobies and 12% were rainbow smelt. Eight species were caught
      including threespine stickleback, emerald shiner, white sucker, spottail shiner and round
      whitefish. Although sampling effort varied, the results from the hydroacoustics indicate that
      mean fish density ranged from 45 fish/ha in the nearshore area of Humber Bay to 2375 fish/ha in
      the Inner Harbour. Estimated fish density is highest in the benthic layer (2 m above the bottom)
      with the majority of fish occurring in schools. A substantial wind event just prior to the end of
      the survey caused water temperatures to drop up to 15 C. This appears to have resulted in a
      major change in offshore fish distribution and abundance. Keywords: Fish, Hydroacoustics,
      Offshore, Toronto Harbour.

      LEISTI, K.E.1, DOKA, S.E.1, and MINNS, C.K.2, 1867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R
      4A6; 225 Willcocks Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3B2. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation Response
      to Perturbation in the Bay of Quinte: 1972 - 2007.

              Originally a mesotrophic system, the Bay of Quinte experienced eutrophication during
      the 1940s which resulted in the decline of the once lush submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV)
      beds by the mid-1960‘s. Since 1972, twelve SAV surveys have been conducted along ten index
      transects; six in the upper bay and two in both the middle and lower bays. During this time, two
      major perturbations occurred within the bay; the reduction in point source phosphorus loadings
      (P-control) in 1978 and the 1994 invasion by zebra mussels (ZM). SAV response to these
      perturbations varied temporally and spatially, with the upper bay eliciting the greatest response.
      In the upper bay, increases in SAV density were recorded after P-control, but the most
      substantial change to density and extent occurred after the dressenid invasion where there was a
      three-fold expansion at some of the SAV beds. Some upper bay beds have continued to expand
      in the post-ZM period, but mean density has decreased from its zenith in 2000. In the middle and
      lower bays, there was little SAV response to P-control, however the post-ZM period recorded
      increases in SAV density and depth of colonization. Both basin morphometry and water clarity
      appear to play major roles in SAV distribution and abundance within the Bay of Quinte.
      Keywords: Bay of Quinte, Submerged plants, Zebra mussels.

      LEKKI, J.D.1 and LESHKEVICH, G.2, 1NASA Glenn Research Center, 21000 Brookpark Road,
      Cleveland, OH, 44135; 2NOAA/Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 4840 South
      State Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108. Hyperspectral Airborne Monitoring of Microcystis
      Blooms in Lake Erie: 2009.

May 17-21, 2010                                      145                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and NOAA Great Lakes Environmental
      Research Laboratory (GLERL) are collaborating to utilize an airborne hyperspectral imaging
      sensor to forecast and monitor Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in the western basin of Lake Erie.
      The HABs are very dynamic events and are a concern for human health, fish, and wildlife
      because they commonly contain a potentially toxic algae, Microcystis. Because of this potential
      toxicity there is a need for the blooms to be detected early and continually monitored. A small
      lightweight Hyperspectral Imaging System (sensitive in the visible and near infrared portion of
      the spectrum) has been developed by engineers at the NASA GRC and the Ohio Aerospace
      Institute (OAI). The system consists of a pushbroom hyperspectral imager, a point spectrometer,
      a three axis inclinometer, a GPS receiver and a data acquisition and control computer. Mounted
      on a NASA aircraft, the system was flown over western Lake Erie in August and September of
      2009 while in situ water samples were collected. During this time, 75 sample locations were
      imaged. This data set is large enough to permit statistical analysis of instrument sensitivity and
      accuracy for Microcystis concentration measurement. Algorithm development and results from
      the analysis of this data will be presented. Keywords: Remote sensing, Harmful algal blooms,
      Lake Erie.

      LENTERS, J.D., University of Nebraska-Lincoln, School of Natural Resources, Lincoln, NE,
      68583. Seasonal Variations in the Lake Superior Energy Balance: Preliminary Results
      From an Island-Based Meteorological Station Near Marquette, Michigan.

              Variations in climate exert a strong control on the energy and water balance of lakes. This
      leads to changes in physical lake parameters such as temperature, ice cover, evaporation, and
      water levels. These changes, in turn, impact the broader lake ecosystem and issues of lake
      management. It is important, therefore, to understand how climate variability – from short
      timescales to decadal and longer timescales – drives the lake energy and water balance. An
      intensive monitoring station was recently deployed on Granite Island (near Marquette, Michigan)
      to help contribute to our understanding of some of these issues for Lake Superior. This station
      provides high frequency measurements of the local energy and water balance through precision
      radiometers, eddy covariance instrumentation, and a suite of meteorological sensors. We present
      here some of the preliminary results of this study, with a focus on the short-term and seasonal
      variations in the local energy balance. In particular, we examine the relative roles of radiative
      and surface heat fluxes in driving changes in lake temperature. Keywords: Atmosphere-lake
      interaction, Climatic data, Lake Superior.

      and BOWEN, G.4, 1University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L3G1; 2University of Western
      Australia, Perth, Australia; 3National Water Research Institute, Burlington, ON, L7R4A6;
        Toronto Regional Conservation Authority, Toronto, ON. Water Quality and Cladophora
      Modelling in the Nearshore of Lake Ontario : Variations in Algal Growth and the Role of
      Local Nutrient Sources.

May 17-21, 2010                                      146                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              A nested three dimensional hydrodynamic and ecological model (ELCOM-CAEDYM)
      was coupled with a model for the dynamics of the benthic nuisance alga Cladophora to analyze
      the factors controlling its abundance in the nearshore zone of a large lake (L. Ontario). Lake-
      wide simulations on a horizontal grid of 2 km provided dynamic boundary conditions for a 100
      m horizontal grid model of a nearshore study area. The model captured the main features of
      temperatures, currents, phytoplankton, nutrients and water transparency and provided the
      environmental drivers for the Cladophora growth model. The coupled model was used to analyze
      influences on Cladophora cover and biomass, including effects of watershed discharges, sewer
      outfalls and thermal plumes, in a complex Great Lakes nearshore area.
      Keywords: Hydrodynamic model, Water quality, Cladophora.

      LESHKEVICH, G.1 and LIU, S.2, 1NOAA/Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory,
      4840 South State Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108; 2Cooperative Institute for Limnology and
      Ecosystems Research (CILER), 4840 South State Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108. CoastWatch
      Great Lakes Program After 20 Years.

               CoastWatch is a nationwide National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)
      program formed as the result of a red tide event off the North Carolina coast in 1987. In 1990,
      the CoastWatch Great Lakes regional node was formed at the Great Lakes Environmental
      Research Laboratory (GLERL). In this capacity, GLERL obtains, produces, and delivers
      environmental data and products for near real-time monitoring of the Great Lakes to support
      environmental science, decision making, and supporting research. This is achieved by providing
      Internet access to near real-time and retrospective satellite observations, in-situ data, and derived
      products to Federal and state agencies, academic institutions, and the public via the CoastWatch
      Great Lakes web site (http://coastwatch.glerl.noaa.gov). Utilities such as JAVA GIS and Google
      Earth(r) allow interactive retrieval of physical parameters such as surface temperature, ice cover,
      and surface winds at a given location and enhance the accessibility and utility of Great Lakes
      CoastWatch data. Plans include enhancing the present product suite with new near real-time
      satellite derived image products such as wind fields, ice type mapping, turbidity, and chlorophyll
      and testing a new enhanced server for improved delivery of CoastWatch products.
      Keywords: Observing systems, Satellite technology, Remote sensing.

      LESHT, B.M.1, BARBIERO, R.P.2, and WARREN, G.J.3, 1CSC and University of Illinois at
      Chicago, 845 W. Taylor St., Chicago, IL, 60607; 2CSC and Loyola University Chicago, 1359 W.
      Elmdale Ave., Chicago, IL, 60660; 3USEPA Great Lakes National Program Office, 77 W.
      Jackson Blvd., Chicago, IL, 60604. Upwelling and primary production in Lake Superior.

              Compared to the southern shore and Keweenaw Peninsula, the northern coast of Lake
      Superior has been little studied. We used ocean color data from SeaWiFS and water surface
      temperature measurements from buoys, AVHRR, and MODIS to examine the relationship
      between upwelling events along the northern shore and chlorophyll-a concentrations throughout
      the lake. We find that upwellings caused by the predominant west-southwesterly summer winds
      are followed by high chlorophyll concentrations that originate near the coast and move
      progressively into the open lake. Contrasts between high chlorophyll concentration regions and

May 17-21, 2010                                       147                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      surrounding waters can reach 75-100%.             Keywords: Remote sensing, Phytoplankton,
      Atmosphere-lake interaction.

      LETCHER, R.J., CHU, S.G., and GAUTHIER, L.T., Wildlife and Landscape Science
      Directorate, Science and Technology Branch, Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research
      Centre, Bldg. 33, Carleton University, Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3. The Increasing Complexity of
      Brominated Flame Retardants (BFRs) in Eggs of Great Lakes Herring Gulls:
      Tetrabromobisphenol-S and Tetrabromobisphenol-A Derivatives and Other New BFRs.

              Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBP-A) is a high production, brominated flame retardant
      (BFR), and is used to manufacture derivatives including tetrabromo- bisphenol-A-bis(allyl ether)
      (TBBP-A-ae) and tetrabromobisphenol-A-bis(2,3-dibromopropyl ether) (TBBP-A-dbpe). There
      are only rare reports on TBBP-A derivatives in environmental matrices including wildlife. In the
      present study, we developed a sensitive method for TBBP-A-ae, TBBP-A-dbpe and TBBP-S-
      dbpe determination in bird eggs. The herring gull (Larus argentatus) is a key bio-monitoring
      species of contaminants in the Great lakes ecosystem. We examined TBBP-A-ae, TBBP-A-dbpe
      and TBBP-S-dbpe in gull eggs collected in 2008 from breeding colonies in the St. Lawrence
      River basin in Québec, Canada, and in Lakes Ontario, Michigan and Erie. TBBP-A-ae and
      TBBP-A-dbpe, and not TBBP-S-dbpe, were quantifiable but were extremely low compared to
      other identified BFRs. We also report on what appears to be structural isomers of the BFR class
      known as tris(bromocresyl)phosphates in the eggs of Great Lakes herring gulls. Our results
      continue to demonstrate the increasing complexity of BFRs in Great Lakes herring gulls, and
      subsequently in their eggs, from dietary and food web bioaccumulation. Further BFR
      characterization and monitoring is clearly warranted in this key bio-indicator species.
      Keywords: Environmental contaminants, Herring gulls, Great Lakes basin, Brominated flame
      retardants, Bioindicators, Emerging contaminants.

      LEWIS, M.1, ANDERSON, T.W.2, CAMERON, G.1, KING, J.W.3, and HEIL JR., C.W.3,
        Geological Survey of Canada Atlantic, Natural Resources Canada, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2;
        25 Dexter Drive, Ottawa, ON, K2H 5W3; 3Graduate School of Oceanography, University of
      Rhode Island, Narragansett, RI, 2882. The Reduced Lakes Erie and Ontario, a Severe
      Response to a Past Drier Climate.

             Recent analysis of geological evidence of former water level indicators has revealed a
      long phase of closed basin conditions in the lower Great Lakes in which water levels were drawn
      down below their overflow outlets for longer than 5 millennia prior to 6000 years ago by
      evaporation in the drier-than-present early Holocene climate. Similar lowstands existed in the
      upper Great Lakes basins but for a shorter period of time (about 500 years) due to the prolonged
      inflow of glacial meltwater. This new understanding results from at least two new developments
      in Great Lakes geoscience: 1) removal of the distorting effects of differential glacial rebound so
      the original elevations of lake-level indicators and outlets could be compared, and 2)
      abandonment of a long-held paradigm that past lakes always overflowed their outlets.
      Reconstructions show that the lakes fell up to 17 m (Erie) and 30 to 40 m (Ontario) below their
      overflow sills. These severe lake responses to the drier early Holocene climate could serve as test

May 17-21, 2010                                      148                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      beds for hydrological models, and as examples to enhance public understanding of the sensitivity
      of the lakes to climate change. Keywords: Climate change, Water level fluctuations, Holocene.

      LI, A., YANG, R.Q., and WEI,, H., University of Illinois at Chicago, MC-922, 2121 West
      Taylor Street, Chicago, IL, 60612, USA. Sediment Record of Halogenated Flame Retardants
      in the Great Lakes.

              Brominated or chlorinated organic compounds are highly concerned because of their
      ubiquitous environmental presence and their persistent, bioaccumulative, and potentially toxic
      characteristics. This work investigates 19 such compounds, most of which are halogenated flame
      retardants (XFRs). Sediment cores were collected from 16 locations. Concentrations of the XFRs
      were measured using GC-MS with electron capture negative ionization (ECNI). The target XFRs
      includes dechlorane plus (Syn- and anti-DP), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE),
      2,2‘,4,4‘,5,5‘-hexabromobiphenyl (BB153), 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), 1,3,5-
      Tribromobenzene (TBB), Hexabromobenzene (HBB), 2,3,5,6-tetrabromo-p-Xylene (pTBX),
      tetrabromo-o- chlorotoluene (TBOCT), 1,2,5,6-tetrabromocyclooctane (TBCO), allyl 2,4,6-
      tribromophenylether (ATE), hexachlorocyclopentadiene (HCCP), pentabromotoluene (PBT),
      hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromobenzyl bromide (PBBB), pentabromochloro- (PBCCH),
      1,2-dibromo-4-(1,2-dibromoethyl)cyclohexane         (TBECH),       hexachlorocyclopentadienyl-
      dibromocyclooctane (HCBDCO), Hexabromocyclododecane (HCBD) and 1,2-bis-(2,4,6-
      tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE). The spatial distribution, chronology trend, total accumulation
      and input rate of the selected XFRs were examined to retrieve the naturally recorded history of
      pollution in the sedimen Keywords: PBTs, Halogenated flame retardants, Pollutants, Chemicals
      of emerging concerns, Sediments.

      LI, H.1, METCALFE, T.1, HELM, P.2, HOWELL, T.2, and METCALFE, C.1, 1Worsfold Water
      Quality Centre, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 2Environmental Monitoring &
      Reporting Branch, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6. Assessment
      of the Distribution of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products in a Dynamic
      Nearshore Area of Lake Ontario Using Passive Samplers.

             Passive samplers were deployed in Lake Ontario near Pickering and Ajax, Ontario and
      Port Hope, Ontario in 2008 as part of an intensive water quality monitoring study. Semi-
      permeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers
      (POCIS) were used to examine the area of influence of source inputs and the distribution of
      pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the dynamic nearshore. Physical forcing of
      surface water conditions by lake currents, winds, and weather conditions presents challenges for
      water monitoring to obtain overall exposure conditions, especially for chemical contaminants
      which have high analytical costs. The passive sampling approach offers a solution, providing
      time-averaged exposures over the course of usually one month. Pharmaceuticals (analgesics,
      beta-blockers, cholesterol control, antidepressants and antibiotics) were measured in POCIS
      samplers and personal care products (synthetic musk fragrances and disinfectants) were
      measured in SPMDs. Pharmaceutical concentrations ranged from ND to 30 ng/L, depending on
      the compound, and were greatest near wastewater treatment plant discharges. Similar patterns

May 17-21, 2010                                     149                                      Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      were observed for musks, ranging from ND to 18 ng/L. Contaminant distributions are evaluated
      relative to physical and water chemistry parameters in the sampling area. Keywords: Passive
      sampling, Lake Ontario, Pollutants.

      LICKERS, H., Department of the Environment, Mohawk Council of Akwesasne. Lessons from
      the Past - Solutions for the Future. Naturalized Knowledge System: An Old Idea Made

             In Canada and the United States, legislation and governments are searching for better
      ways of understanding and working with communities. The research community has long been
      accused of insensitivity when carrying out scientific studies. The Governments of Canada and
      the United States have included Aboriginal Peoples in Legislative and Regulator obligations that
      value the knowledge of Aboriginal Peoples. Research communities are investigating the links
      between ―Western Science‖ and the knowledge of community peoples whether they are
      Aboriginal or non-aboriginal peoples. An over reaching idea that will be helpful to governments,
      academia and native people is the concept of Naturalized Knowledge Systems. This concept
      recognizes the place and knowledge of not only native people but people who have lived. This
      session will explore basic assumptions, concepts and patterns of partnerships based on actual
      cases and experiences. This will provide new insights and will raise awareness of aboriginal
      perspectives to as part of the implementation of the Great Lakes St. Lawrence River Basin
      Sustainable Water Resources Agreement. The Mohawk Council of Akwesasne, Department of
      the Environment has used these principles that are derived from the Great Law of
      Haudenosaunee in its dealing with governments and academia. Keywords: Watersheds,
      Traditional knowledge, Aboriginal, Water level.

      LIN, Z.H.1, DILLON, P.J.1, and MOLOT, L.A.2, 1Trent University, 1600 West Bank Dr.,
      Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 2York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3.
      Hypolimnetic End-of-Summer Oxygen Profile Models for Stratified Lakes.

              We tested three previously published multivariate regression models that predict end-of-
      summer oxygen concentrations in the hypolimnia of lakes- using long-term data collected on 6
      small, dilute lakes in Boreal ecozone of Ontario. The first model (Molot et al., 1992) includes
      only lake morphometry and total phosphorus concentration. The second and the third models
      relate hypolimnetic oxygen concentration at the end of summer to the difference between the
      oxygen concentration at spring turnover and the depletion rate of oxygen throughout the entire
      summer. Livingstone‘s model (1996) is based on the depletion of oxygen concentration as the
      sum of an areal oxygen sink (sediment oxygen consumption) and a volume sink (water column
      oxygen consumption) with hypolimnetic depth. Chapra (1981) derived an empirical equation
      based on hypolimnetic depth and phosphorus concentration at spring turnover to describe the
      depletion of oxygen. Our results showed that all 3 models performed better in the deeper lakes
      than the shallower ones. Reasons why results were poorer when models were applied to shallow
      lakes are discussed. Based on these analyses, a new multivariate regression model has been
      developed using a combination of parameters that were utilized in the 3 existing models.
      Keywords: Oxygen, Lake model, Water quality.

May 17-21, 2010                                     150                                      Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      LIU, W. and LAMB, K.G., University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1, Canada. Internal
      Kelvin Waves in Lake Erie.

              The Kelvin wave is a traveling wave that requires the support of a lateral boundary, with
      the amplitude decaying away from the boundary. A series of numerical simulations are
      performed to investigate Kelvin waves in Lake Erie using the MIT General Circulation Model
      (MITgcm) which is a 3D, non-hydrostatic numerical model. Kelvin waves are observed
      propagating along the lake boundary after a partially tilted thermocline in the eastern basin or the
      central basin is released. Moreover, eddies with diameters of several kilometers are formed near
      Long Point and Point Pelee when higher resolutions (200 meters or less) are utilized. Results
      from an investigation of the dependence of these eddies on the position, slope and thickness of
      the thermocline and on the bathymetry will be presented. Keywords: Waves, Internal waves,
      Model testing, Lake Erie.

      LIU, Z.1, KRAUSE, A.E.1, DROUILLARD, K.G.2, RUSH, S.A.2, and JEZDIC, I.2, 1University
      of Toledo, Department of Environmental Sciences, Toledo, OH, 43615; 2University of Windsor,
      Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4. Spatially-
      Connecting the Food Web to Predict PCB Transfers in the Detroit River.

              A previously developed model of PCB bioaccumulation in the food web of the Detroit
      River has been updated for fish consumption hazard assessment and for effective solutions to
      reduce PCB sources. The previous model predicted PCB concentration of an individual fish for a
      given species based on the PCB inputs of a specific river zone. The model has been enhanced
      through the integration of spatial PCB inputs and the spatial modification of diet matrix. The
      spatial diet matrix, which quantifies the diet proportions of predator-prey links within and across
      river zones, was estimated based on the literature and expert opinion about the migration
      (drifting) behavior and home ranges of each taxon as well as the environmental characteristics of
      Detroit River. The model was validated with observed PCB concentration data for 37 PCB
      congeners in 18 fish taxa within each river zone. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to calculate
      the probability distribution of the model prediction of PCB concentrations in an individual fish.
      Implementing spatial integration into PCB uptake of fish improves model predictions when
      compared to previous predictions, particularly for species of concern where the previous model
      was underpredicting PCB concentration. Keywords: PCBs, Bioaccumulation, Detroit River.

      M.6, PASTERNAK, J.6, CAGAMPAN, S.4, and GLEDHILL, M.6, 1Environment Canada,
      Ottawa, ON; 2Environment Canada, Dartmouth; 3Environment Canada, Montreal; 4Environment
      Canada, Burlington; 5Environment Canada, Saskatoon/Regina; 6Environment Canada,
      Vancouver. Current-use Pesticides in Selected Canadian Ambient Waters.

May 17-21, 2010                                       151                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              Due to the limited information on the levels and fate of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in
      Canadian ambient waters, an ongoing study has been undertaken by Environment Canada to
      determine the levels, fate and trends of current-use pesticides in selected aquatic environments
      across Canada. To begin to address this key knowledge gap, a surveillance project on pesticides
      in selected Canadian aquatic ecosystems was conducted under the first cycle of the Pesticides
      Science Fund (PSF) (2003-2006). This study found that CUPs and their transformation products
      are widespread in Canadian surface waters, particularly those in agricultural regions. This
      presentation outlines the PSF surveillance program and focuses on the second cycle of the study
      which examined the presence and levels of CUPs in selected wetlands/amphibian habitats and
      surface waters in selected urban centers of Canada. Keywords: Monitoring, Water quality,

      LOFGREN, B.M.1 and RUBERG, A.2, 1NOAA/Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab, 4840
      S. State Rd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48108-9719; 2U. Michigan Cooperative Institute for Limnology
      and Ecosystems Research, 4840 S. State Rd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48108-9719. Projections of
      Great Lakes Levels Under Enhanced Greenhouse Gases Using Energy Budget-Based

              Previously available projections of the influence of greenhouse gas-induced warming on
      Great Lakes levels have all made use of one suite of regional hydrologic models. The component
      that simulates evapotranspiration from land uses air temperature as its primary predictor. This
      method can lead to increases in latent heat flux that significantly exceed the increases in radiative
      energy input. This is an unphysical result of an empirical fitting that conflates the influence of
      the strong but transient variation in heat input associated with the annual cycle with that of the
      weak but steady increase in energy input associated with enhanced greenhouse gas
      concentration. Modifications were made to this scheme in order to bring it into better agreement
      with the energy budget constraints that are implied by the driving climate models. Two
      alternative formulations are believed to yield an answer closer to the correct one, while another
      formulation can be regarded as yielding the maximum reduction in runoff and hence lake level.
      However, all three show less of a reduction in runoff than the previously-used formulation, and
      can even yield rises in mean lake levels. Keywords: Water level, Evapotranspiration, Climate

        Environment Canada, CCIW 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6, Canada; 2Centre for
      Earth Observations Science, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MN, R3T 2N6; 331 Laval Drive,
      Winnipeg, MN, R3T 2X8; 4Dept. Fisheries and Oceans, Freshwater Institute, 501 University
      Crescent, Winnipeg, MN, R3T 2N6. Fluorescence measures in phytoplankton assemblages:
      comparison of instruments and taxa.

              The Fluoroprobe is becoming a default instrument for fast, relatively cheap mapping of
      major phytoplankton groups in large lakes. This paper reports on a comparative study of the
      precision and reproducibility of Fluoroprobe data between individual instruments. Fluoroprobe
      data from Lake Winnipeg was compared with chlorophyll fluorescence (HPLC) and

May 17-21, 2010                                       152                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      phytoplankton species distributions determined by manual identification. Paired Fluoroprobe
      data collected from continuously pumped lake water was compared with data from a profiling
      unit at stations. Multiple regression of the Fluoroprobe data explained 63% of variance in
      chlorophyll a (n = 244) and 51% of variance in counted biomass (n = 58). It successfully
      predicted bacillariophyte and cyanophyte biomass (r2 = 0.66 & 68 respectively, n = 58) although
      the RMSE was 10% & 19% of the range in Lake Winnipeg, for the two taxa respectively. It was
      a weak predictor of cryptophyte and chlorophyte biomass (r2 = 0.21 & 0.32 respectively, n = 58)
      both of which rarely comprised more than 20% of the biomass. The error of prediction was
      reduced by local calibration by microscope counts of in situ samples. Seasonal distributions of
      the four major groups were well represented by Fluoroprobe data; but at times there were large
      discrepancies in simultaneous measures taken with the two probes. Keywords: Biomonitoring,
      Fluorescence measures, Phytoplankton, Species composition.

      LU, Q.1, DUCKETT, F.J.L.1, BALDWIN, R.J.2, and STAINSBY, E.A.3, 1Baird & Associates,
      1267 Cornwall Rd, Suite 100, Oakville, ON, L6J 7T5; 2Lake Simcoe Region Conservation
      Authority, 120 Bayview Pkwy, Newmarket, ON, L3Y 4X1; 3Ministry of the Environment, 125
      Resources Road, Etobicoke, ON, M9P 3V6. Modeling Assessment of Inter-lake Flushing
      Rates in Lake Simcoe.

              This study assessed flushing rates between Cook‘s Bay and Kempenfelt Bay and the
      main body of Lake Simcoe. The flushing rates represent the overall water exchange rates and
      also indicate strength of water mixing between the two bays and the main body of the lake. Weak
      mixing could cause the ecological processes in the two bays to be significantly different from the
      main lake. The existing three-dimensional model of Lake Simcoe was adjusted to include three
      nested grids to improve the spatial resolution in the two bays. The model was run during the ice-
      free seasons from spring to fall for four representative years. Detailed water level, flow velocity
      and temperature results were output from the model on an hourly time scale. The flushing rate
      was calculated using the model results as average annual outflow discharge from a bay divided
      by the total volume of that bay. The results show that the water bodies in the two bays were
      strongly mixed with the main body of the lake due to wind. This study provided the necessary
      information to properly conclude that bay specific nutrient loading targets would not be required
      due to the strong inter-lake mixing of the two studied bays. As well this information will be of
      significant benefit in continuing to assess and manage ecology of Lake Simcoe and its linkage to
      hydrodynamic processes. Keywords: Nutrient Loading Targets, Model studies, Flushing rates,
      Lake Simcoe.

      LUDEWIG, B.G. and AUSTIN, J.A., Large Lakes Observatory, University of Minnesota,
      Duluth, Duluth, MN, 55812, USA. Numerically produced Nowcasts of Circulation, Surface
      Heights and Hydrography for the St. Louis River Estuary.

              The St. Louis River estuary, including the Duluth-Superior harbor, is an important
      provider of economic, recreational, and ecosystem services at the far western end of Lake
      Superior. Circulation, surface height and hydrographic conditions are determined by the complex
      interaction of local winds and heat fluxes, upstream and tributary hydrological inputs, and the

May 17-21, 2010                                      153                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      combined, omnipresent multimodal harbor and lake seiches arising from local and regional
      meteorological events. These dynamics are captured in a high resolution 3D hydrodynamic
      numerical model of the estuary. A variable resolution triangular grid was created using estuarine
      coastlines traced from satellite imagery, a lower resolution lake coastline, and a consolidated
      bathymetric data set of both lake and estuary. This was input to FVCOM to create a model with a
      low resolution representation of the entire lake serving as the boundary for a higher resolution
      estuarine sub-domain. Preliminary results, when compared with NOAA water level data,
      demonstrate seiche behavior consistent with typical phenomena observed on the lake. Using
      hourly updated spatially varying meteorological inputs, nowcast products, including ongoing
      comparisons to instrument derived observations, are posted to the internet as an ecosystem
      management tool. Keywords: Estuaries, Hydrodynamic model, St. Louis River AOC.

      REID, A.1, WRIGHT, E.2, and METHNER, P.2, 1Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of
      Pathobiology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1, Canada; 22Ontario Ministry of
      Natural Resources, Fish Culture Section, 300 Water St., Peterborough, On, K9J 8M5, Canada.
      Chlamydia-like Organism in Ontario Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush).

               Chlamydia-like organism has been described in both Arctic charr and Atlantic salmon. It
      affects Arctic charr to a moderate degree in Ontario. In Lake trout however, it has become
      perhaps the single biggest impediment to enhancement culture of Lake trout at some OMNR
      facilities. The bacterial inclusions are small and difficult to discern with H&E stain. What does
      seem to be reasonably consistent however is the pattern of branchial lesions. There is prominent
      single-cell necrosis of leukocytes and epithelial cells and thickening and blunting of lamellae.
      Fish of any size from shortly after swim-up can be affected. Not surprisingly, surface treatments
      are not effective and a preliminary treatment trial with medicated feed (tribrissen and
      oxytetracycline) was performed. Keywords: Treatment, Fish hatcheries, Neochlamydia, Fish
      diseases, Lake trout, Branchitis.

      LUPI, F., SONG, F., and KAPLOWITZ, M., Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI,
      48824-1024. Economic Value of Public Access to Great Lakes Beaches.

             Great Lakes beaches provide important ecosystem services and recreational
      opportunities, but they are subject to a variety of environmental stressors including encroaching
      land uses and contamination resulting in advisories or closure. This paper uses an economic
      model to estimate demand for, and economic value of, public access to Great Lakes beaches in
      Michigan. Because beaches are not a market good, the travel cost non-market valuation method
      is used to estimate a multi-site random utility recreation demand model that accounts for the
      many substitute beaches available to Michigan residents. The model shows that Michigan
      residents‘ choices of which Great Lakes beach to visit are significantly influenced by
      characteristics such as the cost of accessing the beach (negative effect, p<0.0001), the length of
      the beach (positive effect, p<0.001), and the number of beach closure days in the previous year
      (negative effect, p<0.002). The economic value of access to a beach depends on the site‘s
      characteristics, but values for trips to particular beaches range from $37 to $58 per trip. Scaling

May 17-21, 2010                                      154                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      up the values reveals substantial recreation values for access to Michigan‘s Great Lakes beaches,
      with access to Lake Michigan beaches being worth over one billion dollars annually.
      Keywords: Economic impact, Water quality, Economic evaluation.

      LUPI, F., KAPLOWITZ, M., and CHEN, S., Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI,
      48824-1034. Public Preferences for Great Lake Governance Options.

              We used trade-off modeling to estimate public preferences for Great Lakes governance.
      The trade-off approach differs from traditional attitudinal scales because respondents cannot
      simply indicate that they want everything. In our survey of adult residents of Michigan
      (N=3,116), respondents were introduced to alternative characteristics of Great Lakes governance
      options through a series of interactive web-pages. The characteristics included factors such as
      whether interstate decisions must be made by unanimity, the level of public input required for
      decisions, agency review requirements, and the default level of environmental protection. After
      completing the governance information, respondents were presented with alternative governance
      options that differ in one or more of their characteristics and asked to indicate their preferred
      option. By varying characteristics of the options across the sample, we were able to statistically
      estimate preferences as a function of the governance characteristics. The resulting statistical
      choice model revealed that respondents have significant preferences for local input, state agency
      review required, and unanimity of governors. Further, governance where proposed diversions
      were required to ―show an absence of environmental harm‖ was preferred to less stringent
      standards or no standard at all. Keywords: Political aspects, Policy making, Diversion.

      LYNCH, M.P. and MENSINGER, A.F., Integrated Bioscience, University of Minnesota-Duluth,
      1035 Kirby Drive, Duluth, MN, 55812. Alongshore dispersal of the invasive round goby
      (Apollina melanostomus) in the Duluth-Superior Harbor of Lake Superior by individual

               The round goby, Apollina melanostomus, is a small benthic fish introduced to the
      Laurentian Great Lakes from the Ponto-Caspian Region of Eurasia via transoceanic ships in
      1990. Although it has quickly spread throughout the watershed, little information is available on
      its rate and pattern of dispersal. This mark-recapture study utilized alphanumeric elastomer tags
      subcutaneously inserted into round gobies (n=773). Fish were captured using 16‖ minnow traps
      located every 25 meters along a 550 meter stretch of the Duluth-Superior Harbor shoreline. A
      total of 871 tagged gobies, representing 278 individuals were recaptured from July to October
      2009. Net movement between captures exhibited a leptokurtic distribution centered at the site of
      original capture. Eighty one percent of the recaptured gobies showed no net movement with a
      maximum recorded movement of 475 meters. Using a random walk passive diffusion model, the
      rate at which the population expanded was estimated at 16 m2/day. The diffusion coefficient for
      males less than 100 mm in total length was nearly three times higher than females and males
      over 100 mm (TL). Other population parameters were calculated including; growth rate, local
      population size, density per meter of shoreline, and the effectiveness of VI ALPHA tags.
      Keywords: Invasive species, Distribution patterns, Round goby.

May 17-21, 2010                                      155                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      LYNN, D.H.1, MUNAWAR, M.2, NIBLOCK, H.2, and FITZPATRICK, M.2, 1Department of
      Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1; 2Fisheries and Oceans, 867
      Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Long Term Assessment Of Ciliated Protozoa In
      The Bay Of Quinte, 2000-2008.

             The abundance, biomass, size spectra and diversity of the community of ciliated protozoa
      were determined as part of a long term assessment of the microbial loop in the Bay of Quinte.
      The Belleville and Conway stations were sampled 96 times, typically 13 times per year, from
      2000-2007 at both sites and in 2008 samples were collected only at Belleville. Abundance,
      biovolume, and diversity of ciliates were determined on QPS-stained preparations. Biovolume
      was converted to biomass (mg Carbon) after accounting for shrinkage due to staining.
      Abundance ranged from 1,066-35,822 ml-1 (mean 17,848; CV 60%) and biomass ranged from
      10.5-215.6 mgC/m-3 (mean 80; CV 77%) at Belleville. Abundance ranged from 3,191-19,989
      ml-1 (mean 9,347; CV 54%) and biomass ranged from 13.7-71.8 mgC/m-3 (mean 41.5; CV
      42%) at Conway. These abundance and biomass data are comparable to earlier assessments in
      Lake Ontario made in the 1990s. The results did not show any obvious trends during the study
      period at Conway, but both abundance and biomass appeared to increase at Belleville, especially
      in 2007-2008. The community was dominated by oligotrichs, prostomes, peritrichs, and
      haptorians. Tintinnids were uncommon. Furthermore at Belleville, the relative abundances of
      haptorians, Halteria, and scuticociliates increased from 2006-2008. Keywords: Abundance,
      Microbiological studies, Ciliated protozoa, Bay of Quinte, Biodiversity, Biomass.

      MACCOUX, M.J.1, CHAPRA, S.C.2, and DOLAN, D.M.3, 1University of Wisconsin - Green
      Bay, Environmental Science and Policy Program, Green Bay, WI, 54311; 2Tufts University,
      Civil and Environmental Engineering, Medford, MA, 2155; 3Univerity of Wisconsin-Green Bay,
      Natural and Applied Sciences, Green Bay, WI, 54321. Total Phosphorus Loads and Mass
      Balance Model for Green Bay.

              Green Bay is an elongated freshwater embayment located in northwestern Lake
      Michigan. Due to its shallow depth, the lower bay is heavily influenced by the Fox River‘s large
      nutrient load. The inner bay is classified as hypereutrophic and has a well-defined trophic
      gradient that is observed moving away from the Fox River towards Lake Michigan, where it is
      nearly oligotrophic. Degraded water quality has caused the Fox River and Lower Green Bay to
      be classified as an Area of Concern by the International Joint Commission. Phosphorus
      reductions have been identified as one of the main priorities in the Remedial Action Plan. Recent
      total phosphorus and chloride loads for the period of 1994-2008 have been estimated as part of a
      USEPA-GLNPO research grant. Loads will be presented and examined. The data will be used to
      develop a mass balance budget model for Green Bay. Segments will be used to capture the
      gradient along the axis of the bay. Future projections and load reduction scenarios will be
      examined and incorporated into a suggested total maximum daily load for the Fox River. The
      effects of such policy on the rest of the bay will also be examined. Keywords: Mass balance,
      Phosphorus, Green Bay.

May 17-21, 2010                                     156                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      MACECEK, D. and GRABAS, G.P., Canadian Wildlife Service - Environment Canada, 4905
      Dufferin St., Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4. Refining and Reporting Delisting Criteria in the Bay
      of Quinte Area of Concern using an Existing Regional Coastal Wetland Monitoring

              In most Canadian Areas of Concern, fish and wildlife populations and their habitats (i.e.
      Beneficial Use Impairments 3 and 14) have been listed as impaired. While much work has
      addressed other Beneficial Use Impairments, there was often a lack of specific data and
      methodologies for evaluating fish and wildlife populations and their habitats in coastal wetlands.
      This presentation details the application of a regional coastal wetland monitoring framework to
      quantitatively evaluate fish and wildlife habitats and populations in the Bay of Quinte Area of
      Concern. This approach addressed the challenges of determining what variables to monitor and
      at what point a beneficial use should be considered as not impaired. Since 2005, water quality,
      submerged aquatic vegetation, amphibians, macroinvertebrates, fish, and breeding birds have
      been evaluated using indices. The results have contributed to delisting criteria for Beneficial Use
      Impairments 3 and 14. Delisting criteria include showing that populations and habitat are among
      the best in Lake Ontario. For habitat loss, indices are used to evaluate water quality, submerged
      aquatic vegetation, and macroinvertebrates. Bay of Quinte coastal wetlands were generally in
      better condition than other Canadian sites along the Lake Ontario shoreline.
      Keywords: Monitoring, Coastal wetlands, Bay of Quinte.

      MACKEY, S.D.1, MARKHAM, J.L.2, and MACDOUGALL, T.M.3, 137045 N Ganster Road,
      Habitat Solutions NA, Beach Park, IL, 60087; 2178 Point Drive North, NYS Department of
      Environmental Conservation, Dunkirk, NY, 14048; 3Box 429, 1 Passmore Avenue, Ontario
      Ministry of Natural Resources, Port Dover, ON, N0A 1N0. Effects of Lithophyllic Species on
      Potential Historic Spawning Substrates in the Eastern Basin of Lake Erie.

               Sidescan sonar, RoxAnn, and underwater video data were collected from multiple survey
      areas in the Eastern Basin of Lake Erie. Underwater video imagery acquired before the
      introduction of dressenids into Lake Erie show clean boulder-cobble substrates with deep
      interstitial spaces; ideal potential spawning substrate for lake trout. Recent underwater video data
      taken from the same areas shows boulder-cobble substrates heavily encrusted with lithophyllic
      species (dreissenids and Cladophora) which has significantly reduced interstitial pore space. Also
      observed are significant accumulations of fine-grained sediment (silt/clay) and pseudofeces
      within the interstitial spaces. We hypothesize that the presence of encrusting lithophyllic
      organisms increases substrate roughness and had reduced flow and water circulation through
      interstitial spaces allowing fine sediments to accumulate. These observations suggest that the
      physical and biological characteristics of historic spawning sites may be considerably different
      now than in the past. Fish attempting to use historic spawning sites may not recruit successfully
      and we hypothesize that new less desirable spawning sites, perhaps in shallow water areas, may
      now be utilized by species requiring boulder-cobble substrates with deep interstitial spaces.
      Keywords: Invasive species, Lake trout, Habitats.

May 17-21, 2010                                       157                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      MACPHERSON, G. and MORO, D., 5 Shoreham Drive, Downsview, ON, M3N1S4. Duffin‟s
      Creek Marsh –Rehabilitation of Corner Marsh using Adaptive Management.

               Corner Marsh is an 18ha lagoon within the Duffin‘s Creek Coastal Marsh Complex
      which is located in the Town of Ajax. Like many other coastal marshes; controlled water levels,
      watershed influences and invasive species have all played a role in the degradation of Duffin‘s
      Creek Marsh. The TRCA has documented this degradation including the decline of emergent
      vegetation within Corner Marsh. In 2005, wetland management efforts, including the
      construction of a levy, were implemented to address these issues and allow for the manipulation
      Corner Marsh. The main objective of this levy is to allow for adaptive management controls that
      isolate the marsh from watershed influences, controls water levels and excludes large carp from
      entering the marsh. Through this adaptive management we have restored historical emergent
      vegetation conditions, improved water clarity, emergent vegetation, and increase wildlife
      utilization of the surrounding area. This paper outlines the success of this wetland restoration
      project in a large urban river. Keywords: Coastal wetlands, Control systems, Urban watersheds.

      A.3, MILLAR, M.4, RAMANATHAN, L.5, WORTE, C.4, and GRGIC, D.1, 1125 Resources
      Road, Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Toronto, Ontario, M9P 3V6, Canada; 2RR # 1
      Bognor, Consultant, Bognor, Ontario, N081E0, Canada; 36484 Wellington Rd. 7, Unit 10,
      Ontario Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs, Elora, Ontario, N0B 1S0, Canada; 4120
      Bayview Parkway, Box 11, Conservation Ontario, Newmarket, Ontario, L3Y 4W3, Canada; 5300
      Water Street, 5th Floor South Tower, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Peterborough,
      Ontario, K9J 8M5, Canada. An Approach for Evaluating Two Water Monitoring Networks
      for Climate Change Detection and Adaptation in Great Lakes Watersheds in Ontario.

              An approach has been developed and applied for the evaluation of two water monitoring
      networks for their suitability for climate change detection and adaptation. . The Provincial Water
      Quality Monitoring Network (PWQMN) and the Provincial Groundwater Monitoring Network
      (PGMN) are partnership programs between the Ontario Ministry of the Environment, the
      Conservation Authorities (CAs) and ten participating municipalities. Detection monitoring
      mainly focuses on those watersheds that are part of Environment Canada‘s Reference
      Hydrometric Basin Network (RHBN) where minimal or stable anthropogenic influence allows
      attribution of trends to climate change. Adaptation monitoring focuses on southern Ontario
      where it is most needed due to population concentrations and anthropogenic influences.. The two
      step approach for adaptation assessment consisted of a GIS based sensitivity analysis to identify
      priority watersheds followed by evaluation of the monitoring networks within those watersheds.
      The evaluation of networks in the second step was conducted by CA staff with expertise in local
      water issues. The approach for the sensitivity analysis and preliminary results of the network
      evaluations are presented. Keywords: Water quality, Observing systems, Climate change.

      MAGNUSON, J.1, SHUTER, B.2, and MINNS, K.3, 1Emeritus Professor, Center for Limnology,
      University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, 53706, USA; 2Department of Ecology and
      Evolutionary Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3B2, Canada; 3GLFFAS,

May 17-21, 2010                                      158                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Fisheries & Oceans Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6, Canada. Henry Regier – His Science
      and His Influence on Colleagues.

              Henry Regier is a scientist whose contribution and influence are important to fish and
      fisheries science, to broader perspectives of large-scale transdisciplinary science, and to the
      many colleagues and friends who have been touched by his thoughts and ideas. He is an
      outstanding scientist, leader, and mentor. He is also a humanist and a philosophical conscience
      for us all. Not content to let the facts speak for themselves, he thinks deeply about the meaning
      of science conducted by himself and others, and the importance of the science to challenges from
      global climate change, to global fisheries, and to rehabilitation of the Laurentian Great Lakes.
      We are fortunate to have been influenced by his science, his leadership, his mentoring, and his
      conscience. This talk reviews the roots and the significance of Henry Regier's contributions to

      HÖÖK, T.1, SHULTZ, K.6, and SEPÚLVEDA, M.1, 1195 Marsteller St, Purdue University,
      FORS, West Lafayette, IN, 47907; 2Purdue University, Bindley Bioscience Center, West
      Lafayette, IN, 47907; 3Purdue University, Department of Biological Science, West Lafayette, IN,
      47907; 4Cornell University, Department of Natural Resources, Ithaca,, NY, 14853-2602; 5Great
      Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Noaa, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105-2945; 6State
      University of New York College of Environmental Science and Forestry, College of
      Environmental and Forest Biology, Syracuse, NY, 13210. Exploring the Causes of Diporeia
      Declines using Metabolomics.

              Diporeia spp. has been a predominant benthic invertebrate in the Great Lakes until early
      1990‘s when their populations have experienced precipitous declines across the Great Lakes
      except Lake Superior. Our research focus is to use metabolomics to assess the effects of
      environmental stressors (i.e., starvation, quality/quantity of diatom diet, and exposure to
      polychlorinated biphenyls and co-exposure to quagga mussels) on Diporeia. Metabolites are
      being measured using GC×GC/MS-TOF and LC/MS. Preliminary results indicate differential
      metabolite profiles that are stressor-specific. From initial pathway and clustering analysis, a
      group of metabolites related to a number of metabolic processes (fatty acid biosynthesis, amino
      acid metabolism, and sphingolipid metabolism) have been selected for further investigation. Our
      results suggest an underlying pattern in metabolite profiles as a correlational response to the
      individual stressor. By comparing these metabolite profiles with those from wild populations, we
      hope to be able to identify potential factors leading to Diporeia decline. Keywords: Great Lakes
      basin, Diatoms, Diporeia, PCBs, Metabolism.

      MALKIN, S.Y.1, DOVE, A.2, DEPEW, D.1, SMITH, R.E.H.1, GUILDFORD, S.J.1, and
      HECKY, R.E.1, 1Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1;
        Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd,
      Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Long-term trends in patterns of water quality in Lake Ontario:
      Comparing offshore with coastal zones and implications for Cladophora growth.

May 17-21, 2010                                     159                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              We will present nutrient concentration data from lake-wide epilimnetic monitoring
      cruises at coastal and offshore stations in Lake Ontario from 1975-2008 and from two littoral
      zones sites on the north shore from 2004-2008. We found that coastal waters experience earlier
      drawdown of soluble P due to earlier productivity. We also found statistically significant
      differences in soluble and particulate nutrient concentrations between the north and south coasts,
      which we infer are due to dominant hydrodynamic patterns. The north coast has become
      increasingly oligotrophic concurrent with offshore waters, while the south coast has experienced
      no decrease in spring SRP or NH4. A greater frequency of upwelling events on the north coast
      causes these waters to reflect integrated interannual water quality, while greater downwelling on
      the south coast retains catchment water in the coastal zone for longer. Intensive monitoring at
      two littoral zones on the north shore found nutrient concentrations similar to the south coastal
      nutrient concentrations. A resurgence in Cladophora has been observed at these littoral sites over
      the past decade. Yet, phosphorus loading from the major tributaries to these sites declined from
      1965-2006, implicating other mechanisms in fuelling the Cladophora resurgence.
      Keywords: Nutrients, Lake Ontario, Cladophora.

      MANNING, N.F.1, MAYER, C.M.1, BOSSENBROEK, J.M.1, and TYSON, J.T.2, 1University of
      Toledo Lake Erie Center, 6200 Bayshore Rd., Oregon, OH, 43616; 2Ohio Department of Natural
      Resources, Division of Wildlife, 305 East Shoreline Drive, Sandusky, OH, 44870. Use of
      Individual Based Models to Explore the Effects of Turbidity on Early Life History Traits of
      Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens).

               Turbidity is an environmental factor that affects the foraging, growth, and survival of
      age-0 yellow perch. Western Lake Erie is a turbid system, where recruitment is positively related
      to Maumee River discharge, a major source of suspended solids and nutrients. Laboratory
      experiments showed reduced larval feeding rates with increasing phytoplankton turbidity and a
      significantly lower juvenile feeding rate with phytoplankton and sediment -derived turbidity.
      Previous modeling exercises suggest that turbidity may be the most important environmental
      factor in determining length and abundances in August of age-0 yellow perch. We modified
      published Individual Based Models (IBM) (Letcher et al. 1996, Fulford et al. 2006) in order to
      explicitly account for turbidity intensity and type. These modifications allow for the examination
      of the effect of turbidity on growth, predator avoidance, and the timing of the ontogenic shift
      from pelagic to demersal habitats. We show that turbidity type and intensity alter feeding and
      predator avoidance at multiple life stages, for example: increased sediment turbidity in the
      encounter sub-models significantly reduced the mass increase per day/ per juvenile but had very
      little effect on larvae. Increased sediment and algal turbidity also significantly decreased predator
      mortality rates in both groups. Keywords: Turbidity, Individual based model (IBM), Yellow

      K.C.1, 1Dept. Civil and Environmental Engineering, IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering,
      College of Engineerin, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA; 2Dept. Occupational and
      Environmental Health, College of Public Health, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA. PCBs

May 17-21, 2010                                       160                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      and Their Hydroxylated Metabolites in Human Serum from Urban and Rural
      Communities: East Chicago, IN and Columbus Junction, IA.

              East Chicago, Indiana is a heavily-industrialized community on the southwestern edge of
      Lake Michigan. Bisecting the area is the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC), which is known
      to be contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and which flows near to residential
      areas and schools. In contrast, demographically-similar residents of the rural Columbus Junction,
      Iowa have no known PCB exposure from current or past industrial sources. Due to the apparent
      difference in exposures, we hypothesize that PCB and OH-PCB serum concentrations and
      distributions are different between the two cohorts. Blood from 175 school-aged children and
      their mothers in East Chicago and Columbus Junction were analyzed for all 209 PCBs and 4
      common hydroxylated PCB metabolites (OH-PCBs) as part of an ongoing project through the
      Iowa Superfund Basic Research Program called the AESOP Study (Airborne Exposures to Semi-
      volatile Organic Pollutants). We present the results of this analysis and possible implications of
      our findings. Keywords: Urban areas, Lake Michigan, PCBs.

      MARKLEVITZ, S.A.C.1, FRYER, B.J.2, and MORBEY, Y.E.1, 1University of Western Ontario,
      Department of Biology, London, ON, Canada; 2University of Windsor, Great Lakes Institute for
      Environmental Research, Windsor, ON, Canada. The use of otolith microchemistry to study
      the natal origins and movement patterns of Chinook salmon in Lake Huron.

              Since the initial introduction of Chinook salmon to Lake Huron in 1968 the establishment
      of naturalized populations have become apparent. In fact, in 2005 naturally reproduced Chinook
      salmon constituted an estimated 85-90% of the lake wide fishery. With such a large component
      of the Lake Huron Chinook salmon fishery originating from wild populations it is important to
      know in which tributaries these fish originate. Our study used the microchemical signature of the
      otolith to identify the juvenile environments (natal origin) of Lake Huron Chinook salmon. Fry
      from 17 Chinook salmon spawning tributaries and 7 hatcheries around the Lake Huron region
      were collected to create a linear discriminant function (DFA) model. This model had 86%
      accuracy in correctly identifying natal origins. Adult salmon collected from various locations
      around Lake Huron were then tested using the DFA model to predict natal origin. The results
      suggest that the majority of Chinook salmon (>50%) in the Lake Huron fishery originated from
      southern Georgian Bay tributaries. Keywords: Salmon, Otolith, Fish tagging, Fish management.

      MARTIN, B., CZESNY, S.J., and REDMAN, R.A., Illinois Natural History Survey, University
      of Illinois, Lake Michigan Biological Station, 400 17th Street, Zion, IL, 60099, United States.
       Vertical distribution of larval fish in pelagic waters of southwestern Lake Michigan.

              Due to variability in biotic and abiotic conditions along a vertical gradient within aquatic
      systems, the vertical distribution of larval fish can profoundly affect their growth and survival. In
      large systems such as the Great Lakes, vertical distribution patterns can also influence dispersal
      and ultimately settlement events. Despite its importance during early life stages, little is known
      about vertical distribution patterns of larval fish in Lake Michigan. Our objective was to
      determine the vertical distribution and describe diel vertical migration patterns of the larval fish

May 17-21, 2010                                       161                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      community in pelagic waters of Lake Michigan. To determine vertical distribution, the upper 27
      meters of the water column was divided into seven discrete depth bins. Larval fish sampling was
      conducted within each of these depth bins on seven occasions during both day and night.
      Temperature, light intensity, and prey density were also recorded at depths corresponding to
      larval fish sampling. We collected over 1900 larval fish from 5 species: bloater, alewife, burbot,
      yellow perch and deepwater sculpin. Temperature had the greatest impact on vertical distribution
      of the larval fish community. The vertical distribution and diel vertical migration patterns of each
      species will be discussed along with potential consequences for growth, survival and dispersal.
      Keywords: Lake Michigan, Larval fish, Pelagic, Diel movements.

      MARTIN, G.M. and TAYLOR, W.D., Department of Biology, University of Waterloo,
      Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1. Does the Spatial Distribution of SRP Support the Role of
      Allochthonous Inputs and/or Dreissenids in Fostering Cladophora Growth in Lake

              Despite the success of phosphorus loading controls in remediating eutrophication
      problems in the Great Lakes during the 1960‘s and 1970‘s, nuisance Cladophora glomerata
      returned to shorelines and water intakes in the 1990‘s, especially in the lower Great Lakes. In an
      attempt to quantify the degree to which local inputs and internal cycling by dreissenid mussels
      contribute to phosphate (PO43-) concentrations that permit Cladophora growth, intense sampling
      for soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) was carried out from May to October, 2009, in a
      nearshore segment of Lake Ontario near Pickering, Ontario. SRP concentrations ranged from
      0.3-6.3 µg/l, with the lowest overall concentrations occurring in August and the highest
      occurring in October. The results suggest higher SRP in the nearshore compared to offshore
      waters and there is evidence of elevated SRP concentrations in samples taken near point source
      and non-point sources, as well as above mussel beds versus surface waters. As the standard SRP
      assay is known to overestimate (PO43-) in P-limited waters, alternative methods such as dialysis
      combined with MAGIC and a steady-state radiobioassay were also utilized and their results will
      be compared. Keywords: Coastal ecosystems, Cladophora, Lake Ontario, Phosphate,
      Phosphorus, Mussels.

      MARTIN, P.A., DE SOLLA, S.R., MIKODA, P., and PALONEN, K.E., Wildlife and Landscape
      Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Toxicity and absorption of
      pesticides and fertilizers to snapping turtle eggs (Chelydra serpentina).

              Many reptiles oviposit in soil, including agricultural landscapes, and have the potential to
      be exposed to agrochemicals. We evaluated the toxicity of nitrogenous fertilizers and a complex
      mixture of pesticides simulating corn and potato production in Ontario, to snapping turtle eggs.
      Eggs were exposed in raised garden beds to simulate realistic exposures, and in the laboratory in
      covered bins so as to minimize loss of volatile compounds. Compounds were applied at typical
      field application rates, and up to 10 times these rates. Hatching success, deformities and body
      size were evaluated. Aqueous ammonia reduced hatching success at 2.3 × field application rate,
      causing complete mortality at higher exposures. Laboratory exposures resulted in reduced
      hatching success and lower body mass at the highest concentrations. Field rates of pesticide

May 17-21, 2010                                       162                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      mixtures did not affect turtle development at typical application rates. Turtle eggs were also
      exposed to 22 pesticides in soil to examine absorption. Turtle eggs absorbed pesticides readily,
      indicating lack of toxicity of pesticides is not due to lack of embryonic exposure. Pesticides
      absorption was negatively associated with sorption to organic carbon (log KOC) or to lipids (log
      KOW), and high water solubility Keywords: Pesticides, Turtles, Nutrients, Toxic substances.

      MARTINEZ, A. and HORNBUCKLE, K.C., 4105 Seamans Center for the Engineering Arts and
      Sciences, Iowa City, IA, 52242. Dispersion of PCBs volatilized from a contaminated
      waterway in Lake Michigan.

              In a previous study we determined that Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal (IHSC), IN, is a
      source of PCBs to the air above it. The concentration of ΣPCBs over the IHSC ranged from
      2,000 to 9,000 ng m-3. We hypothesized that the PCBs emitted from IHSC are continuously
      dispersed into East Chicago, IN. We addressed this hypothesis using an atmospheric dispersion
      model. AERMOD was utilized to predict airborne PCB52 concentrations in the surrounding
      areas of IHSC, including East Chicago, for 2008. Performance of the model was assessed using
      field measurement data (50 ± 20 pg m-3). Results showed that IHSC emissions generate a plume
      that covers East Chicago. The predicted PCB52 gas phase concentrations ranged from 92 pg m-3
      directly over the IHSC to 0.1 pg m-3 6 km from the water. The PCB air concentrations were then
      measured over the distance of expected impact using passive samplers that integrated
      concentrations over 6 weeks. The model underestimated the concentration by about one order of
      magnitude. The most likely explanations for the underestimation include underestimation of the
      spatial extent of the surface water emission source or missing sources of PCBs. Despite these
      results, AERMOD is helpful tool for evaluating local POPs exposure potential for communities
      surrounding a contaminated waterway. Keywords: Sediments, PCBs, Atmosphere-lake

      MARTY, J.1, BOWEN, K.2, KOOPS, M.A.2, POWER, M.3, and DE LAFONTAINE, Y.4, 1St
      Lawrence River Institute, 2 Belmont Street, Cornwall, ON, K6H 4Z1; 2Fisheries and Oceans
      Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 3Univerity of Waterloo, 200
      University West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1; 4Centre St Laurent, Environment Canada, 105 Mc
      Gill, Montreal, QC, H2Y 2E7. Hemimysis anomala diet and trophic position: a comparative
      study between lentic and lotic ecosystems using stable isotopes.

              Although planktonic communities differ greatly between lentic and lotic ecosystems,
      Hemimysis anomala (HA) is now found in 4 of the Great Lakes as well as in several locations in
      the St. Lawrence River. The goal of this presentation is to summarize the results of a study
      conducted in 2008 and 2009 to characterize the food web structure and determine the main food
      sources and trophic position of HA in both Lake Ontario and St Lawrence River invaded
      nearshore sites. Potential food sources (particulate organic matter, periphyton and several
      zooplankton taxonomic groups) and predator (fish) samples were analyzed for carbon and
      nitrogen stable isotope compositions. HA samples were analyzed according to size classes sizes
      to detect possible ontogenetic changes in diet between young (<5mm) and adult (>5mm)
      organisms. In Lake Ontario, the high variation in δ13C signatures among individuals indicates

May 17-21, 2010                                     163                                      Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      that HA is able to feed on multiple food sources, including both pelagic and benthic production.
      Variations in diet had no effect on HA trophic position as inferred from δ15N signatures. The
      results from Lake Ontario will be compared to those obtained from the St Lawrence River. This
      study indicates that HA could potentially increase the connectivity between benthic and pelagic
      food webs. Keywords: Invasive species, Food chains, Stable isotopes.

      MARTYNOV, A., SUSHAMA, L., and LAPRISE, R., Centre ESCER, Université du Québec à
      Montréal, 201, Avenue Président-Kennedy, Montréal, QC, H2X 3Y7. Interactive Lakes in the
      Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM): Present State and Perspectives.

             Interactive lakes are introduced into the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM),
      aiming at better simulation of regional climate, particularly for lake-rich regions, such as the
      Canadian Shield and the Laurentian Great Lakes region. During the first phase, two 1D lake
      models were interactively coupled with CRCM4, the current operational version of the model.
      Decadal simulations with the coupled model over a domain covering the Great Lakes are
      presented and compared with simulations that did not take into account lakes or used a simple
      mixed-layer lake model. The lake coupling for both resolved and sub-grid lakes is currently
      being realised for the next (fifth) generation of the regional model (CRCM5), which is based on
      the GEM numerical weather prediction model. Preliminary simulation results are presented and
      compared with standard CRCM5 and with coupled CRCM4 simulations.
      Keywords: Atmosphere-lake interaction, Model studies, Climatology.

      PELLETIER, M., BANIC, C., and NEILSON, M., Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R
      4A6. Occurrence, Distribution and Fate of Polybrominated Diphenylethers in the
      Canadian Environment.

              Environment Canada‘s Chemicals Management Plan (CMP)Monitoring and Surveillance
      Program focuses on monitoring of chemicals in multiple environmental media: air, water,
      sediment, non-human biota (fish and wildlife); as well as source monitoring (e.g., wastewater
      treatment plant effluents and sludge). This program complements the human health monitoring
      conducted by Health Canada. Together these programs generate science-based information
      essential to identifying risks and informing risk assessment and risk management, and to support
      informed decision-making. As part of a case study, we have recently compiled available
      information on the occurrence, distribution and fate of polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs)
      in Canada. Assessment of temporal trends show apparent decreases beginning around the year
      2000 in sediment and fish while trends in wildlife are more variable and site dependant; there is
      some evidence for declines in air. PBDE levels nationally are influenced by multiple sources
      (local and atmospheric deposition). Levels in birds, fish and sediment are influenced by
      proximity to urban and industrialized centers; levels in air may also impacted by transboundary
      transportation. Significant progress is being made toward elimination of tetraDBE, pentaBDE
      and hexaBDE. Management of ongoing diffuse sources of PBDEs sh Keywords: Ecosystem
      health, Watersheds, PBDEs.

May 17-21, 2010                                     164                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      MATOS, L.1, SNODGRASS, W.J.2, and HAWKINS, S.3, 1Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin
      Street, Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4; 2City of Toronto, Metro Hall, 55 John Street, 18th Floor,
      Toronto, ON, M5V 3C6; 3Toronto and Region Conservation, 70 Canuck Avenue, Downsview,
      ON, M3K 2C5. Review of Projects which may lead to delisting of Toronto & Region as an

              This paper summarizes the beneficial use impairments of the Toronto and Region Area of
      Concern (AOC), and reviews the various projects (actual and anticipated) that will provide a
      scientific basis for delisting the AOC. The Toronto and Region AOC Stage 1 report identified
      eight Beneficial Use Impairments (BUIs) in this AOC, with an additional three BUIs requiring
      further assessment (RFA). The BUIs relating to contamination of fish and wildlife have each
      undergone evaluation and, pending confirmatory results, are anticipated to advance toward
      delisting. Far more complex in both assessment and remediation are the BUIs affected by the
      AOC‘s main challenges: continued urbanization, stressors on fish and wildlife populations and,
      in particular, degraded water quality resulting from stormwater and combined sewer overflows.
      It is these projects for which updated implementation approaches, an increase in scientific
      understanding, and science-based refinement of BUI delisting criteria are required to support
      delisting efforts. Studies are underway to confirm that another four BUI‘s can advance to
      delisting, pending implementation of the Wet Weather Flow Master Plan‘s projects, and 2 BUI‘s
      (loss of habitat; fish and wildlife population) through implementation of waterfront
      redevelopment initiatives, which include habitat creation. Keywords: Remediation,
      Urbanization, Water quality.

      MAYER, A.S.1, BALLARD, M.M.1, FITZGERALD, K.A.1, GYWALI, R.1, MO, W.2,
      WATKINS JR., D.W.1, and ZHANG, Q.2, 1Michigan Technological University, 1400 Townsend
      Drive., Houghton, MI, 49931; 2University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, ENC 3300,
      Tampa, FL, 33620. Modeling and Analyzing the Use, Efficiency, Value, and Governance of
      Water in the Great Lakes Region through an Integrated Approach.

              The objective of this project is to determine, through integrated physical and economic
      models and under various scenarios of population growth, climate change, land use, and
      emissions, the impact of direct and indirect drivers on water quality, quantity, and availability in
      the Great Lakes region. The project will emphasize quantifying the stocks and flows of fresh
      water, analyzing the underlying factors affecting water use and allocation decisions, and
      developing cost frameworks for capturing the value of having a specific amount of water
      available at a given purity, time, and location. This project will result in several advances in the
      analysis of water management issues, including (1) development of new, physically-based
      modeling approaches to simulate quantity and quality in the Great Lakes region; (2) creation and
      testing new, empirical models of the energy embodied in water delivery and treatment for the
      Great Lakes context; and (3) selection of relevant future climate, population, land use, and
      emissions scenarios to use as input to water quantity and quality predictions and in analyses of
      uncertainty in those predictions. We will report on recent progress, including the development of
      watershed models, water quality models, and water treatment cost and energy models.
      Keywords: Watersheds, Model studies, Regional analysis.

May 17-21, 2010                                       165                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      CLAPSADL, M.2, BRADY, T.5, LUOMA, J.5, and MOLLOY, D.1, 1New York State Museum,
      Field Research Laboratory, 51 Fish Hatchery Road, Cambridge, NY, 12828; 2Great Lakes
      Center, Buffalo State College, 1300 Elmwood Avenue, Buffalo, NY, 14222; 3University at
      Albany, Department of Biological Sciences, Albany, NY, 12222; 4USGS Upper Midwest
      Environmental Sciences Center, 2630 Fanta Reed Road, La Crosse, WI, 54603; 5USFWS Genoa
      National Fish Hatchery, S5631 State Highway 35, Genoa, WI, 54632. Potential to Manage the
      Impacts of Invasive Species on Endangered Wildlife in the Great Lakes.

              Our research team is preparing to launch two invasive species management projects:
      BOTULISM PATHWAY: The epidemic of botulism E has caused the deaths of thousands of
      fish and birds. The type E toxin is secreted by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and can
      cause paralysis and death upon ingestion. However, the benthic food web interactions involved
      in this outbreak remain unclear. Two invasive species groups are thought to play roles:
      Neogobius melanostomus (round gobies) and Dreissena spp. (quagga and zebra mussels), but
      conclusive proof has yet to be provided as to exactly what role dreissenids play in goby
      intoxication. Development of an inexpensive assay for detection of ultra low quantities of this
      toxin in environmental samples is a priority. This breakthrough assay would enable tracking of
      the toxin's trophic pathway through the benthic invertebrate community to gobies. This could
      lead to nearshore management practices that could predict and potentially even prevent these
      outbreaks. UNIONID RESTORATION: Great Lakes basin unionids are imperiled by dreissenid
      fouling, but no control methods are yet available for use in open waters. Because of its non-target
      safety demonstrated to date, a newly emerging bacterial biopesticide could well prove valuable
      in such endangered unionid restoration efforts Keywords: Invasive species, Botulinum Type E,
      Dreissena, Unionid restoration, Fish diseases.

      MAZUMDER, A.1, EVANS, D.2, GINN, B.3, MAZUMDER, S.1, and VERENITCH, S.1, 1Water
      and Aquatic Sciences Research Program, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8W3N5,
      Canada; 2Aquatic Research and Development Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources,
      Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8, Canada; 3Lake Simcoe Region Conservation
      Authority, 120 Bayview Parkway, Box 282,, Newmarket, ON, L3Y 4X1, Canada. Paleo
      patterns of algal pigments, C/N isotopes and nutrients provide new insights into historic
      water quality trends in Lake Simcoe.

             During the last 200 years, the Lake Simcoe ecosystem has provided domestic water
      supply and sewage disposal services, recreational fisheries and agriculture for an expanding
      human population in southern Ontario. The intense forest harvesting, agriculture, industrial and
      municipal activities in the Lake Simcoe basin lead to increased loading of nutrients, carbon and
      sediments, and associated deterioration of water quality indicated by algal blooms, reduced
      transparency, oxygen depletion, and reduced biomass of several fish species. We wanted to
      evaluate how landuse and development activities affected concentrations of different algal
      groups, total algal biomass, loading of anthropogenically-impacted nitrogen and carbon, and to

May 17-21, 2010                                      166                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      test if the different basins of Lake Simcoe showed variable responses to landuse and
      development. We took three 40-50 cm deep cores from each of the three distant basin locations
      on the lake, and analyzed pigment types and concentrations to help develop the chronology of
      algal blooms by major groups and changing biomass. We also analyzed stable isotopes of
      nitrogen and carbon to determine the changes in the loading of land-based N and C to the lake.
      We use these results to evaluate linkages among landuse history and historic trends in water
      quality and to suggest management strategies for Lake Simcoe. Keywords: Lake Simcoe,
      Paleolimnology, Eutrophication.

      MCCALLA, S.G.1, ZANIS, M.J.2, STOTT, W.L.3, SEPÚLVEDA, M.S.4, HÖÖK, T.O.4,
      NALEPA, T.F.5, and NICHOLS, K.M.1, 1Department of Biological Sciences, 915 West State St.,
      West Lafayette, IN, 47907; 2Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, 915 West State St.,
      West Lafayette, IN, 47907; 3Great Lakes Science Centre, 1451 Green Rd., Ann Arbor, MI,
      48105; 4Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, 195 Marsteller St., West Lafayette, IN,
      47907; 5National Oceaninc and Atmospheric Administration, Great Lakes Environmental
      Research Laboratory, 4840 S. State Rd, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108. Patterns of Genetic Diversity
      in Diporeia in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

              The amphipod Diporeia once comprised the majority of the benthic biomass throughout
      the Great Lakes and was historically the major food source for lake whitefish, rainbow smelt,
      alewives, and slimy sculpins. Since the early 1990s, Diporeia populations have experienced
      dramatic declines while commercial fisheries have concurrently experienced a decrease in
      production. Various mechanisms and agents have been investigated with no conclusive results,
      although the studies do indicate that some lake regions are experiencing extreme declines while
      other regions retain static population levels. These confounding patterns suggest that
      environmental demands for survival differ across the Great Lakes region and it is possible that
      the disparities in decline can be explained by differences in species composition. To investigate
      Diporeia’s genetic lineages, uncover phylogenetic relationships, and assess population structure
      across the Great Lakes region, we examined samples collected from 15 sites across the Great
      Lakes using four mitochondrial genes (COX1, COX3, 16S, and ATP6) identified with the aid of
      454 sequencing technology and microsatellite DNA loci designed for Diporeia. These
      preliminary results indicate that Lake Superior represents a distinct lineage from that of the other
      Great Lakes. Keywords: Genetics, Diporeia.

      MCCARRY, B.E.1, SOFOWOTE, U.M.1, MARVIN, C.H.2, and ALLAN, L.M.3, 1Department of
      Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1; 2Aquatic
      Ecosystem Management Research Division, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6;
        Bruker Daltronics, East Milton, ON, L9T 1Y6. Sources of Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the
      Hamilton Harbour Airshed and Watershed.

              The purpose of this work was to identify the number and types of sources of polycyclic
      aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in suspended sediment samples collected in Hamilton Harbour
      and its tributaries and in inhalable air particulate (PM10) samples collected around the industrial
      area of Hamilton. Three source apportionment strategies applied to these data sets: (1) PAH

May 17-21, 2010                                       167                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      diagnostic ratios, (2) principal components analysis with multiple linear regression (PCA-MLR)
      and (3) positive matrix factorization (PMF). The goal was to obtain the relative contribution of
      each PAH source type and to identify the source type by comparison with PAH profiles of
      authentic sources. Of the three methods, PCA-MLR and PMF and afforded similar factor
      profiles; the PAH diagnostic ratio approach provided much less useful source discrimination. On
      the quantitative side, the PMF method afforded consistently better source apportionment results
      than the PCA-MLR approach. Four major PAH source types were identified in these samples:
      gasoline engine emissions, diesel exhaust, coke oven emissions and coal tar. Only the first three
      source types were identified as contributors to the 75 air samples while all four sources were
      identified in the harbour suspended sediments. This work is a rare example of PMF being used
      for sediment source apportionment. Keywords: PAHs, Pollution sources, Sediment quality.

      MCCULLOUGH, G.K.1 and STAINTON, M.P.2, 1Centre for Earth Observations Science, 482
      Wallace Bldg., University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, R3G 1R4; 2Freshwater Institute,
      Department of Fisheries and Oceans, 501 University Crescent, Wnnipeg, MB, R3T 2N6.
      Mobilization of Phosphorous by Flooding in the Red River Basin.

              We attribute a recent near-doubling of phosphorous (P) in L. Winnipeg to a surge in
      loading associated with increased discharge and flood frequency in one tributary, the Red R.
      Since 1995, flood frequency (discharge >1000 m3s-1) has been 7 in 10 years, compared to < 3 in
      10 years over the previous half century. Above flood stage, median P concentration is twice as
      high as median P at lower, channel-contained discharge. In tributary streams, both dissolved and
      particulate P (DP & PP) measured during and soon after the spring freshet is highly correlated
      with spring peak discharge. In a spatially-distributed data set collected during the spring freshet
      in one tributary (the La Salle R.) DP concentration was generally higher downstream of
      extensively flooded reaches than in the headwater branches. We attribute this increase in DP to
      leaching from flooded fields in the low-relief middle-watershed; the increase in PP may have
      been due to bank erosion and resuspension of channel sediments. In either case, high discharges
      contributed to increased P concentrations. This is not inconsistent with the widely held view that
      increased anthropogenic nutrient loading is driving increased productivity in Lake Winnipeg.
      However, flooding contributes by mobilizing available soluble P from the watershed.
      Keywords: Lake Winnipeg, Floods, Phosphorus, Nutrients.

      MCDANIEL, T., PASCOE, T., WATSON, S., and GUO, J., Environment Canada, 867
      Lakeshore Rd E, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Monitoring in a complex sytem: Water quality
      in Lake of the Woods and the Rainy River.

             As part of a larger program to assess and remediate deteriorating water quality in the
      Lake Winnipeg Basin, Environment Canada formed the Lake of the Woods Science Initiative in
      response to concerns regarding excess nutrient loading and cyanobacteria blooms in Lake of the
      Woods (LOW). LOW is a large, hydrologically, complex international water body spanning the
      Manitoba, Ontario and Minnesota borders. Rainy River, in the southern region, is a major source
      of both water and nutrients to LOW, accounting for 70% of its hydraulic load. In conjunction
      with provincial and state partner agencies, water quality (physical and chemical parameters)

May 17-21, 2010                                      168                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      sediment quality and biological indicators are being monitored in Lake of the Woods and Rainy
      River. Sampling, which began in 2008, has taken place at a total of 33 stations, in early, mid and
      late summer. Physical properties were measured by YSI profile, while water quality parameters
      were monitored at three depths: surface, integrated photic zone and bottom. Sediments were
      monitored at 21 stations for physical and chemical properties and benthic invertebrate
      community structure. Water quality was also monitored at four transects on the Rainy River from
      Fort Frances to the town of Rainy River. Keywords: Monitoring, Nutrients, Lake of the Woods,
      Water quality.

      MCDONALD, C.P. and URBAN, N.R., Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI,
      49931. Bayesian test-bed calibration of a mechanistic aquatic biogeochemical model for
      Lake Superior.

              Aquatic ecosystem models, especially those applied in large systems, are often complex
      yet poorly constrained by measurements, leading to considerable uncertainty surrounding the
      model output. Yet, a certain level of complexity is often deemed necessary a priori to address the
      scientific and management issues at hand. We demonstrate how a ―test-bed‖ approach can be
      used in large lakes to maximize assimilation of scarce data. Great Lakes data with the
      spatiotemporal resolution necessary to accurately calibrate an ecosystem model coupled with a 3-
      D hydrodynamic model do not yet exist. Intensive sampling campaigns, however, provide high-
      resolution data over small space and time scales. By implementing the ecosystem model in a
      simplified spatial framework (1-D), it is possible to rigorously estimate parameter values.
      Models are calibrated at several sites using Bayesian methods. The results are then synthesized
      into an optimized parameter vector for the whole lake (3-D) model. Using this approach, a
      number of model structures may also be implemented to identify the most parsimonious
      specification. Keywords: Computer models, Ecosystem modeling, Lake Superior.

      MCDONALD, K. and TONINGER, R., 5 Shoreham Drive, Downsview, ON, M3N1S4.
      Cormorants in the city: Double-crested Cormorant management at Tommy Thompson

              The management of cormorant colonies is challenging regardless of location, but a
      colony in Toronto poses unique difficulties. The colony at Tommy Thompson Park is located in
      a public park in close proximity to recreational venues. Many management tools are not feasible
      due to the location and public access. Co-nesting Black-crowned Night-Herons and Great Egrets
      also complicate management. At 7564 nests this is the largest known cormorant colony in the
      lower Great Lakes. TRCA developed a publicly driven management strategy involving an
      advisory group comprised of stakeholders and experts, including conservationists, academics and
      interest groups from across the spectrum, to provide advice and input. The goal of the strategy is
      to achieve a balance between the continued existence of a healthy cormorant colony and the
      other ecological, educational, scientific and recreational values of the park. The objectives are to
      increase public knowledge, awareness and appreciation of waterbirds; deter cormorant expansion
      and limit further loss of forest; and continue waterbird research. The development of the strategy
      was transparent, holistic and adaptive and by using applied research public support is gained and

May 17-21, 2010                                       169                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      the goal and objectives become more attainable. This approach can be used as a case study for
      managing cormorants in urban areas Keywords: Cormorants, Management, Lake Ontario.

      MCGILLIS, A.1, BRUNTON, A.1, HELKA, J.2, and BASSINGTHWAITE, M.3, 1Baird &
      Associates, Oakville; 2City of Hamilton, Hamilton; 3Cole Engineering, Markham. Event-Based
      and Long-Term Sediment Transport Modelling in a Restored River Channel.

              Windermere Basin has issues associated with low water quality and contaminants due to
      the accumulation of sediments from the Red Hill Creek and surrounding sources. A consultant
      team who have developed conceptual designs to turn Windermere Basin into a wetland and its
      surrounding lands into a passive naturalized recreation area. The wetland will create natural
      habitat within the basin that would increase the aesthetic appeal of the waterfront and provide
      additional fish and waterfowl habitat that would support restoration initiatives in Hamilton
      Harbour. This paper presents development, testing and application of a detailed 3-D
      hydrodynamic and sediment transport numerical model (MISED). Model simulations represented
      the existing basin conditions, the preliminary design and the detailed design. The focus of the
      simulations was to define the form of sedimentation in the study area and related impacts
      including the possible increase in sediment loads to Hamilton Harbour. A Matlab model of
      morphodynamic change was also implemented to help optimize the final channel configuration
      for long-term channel stability. The results are critical to the development of sediment
      management plans, definition of impacts and mitigation measures. Keywords: Sediment
      transport, Hydrogeomorphology, Hydrodynamics.

      MCGOLDRICK, D.J., CLARK, M.G., KEIR, M.J., and BACKUS, S.M., Water Science and
      Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd. P.O. Box 5050, Burlington,
      ON, L7R 4A6. Monitoring contaminants in fishes from the Canadian waters of the Great
      Lakes: 1977 to 2009 - PCBs to PBDEs.

              Canada‘s Fish Contaminants Monitoring and Surveillance Program (FCSP) began in
      1977 as agreed in the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA). Under the FSCP,
      concentrations of legacy POPs, such as PCBs, are measured annually in the tissues of fishes from
      the Canadian waters of the Great Lakes. Coincident with restrictions on the release of these
      compounds, the concentrations observed in the tissues of fish declined significantly through the
      1980s. Despite these declines, the concentration of total PCBs measured in all lake trout in 2008,
      with the exception of some specimens caught in Lake Superior, were above the GLWQA target
      of 0.1 µg/g. While legacy POPs are still prevalent and of concern in the Great Lakes ecosystem,
      there has been increased interest in monitoring other emerged classes of contaminants. The FCSP
      began annual monitoring of PBDEs in lake trout from all 4 Canadian Great Lakes in 2006. Mean
      concentrations of tetraBDEs are highest in trout from Lake Ontario followed in decreasing order
      by trout from Lakes Superior, Huron and Erie. Retrospective analysis of archived lake trout
      tissues from Lake Ontario were also used to generate a 10 year temporal trend which showed that
      PBDE concentrations appear to be declining slowly since their peak in the mid to late 1990s.
      Keywords: Pollutants, Fish, Great Lakes basin.

May 17-21, 2010                                      170                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      MCINNES, M.1, ELLIS, D.A.2, and WEBSTER, E.2, 1Department of Chemistry, Trent
      University, Peterborough, ON, K9J7B8; 2Centre for Environmental Modelling and Chemistry,
      Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J7B8. Measurement and Modelling of Altitudinal
      Flux of Nonylphenol Ethoxylates to the Atmosphere via Aqueous Aerosol Production.

             Nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPEs) are environmentally ubiquitous surfactants.
      Understanding the mechanisms by which they are transported in the environment is of utmost
      importance. NPEs are surface active compounds and may therefore be subject to transport via
      aqueous aerosols. To date, little attention has been paid to this potentially important mechanism
      of transport. This study investigated the loss of NPEs from a body of water upon aerosol
      production and the effects of water droplet size on mass transfer from bulk to aerosol phases.
      Droplets were measured and a predictive algorithm was created to evaluate the saturation point
      of each droplet size. The mass function was integrated with a model that predicts the flux of
      varying aerosol droplet sizes above water bodies from the water‘s surface to 600m. The resulting
      function predicts a mass flux of NPEs in the atmosphere at various heights above the water.
      Keywords: Mathematical models, Contaminant flux, Environmental contaminants, Spray
      generation, Atmosphere-lake interaction, Surfactants.

      EDER, T.11, HECKY, R.15, INFANTE, D.8, JOHNSON, L.9, LODGE, D.10, READ, J.12,
      RUTHERFORD, E.13, SOWA, S.6, STEINMAN, A.14, JOSEPH, C.1, and FENNER, J.1, 1School
      of Natural Resources & Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109; 2National
      Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, Santa Barbara, CA, 93101; 3College of
      Environmental Science and Forestry, State University of New York, Syracuse, NY, 13210;
        National Wildlife Federation, Ann Arbor, MI, 48104; 5Dept. of Biology, Queens University,
      Kingston, ON; 6The Nature Conservancy, Lansing, MI, 48906; 7University of Windsor, Windsor,
      ON; 8Dept. of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, Lansing, MI, 48824; 9Natural
      Resources Research Institute, University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN, 55811; 10Dept. of
      Biological Sciences, University of Notre Dame, South Bend, IN, 46556; 11Great Lakes
      Commission, Ann Arbor, MI, 48104; 12Michigan Sea Grant, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109; 13NOAA
      Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 48104; 14Annis Water
      Resources Institute, Grand Valley State University, Muskegon, MI, 49441; 15Large Lakes
      Observatory, University of Minnesota, Duluth, MN, 55811. The Great Lakes Threat Mapping
      Project: a new tool to aid in prioritization.

              A key lesson from terrestrial conservation science is that maps of threats and resources
      are one important starting point for developing coherent restoration and conservation strategies.
      All management efforts are tied to specific places, and so we need to know the spatial
      distribution of human impacts in order to guide effective actions. Here, we outline the Great
      Lakes Threat Mapping Project, which seeks to merge GIS layers representing each of the major
      categories of threats to the Great Lakes, ranging from climate change to land-based pollution to
      exotic species. By synthesizing this information into a single map of cumulative threat levels
      across the basin, we will provide a new tool to the management community that can aid in

May 17-21, 2010                                     171                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      prioritization. Additional comparisons between the spatial distribution of cumulative threats and
      priority habitats, species of concern, and ecosystem services will also be undertaken. This effort,
      modeled upon recent global threat analyses for marine waters and rivers, will facilitate
      coordination of restoration and conservation actions throughout the Great Lakes region.
      Keywords: Indicators, Comparison studies, Environmental policy.

      MCKAGUE, K.J.1 and SCHROETER, H.O.2, 1Unit A - 401 Lakeview Dr,, Woodstock, ON, Nt
      1W2; 268 Parker Dr., Simcoe, ON, N3Y 1A4. Assembling Climate Datasets to Drive
      Hydrologic and Water Quality Models in the Ontario Great Lakes Basin.

              Climate data, including daily or breakpoint precipitation amounts, air temperature, dew
      point, solar radiation, and wind speed, are key and sensitive input required by users of all scales
      of hydrologic, water quality, and agricultural management models. Preparing complete climate
      datasets to drive such models, however, can be time consuming. This presentation will outline
      how datafilling procedures for air temperature and precipitation, described by Schroeter et al.
      (2000), were used and expanded upon to arrive at climate input files suitable for use in the
      WEPP (Water Erosion Prediction Project) soil erosion hillslope model. Erosion prediction
      models such as WEPP and RUSLE2 (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) need storm
      intensity data to predict the erosivity of individual precipitation events. Techniques suggested by
      Arnold and Williams (1989) were used to generate breakpoint precipitation from the datafilled
      files. Solar radiation, windspeed and dewpoint were also datafilled to meet the input needs of
      WEPP and other related water quality models The datafilling methods were applied to a total of
      15 pilot stations across southern Ontario. Resulting files were tested in WEPP and the output was
      compared with the original Universal Soil Loss Equation‘s (USLE) estimates of long-term soil
      erosion losses. Keywords: Erosion, Model studies, Water, Climatic data, Sediment load.

      H.J.5, BULLERJAHN, G.S.1, BEALL, B.F.N.1, DSOUZA, N.A.1, SAXTON, M.A.6, and
      WILHELM, S.W.6, 1Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green State University,
      Bowling Green, OH; 2Department of Biology, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY; 3Environment
      Canada, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Burlington, ON; 4Department of Biology, University
      of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON; 5School of Forest Resources, Pennsylvania State University,
      University Park, PA; 6Department of Microbiology, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville,
      TN. Life Under Ice: Insights on Winter Production in Lake Erie.

               Surveys of Lake Erie during mid-January (extensive ice cover) through late-March (ice
      restricted to the eastern basin) of 2009 showed the lake supported moderate to high
      phytoplankton biomass (2-12 µg/L) dominated by the microplankton size-fraction, which
      generally accounted for > 80% of Chl a biomass. An April 2009 survey demonstrated that high
      microplankton biomass persisted into spring. We previously demonstrated microplankton to be
      dominated by centric diatoms of the species Aulacoseira spp. Dissolved nutrient concentrations
      remained elevated throughout the lake and sub-Redfield N:P molar ratios of seston suggested a
      P-sufficient phytoplankton assemblage as we have previously described. Whereas the winter
      assemblage achieved moderate to high rates (2-4 g C/g Chl a/h) of total light-saturated primary

May 17-21, 2010                                      172                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      production, variable Chl a biomass and light attenuation coefficients, which ranged from 0.5-
      1/m, resulted in wide ranging estimates of areal production (~100-1500 mg C m-2 d-1). Rates of
      primary production were decoupled from microbial activity as bacterial growth was low in
      winter. Given estimates of export production derived from sediment traps throughout the lake,
      the winter diatom bloom suggests a potential role promoting the formation of hypoxia in Lake
      Erie‘s central basin during summer. Keywords: Lake Erie, Ice, Phytoplankton.

      N.2, VASYS, V.1, and WU, C.4, 1University of Wisconsin - Madison, Center for Climatic
      Research, Madison, WI, 53706, United States; 2Michigan Technological University, Civil and
      Environmental Engineering, Houghton, MI, 49931, United States; 3University of Wisconsin -
      Madison, Zoology, Madison, WI, 53706, United States; 4University of Wisconsin - Madison,
      Civil and Environmental Engineering, Madison, WI, 53706, United States. Carbon Cycle
      Variability in Lake Superior: Physical Drivers and Impacts on the Regional Carbon

              The CyCLeS (Cycling of Carbon in Lake Superior) project has the goal of quantifying
      Lake Superior carbon cycling and air-lake carbon fluxes and to place them in the context of
      regional carbon budgeting efforts by the North American Carbon Program (NACP). We have
      configured a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model with an ecosystem-carbon module for the
      Lake, and simulated the circulation and carbon cycle for 1989-2008. Without external inputs, the
      model is able to capture the observed ecosystem structure as well as the observed open-lake
      pCO2, net primary productivity (NPP), and other biogeochemical quantities. We use the model
      to consider the response of lake-wide and basin-scale carbon cycling and air-lake CO2 fluxes to
      physical climate variability on weekly to interannual timescales and discuss the dominant
      mechanisms. Using back-trajectory analysis in an atmospheric transport model, we also estimate
      the influence of seasonal CO2 fluxes from Lake Superior on tall tower atmospheric CO2
      measurements occurring in Northern Wisconsin. Keywords: Ecosystem model, Climate change,
      Climate variability, Carbon cycle, Model studies.

      MCLAREN, P.1, SINGER, J.2, MANLEY, P.3, and MANLEY, T.O.3, 1GeoSea Consulting,
      Brentwood Bay, BC, V8M 1C5; 2Earth Sciences, SUNY-Buffalo State College, Buffalo, NY,
      14222; 3Geology Department, Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT, ^05753. Using Geological
      Tools to Understand Hydrodynamics and Sedimentation Processes in the Buffalo River and
      Outer Harbor: A Case Study of Urban River Restoration.

              Side-scan sonar mapping and Sediment Trend Analysis (STA) have improved our
      understanding of sediment sources and sedimentation processes in and around the mouth of the
      Buffalo River and in the Outer Harbor. STA and side-scan sonar confirmed the presence of a
      bidirectional flow regime. During times of high flow, a river-dominated transport regime exists;
      times of lower flow appear to coincide with Lake Erie seiches producing a seiche-driven
      transport regime capable of carrying sediment 4.5 km upriver. An STA around the river mouth
      identified four Transport Environments (TE). TEs 1-3 were northwards into the Niagara River;
      TE4 indicated that sediment from outside the river mouth was moving upriver, as well as

May 17-21, 2010                                     173                                      Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      circulating to join the directions of sediment movement found in the adjoining TEs. The upriver
      transport regime of TE4 can be explained by Lake Erie seiches entraining sediment previously
      deposited in Buffalo Harbor from the river at times of high flow. In the Outer Harbor,
      sedimentation patterns derived from STA were correlated to side-scan sonar records used to
      evaluate bottom morphology and the presence of sedimentary features. Management decisions
      for river restoration should take into account the influence of Lake Erie seiches and the upriver
      transport of sediment deposited around the river mouth. Keywords: Hydrodynamics, Sediment
      transport, Remediation.

      MCLAUGHLIN, C., Dofasco Centre for Engineering and Public Policy, McMaster University,
      Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1. You Can Do It, We Can Help: Coherent Leadership for
      Renovation of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement.

               To renovate is to make as if new again. The initial Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement
      was a triumph of binational water governance that instigated pronounced water quality
      improvements through its processes and institutions. Those processes and institutions have been
      undermined and diminished, however, and Great Lakes governance anchored by the Agreement
      has fallen behind modern innovations in water management and policy that better reflect the
      complex adaptive character of regional social-ecological systems. Continuing uncertainties and
      new threats to the Great Lakes make the announced renewal of the Agreement imperative, but
      where governance reflects a collective state of mind, a lack of coherent leadership questions the
      potential of such innovations to be realized. This presentation highlights results of a study to
      examine the tools and materials necessary for a successful renovation of the Agreement and the
      institutional state of mind necessary to undertake it. Keywords: Great Lakes basin, Leadership,
      Policy making, Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, Decision making.

      MCLAUGHLIN, R.1, JONES, M.2, MANDRAK, N.3, STACEY, D.4, and COTE, J.4,
        Department of Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1; 2Department
      of Fisheries and Wildlife, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824-1222; 3Great
      Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Burlington,
      ON, L7R 4A6; 4Department of Computing and Information Science, University of Guelph,
      Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1. FishMaP: A Web Application Supporting Science-Based Decisions
      Concerning Fish Movement and Passage.

              This presentation will highlight the Fish Migration and Passage (FishMaP) knowledge
      base (http://fishmap.uoguelph.ca/) – an on-line tool summarizing migration and passage biology
      of fishes in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Our objectives will be to (i) bring the knowledge base to
      the attention of a wider group of potential users, (ii) encourage data sharing, and (iii) solicit
      feedback on content and design. FishMaP allows users to obtain a fish species list by selecting a
      tertiary watershed, a tributary name, a fish faunal region with a lake, or a custom species list
      selected from a list of species inhabiting the Great Lakes basin. For that species list, the
      knowledge base summarizes information on conservation designations, rarity, propensity to
      inhabit lotic environments, migratory tendencies, sensitivity to barriers and fast flows, use of
      fishways and culverts, and swimming performance. Users can select reports summarizing

May 17-21, 2010                                      174                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      information about each species under a specific topic (e.g. migratory tendencies) or summarizing
      information about each topic for a given species. Within report types, information can be
      organized by common or scientific species names. Records summarized in each report topic are
      referenced back to literature sources. FishMaP was developed to help reach more informed
      decisions regarding dams and fishways. Keywords: Decision making, Data storage and
      retrieval, Fish behavior.

      MCMILLAN, A.M., Buffalo State College, 1300 Elmwood Ave., Buffalo, NY, 14222.
      Botulism in the Great Lakes: using a novel approach to track disease impacts on bird

              In the last decade thousands of waterbirds have died from Type E botulism poisoning in
      the Great Lakes. The impacts of botulism are especially severe during fall migration, when many
      waterbirds stage on the Great Lakes during their flight south. Common Loons are particularly
      hard hit; their fall migration corresponds to lake turnover, the time when botulism toxin seems to
      be most available in fish and invertebrates. Since it was recognized in 1999, it is estimated that
      botulism poisoning has killed 500 to more than 2,500 loons each year. This study was
      undertaken to determine which loon populations were being impacted by botulism deaths and
      whether we could track these impacts using population genetic assays of dead birds. Between
      2001 and 2006, feather or muscle tissues from > 250 dead loons were collected along the shores
      of Lakes Erie and Ontario and analyzed at five polymorphic microsatellite loci. Genetic analysis
      indicates that loons dying from botulism on Lakes Erie and Ontario are originating from
      breeding sites directly north of these lakes. These birds are genetically very different from loons
      breeding both west and east of the Great Lakes. Over the course of the outbreak, however,
      genotypes have not changed in dead birds. These results will be discussed in light of overall
      ecosystem health and environmental change. Keywords: Genetics, Avian ecology, Ecosystem

      MCNINCH, R.M. and DREELIN, E.A., 1405 South Harrison Road, 301 Manly Miles Building,
      Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI, 48824. Landuse Trends Surrounding Michigan
      Great Lakes Beaches Based on Annapolis Protocol Classifications.

              Using the State‘s Escherichia coli database compiled from recreational beach monitoring,
      61 Michigan Great Lakes beaches have each been assigned an Annapolis Protocol (AP) class (5
      class levels ranging from A being ‗good‘ to E being ‗poor‘) based on previous statistical analysis
      conducted by our group. ArcGIS software was used to analyze landuse patterns within the
      surrounding watersheds of these sampling site coordinates at three scales: 1) entire watershed
      (HUC12), 2) 1km contributing area upstream of site, and 3) 5 km contributing area upstream of
      site. Landuse was analyzed at each scale for the entire watershed/contributing area as well as for
      50 and 125 meter buffered sections around rivers and streams within each area. The 1km
      contributing area analysis indicates a high percentage of wetland (61.64%) and urban (70.93%)
      landuse surrounding ‗good‘ and ‗poor‘ sites, respectively, a trend not noticeable at the watershed
      scale and indicating scale as an important factor when conducting such landuse analysis. Aerial
      imagery is now being incorporated to further conduct the analysis in regard to entire beach areas

May 17-21, 2010                                      175                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      as a means of more accurately depicting the scale most relevant for investigating pollution
      sources at beach sites. Keywords: GIS, Landuse, Water quality.

      MELYMUK, L.E.1, ROBSON, M.E.2, DIAMOND, M.L.2, BACKUS, S.3, and BRADLEY, L.3,
        Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry, University of Toronto, 200 College
      Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3E5; 2Dept. of Geography, University of Toronto, 100 St. George
      Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G3; 3Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON,
      L7R 4A6. Urban Sources and Loadings of Organic Contaminants to Lake Ontario:
      assessing the influence of precipitation from urban and rural sites.

              Wet deposition is a significant pathway for loadings of organic contaminants to the Great
      Lakes. This pathway has been examined through comparisons of concentrations in precipitation
      of PCBs, PAHs, OCPs, and BFRs at three sites on the north shore of Lake Ontario, one rural
      (Point Petre), one suburban (Burlington), and one urban (Toronto) site. Concentrations of PAHs,
      PBDEs, and PCBs in precipitation are significantly higher at the urban site and while this may
      impact the urban region, this influence does not extend significantly downwind of the urban area.
      Concentrations in precipitation appear to be the result of local/regional sources rather than long-
      range transport from other regions. However, despite the limited influence of the urban region on
      downwind atmospheric deposition of POPs, there are a number of highly urbanized regions
      adjacent to the Great Lakes, and estimates of loadings via precipitation to lakes are higher when
      urban concentrations are considered. Keywords: Urban areas, PBTs, Lake Ontario.

        Glenora Fisheries Station, Aquatic Research and Development Section, Ontario Ministry of
      Natural Resources, 41 Hatchery Lane, R.R. #4, Picton, ON, K0K 2T0; 2Department of Biology,
      Queens University, 116 Barrie Street, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6; 3Glenora Fisheries Station, Lake
      Ontario Management Unit, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 41 Hatchery Lane, R.R. #4,
      Picton, ON, K0K 2T0; 4Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Fisheries
      and Oceans Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, PO Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Assessing
      Nearshore Fish Communities In Eastern Lake Ontario, Canada.

              Freshwater nearshore habitats and fish communities are often more complex and diverse
      than their pelagic neighbours, and these nearshore fish communities can contribute substantially
      to a lake‘s overall fish biodiversity and abundance. Nearshore fish communities are also often
      the first to experience effects of, for example, non-indigenous species introductions, or habitat
      degradation. As a result, changes in nearshore fish communities can have substantial
      implications for entire lake ecosystems. Fishery monitoring programs in the nearshore zones of
      lakes often target large-bodied fish, and small-bodied fish tend to receive much less attention.
      We wish to examine which gear types and level of effort are required to adequately describe
      nearshore fish communities in Great Lakes environments, with an emphasis on small-bodied
      fish. We sampled the nearshore fish community at several locations in eastern Lake Ontario
      using six-foot trapnets, three-foot fyke nets, small-mesh gillnets, and three-pass boat
      electrofishing. Comparisons will highlight similarities and differences in species richness

May 17-21, 2010                                      176                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      amongst the four methodologies used, and recommendations for sampling nearshore fish
      communities will be made. Keywords: Assessments, Lake Ontario, Littoral zone.

      MEYER, T. and WANIA, F., 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, M1C 1A4. Transport of
      organic pollutants within an urban watershed during snowmelt.

              A field study was implemented to investigate the transport dynamics of several pesticides
      and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Highland Creek watershed within the city
      of Toronto, Canada, during two snowmelt periods. The watershed comprises residential,
      commercial and industrial areas and a section of ―the busiest highway of North America‖. Water
      was sampled repeatedly during the snow melt period at different locations along the river and the
      dissolved and the particulate fractions were separately extracted and analyzed by GC-MS. High
      water run-off rates at the onset of melting correlate with high concentrations of suspended
      particulate matter and particle-bound PAHs. While background concentrations of the sum of 9
      PAHs ranged between 20 and 50 ng/L, concentrations at the onset of melting varied from 550 to
      4500 ng/L. PAHs that had previously been deposited around the watershed are released during
      strong melt events and flushed into the streams. Relatively water soluble pesticides mainly
      released from snow packs, tended to appear in river water also early during melting. The mode of
      melt water ablation from the snow pack to the stream, i.e. overland flow vs. sub-surface flow,
      may determine whether contaminant peak releases from the snow pack coincide with similar
      peak loads in river water. Keywords: PAHs, Snowmelt, Urban watersheds, Pesticides.

      MIDA, J.L.1, SCAVIA, D.1, JUDE, D.J.1, SCHAEFFER, J.S.2, and WARNER, D.M.2,
        University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment, Dana Building, 440
      Church St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48109; 2USGS Great Lakes Science Center, 1451 Green Rd., Ann
      Arbor, MI, 48105. The Role of Mysis in Pelagic Food Webs of Lakes Michigan and Huron.

              The opossum shrimp (Mysis diluviana, formerly M. relicta) is an important part of Great
      Lakes food webs, but its role may be changing following ecosystem changes. We investigated
      the new role of Mysis in these food webs, with a focus on their availability and quality as a prey
      item for forage fishes. We investigated and compared Mysis abundances, nutritional condition,
      and relative importance as a prey item for pelagic forage fishes in Lakes Michigan and Huron in
      2007 and 2008. Mysis nutritional condition was assessed by analyzing total lipid content and
      fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) of samples of Mysis tissue collected from the study areas.
      Mysis densities and size metrics were determined by counting and measuring samples taken from
      vertical tows. Fishes for diet studies were obtained using midwater trawls performed during
      acoustic surveys. Results of lipid and FAMEs analyses indicate that on average, Mysis in Lake
      Huron have low total lipids and elevated concentrations of DHA, suggesting that they may be
      food-limited. Preliminary results of fish diet analyses show that Mysis are an important prey item
      for bloaters in both lakes and for rainbow smelt in Lake Huron, although occurrence of Mysis in
      diets decreased from 2007 to 2008. Keywords: Fish diets, Mysids, Crustaceans, Food chains.

May 17-21, 2010                                      177                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      MIDWOOD, J.D. and CHOW-FRASER, P., McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton,
      ON, L8S 4K1. Changes in Fish Habitat and Community Composition in Response to Low
      Water Levels in Eastern Georgian Bay Coastal Marshes.

              Over the past 10 years, water levels in eastern Georgian Bay, Lake Huron have been near
      the record low of the 1930s. Low water levels can alter both the structure and distribution of
      aquatic macrophytes, which changes the type and amount of fish habitat available. In this study
      we found a significant decrease in available fish habitat following a net decline in water level of
      10 cm (mean -1181.5 m2). There was also a change in the complexity of the remaining habitat
      from one dominated by many small patches of dense vegetation with intermittent sections of less
      dense areas, to wetlands dominated by uniform high density vegetation. We then assessed fish-
      community responses to changing vegetation habitat using 38 wetland-years of data, collected
      between May and August (from 2003 to 2009). In general, there was a significant decline over
      time in species richness (paired t-test; prob>0.0001; mean -5.6±1.0 per wetland). At the species
      level, there were significant increases in the proportion of catch of bowfin (Amia calva) and
      pumpkinseeds (Lepomis gibbosus) (paired t-test; prob>t=0.0004 and 0.0007, respectively). Our
      results suggest that sustained low water levels can reduce the complexity of coastal marsh habitat
      and lead to a less diverse fish community. Keywords: Fish, Habitats, Coastal wetlands.

      MIER, J.M. and GARCIA, M.H., Ven Te Chow Hydrosystems Laboratory - University of
      Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Civil and Environmental Engineering Dept., 205 N. Mathews
      Ave., Urbana, IL, 61801, USA. Laboratory Tests on Critical Shear Stress for Erosion of
      Glacial Till from the St. Clair River (Great Lakes Basin).

              In order to assess the variations in water levels observed in Lakes Michigan and Huron
      (USA-Canada border) during the last few decades, a comprehensive study involving climatic,
      hydrologic and hydraulic factors is being conducted at the International Great Lakes. It has been
      proposed that changes in conveyance in the St. Clair River could be contributing to lowering the
      lake water level. Sediment transport processes can affect significantly the water-carrying
      capacity of a river, consequently the erodibility characteristics of the River bed needs to be
      considered. Several samples from the St. Clair River bed sediment (known as glacial till) have
      been tested in order to obtain the value of the critical shear stress needed to erode the material.
      An open-channel flume was used for the experiments, where samples were placed inside a
      custom-built sediment box simulating the bottom of the river. Different flows with increasing
      velocities were run in the flume up to the point where significant erosion was observed in the
      sediment sample. Velocity profiles were taken using a Laser Doppler Velocimetry system
      (LDV), so that shear stress calculations could be performed by fitting a logarithmic law to the
      bottom part of the profiles. A value of 4.2 N/m2 was obtained as the critical shear stress for
      erosion of the glacial till. Keywords: Shear stress, Laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), St. Clair
      River, Glacial till, Sediment transport.

      MILITO, J.1 and NURNBERG, G.K.2, 1Bright Lake Association, Ironbridge, ON; 2Freshwater
      Research, 3421 Hwy 117, Baysville, ON, P0B 1A0. Cyanobacteria Blooms in Bright Lake,
      Ironbridge, ON: How a Lake Association Tries to Clean up its Lake.

May 17-21, 2010                                      178                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              Cyanobacteria blooms have been reported more frequently in recent years, even in
      remote lakes. Bright Lake (16 km2, 11 m max. depth) is a polymictic lake on the Canadian shield
      in Northern Ontario, where residents have observed such trends. In 2009, half of the 107
      residents formed the Bright Lake Association, Inc., to address increasing concerns about these
      blooms and ask scientific partners to develop a sustainable approach to remediation. Preliminary
      investigation identified two main phosphorus (P) sources, agricultural input from streams and
      internal load released from sediments to facilitate these blooms. A study is being developed to
      quantify these loads as the first step towards potential remediation. Members of the Lake
      Association have collected water and sediment samples so that P release rates can be computed
      and modelled. They have measured oxygen and temperature profiles and found that Bright Lake
      becomes hypoxic and anoxic during late summer and fall. The remediation of remote lakes such
      as Bright Lake may be especially important in the context of its location within the general
      watershed. Its outlet drains into the Mississagi River which is a large tributary to Lake Huron,
      where deteriorating water quality and cyanobacteria blooms in the Northern Channel have
      become a notorious issue. Keywords: Remediation, Eutrophication, Lake management.

      HOLSEN, T.3, and HOPKE, P.4, 1SUNY Fredonia, Department of Chemistry, Fredonia, NY,
      14063; 2SUNY Oswego, Environmental Research Center, Oswego, NY, 13126; 3Clarkson
      University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Potsdam, NY, 13699;
        Clarkson University, Department of Chemical Engineering, Potsdam, NY, 13699. PCDD/F
      and Coplanar PCB Toxic Equivalency (TEQ) Analysis of Great Lakes Fish.

              As part of the Great Lakes Fish Monitoring Program (GLFMP), we are analyzing whole
      fish composites collected from all five of the Great Lakes for a suite of legacy and emerging
      contaminants. One objective is to assess the contributions of coplanar PCBs and 2,3,7,8-
      substituted chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) to the overall dioxin-like toxicities
      (TEQs) in Great Lakes fish tissue. Fish tissue samples were analyzed for twelve coplanar PCBs
      identified by the World Health Organization (WHO) and seventeen 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/F
      congeners. Although the total coplanar PCB concentrations vary significantly from lake to lake,
      the fractional composition profiles are virtually identical in all samples. For PCDD/F, the
      absolute concentrations also vary by lake, but the fractional congener profiles do not agree to the
      extent that is seen with the coplanar PCBs. In terms of total TEQ, Lake Ontario Trout had the
      highest concentrations, while Lake Erie Walleye had the lowest. The relative contributions to
      TEQ from PCBs vs. PCDD/F are quite different from lake to lake. For example, the PCDD/F
      congeners make up a significant fraction of the total TEQ in L. Ontario fish (34%) but a
      negligible fraction (4%) in the more PCB contaminated L. Michigan fish.
      Keywords: Environmental contaminants, Fish toxins, PCBs.

      MINNS, C.K.1, DOKA, S.E.2, MOORE, J.E.3, and ST. JOHN, M.4, 1Dept. Ecology and
      Evolutionary Biology, Univ. Toronto, 25 Willcocks Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3B2; 2Great
      Lakes Laboratory of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, P.O. Box
      5050, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 3JEMSys Software Systems Inc, 22

May 17-21, 2010                                      179                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Marion Crescent, Dundas, ON, L9H 1J1; 4Toronto and Region Conservation Authority, 5
      Shoreham Dr, Downsview, ON, M3N 1S4. Temporal trends and spatial patterns in the
      temperature and oxygen regimes in the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario, 1972-2008.

               Summer temperature and oxygen profiles have been monitored since 1972 at offshore
      sites in the Bay of Quinte, Lake Ontario. In 2001 temperature loggers were added at onshore and
      mid-channel sites. Here we assess the role of morphometry, climate, nutrient management, and
      invasion by driessenids in temporal trends and spatial patterns. Peak surface temperatures and
      vertical stability have increased and higher levels are correlated with mean summer air
      temperature. In the shallow upper Bay, peak surface temperatures are higher. Onshore sites
      generally warm earlier in the spring than offshore, reaching similar peak surface temperatures
      sooner. In the deep lower Bay, the stratification period has lengthened. Oxygen levels in the
      hypolimnion have not been affected by decreased nutrient loading or the arrival of driessenids.
      Oxygen depletion continues to be controlled primarily by the length of the stratification period
      and the degree of hypolimnetic warming induced by seiche activity. Projections based on climate
      change scenarios indicate that many parts of the Bay of Quinte will undergo substantial warming
      later in the 21st century. The hypolimnetic oxygen regimes will respond to the warming effects
      but not reach harmful minima. These changes will shape biotic responses to climate warming.
      Keywords: Climate change, Oxygen, Water quality, Temperature, Bay of Quinte, Long-term

      MOLES, M.1, LA ROSE, J.K.L.1, and WILLOX, C.C.2, 1Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources,
      Lake Simcoe Fisheries Assessment Unit, 26465 York Rd 18, Sutton West, ON, L0E 1R0;
        Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources,Southern Science and Information Section, Aquatic
      Science Unit, 26465 York Rd 18, Sutton West, ON, L0E 1R0. The Lake Simcoe recreational
      fishery from 1961 to 2009.

              Lake Simcoe is the focus of one of Ontario‘s largest inland recreational fisheries. The
      Lake Simcoe Fisheries Assessment Unit (LSFAU) of the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources,
      has monitored the fishing effort, catch and harvest of this fishery since 1961 using stratified,
      roving creel surveys conducted in the summer and winter seasons. This monitoring shows that
      the total angling effort on Lake Simcoe has generally increased over the past 5 decades, with a
      recent peak estimated effort of 823,872 hours fishing observed in 2005. A large and growing
      portion of this fishing effort occurs in the winter season where most anglers target yellow perch,
      lake whitefish, and lake trout. Summer angling effort is lower, where a more diverse list of
      species are targeted and caught by anglers. We will review long term trends and the current
      status of the catch, harvest and effort of the Lake Simcoe sport fishery. Keywords: Fisheries,
      Fishing, Lake Simcoe.

      MOORE, D.J.1 and WESELOH, D.V.2, 1Canadian Wildlife Service, Environment Canada, Box
      5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Canadian Wildlife Service, Environmewnt Canada, 4905
      Dufferin St., Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4. Avian Mortality and Type E Botulism on Islands in
      Eastern Lake Ontario, 2004-2008.

May 17-21, 2010                                      180                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              In recent years, outbreaks of Type E Botulism have occurred in avian wildlife on the
      Great Lakes. Large scale avian mortality in aquatic settings is often monitored through the use of
      mainland-based beached bird surveys. In this study, we used island-based beached bird surveys
      to assess avian mortality up to three times per month on six islands (Scotch Bonnet, Snake,
      Salmon, Pigeon and False Duck islands and False Duck Shoal) in eastern Lake Ontario. Surveys
      were conducted from as early as July to as late as November from 2004 to 2008. The purpose of
      the assessment was to determine the extent of mortality caused by Type E Botulism but other
      causes were also assessed. The number of dead birds found annually ranged from 550 in 2008 to
      2,079 in 2005. The total number of dead birds found in the 5 years was 6,454 and was comprised
      of 29 species. However, 5 species, Double-crested Cormorant, Herring, Ring-billed and Great
      Black-backed Gulls and Caspian Tern made up 98.5% of all dead birds found. The four westerly
      most sites, Pigeon, False Duck and Scotch Bonnet islands and False Duck Shoal each had from
      17.7 to 29.1% of the dead birds. The two closest sites to Kingston each had fewer than m6.0% of
      the Keywords: Waterbirds, Botulism, Lake Ontario, Mortality.

      MORBEY, Y.E.1, MOERKE, A.2, NEFF, B.D.1, QUACH, K.1, and SUK, H.Y.1, 1Dept. of
      Biology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A5B7; 2Dept. of Biological Sciences,
      Lake Superior State University, Sault Sainte Marie, MI, 49783. Population Genetic Structure
      of Chinook Salmon in Lake Huron.

              The large-scale stocking program for Chinook salmon in Lake Huron began in the late
      1960‘s with egg transfers from a single founder population (Green River, Washington). The
      seven hatcheries operating around Lake Huron have been able to sustain production ever since
      with adult returns to weirs and fishways. In addition, at least 17 rivers in the Lake Huron
      watershed have been colonized by Chinook salmon. Based on large-scale tagging studies, it is
      estimated that wild reproduction now contributes to 85% of the lake-wide population. The recent
      colonization of multiple streams from a single founder population provides an excellent
      opportunity to track the dynamics of rapid evolution. We genotyped individuals from 13 streams
      and 2 hatcheries at eight, variable microsatellite loci to test for population genetic structure.
      Genetic variation among populations was low indicating an early stage of population
      differentiation. However, two populations (Maitland River and Nunn‘s Creek) were slightly
      differentiated from the others. It may be significant that these two rivers are located at the
      periphery of the Chinook salmon‘s range (Maitland River in southwestern Ontario and Nunn‘s
      Creek in Michigan‘s Upper Peninsula). Keywords: Genetics, Salmon, Lake Huron.

      MORO, D. and TONIGER, R., 5 Shoreham Drive, Downsview, ON, M3N1S4. Canada Goose
      Management in the Greater Toronto Area.

              Almost extinct by the end of the 19th century, the Canada Goose (Branta canadensis) has
      made a remarkable recovery. The population has now flourished to the point that it is currently
      viewed as a nuisance bird. Some factors that have contributed to the population increase include:
      ideal nesting and moulting habitat, restricted hunting opportunities within the Greater Toronto
      Area and the long life span of the species. As a result, there are a number of problems associated
      with this bird in urban environments: fouling of public lands, water quality impairment, aviation

May 17-21, 2010                                      181                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      safety concerns and aggressiveness towards humans during the nesting season. From 1998 to
      2009, the Toronto and Region Conservation (TRCA) staff initiated a Canada Goose Egg Oiling
      program within the City of Toronto and neighbouring communities. To date an estimated 2,500
      nests containing approximately 10,000 eggs have been treated and has been effective in
      controlling the local goose population. In addition to reproductive management, TRCA is
      working with a number of partners to address the problems associated with nuisance geese and
      has implemented numerous habitat modification projects, relocation programs and undertaken
      nesting studies to better manage urban geese. Keywords: Urban areas, Avian ecology,

      P.M.5, MACDOUGALL, T.6, and MARKHAM, J.7, 1Oberlin College Department of Biology,
      119 Woodland St., Oberlin, OH, 44074; 2Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd., Burlington,
      ON, L7R4A6; 3Habitat Solutions, 37045 N. Ganster Rd., Beach Park, IL, 60087; 4Ohio
      Department of Natural Resources, 1190 High St., Fairport Harbor, OH, 44077; 5USGS, 6100
      Columbus Ave., Sandusky, OH, 44870; 6Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 1 Passmore
      Ave., Port Dover, ON, N0A1N0; 7Lake Erie Fisheries Unit, NYDEC, 178 Point Drive North,
      Dunkirk, NY, 14048. Constructing a Multi-Scale Database to Identify Spawning Habitat
      for Lake Trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Erie.

              Attempts to reintroduce lake trout to Lake Erie have failed to establish a self-sustaining
      population in part due to poor understanding of the spawning requirements of the fish and habitat
      availability. By identifying suitable spawning habitat, a better informed stocking and
      management program may be able to reestablish this native, keystone species in the eastern basin
      of Lake Erie. Preexisting GIS data was used to direct RoxAnn and Sidescan Sonar data
      collection on the primary substrate conditions at potential spawning sites. Underwater video was
      then collected from these sites, and was used to assess the accuracy of combined GIS and Sonar
      data in predicting suitable spawning habitat. These data were combined in a multi-scale database
      providing detailed assessments of substrate conditions in the eastern basin. This database will be
      used to assess the availability of spawning habitat for lake trout, provide information valuable to
      the management of other species, and serve as a model for habitat assessment in other lakes.
      When completed, this database will enable more precisely targeted stocking of lake trout in Lake
      Erie on the best available spawning habitat to maximize the reproductive success of stocked fish,
      and will provide a foundation for further study of spawning habitat in the eastern basin.
      Keywords: Lake Erie, Sidescan Sonar, Lake trout, RoxAnn, Habitats, Underwater Video.

      MUIR, D.C.G.1, TEIXEIRA, C.1, EPP, J.1, ENGBERS, H.1, WANG, X.1, and BACKUS, S.1,
        Environment Canada, Aquatic Ecosystem Protection Research Division, Burlington, ON, L7R
      4A6; 2Environment Canada, Water Quality Monitoring and Surveillance, Burlington, ON, L7R
      4A6. Atmospheric deposition and bioaccumulation of selected halogenated organics in
      remote lakes in Ontario and in the Great Lakes.

             The objective of this study was to determine the deposition, concentrations in surface
      waters, and bioaccumulation, of a wide range of non-legacy halogenated organic compounds

May 17-21, 2010                                      182                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      (HOCs) in remote lakes within the Great Lakes basin and in the open Great Lakes. The selected
      compounds had limited or no measurements particularly in remote lakes. Large volume samples
      of surface waters (100 L) were collected from Lake Opeongo and Siskiwit Lake (Isle Royale) as
      well as from surface waters of the lower Great Lakes over the period 2005-2009 using XAD
      resin columns and 1 um glass fiber filter cartridges. Sediment cores were collected from Lake
      Opeongo and other lakes in the region. Also collected were zooplankton (>100 um),
      phytoplankton (~1-100 um), forage fish and lake trout. Samples were analysed for 26 tri- to
      decaBDEs and 20 brominated and chlorinated organics by GC-negative ion mass spectrometry
      (MS) using both low and high resolution MS detection. DecaBDE (BDE209), bis(tribromo-
      phenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), hexabromobenzene, and Dechlorane plus (DP) were the main HOCs
      detected in sediment cores. These compounds were undetectable in filtered lake water, however,
      tri-tetra BDEs were present at low pg/L concentrations in all samples. In pelagic food webs, tri-
      hexa-BDEs       predominated     along     with    pentabromoethylbenzene        and    BTBPE.
      Keywords: Bioaccumulation, Flame retardants, Great Lakes basin, POPs, Sediments,

      MUIR, T., 70 Townsend Ave, Burlington, On, L7T 1Y7. Future Balancing of Risks and
      Benefits of Great Lakes Fish Consumption Must be Integrated: Past Approaches are not

              The contamination of foodstuffs with chemicals, including fish in particular, is universal
      and presents a conundrum. The benefits of fish consumption, besides providing a high quality
      source of protein, are largely due to the omega 3 fatty acids associated with health benefits. The
      contaminants, on the other hand, have been associated in many types of studies with numerous
      health effects and risks, particularly in birth cohort studies, and there are general indications of
      possible effects in the population at large. Presently, risk/benefit assessment of fish consumption
      considers individual chemicals in isolation, and importantly only 3 or 4 are considered. Although
      there are consumption advisories for certain sensitive populations, these are not legally enforced
      and do not fully account for measurement uncertainties, or modulating factors such as: in utero
      and infant exposure; multi-media complex mixtures additivity and synergism; and
      polymorphisms. Exploring this uncertainty quantitatively found toxicology-epidemiology
      discordance, and in vitro – in vivo toxicology discordance. Contrasts yielded one to four order of
      magnitude differences in means between these study types. In vitro data contrasts with epi for
      DNT by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude and in vivo data contrasts with epi for DNT by up to two
      orders of magnitude. Keywords: Fish, Risk and benefits assessment, Environmental
      contaminants, Fish consumption, Risks, Contaminants.

      MUKHERJEE, M., MCKAY, R.M., and BULLERJAHN, G.S., Bowling Green State University,
      Department of Biological Sciences, Bowling Green, OH, 43403. Enumeration of
      Actinobacteria in Lakes Erie and Superior, and Detection of Actinorhodopsin Genes.

              Actinobacteria are common inhabitants of freshwater environments. In particular, the acI
      lineage of the Actinobacteria can dominate bacterioplankton in freshwater lakes. Many such acI
      bacteria harbor Actinorhodopsins that mediate an alternative form of phototropy. In this study,

May 17-21, 2010                                       183                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      we cultured, identified and performed phylogenetic analysis of 48 actinobacterial isolates from
      the Great Lakes. We have confirmed that they to belong to Actinobacteria by PCR and
      sequencing. Direct microscopic counts by Fluorescence in situ Hybridization (FISH) revealed
      that total Actinobacteria constitute from 6.5% and 10.6% in Lake Erie and Superior in the
      summer water samples, whereas FISH counts from the Lake Superior stations showed a marked
      increase in the number of Actinobacteria in the fall, ranging from 43% to 62%. In this study we
      are employing specific PCR primer sets for the detection and enumeration of Actinorhodopsin
      genes in environmental samples as well as in the Actinobacteria cultured in our laboratory.
      Keywords: Photosynthesis, Microbiological studies, Lake Superior.

      MUNAWAR, M.1, FITZPATRICK, M.1, NIBLOCK, H.1, and KLING, H.2, 1Fisheries & Oceans
      Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Algal Taxonomy & Ecology,
      Winnipeg, MB. A Comparative Evaluation of the Structure and Function of the Planktonic
      Food Web of Hamilton Harbour Before and During Algal Bloom Conditions.

              Hamilton Harbour is a shallow eutrophic embayment of Lake Ontario that has been
      heavily affected by multiple anthropogenic stressors. Fisheries & Oceans Canada undertook
      comprehensive spatial surveys of the planktonic food web during the spring and summer of
      2006. We examined bacteria, autotrophic picoplankton, heterotrophic nanoflagellates, ciliates,
      phytoplankton and zooplankton and estimated size fractionated primary productivity and
      bacterial growth at 12 sites across the bay. An extensive algal bloom was observed during the
      summer which was dominated by the colonial blue green Coelosphaerium Naeglianum
      (Woronchinia Naeglianum) (2-11 g m-3). Large standing crops of heterotrophic nanoflagellates
      (0.5-4 g m-3) and zooplankton (0.1-3 g m-3) were also observed under these bloom conditions.
      The comparatively large biomass of secondary consumers was surprising given that the
      autochthonous carbon pool was dominated by inedible algae (incl. C. Naeglianum, Microcystis
      viridus, Ceratium furcoides). This paper will consider potential vectors of energy transfer
      through the planktonic foodweb prior to and during algal bloom conditions.
      Keywords: Eutrophication, Ecosystem health, Cyanophyta.

      MUNAWAR, M., NIBLOCK, H., FITZPATRICK, M., and LORIMER, J., Fisheries and Oceans
      Canada GLLFAS, 867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. The missing carbon link:
      microbial energy pathways in the Bay of Quinte.

              Microbial food web surveys of the Bay of Quinte began in 2000. Bacteria, autotrophic
      picoplankton (APP), heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNF) and ciliates were added to the
      biweekly surveys to provide a more holistic assessment of the lower trophic levels. Patterns in
      the traditional foodweb will be compared to an expanded microbial food web. Our results show
      that the microbial loop, and in particular HNF, play a significant role in energy transfer from
      lower to higher trophic levels. At Belleville, HNF have contributed on average ≈ 500 mg C m-3
      to the microbial food web (roughly 35 000 cells ml-1), compared to 700 mg C m-3 for
      phytoplankton and 120 mg C m-3 for zooplankton based on seasonal weighted means. In some
      years the contribution of HNF to the organic carbon budget has been higher than phytoplankton
      and zooplankton combined. But, the re-emergence of algal blooms in recent years of our study,

May 17-21, 2010                                    184                                      Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      have coincided with reduced levels of HNF and a fundamental shift in the structure of the food
      web from being primarily heterotrophic to being primarily autotrophic. Our research suggests
      that under algal blooms, HNF provide the primary food resource for zooplankton grazers since
      the bulk of the algae is inedible. The implications of microbial pathways of energy transfer in
      sustaining food webs will be discussed. Keywords: Food chains, Biomonitoring, Bay of Quinte.

      LORIMER, J.1, 1Fisheries & Oceans Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6;
        Defiance College, Defiance, OH; 3Plankton Canada, Burlington, ON. Application of
      Ecological Indicators as a Tool for Assessing Beneficial Use Impairments Towards
      Delisting of the Great Lakes Areas of Concern: Bay of Quinte Example.

              The remediation, restoration and recovery of the Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs)
      has been the focus of attention for some time, however not much is known about the recovery
      process due to a paucity of robust, sensitive and rapid indicators of the state of ecosystem health.
      The evaluation of ecosystem health generally consists of two stages 1) initial screening and 2)
      intensive research. With the Bay of Quinte as a case study, we evaluated several routine
      parameters (chlorophyll, primary productivity, nutrient levels etc) as well as integrated, multi-
      trophic models which may be better indicators of ecosystem change. Furthermore, we propose a
      battery of tests consisting of phytoplankton biomass, species composition, Vollenweider‘s
      phosphorus model and the Planktonic Index of Biotic Integrity (P-IBI). Such holistic indicators
      are necessary for the determination of Beneficial Use Impairments as well as delisting criteria on
      a scientifically sound basis. The long term data base of the Bay of Quinte was highly useful in
      assessing both the impact of multiple stressors and various stages of ecosystem change.
      Hopefully, the Bay of Quinte experience in dealing with ecological indicators will be applicable
      for assessing the state of ecosystem health in other Great Lakes AOCs. Keywords: Remediation,
      Ecosystem health, Eutrophication.

      MUNAWAR, M., Aquatic Ecosystem Health & Management Society, Fisheries & Oceans
      Canada, Burlington, on. Henry Regier: a Scientist, a Leader and a Model for the Future.

              The continuing, long-term contributions of Prof. Henry Regier to Great Lakes science are
      monumental. His impact is not restricted to North American Great Lakes but extends globally,
      including his peerless contributions to UNESCO‘s International Biological Program, Food and
      Agricultural Organization, UN‘s Stockholm conference on the Human Environment, as well as
      many other national and international agencies. Prof. Regier always promoted and encouraged
      ecosystem-based sciences including his staunch support of the Aquatic Ecosystem Health and
      Management Society (AEHMS). He has published excellent articles focusing on ecological
      integrity in the Society‘s journal and continues to serve on its Emeritus Advisory Board. The
      Great Lakes research community and the AEHMS are indeed pleased to honour Prof. Regier by
      convening this tribute session.

May 17-21, 2010                                       185                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      MURPHY, S.C.1, COLLINS, N.C.1, and DOKA, S.E.2, 1University of Toronto at Mississauga,
      3359 Mississauga Rd. N., Mississauga, ON, L5L 1C6; 2Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and
      Aquatic Science, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Thermal Habitat and Fish
      Use of Restored Embayments in the Toronto Region.

              Along the shoreline of Toronto, Ontario, a number of small coastal embayments have
      been constructed or modified to provide recreational opportunities, and to create warmwater fish
      habitat. The thermal environment of these embayments is complex because of the continual
      exchange of water with the much larger Lake Ontario. Lake input cools these embayments, and
      although the degree of cooling varies greatly, they all accumulate fewer growing degree-days
      (∑GDD) relative to inland lakes. Variation in ∑GDD among embayments is greatest during the
      warming period of the year, and during this period, mean embayment depth explains over 50%
      of the variability in ∑GDD. After mid-summer, the low mean depths of the embayments allow
      them to cool rapidly below Lake Ontario temperatures, so that inputs from the Lake water warms
      them. During the cooling season they experience a parabolic decline in water temperatures,
      interrupted by large, but short-lived drops in temperature from influxes of hypolimnetic waters
      upwelled from Lake Ontario. The slowed cooling of the embayments in the late-summer and fall
      is insufficient to compensate for the growing degree-days lost during the heating period. The
      cooler and more variable temperatures during the spring through mid-summer may delay
      spawning and reduce growth rates for warmwater fish Keywords: Urban areas, Lake Ontario,

      MURPHY, S.C.1, COLLINS, N.C.1, and DOKA, S.E.2, 1University of Toronto at Mississauga,
      3359 Mississauga Rd. N., Mississauga, ON, L5L1C6; 2867 Lakeshore Road, Great Lakes
      Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Science, Burlington, ON, L7R4A6. „Sources and Sinks‟:
      Using Otolith Microchemistry to Evaluate the Habitat Quality of Coastal Embayments
      Along the Shoreline of Toronto, Ontario.

              Near the Toronto Harbour a large number of small coastal embayments have been
      constructed or modified to provide recreational opportunities and to create warmwater fish
      habitat. However, the quality of the fish habitat created in these embayments has never been
      evaluated and the degree of fish movements among embayments is unknown. Using otolith
      microchemistry for pumpkinseed, largemouth bass and yellow perch, we evaluate embayment
      habitat quality by mapping the metapopulation dynamic of the harbour and identifying bays that
      produce young-of-the-year fish that successfully survive their first winter.
      Keywords: Metapopulation dynamics, Lake Ontario, Otolith microchemistry, Wetlands, Urban

      MURRAY, M.W.1 and SCAVIA, D.2, 1National Wildlife Federation, 213 W. Liberty St., Suite
      200, Ann Arbor, MI, 48104, US; 2School of Natural Resources & Environment, University of
      Michigan, 440 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48104, US. Identifying Priority Geographic Areas
      for Restoration and Protection Via an Expert Opinion Process.

May 17-21, 2010                                     186                                      Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              As part of an effort to focus on-the-ground restoration and protection work of the Healing
      Our Waters (HOW) – Great Lakes Coalition (a coalition of over 100 mostly nongovernmental
      organizations (NGOs)), the coalition‘s Technical Advisory Committee undertook a prioritization
      process in fall 2009. The expert opinion process involved a workshop with 18 researchers from
      diverse backgrounds, where general criteria were identified (such as severity of problem,
      likelihood of risk reduction) and applied to both previously identified geographic areas and new
      areas recommended by workshop participants. The workshop was followed by a survey of
      additional researchers to rate geographic areas using similar criteria and organized by broad
      GLRI stress categories (e.g., toxic chemicals/Areas of Concern, invasive species). Though the
      number of survey respondents was relatively small, there were a number of similarities between
      results for other researchers and recommendations of workshop participants, as well as some
      diverse perspectives (including on new areas). General findings will be presented, as well as a
      brief summary of strengths and limitations of expert opinion approaches for contributing to
      priority setting in the Great Lakes. Keywords: Assessments, Restoration, Planning, Protection,
      Policy making.

      MURRY, B.A.1 and FARRELL, J.M.2, 1115 Brooks Hall, Mt. Pleasant, MI, 48859; 21 Forestry
      Dr., Illick Hall, Syracuse, NY, 13210. Body-Size Versus Species Composition Stability in a
      Large River Fish Assemblage: Implications to Ecosystem Services.

               Temporal stability in the distribution of individuals among species and size-classes has
      important implications on the reliability of food web-based ecosystem services upon which we
      depend. Our reliance on the ecosystem services provided by healthy fish assemblages
      underscores the importance of understanding fish assemblage stability. Using a long-term (1977-
      2004) nearshore gillnetting survey of the upper St. Lawrence River we developed annual size-
      spectra of the fish assemblage and evaluated changes in species composition. The structure of the
      fish assemblage, defined as the distribution of individuals among species, size classes, and/or
      species in size classes, showed strong patterns over time. The slope (-0.63) of the size-spectra
      (log mass x log abundance) did not differ (F = 0.61, P = 0.93) over the 28 year period indicating
      strong stability in assemblage size structure. Similarly, the distribution of individuals among size
      classes evaluated with Cohen‘s Kappa (κ) was highly stable (κ = 0.71) relative to the distribution
      of individuals among species (κ = 0.19). We suggest that certain, ‗intrinsic or primary‘,
      ecosystem services (i.e. supporting services) show higher resistance to change and greater
      stability than ‗secondary‘ ecosystem services (i.e. cultural services). Keywords: Species
      composition, Food chains, Size-spectra, St. Lawrence River.

      MUTER, B.A., GORE, M.L., and RILEY, S.J., Department of Fisheries & Wildlife, Michigan
      State University, 13 Natural Resources Building, East Lansing, MI, 48824. Birds of a Feather:
      Influence of Social Networks on Stakeholder Risk Perceptions Associated with Cormorant
      Management in Northern Lake Huron.

             The dramatic recovery of double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) in the Great
      Lakes Basin has been accompanied by concerns about the birds‘ potential risks to the
      environment, recreation and economy. Contention exists regarding the perceived extent of these

May 17-21, 2010                                       187                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      risks within and among the stakeholder groups affected by management. Effects of social
      networks on stakeholder risk perceptions related to cormorants in northern Lake Huron were
      studied using a snowball sampling procedure from August 2008 to August 2009. We conducted
      face-to-face interviews and administered questionnaires with 47 agency professionals (e.g.,
      fisheries and wildlife managers) and 66 non-governmental stakeholders (e.g., anglers, birders
      and business owners) in the U.S. and Canada. Data were collected about participants‘ ties (e.g.,
      who they communicate with about cormorants and how often) and their perceived cormorant-
      related risks. The network was instrumental in disseminating information about cormorants
      around the Basin. Respondents shared similar attitudes about cormorants; the network is key to
      creating those similarities. The more frequently two people communicated, the more likely they
      were to share similar risk perceptions. Cormorant-related risk communication may be improved
      with consideration of communities and their networks. Keywords: Cormorants, Human
      dimensions, Lake Huron, Risk perception, Management, Communication.

      NADDAFI, R. and RUDSTAM, L.G., Department of Natural Resources,, Cornell University
      Biological Field Station, Bridgeport, NY, 13030. Lethal and non-lethal effects of predators
      on exotic dreissenids.

              Predators have both consume prey (lethal effects) and affect prey behavior or habitat
      choice (non-lethal effects) and both effects can alter the outcome of the prey-resource
      interactions. We investigated the size of quagga and zebra mussels consumed by predators with
      different feeding modes (pumpkinseed sunfish, round goby, and rusty crayfish), and how these
      predators affect the behavior of both mussel species. All predators used a broad size range of
      dreissenids, but preferred the small mussels. Predators were able to consume larger quagga than
      zebra mussels but had overall a higher daily consumption rates on zebra mussel than quagga
      mussels, suggesting predation may somewhat contribute to the replacement of zebra mussels by
      quagga mussels. Both mussel species exposed to cues from predators attached stronger to the
      substrate and preferred refuge habitat. For a given size, the attachment strength was higher in
      zebra mussels than quagga mussels. Dreissenids aggregated more in the presence of predators,
      and this effect was stronger for zebra mussels than quagga mussels. Dreissenids movements were
      also affected by the presence of predators. Both lethal and non-lethal effects of predators are
      likely important for the dynamics of the two dreissenid species and consequently for the effects
      on the ecosystem. Keywords: Pumpkinseed sunfish, Predation, Rusty crayfish, Dreissena, Round
      goby, Non-lethal effect.

      NALEPA, T.F.1, FANSLOW, D.L.1, RINCHARD, J.2, HÖÖK, T.O.3, and RYAN, D.J.3, 1Great
      Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, NOAA, 4840 S. State St., Ann Arbor, MI, 48108;
        State University of New York-Brockport, 350 New Campus Drive, Lennon Hall, Brockport,
      NY, 14420; 3Purdue University, 715 W. State St., West Lafayette, IN, 47907. Variation in
      Lipid Content of Diporeia spp. across the Great Lakes and in Cayuga Lake.

             A common hypothesis for the decline of Diporeia is that it is being outcompeted for
      available food by Dreissena,leading to decreased numbers and eventual extirpation. Total lipid
      content, lipid classes, and fatty acid composition in Diporeia vary with food availability, and

May 17-21, 2010                                     188                                      Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      therefore offer a means to assess the role of food limitation in population declines. In 2008, we
      measured these variables in individuals collected in spring and summer from each of the Great
      Lakes except Lake Erie, and also in individuals collected from Cayuga Lake (Finger Lake).
      Diporeia is declining in Lakes Michigan, Ontario, and Huron where Dreissena is abundant and
      expanding, not declining in Lake Superior where Dreissena distributions are limited, and not
      declining in Cayuga Lake where Dreissena is abundant. Mean total lipid level (% dry weight)
      varied from 20.9 % (Lake Superior) to 31.2 % (Cayuga Lake), and did not appear related to
      population status. Lipid content was greater in adults (>5 mm) compared to juveniles (<5 mm) in
      all the lakes except Lake Michigan. Triglycerides and phospholipids were the dominant lipid
      classes, accounting for 77% (Lake Huron) to 94% (Cayuga Lake) of total lipid. Based on lipids,
      populations are the most food-limited in Lake Superior and least food-limited in Lake Cayuga.
      Keywords: Zoobenthos, Diporeia, Benthos.

      NELSON, H.1, SIERACKI, C.K.1, and HUNT, C.2, 1Fluid Imaging Technologies, 65 Forest Falls
      Drive, Yarmouth, ME, 4096, USA; 2Battelle, 397 Washington Street, Duxbury, MA, 2332. In
      situ Characterization of Phytoplankton Communities using a Novel Submersible Imaging
      Flow Cytometer.

              The study of plankton dynamics is limited by a lack of data at the appropriate temporal
      and spatial scales. This is in part due to the lack of robust, sensitive in situ tools that can
      continuously characterize plankton communities, forcing researchers to depend on limited data
      measured by labor intensive laboratory methods or reliance on surrogate parameters. Research
      and monitoring in ocean and coastal regions and water supply reservoirs would also benefit from
      an ability to quantify and characterize plankton on a continuous basis. To address research, ocean
      observing, and water resource measurement needs, we have adapted a well established,
      commercially available digital imaging flow cytometer, the Fluid Imaging Technologies‘
      FlowCAM, for in situ deployment. The new Submersible FlowCAM model retains the
      capabilities of the popular FlowCAM bench top instrument and can operate autonomously at
      depths to 200 meters under user controlled operations. The unit characterizes the morphology,
      chlorophyll, and forward scatter of 20 to 300 micrometer particles. It takes an image of every
      analyzed particle for further analysis and cell identification by the user. While the submersible
      FlowCAM is primarily designed for deployment on moorings, it can also be operated in a
      profiling mode. This talk describes this new instrument. Keywords: Algae, Buoys, Plankton.

      KAY, D.1, and ZWIERNIK, M.2, 1Entrix, Inc., Okemos, MI, 48864; 2Michigan State University,
      Department of Animal Science, East Lansing, MI, 48824; 3University of Saskatchewan,
      Department of Biomedical and Veterinary Biosciences and Toxicology Centre, Saskatoon, SK,
      S7J 5B3. The Effects of TCDD, PeCDF and TCDF on Development of Maxillary and
      Mandibular Squamous Epithelial Proliferation in Mink.

              Mink (Neovison vison) were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of
      2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorodibenzofuran (PeCDF), 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzofuran (TCDF) or 2,3,7,8-
      tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) to evaluate effects on reproduction and on mandibular and

May 17-21, 2010                                      189                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      maxillary squamous epithelial proliferation, sensitive biomarker of dioxin-like chemicals,.
      Treated diets were fed from 2 months prior to breeding through weaning of offspring at which
      time the adult females and a subsample of 6-wk-old kits were necropsied. Surviving kits were
      maintained on their respective diets through 27 wks of age and then were necropsied. While
      reproduction and kit survival and growth were minimally affected, robust dose-response
      relationships between mandibular and maxillary squamous epithelial proliferation was noted in
      kits and juveniles. Doses resulting in 50% incidence of this lesion in juvenile mink were 9.8 ng
      TEQTCDD/kg bw/d, 21.02 ng TEQTCDF /kg bw/d, and 6.2 ng TEQPeCDF /kg bw/d. Relative
      potency values for TCDF and PeCDF compared to TCDD were 0.05 and 0.47, respectively.
      These data support the fact that the mammalian-specific toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs)
      values for these furans are overly conservative and that this jaw lesions can be used as a
      biomarker in mink for dioxin-like compounds in the Great Lakes. Keywords: PCBs, Mink,

      NEWTON, T.J.1, VAUGHN, C.C.2, SPOONER, D.E.3, and NICHOLS, S.J.4, 1U.S. Geological
      Survey, Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, LaCrosse, WI, 54603; 2Oklahoma
      Biological Survey, Department of Zoology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK, 73019;
        Trent University, Department of Biology, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 4U.S. Geological
      Survey, Great Lakes Science Center, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. Understanding the Role of
      Unionid Mussels in Riverine Food Webs Using Biochemical Tracers.

              As large, long-lived filter feeders, unionids are capable of altering nutrient cycling in
      riverine food webs. Unionids create a nutrient shunt, removing suspended particles and
      associated nutrients to the substrate where they are available to other biota. Nutrients can also be
      sequestered into biomass and removed from the food web. The magnitude of this effect is largely
      a function of density and biomass. Recent continental declines in unionid populations represent a
      significant reduction in benthic filter-feeding biomass that may alter ecosystem function. We
      used biochemical tracers (e.g., stable isotopes, fatty acids) to track nutrient assimilation in
      unionids across dense and diverse mussel assemblages in 4 North American rivers. Stable
      isotope analyses yielded ambiguous results suggesting that either additional highly 13C depleted
      foods (e.g., methanotrophic bacteria) had been consumed or that unionids were selectively
      assimilating 13C depleted fractions from a heterogeneous FPOM pool. We observed considerable
      variation in essential fatty acids (EFA) across rivers, but EFA profiles were consistently
      dominated by arachidonic acid. Recovery of native unionid communities may help re-establish
      their roles in riverine food webs (e.g., nutrient cycling) to the benefit of restoration efforts.
      Keywords: Mussels, Bioindicators, Food chains.

      NGHIEM, S.V.1 and LESHKEVICH, G.2, 1Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of
      Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive MS 300-227, Pasadena, CA, 91109; 2NOAA/Great Lakes
      Environmental Research Laboratory, 4840 South State Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108.
      Advancing a Satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Ice Classification Algorithm for
      RADARSAT-2 Data.

May 17-21, 2010                                       190                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              This presentation describes the advancement of a freshwater ice classification algorithm
      for use with RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data. The high resolution of satellite synthetic aperture
      radar (SAR) measurements with its all-weather, day/night sensing capabilities make it well
      suited to map and monitor Great Lakes ice cover. Using our library of calibrated polarimetric
      SAR ice backscatter signatures, an algorithm was developed to classify and map major Great
      Lakes ice types. Initial algorithm validation was performed in February 2008, when classified,
      color-coded RADARSAT-1 imagery was downloaded to the USCGC Mackinaw during
      icebreaking operations in Green Bay. Results show that with one exception, the algorithm
      correctly classified the ice types in the library that were found along the ship track.
      RADARSAT-2 polarimetric data collected in 2009 coincident with in situ measurements on
      Lake Superior reveal that although single-polarization backscatter data can be used to map
      different ice types, multi-polarization backscatter data is better to map ice types and open water
      without the ambiguity encountered in single polarization data due to variations in wind speed and
      wind direction over water. Keywords: Remote sensing, Ice, Lake Superior.

      J.S.4, 1U.S. Geological Survey, Lansing, MI; 2U.S. Geological Survey, Cortland, NY; 3Michigan
      Department of Natural Resources and Environment, Ann Arbor, MI; 4U.S. Geological Survey,
      Madison, WI. Great Lakes Basin Framework for Ecological Flow.

              The Great Lakes Region can benefit from a consistent scientific framework for ecological
      flow discussions. USGS is working with state partners to develop a U.S. Great Lakes Basin
      framework which incorporates models that relate changes in landscape and hydrologic variables,
      especially water withdrawals, to changes in ecosystem function. The framework is analogous to
      that developed in Michigan to support state implementation of the Charter. The NHDplus is the
      geospatial basis for the framework. Every stream reach in the U.S. Great Lakes Basin will be
      populated with estimates of streamflow, hydrogeologic properties, and ecological response
      curves. Keywords: Great Lakes basin, NHDplus, Ecosystem modeling, Watersheds.

      NICHOLLS, K., S-15 Concession 1, RR#1,, Sunderland, ON, L0C 1H0. The Phytoplankton of
      the Bay of Quinte, 1972-2008: Point-source Phosphorus Loading Control, Dreissenid
      Mussel Establishment, and a Proposed Community Reference.

              The composition and biomass of the phytoplankton of the Bay of Quinte (northeastern
      Lake Ontario) have been regulated mainly by nutrient status, food web dynamics and physical
      factors as revealed by multiple regression, clustering and principal coordinates analyses. The
      inter-annual differences in community structures of the upper and lower Bay of Quinte were less
      significant than the within-year differences between the upper and lower bays. The relatively
      shallow and polymictic upper bay facilitated the ice-free period domination of the phytoplankton
      by diatoms (especially Aulacoseira spp) while a more balanced representation by several algal
      Divisions characterized the thermally stratified, dimictic the lower bay. The Remedial Action
      Plan phytoplankton objective of 4-5 mm^3 L^-1 (May-October average) has been met frequently
      since the establishment of Dreissena. The post-Dreissena period, however, was also
      characterized by occasional very high biomass of the potentially toxic cyanobacterium (blue-

May 17-21, 2010                                      191                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      green alga) Microcystis, as well as by the near extirpation of the diatoms, Tabellaria and Synedra
      spp. The upper bay phytoplankton communities of recent years have been significantly different
      from that of a proposed reference community. Keywords: Rehabilitation, Phytoplankton,
      Dreissena, Bay of Quinte, Phosphorus.

      NICHOLLS, K.H., S-15 Concession 1,, Rural Route #1, Sunderland, ON, L0C 1H0.
       Phosphorus and Chlorophyll in the Bay of Quinte: a Time-series/Intervention Analysis of
      1972-2008 Data.

              Exploratory and inferential time series analyses were conducted of a 37-year record of
      total phosphorus and chlorophyll data from the Bay of Quinte, northeastern Lake Ontario. Three
      largely independent methods were used to build consensus around the significance of the
      apparent effects of two interventions: (1) point-source phosphorus loading reductions of about
      50% to the upper bay in the winter of 1977-78, and (2) the establishment of zebra mussels
      (Dreissena spp) in the early to mid-1990's. Included were: (a) Non-parametric tests that account
      for persistence and seasonality and were used to assess the significance of step trends, (b)
      ARIMA-Intervention modelling that produced forecasts into post-intervention time periods that
      were compared statistically to measured data, and (c) Regime shift detection for identifying the
      relative statistical significance of persistent steps or regime shifts, after removal of the seasonal
      component (modelled as periodic functions). Concurrence among the three methods suggest that
      the apparent effects of phosphorus loading reductions were more significant in the upper bay,
      than in the lower bay, but the apparent effects of the Dreissena establishment were less
      significant in the upper bay than in the lower bay. The RAP objective of 30ug/L has not been
      met consistently in recent years. Keywords: Bay of Quinte, Chlorophyll, Phosphorus, Time-

      SANDERS, T.G.2, and KLUMP, J.V.4, 1Biology Department, University of Wisconsin-Stout,
      Menomonie, WI, 54751; 2Grand Valley State University, Muskegon, MI, 49441; 3NOAA-Great
      Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 48015; 4UW-Milwaukee,
      Milwaukee, WI, 53201. Lacustrine Submerged Sinkhole Sediments are a Sink for Organic

              Submerged sinkholes in Lake Huron differ from the surrounding lake due to the intrusion
      of cold, dense, hypoxic groundwater that blankets the lake floor. Here, cyanobacterial mats
      overlay carbon-rich sediments (5-16 weight %C). To better understand nutrient flow through
      sinkhole ecosystems, we measured the stable isotopic content of carbon and nitrogen in inorganic
      and organic carbon pools in Middle Island sinkhole, a deep (~23 m) feature influenced by both
      groundwater and overlying lake water. Two distinct carbon sources were available to primary
      producers: groundwater DIC differed by -3.6‰ from Lake Huron water DIC. 13C signals in
      organic carbon pools reflected the two DIC sources. Cyanobacterial mats growing in
      groundwater were more 13C-depleted than the 13C-enriched phytoplankton growing in lake
      water. 13C signatures of organic carbon in sinkhole sediments were more similar to sedimenting
      phytoplankton than to benthic cyanobacterial mats. Corroborated by sediment C/N ratios, these

May 17-21, 2010                                       192                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      data suggest that carbon deposited in sinkhole sediments originates from planktonic rather than
      benthic sources. Additional carbon dating, organic acid, and methane gas data suggest that
      sinkholes may act as carbon sinks within the larger lake ecosystem. Keywords: Carbon,
      Nitrogen, Sediments, Biogeochemistry, Stable isotopes, Groundwater.

      NORRIS, K.D.1, RIDAL, J.2, CAMPBELL, L.1, and HODSON, P.V.1, 1Queen's University,
      Department of Biology, Kingston, ON, K7L3N6; 2St. Lawrence River Institute of Environmental
      Studies, Cornwall, ON, K6H4Z1, Canada. The Distribution and Biomagnification of
      Mercury in Lake St. Francis.

              Previous industrial inputs of mercury into Lake St. Francis have caused it to be
      designated as an Area of Concern under International Joint Commission‘s Great Lakes water
      quality program. Though these industrial inputs have been eliminated for approximately 15
      years, mercury concentrations in the lake‘s walleye are almost twice as high as walleye found
      upstream, as well as the Ontario Ministry of the Environment have issued advisories about the
      consumption of these walleye. The goal of this study is to determine if the high concentrations of
      mercury in walleye are due to transfer from contaminated sediments, from past industrial inputs,
      or other uncontrolled sources. Sediment, pore water, amphipods and yellow perch were collected
      from 27 sites around Lake St. Francis to describe the geographical distribution of mercury and
      methyl mercury as an indicator of potential sources, as well as to assess the pathway and extent
      of mercury biomagnification. Preliminary results indicate that sediment mercury concentrations
      are highest just downstream of the city of Cornwall, where the past industrial sources were
      located. However, yellow perch mercury concentrations were found to be highest further
      downstream than the highest mercury contaminated sediments. Keywords: St. Lawrence River,
      Mercury, Biomagnification.

      A.S.6, DILLON, P.J.1, DOLSON, R.7, EVANS, D.O.8, GEE, K.9, GEWURTZ, S.3, GINN, B.10,
      KELLY, N.13, KING, J.W.14, LANDRE, A.3, LA ROSE, J.7, LEWIS, C.F.M.15, LIN, Z.H.1,
      D.13, RÜHLAND, K.M.12, SMOL, J.P.12, SOLIMAN, C.1, STAINSBY, E.3, WESELOH, C.18,
      WILLOX, C.17, WINTER, J.G.3, YAN, N.13, and YOUNG, J.D.3, 1Trent University, 1600 West
      Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 2University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue
      West, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1; 3Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, Ontario
      Ministry of the Environment, 125 Resources Rd, Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6; 4Ontario Ministry of
      Natural Resources, Aurora District, 50 Bloomington Rd. W., Aurora, ON, L4G 0L8; 5University
      of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, ON, N6A 3K7; 6National Waters Research
      Institute, Canada Centre for Inland Waters, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, P.O. Box
      5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 7Lake Simcoe Fisheries Assessment Unit, Ontario Ministry of
      Natural Resources, Sutton West, ON; 8Aquatic Research and Development Section, Ontario
      Ministry of Natural Resources, Trent University, 2140 East Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON, K9J
      7B8; 9Ministry of Natural Resources, Midhurst District, ON; 10Lake Simcoe Region

May 17-21, 2010                                      193                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Conservation Authority, 120 Bayview Pkwy, Newmarket, ON, L3Y 4X1; 11Uppsala University,
      Villavägen 16, S-752 36, Uppsala, Sweden; 12Queen‘s University, 99 University Avenue,
      Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6; 13York University, 4700 Keele Street, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3;
         University of Rhode Island, South Ferry Road, Narragansett, RI, 02882-1197, USA;
         Geological Survey of Canada Atlantic, Natural Resources Canada, Bedford Institute of
      Oceanography, Box 1006, 1 Challenger Drive, Dartmouth, NS, B2Y 4A2; 16Aquatic Research
      and Development Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Picton, ON; 17Aquatic Science
      Unit, Southern Science & Information Section, ON Ministry of Natural Resources, 26465 York
      Rd. 18, Sutton West, ON, L0E 1R0; 18Canadian Wildlife Service - Ontario Region, 4905
      Dufferin St., Toronto, ON, M3H 5T4. State of Lake Simcoe.

              We will synthesize the state of Lake Simcoe with the intent that lessons from the past
      become solutions for the future. Ecosystem stressors include climate change, excessive
      phosphorus loading, increased shoreline development and changes in land-use, invasive species
      introductions, and increases in fish harvest. Responses to these stressors have been seen in the
      physical, chemical, and biological components of the lake. For example, there has been an
      increase in the thermal stability and water clarity of the lake since 1980. Several nutrients (TP,
      SRP, NH4+) have decreased, while others have increased (Si). Metals and organic contaminants
      of historical concern have decreased in sediments and in sport fish; however, there are elevated
      levels of DDE in birds and emerging contaminants in sediments, and chloride concentrations are
      increasing. The deep water dissolved oxygen minimum has increased significantly, but is still
      below the target level. Biological observations include high aquatic plant biomass and changes in
      the biomass and composition of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and benthic invertebrates. The
      coldwater fish community has shown declines in recruitment, abundance and natural
      reproduction. There has been some success over the last 30 years but continued efforts towards
      lake restoration are required. Keywords: Lake Simcoe, Monitoring, Ecosystem health.

      NURNBERG, G.K., Freshwater Research, 3421 Hwy 117, Baysville, ON, P0B 1A0. Internal
      Load and Sedimentation in Phosphorus Mass Balance Models.

              The separation of upward (internal load) and downward (sedimentation) fluxes of
      phosphorus (P) is challenging and many attempts of simple mass balance modelling are
      unsuccessful. There are several reasons for such failure:1. Mixing net, partially-net, and gross
      estimates of internal load. 2. Combining upward with downward P fluxes. Most retention models
      were developed from lakes with sediment release, so that they incorporate both upward and
      downward fluxes. A model is necessary that specifically predicts downward fluxes
      (sedimentation) and has been developed previously on oxic stratified lakes that do not experience
      sediment P release (Nürnberg 1984). However, other models may be more useful in different
      lakes (polymictic, hardwater). In most cases, a strict mass balance cannot be expected to predict
      epilimnetic summer P averages, the variable that is most thought after. For example, the model
      overestimates in reservoirs with bottom outlet and internal P load; it underestimates in meso- and
      eutrophic polymictic lakes (with surface outlet) that experience summer P release from
      sediments. In these cases, a calibration for the specific lake or reservoir is necessary. This
      approach can be used in large and small lakes and reservoirs. A successful application is

May 17-21, 2010                                      194                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      demonstrated for a eutrophic, polymictic reservoir with bottom outlet Keywords: Lake model,
      Retention model, Phosphorus, Lake management.

      O‘CONNOR, E.M.1, MCCONNELL, C.2, LEMBCKE, D.1, and WINTER, J.G.3, 1Lake Simcoe
      Region Conservation Authority, 120 Bayview Parkway, Newmarket, ON, L3Y 4X1, Canada;
        Ontario Ministry of the Environment, Dorset Environmental Science Centre, 1026 Bellwood
      Acres Road, Dorset, ON, POA 1E0, Canada; 3Ontario Ministry of the Environment, 125
      Resources Road, Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6, Canada. Selecting a loading calculation procedure
      to estimate total phosphorus loads in rivers: Application to the Black River and East
      Holland River (Lake Simcoe watershed, Ontario, Canada).

              Estimation of nutrient loads is of crucial interest for assessment of water quality. Ongoing
      research projects aimed at understanding the links between phosphorus loading and biotic
      impairment in Lake Simcoe require accurate estimates of phosphorus loading to the lake. This
      study evaluates several phosphorus loading estimation procedures given available streamflow
      and concentration data for two tributaries of the Lake Simcoe watershed, the Black River and the
      East Holland River. Determining the best procedure involved the evaluation of several strategies
      for stratifying the flow and corresponding concentration data into groups. Then the most suitable
      load estimation method (regression, ratio or averaging method) was applied to stratified data to
      estimate annual loads. Stratification of data into three groups based on half and two times the
      mean flow and the Beale Ratio load estimation method were chosen to estimate annual loads for
      both tributaries. The resultant annual loads were compared to results of the midpoint method, the
      method used since 1990 to estimate tributary loads to Lake Simcoe. The results of this study will
      contribute to development of load estimation procedures for other tributaries of Lake Simcoe.
      Keywords: Phosphorus, Load, Lake Simcoe, Tributaries.

      O‘CONNOR, L.M.1, STEEVES, T.B.2, PRATT, T.C.1, and STEPHENS, B.2, 1Fisheries and
      Oceans Canada - GLLFAS, 1219 Queen Street East, Sault Ste. Marie, ON, ON, P6A 2E5;
        Fisheries and Oceans Canada - SLCC, 1219 Queen Street East, Sault Ste. Marie, ON, ON, P6A
      2E5. In Situ Assessment of Lampricide Toxicity to Age-0 Lake Sturgeon.

              Larval Sea Lampreys are controlled in streams by a chemical larvicide 3-triflouromethyl-
      4-nitrophenol (TFM). Laboratory and field exposure tests have demonstrated that TFM can also
      be toxic to caged age-0 Lake Sturgeon (<100 mm). In 2008, we collected age-0 fish from the
      Mississagi and Aux Sables Rivers and with hatchery reared individuals, used radio telemetry and
      caged fish to compare their survival to two TFM treatments: a) Sturgeon Protocol, 1.2 x MLC, a
      TFM treatment regime that is designed to have reduced toxicity to age-0 Lake Sturgeon, and b)
      Full Treatment Protocol, 1.4 x MLC the standard TFM treatment for larval Sea Lampreys. The
      treatments, on sections of the Mississagi River, were paired with the Aux Sables River, our
      control. A total of 30 radio tagged native and 202 hatchery reared Lake Sturgeon (in cages), were
      distributed throughout the systems. Hatchery fish ranged in size from 57 – 101 mm while the
      native fish ranged from 130 – 182 mm. Survival rates were not statistically different (p=0.414)
      between either the treatments or the control and survival was high at 93%. Survival of age-0

May 17-21, 2010                                       195                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      hatchery and native Lake Sturgeon was high for both the Sturgeon and Full Protocol TFM
      treatment for larval Sea Lampreys. Keywords: AIS control, Endangered species, Fish.

      G.A.2, 1Upstate Freshwater Institute, PO Box 506, Syracuse, NY, 13214; 2Great Lakes
      Environmental Research Laboratory, 4840 S. State Rd, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108. Optics Surveys
      of Lake Ontario: Optical Characterization and Pursuit of Closure with In Situ

               In situ measurements of inherent and apparent optical properties were made over the
      2007-2009 period at mid-lake and near-shore sites in Lake Ontario to advance the
      characterization of the underwater and emergent light fields of these waters and to support
      related IOP-based model development and testing. Measurements were made using a combined
      profiling package of ac-s and BB9 meters (WETLabs®). The ac-s measures a and c with a
      spectral resolution of 4 nm over the range 400 – 730 nm; spectral scattering (b) are obtained by
      difference, c-a. The BB9 measures bb at nine wavelengths within the range of 400 – 715 nm. Rrs
      was measured with a HyperPro II (350 – 800 nm) (Satlantic®). Spectral and vertical patterns of
      a, c, b, and bb are reported. Spatial and temporal patterns of optical characteristics are presented
      and relate drivers are considered. Measurements of Rrs are demonstrated to close well with
      MODIS imagery. We illustrate the applicability of a common marine optics model that
      describes the dependence of Rrs on bb and a. Keywords: Lake Ontario, Optics, Remote sensing.

      OLYNYK, A.J., HANN, B.J., and DAVOREN, G.K., University of Manitoba - Department of
      Biological Sciences, 121 Machray Hall, Winnipeg, MB, R3T 2N2. Spatial Variation In
      Summer Diet of Invasive Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) in Lake Winnipeg.

              The dietary selectivity of an invasive population of zooplanktivorous rainbow smelt
      (Osmerus mordax) was studied along a transect of 10 stations in the North Basin of Lake
      Winnipeg. Densities, proportions and body lengths of available zooplankton were quantified for
      four prey groups: copepods, Daphnia spp., Eubosmina sp. and Bosmina sp. Gut contents of
      rainbow smelt in two size classes (<120 mm and >120 mm total length) were analyzed to
      determine dietary proportions of zooplankton prey. Smaller smelt (<120 mm TL) displayed
      electivity for Daphnia spp. and against copepods and Bosmina sp. Larger smelt (>120 mm TL)
      showed consistently positive electivity for Daphnia spp. and negative electivity for all other prey
      groups. Rainbow smelt and zooplankton densities increased northwards along the sampling
      transect, paralleled by decreasing overlap between proportions of prey groups available and in
      gut contents. Energetic quality of prey was assessed on the basis of mean body size, escape
      ability and caloric content. The results of this study suggest that a gradient of smelt foraging
      strategy may be present in the North Basin of Lake Winnipeg, with a selective strategy in the
      higher water clarity of the northern section shifting towards a generalist strategy in the more
      turbid south. Keywords: Lake Winnipeg, Invasive species, Trophic level.

May 17-21, 2010                                       196                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      ONI, S.K.1, FUTTER, M.N.2, DILLON, P.J.3, and MOLOT, L.A.4, 1Environmental and Life
      Sciences Graduate Programme, Trent University, Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8, Canada;
        Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,
      Uppsala, Sweden; 3Environmental and Resource Studies, Trent University, Peterborough, ON,
      K9J 7B8, Canada; 4Faculty of Environmental Studiesulty of Environmental Studies, York
      university, Toronto, ON, M3J 1P3, Canada. Seasonal variations and hydrologic controls of
      dissolved organic carbon concentrations and fluxes in Lake Simcoe watershed.

              Hydrology is important in controlling surface water dissolved organic carbon DOC flow
      between terrestrial and surface water systems. Changing climatic conditions will impact the
      hydrologic cycle including the timing of runoff, and may, as a result, induce seasonality in DOC.
      These seasonal changes will modulate trace metal contaminant and nutrient dynamics. Lake
      Simcoe is the largest (722 km2) hard water lake in southern Ontario, Canada. Its watershed
      (3621 km2) is under increasing pressure from human development that results in frequent land
      use changes. Here we evaluate the impact of watershed changes on seasonal dynamic of DOC in
      Lake Simcoe over the decadal time scale using historical and current information. Understanding
      the seasonal nature of the hydrologic connectivity that mediates DOC production and transport
      into the lake from its catchment will lead into improved watershed management methods. A
      modelling approach that incorporates both the landscape and hydrologic controls on DOC at both
      the spatial and temporal scales is required to design effective mitigation strategies to combat the
      effects of future changing climate and land use. Keywords: Lake Simcoe, Biogeochemistry,
      Dissolved organic matter, Water quality, Carbon cycle, Runoff.

      P.J.1, 177 West Jackson Boulevard, G-17J, USEPA GLNPO/ Monitoring Indicators and
      Reporting Branch, Chicago, IL, 60604; 277 West Jackson Boulevard, G-17J, USEPA GLNPO/
      Contractor, Chicago, IL, 60604; 377 West Jackson Boulevard, G-17J, USEPA GLNPO/Indiana-
      Illinois Seagrant, Chicago, IL, 60604. U.S. EPA Great Lakes National Program Office
      Nearshore Monitoring Program using the TRIAXUS Towed Platform.

              Nearshore monitoring is an important factor in assessing the ecosystem health of the
      Great Lakes, but it often presents a challenge due to the limited availability of research vessels
      and difficulty in surveying the extensive (>10,000 miles) shoreline. The U.S. EPA Great Lakes
      National Program Office (GLNPO) deploys a TRIAXUS 3D towed undulating vehicle from the
      R/V Lake Guardian in all five Great Lakes in open waters and nearshore waters as shallow as
      20m to provide spatial information of nearshore water quality and habitat characteristics. This
      state of the art towed instrument platform provides real-time multiparameter profiled data of the
      nearshore water column over a large shoreline distance as well as supplements the GLNPO open
      water surveys. Details of the TRIAXUS specifications, the various sensors it houses, operational
      parameters, initial results of the open water Spring and Summer 2009 tows in each of the five
      Great Lakes, and the results of a 750 km nearshore tow of the Lake Michigan shoreline in
      October 2009. Keywords: Monitoring, Lake Michigan, Coasts.

May 17-21, 2010                                      197                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      OVEISY, A.1, BOEGMAN, L.2, and IMBERGER, J.3, 1Department of Civil Engineering,,
      Queen‘s University, Kingston, ON, Canada; 2Department of Civil Engineering,, Queen‘s
      University, Kingston, ON, Canada; 3Centre for Water Research, University of Western Australia,
      Crawley, WA, AUSTRALIA. Simulation of Ice Formation on Lake Ontario.

              Three-dimensional Reynolds averaged hydrodynamic lake models are commonly applied
      to the great lakes for engineering and managements studies. Until recently these models were not
      capable of simulating ice cover. During winter, if the cold weather persists long enough, layers
      of blue ice, white ice and snow will usually form on the surface of a lake. When water freezes
      blue ice forms and snow accumulates on the blue ice surface; if the weight of snow exceeds the
      buoyancy of the ice, then white ice forms from flooded snow. In this study, the governing
      equation of heat conduction among the three layers (white ice, blue ice and snow), air and the
      water is solved for the formation of ice cover. The heat transfer algorithm is coupled with the
      three-dimensional lake circulation model, ELCOM (Estuary and Lake Computer Model), to
      allow simulation of hydrodynamics and the thermal structure beneath the ice during winter. This
      algorithm is applied independently in each grid cell within the simulation domain, allowing for
      spatially variable ice formation. To validate the model, the formation of ice cover on Lake
      Ontario was investigated. The simulation domain was forced by two metrological stations at
      Kingston and Hamilton during 2006-2007. The simulated ice thickness was favorable in
      agreement with observations. Keywords: Ice, Hydrodynamic model, Lake Ontario.

      D.5, and OLENIN, S.6, 1Department of Ecology and Evolution, Stony Brook University, Stony
      Brook, NY, 11794-5245; 2Department of Biological Sciences, School of Exact and Natural
      Sciences, University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, C1428EHA 1428, Argentina; 3Great Lakes
      Center, Buffalo State College, and SUNY Research Foundation, Buffalo, NY, 14222; 4Great
      Lakes Center, Buffalo State College, Buffalo, NY, 14222; 5Marine Organism Investigations,
      Marina Village, Ballina, Killaloe, Co Clare, Ireland; 6Klaipeda University, Klaipeda, Lithuania.
      Can We Predict The Characteristics Of Successful Aquatic Invertebrate Invaders?

              Our ability to identify characteristics of species most likely to become important invaders
      will facilitate the prevention of introduction and control of non-native species that have the
      greatest potential to be introduced and become invasive. Determining factors and characteristics
      of the most successful invaders will allow targeting of limited resources at prevention of the
      introduction and spread of those species most likely to invade as well as cause ecological and
      economic damage. We examined 95 species of aquatic macroinvertebrates and considered a
      range of characters that have been considered by others to be important factors influencing the
      ability of species to be good invaders including physiological, ecological and life history
      characters. We tested whether there were particular characteristics shared by the most successful
      invaders. We found that there was no single signature of a successful invader, but that there
      appear to be multiple solutions to characteristics that make species important invaders in aquatic
      habitats. Keywords: Macroinvertebrates, Invasive species, Exotic species.

May 17-21, 2010                                      198                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      PALONEN, K.E.1, DE SOLLA, S.R.1, and STRUGER, J.2, 1Wildlife and Landscape Science
      Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Water Science and Technology
      Directorate, Environment Canada, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Phenology of amphibian
      breeding in relation to pesticide exposure in Ontario.

              Amphibians often are exposed to pesticides while breeding in agricultural landscapes,
      and the timing of breeding may affect their exposure. The phenology of amphibian lifestage
      (egg, tadpole, metamorph, adult) varies among frog species, as does their behaviours (calling,
      breeding, post-breeding). Our objective was to identify the relative exposure to pesticides for
      each lifestage and behaviour. Using frog calling intensities, time to hatch, and time to
      metamorphosis for eight frog species across Ontario, we estimated the lifestage and behavioural
      phenologies. Data from Environment Canada‘s Pesticide Science Fund initiative in Ontario were
      used to quantify temporal changes in concentrations of pesticides in surface waters. For
      American toads, leopard frogs and spring peepers, the pesticide concentrations generally
      increased throughout their three life stages, whereas for bullfrogs and green frogs exposure was
      highest during the egg stage. Generally the concentrations peaked post breeding for early
      breeders and during breeding for late breeders, and thus pesticide residues were highest during
      the tadpole or metaphorph stage for late breeders. Data relating pesticide exposure with
      amphibian lifestage and breeding behaviour is important for assessing risk, and for designing
      appropriate exposure regimes for toxicological studies. Keywords: Amphibians, Pesticides,

      PANCHENKO, M.V.1, DOMYSHEVA, V.M.2, PESTUNOV, D.A.1, and SAKIRKO, M.V.2, 11,
      Academicheskii Ave, Tomsk, TB, 634055, Russia; 2Ulan-Batorskay 3, Irkutsk, IB, 664033,
      Russia. CO2 fluxes in the atmosphere – water system during the free-of-ice water period in
      littoral zone of lake Baikal.

              In January Baikal is covered with ice, the thickness of which reaches its maximum in the
      beginning of April. The ice is broken usually in the end of April - the beginning of May.
      Investigations are carried out since 2004 in each hydrological season. From winter to summer, as
      the lake is heated, and quantity and composition of water biota are changed, increase of the
      amplitude of diurnal variations of the content of carbon dioxide in the water and in the
      atmosphere. The daily mean budget of carbon dioxide flux changes correspondingly. Weak sink
      of CO2 from the atmosphere is observed in May and June (10 mg m2day-1). Sink to the water
      increases to July (50 mg m2day-1) and reaches its maximum values in the second half of August
      (100 mg m2day-1). The inverse process is observed in autumn, the flux direction changes sign in
      the period just before freezing-over, and emission of CO2 into the atmosphere is observed in
      December (100 mg m2day-1). Summarizing the data of observations of the last 6 years, one can
      conclude that littoral zone of lake Baikal during the period of free of ice water is the sink of
      atmospheric CO2. Keywords: Atmosphere-lake interaction, Carbon cycle, Global warming.

      PANDIT, S.N.1, ZHAO, Y.2, and CIBOROWSKI, J.1, 1University of Windsor, Department of
      Biological Sciences, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, On, N9B3P4; 2Aquatic Research and
      Development Section, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 320 Milo Road, ON, N0P2P0;

May 17-21, 2010                                     199                                      Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      University of Windsor, Department of Biological Sciences, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, ON,
      N9B3P4. Spatial and temporal distribution of Walleye (Sander vitreum) in Lake Erie.

              Walleye is one of the most sought after species in the lower Great Lakes. Understanding
      the patterns of its spatial and temporal distribution has important implications for agencies‘
      ability to manage the associated recreational and commercial walleye fisheries. We integrated
      gill net catch records collected over last 20 years by the Lake Erie Partnership Index Fishing
      Project to determine how well walleye distribution and suitable habitat could be predicted from
      concurrently collected measurements of depth, dissolved oxygen concentration, Secchi depth,
      temperature and substrate type. Significant amounts of variation in site-specific walleye density
      were associated with temperature and Secchi depth. Keywords: Fish populations, Distribution
      patterns, Habitats.

      PANEK, S.E. and BRIDGEMAN, T.B., Lake Erie Center 6200 Bayshore Road, Oregon, OH,
      43618. The Distribution of Lyngbya wollei in Western Lake Erie.

               Lyngbya wollei is an invasive cyanobacterium which appeared in Maumee Bay and
      western Lake Erie in 2006. L. wollei forms dense benthic and floating mats which can negatively
      impact aquatic life and recreational water use. While prevalent in the southeastern United States,
      little is known about the distribution, abundance, and effects of L. wollei in western Lake Erie.
      The objective of this study was to record the temporal and spatial distribution of L. wollei in the
      western basin and examine relationships between L. wollei distribution and environmental
      factors. Surveys were conducted between June-September 2009 over an area of approximately
      210 km2. Benthic samples were georeferenced to create a map of L. wollei distribution. In
      addition to L. wollei samples, data were collected on substrate type, water chemistry, light
      attenuation, temperature, and depth. Results indicate widespread distribution of L. wollei in the
      western basin with the most abundant distribution found between depths of 2-4m. L. wollei was
      able to grow at low light levels. Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel) shells were the frequent
      substrate where L. wollei was present. L. wollei biomass was lowest in early summer and
      increased over the summer. Keywords: Harmful algal blooms, Distribution patterns, Lake Erie.

      S.1, BLAKE, S.1, and LUDSIN, S.1, 1The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH; 2Ohio Division
      of Wildlife, Sandusky, OH; 3Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory (NOAA), Ann
      Arbor, MI. The dynamics of river plumes and yellow perch recruitment in western Lake
      Erie: Are they related?

              The Maumee River plume is a dominant feature of western Lake Erie during spring and
      may benefit fish recruitment by providing pre-recruits a refuge from predators. To test this
      hypothesis, we developed a novel approach to characterizing plume size, using remotely-sensed
      data (satellite imagery) during 2003-2009 and then related plume size to observed success of
      larval yellow perch (Perca flavescens). Specifically, we generated daily, basin-wide maps of
      water clarity by developing predictive relationships between atmospherically-corrected spectral
      values and observed Secchi disk transparency. With these maps, we quantified the areal extent of

May 17-21, 2010                                      200                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      the Maumee River plume on a daily basis and created an annual index of plume size during the
      larval production period (April-May). We found that plume size varied strongly across years,
      being dependent on Maumee River discharge and sediment loading. Plume size was strongly
      correlated with an index of yellow perch juvenile recruitment (R2 = 0.98), with the number of
      fish surviving to the new year class increasing exponentially as plume size increased. These
      results indicate the important role of external physical forces to Lake Erie ecosystem dynamics
      and provide an example of how changes in sediment loading through watershed management
      could influence Lake Erie fishes. Keywords: Watersheds, Remote sensing, Yellow perch.

      PARKER, B.R. and DONALD, D.B., Environment Canada, 123 Main Steet, Winnipeg, MB,
      R3C 4W2. Nutrient Loading to Lake Winnipeg via the Red River at Emerson.

              Lake Winnipeg is undergoing eutrophication in part due to increased loading of nutrients
      from the Red River. Spring runoff, defined herein as the period March 15 through May 31, may
      contribute a substantial portion of the annual nutrient load. Loading of phosphorus at Emerson
      was linearly correlated with flow, varying 26 fold between the highest and lowest runoff years
      between 1990 and 2009. In contrast, nitrogen loading varied more widely, by 40 fold over the
      same period and exhibited a non-linear correlation with flow. Consequently average N:P ratios
      during spring runoff varied with flow. Average N:P ratio by mass was not significantly different
      for the 4 lowest and highest flow years (mean 6.6) but was significantly less than years with
      intermediate flow (mean 10.6 by mass). Both nutrient loading and nutrient ratios vary with
      spring runoff. Keywords: Nutrients, Red River, Lake Winnipeg, Runoff, Monitoring.

      PASCOE, T., MILANI, D., and GRAPENTINE, L., Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Rd.,
      Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. An Overview of the Canadian Aquatic Biomonitoring Network
      (CABIN) and its Application to Sediment Assessment in the Great Lakes.

              The Canadian Aquatic Biomonitoring Network (CABIN) is an aquatic biological
      monitoring program using macroinvertebrates to assess freshwater ecosystems in Canada.
      CABIN is based on the network of networks approach, promoting collaboration to achieve
      consistent and comparable data and reporting. Environment Canada has produced a set of
      nationally-consistent benthic monitoring protocols, together with internet-based tools for storing
      data, assessing, distributing and reporting biological monitoring information. Launched in 2006,
      the program evolved from two large aquatic monitoring research initiatives in the 1990s. The
      Great Lakes Action Plan (GLAP) led to the development of nearshore sediment monitoring
      protocols, while the Fraser River Action Plan (FRAP) focused on wadeable streams. This talk
      will provide an overview of the CABIN program as a whole, identify key goals, and discuss
      future trends for CABIN biomonitoring, including a more detailed examination of how the
      program is applied in the Laurentian Great Lakes. Reference conditions for nearshore sediments
      in Canadian sections of the Great Lakes are quantified based on samples from approximately 160
      sites. The resulting data are used for assessing ecological degradation and recovery at over 400
      sites in anthropogenically disturbed areas (i.e., Areas of Concern). Keywords: Sediments,
      Assessments, Benthos.

May 17-21, 2010                                      201                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      PATERSON, G.1, DROUILLARD, K.G.1, and BHAVSAR, S.P.2, 1Great Lakes Insititute for
      Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4; 2Ontario Ministry of
      the Environment, Environmental Monitoring and Reporting Branch, Etobicoke, ON, M9P 3V6.
       Assessing the influence of multiple stressors on persistent organic pollutant
      bioaccumulation by Lake Simcoe yellow perch (Perca flavescens).

              Lake Simcoe yellow perch (Perca flavescens) provide a valuable recreational fishery and
      also constitute an important component of the forage base for top predators in this system. In this
      study, we used a combination food-web toxicokinetic and yellow perch bioenergetic model to
      predict size and age specific bioaccumulation rates of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such
      as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Lake Simcoe yellow perch. The yellow perch model was
      validated using a congener specific data set that consisted of more than 50 fish from 1 to 8 years
      of age and ranging in size from 25 to 248 g to evaluate steady state and non-steady state kinetics
      in this population. Following model validation, simulations were established to evaluate the
      impacts of multiple stressors including inclusion of non-indigenous species in the perch diets and
      hypoxia to POPs bioaccumulation rates and to place this in the context of contaminant levels
      observed in other food web components of the system including top piscivores such as walleye
      and lake trout. The results indicate that multiple stressors operating in Lake Simcoe have the
      potential to increase the degree of pollutant biomagnification achieved by top predators in the
      lake. Keywords: Multiple stressors, Bioaccumulation, Yellow perch.

      G.D.1, and WESELOH, D.C.V.4, 1Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University
      of Windsor, Windsor, ON, N9B 3P4; 2Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre,
      Ottawa, ON, K1A 0H3; 3Department of Fisheries and Oceans (Emeritus), Great Lakes
      Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 4Environment
      Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service, Downsview, ON, M3H 5T4. Ecological tracers
      demonstrate changes in the foraging activities of Great Lakes avian and fish top predator

              The pelagic forage fish communities of the Laurentian Great Lakes have undergone
      significant changes in species composition and abundances since the establishment of salmonid
      stocking programs in the 1970‘s. The introductions of non-indigenous zooplankton, mollusc and
      fish species such as the round goby (Apollonia melanostomus) have also dramatically altered
      energy flow in Great Lakes food webs. For species such as herring gulls (Larus argentatus) and
      lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) that rely on pelagic prey resources, recent evidence
      demonstrates that these species are experiencing bioenergetic constraints due to the changing
      ecology of Great Lakes food webs. Using data from long term monitoring programs and a
      combination of stable isotope, fatty acid, and persistent organic pollutant tracers, this research
      demonstrates specific changes in the foraging activities of both of these top predator species.
      Specifically, Great Lakes lake trout and herring gulls are including prey items in their diets that
      are only acquired through marked changes in their natural feeding activities and at substantial
      energetic costs. Importantly, these costs are being manifested in the health and condition of Great
      Lakes top predators. Keywords: Stable isotopes, PCBs, Bioenergetics.

May 17-21, 2010                                      202                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      PATTERSON, K.A.1, BLANCHFIELD, P.J.2, and GEILING, D.3, 1University of Manitoba,
      Winnipeg, MB; 2Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Freshwater Institute, Winnipeg, MB; 3Fisheries
      and Oceans Canada, Sault Ste. Marie, ON. Movement patterns of rainbow trout after release
      from open-pen aquaculture operations in Lake Huron.

              Dispersal distance and survival of escaped fish from commercial aquaculture operations
      are important factors in determining their potential effects on the local system. This aspect has
      been passed over in many impact assessments, yet is important to understanding the magnitude
      of potential ecological concerns that may arise with an escape event. In May 2009, we tagged
      (Floy tag), measured (mean = 712 g) and released 1000 rainbow trout into the North Channel of
      Lake Huron from two fish farms; Lake Wolsey (semi-contained) and the Wabuno Channel
      (open). Eighty telemetry tagged fish were released at the same time from both farms. We
      observed varying degrees of fidelity to sites of release for each farm. Angler reporting was relied
      on to obtain dispersal, survival, and growth information. In total, 8.2% of floy-tagged rainbow
      trout released to the wild were reported by anglers. 95% of the fish released at the Lake Wolsey
      farm were angled within close proximity (<5 km). In contrast, 47% of fish released at the
      Wabuno Channel farm were captured 20-360 km away. This large-scale movement of some
      escaped rainbow trout within and among the Laurentian Great Lakes is greater than originally
      predicted. Angler harvest data compliments and broadens patterns of site fidelity and movement
      observed with telemetry approaches. Keywords: Lake Huron, Fisheries, Fish behavior.

      PATURI, S.1, BOEGMAN, L.1, and YERUBANDI, R.2, 1Department of Civil Engineering,
      Queen's University, 58 University avenue, Kingston, ON, K7l3N6; 2National Water Research
      Institute, Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road,, Burlington, ON, L7R2A6. Near –shore
      hydrodynamics and tracer modeling of Upper St. Lawrence River using ELCOM model.

              The near-shore hydrodynamics of the upper St. Lawrence River and eastern Lake Ontario
      were simulated using the Estuary and Lake Computer Model (ELCOM) for the period, April –
      October, 2006. Model simulated water level, temperature and current velocities were compared
      with observations. The error in temperature was approx 2oC through the epilimnion when the
      thermocline deepens during summer and the current speed errors were ~5-10 cms-1 and appear,
      at times, to be a result of inconsistencies in flow direction as opposed to momentum transfer
      from the wind. ELCOM thus reasonably captured the dynamics of the flow regimes in the near-
      shore region. The flow was found to be predominantly wind-induced in the south-western
      lacustrine portion of the domain, with dominant near inertial oscillations, and hydraulically-
      driven in the north-eastern riverine portion. Flow reversal of the St. Lawrence River near
      Kingston occurred during strong easterly storm events. Passive tracers were modeled to study the
      transport and pathways of contaminants. The model results were applied to delineate Intake
      Protection Zones (IPZs) for the eight municipal drinking water intakes in the region.
      Keywords: Hydrodynamics, Hydrodynamic model, Lake Ontario.

May 17-21, 2010                                      203                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      J.F.5, 1SUNY College of Environmental Science and Forestry, Syracuse, NY; 2SUNY Brockport,
      Brockport, NY; 3Niagara University, Lewiston, NY; 4Buffalo State University, Buffalo, NY;
        University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY. Monitoring of the Lake Ontario Nearshore Using Real-
      Time Fluorescence.

              As part of the Lake Ontario Nearshore Nutrient Survey (LONNS) in 2008, continuous
      real-time monitoring was conducted in the nearshore waters bordering New York. A ferry-box
      composed of commercial fluorometers was deployed to map algal distribution and water quality
      parameters.     Three     different   fluorometers,     including      the    Turner     Designs
      Algaewatch/Cyanowatch, the Hydrolab Sonde, and the BBE Fluoroprobe, measured algal
      distribution as indicated by chlorophyll and phycocyanin fluorescence. Additionally, water
      samples were collected for in-lab pigment extraction. Fluorescence measurements from all three
      fluorometers will be compared to extracted pigment values to determine which instrument is the
      most effective for nearshore monitoring. Ferry-box data will also be used to illustrate the
      temporal and spatial changes in algal distribution and physical data in the nearshore throughout
      the sampling season. Keywords: Monitoring, Lake Ontario, Algae.

      PEARSON, M.J., B.M. Ross & Associates Limited Consulting Engineers, 62 North Street,
      Goderich, ON, N7A 2T4. “Love the tank you‟re with” - Huron-Kinloss Community Septic
      Inspections (HK-CSI).

              ―Social marketing is a process that applies marketing principles and techniques to create,
      communicate, and deliver value in order to influence target audience behaviours that benefit
      society as well as the target audience.‖ In recent years, the nearshore area of the Lake Huron
      shoreline has experienced nuisance algal blooms. Water quality sampling has shown higher
      levels of nutrients in both the lake and area watercourses. Non point source contributions from
      both agriculture and septic systems are contributing to the nutrient loads. The Township of
      Huron-Kinloss, along the Canadian shore of Lake Huron, has implemented a mandatory septic
      system reinspection program, using Community Based Social Marketing (CBSM) as a means to
      link the actions of the lakeshore residents to the quality of the lake. This case study will examine
      how incorporating CBSM techniques in the design and delivery of the program serves to foster
      sustainable behaviours and encourages voluntary participation in a mandatory program.
      Currently entering its fourth year, of a projected eight year inspection cycle, over 1000 systems
      have been inspected. This combined stewardship program and data gathering exercise will
      provide long term benefits towards understanding and protecting the lake resource.
      Keywords: Environmental policy, Lake Huron, Environmental education.

      G.A.2, 1Upstate Freshwater Institute, P.O. Box 506, Syracuse, NY, 13214; 2NOAA Great Lakes
      Environmental Research Laboratory, 4840 S. State Rd., Ann Arbor, MI, 48108. Temporal and
      Spatial Variations in Suspended Mineral Particles in Lake Ontario: Importance to Light
      Scattering and Remote Sensing.

May 17-21, 2010                                       204                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              Suspended mineral particles from Lake Ontario were collected from both pelagic and
      near-shore sites during the spring–summer interval of 2007–2009 and characterized by an
      individual particle technique (IPA). IPA provided information on composition, number
      concentration, and size distribution of these particles, features that are important to
      understanding the optical patterns (e.g., light-scattering, water clarity) of the lake. IPA results
      supported Mie theoretical calculations of the mineral scattering and backscattering coefficients
      (bm and bbm) and partitioning of these two estimates into particle type (e.g., clay minerals,
      calcite) contributions. Wide spatial and temporal differences in these two coefficients are
      reported, with generally larger calcite particles dominating (e.g., >95% of scattering) over the
      summer months (except for the western lake sites) and finer clay minerals prevailing at other
      times. The estimates of mineral (back)scattering combined with those of organic particulate
      (back)scattering components (from application of bio-optical models based on chlorophyll
      concentrations) demonstrate reasonably good closure with bulk measurements of scattering and
      backscattering and advance our our understanding of variability of water color, the key signal for
      remote sensing. Keywords: Lake Ontario, Suspended particles, Water quality, Light scattering.

      PENNUTO, C.M.2, JANIK, C.A.1, CUDNEY, K.1, and CHAPMAN, S.1, 1Biology Department,
      Buffalo State College, Buffalo, NY, 14222; 2Great Lakes Center, Buffalo State College, Buffalo,
      NY, 14222. Seasonal abundance and larval drift of invasive round gobies in a Lake Erie
      tributary stream.

              The invasive round goby occurs in every Great Lake and a large number of tributary
      streams. Previous work has suggested lake-dwelling and tributary mouth gobies migrated
      offshore during the winter months and larval gobies exhibited pelagic drift behavior. We
      performed seasonal electroshocking runs at sites up to 25 km inland to determine if round gobies
      remained in stream habitats or returned to the lake. We also performed stream drift collections to
      estimate downstream timing and extent of larval production. Round gobies were collected from
      riffle habitats at both sites sampled in October, January, and March, suggesting that winter out-
      migration to Lake Erie is dependent on distance from the lake. However, winter abundance
      values were about half of fall values. Larval gobies were captured during July and August drift
      net collections. We estimate between 2,500-8,000 larval gobies occur in the downstream drift per
      day, or 150,000 to 625,000 per 60-day reproductive season. These data indicate that tributary
      streams may represent a significant additional recruitment source of round gobies to the Great
      Lakes, in addition to the massive in-lake production that already occurs. Further research is
      needed to determine survivorship of drifting fish and winter activity budgets of this invasive fish
      in tributary streams. Keywords: Distribution patterns, Populations, Round goby.

      CONROY, J.2, KRAMER, J.3, BADE, D.4, and MATISOFF, G.5, 1Great Lakes Center, Buffalo
      State College, Buffalo, NY, 14222; 2Aquatic Ecology Laboratory, Ohio State University,
      Columbus, OH, 43212; 3National Center for Water Quality Research, Heilderberg University,
      Tiffin, OH, 44883; 4Kent State University, Kent, OH; 5Dept. of Geological Sciences, Case

May 17-21, 2010                                      205                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 44106. Biological Production and Nutrient Fate
      in Nearshore and Offshore Lake Erie.

              We compared phosphorus (P) fate and biological production in June/July and Sept. in
      transects from nearshore (depths 2, 5, 10 m) to offshore (20 m) in the Eastern (Cattaragus Creek,
      NY) and Central (Grand River, OH) basins of Lake Erie and in the Sandusky Subbasin (west-
      central basin). Sediment P content was lower in the Cattaragus and Sandusky transects (4 mg/g)
      and higher at Grand (8 mg/g). In the benthic environment, Cladophora mats were present in the
      Cattaragus and Grand sites (8 mg/g each). The largest P content was in benthic organisms at 5
      and 10 m, with Dreissena bugensis having the largest contribution (Cattaragus 105 mg/g, Grand
      80 mg/g and Sandusky 95 mg/g). In the pelagia, zooplankton densities were higher at 10 and 20
      m and differed among lake basins. Cladoceran densities were similar in early summer at the three
      locations (10-40 ind/L) but were markedly high in Sept. in Sandusky (bosminids 76 ind/L).
      Veliger densities were very high in Cattaragus and Sandusky in Sept. (2,000 ind/L) at 5 m,
      comprising a significant amount of the zooplankton. Keywords: Plankton, Benthos, Phosphorus.

      PERHAR, G. and ARHONDITSIS, G.B., University of Toronto, Toronto, ON. From the
      Microscopic to the Macroscopic: Incorporating Highly Unsaturated Fatty Acids into
      Plankton Population Models.

               Several studies emphasize the importance of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) at
      the most variable yet least predictable link in aquatic food webs: the plant-animal interface.
      Defined as chains of 18 or more carbons (with multiple double bonds), the inability of consumers
      and predators to synthesize de novo these potentially growth-limiting molecules makes them a
      critical factor in any diet. Studies have demonstrated a wide range of fatty acid profiles in
      primary producers, forcing herbivorous zooplankton to differentially retain fatty acids to meet
      somatic requirements. Co-limitation with elemental resources may exist, and our recent
      modeling results suggest food webs with high biochemical quality primary producers can attain
      inverted biomass distributions with efficient energy transfer between trophic levels. Given the
      overwhelming evidence of the HUFA importance on the energy flow in aquatic food webs, there
      is a surprising gap in the literature of predictive frameworks accounting for their role. We
      introduce a HUFA-explicit modular extension that considers the role of macronutrients and
      biochemical molecules in the consumer‘s body. Designed to make existing plankton population
      models HUFA-explicit with minimum effort, our aim is to demonstrate the importance of
      subcellular processes on ecosystem-scale dynamics. Keywords: Mathematical models, Seston
      food quality, Zooplankton, Fatty acids, Stoichiometry, Phytoplankton.

      PERNICA, P.1 and WELLS, M.G.2, 1Department of Physics, University of Toronto, 60 St
      George St, Toronto, ON, M5S 1A7; 2Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences,
      Univeristy of Toronto, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON, M1C 1A4. Wind Driven Mixing of
      the Surface Waters of Lake Opeongo, Ontario .

            The epilimnion of a lake can experience weak diurnal stratification during periods of
      weak winds and net heat fluxes. This weak diurnal stratification is typically a change in 1 oC over

May 17-21, 2010                                      206                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      several meters, and hence is an order of magnitude smaller than the stratification within the main
      thermocline. However the presence of even a weak stratification can inhibit vertical mixing
      within the epilimnion and so influence the spatial distribution of plankton within the euphotic
      zone. In this talk we present a long time-series of the thermal stratification within the surface
      waters of Lake Opeongo, Ontario. Typically during day-time there is a weak diurnal
      stratification within the epilimnion, however for strong winds we observe frequent temperature
      inversions. These overturns create a momentarily unstable temperature profile and can be used to
      indicate the presence of turbulent mixing. The temperature profile of the epilimnion was
      recorded in Lake Opeongo from May 2009 to September 2009. Five fast response thermistors
      with an accuracy of ±0.002oC, recording every 4 seconds were placed from 1 to 6 meters below
      the surface. We will present a relationship between wind speed, thermal stratification and the
      frequency of overturns, and discuss the implications to the spatial distribution of plankton.
      Keywords: Water currents.

      PERROUD, M., Battelle, Building D, 7, rte de Drize, Carouge, GE, 1227, Switzerland. Impacts
      of a 2 X CO2 global climate change on the thermal structure of the deep Swiss Lake

              Changes in the thermal structure of Lake Geneva in a future warmer climate resulting
      from enhanced atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (2 x CO2) is investigated by
      interfacing the one-dimensional k-ε lake model SIMSTRAT with the single column atmospheric
      model FIZC. Compared to former one-way experiments, the coupling allows strong feedbacks
      between the lake surface and the atmosphere and produces variations in atmospheric moisture
      and cloud cover that further modify the downward solar and infrared radiation fluxes. In a
      ―control‖ 1 x CO2 climate experiment, the coupled FIZC-SIMSTRAT model has demonstrated
      genuine skills in reproducing epilimnic and hypolimnic temperatures. Doubling of CO2
      concentration induces an atmospheric warming that impacts on the lake‘s thermal structure,
      where stratification starts earlier, the stability of the water column increases, the stratification
      period increases by 3 weeks, and the decay of thermocline is delayed in autumn. Epilimnic
      temperatures are seen to increase in the range of 2.60°C to 4.20°C whereas that of the
      hypolimnion is of 2.20°C. As climate changes, the surface energy budget components are mainly
      modified due to a reduction of the cloud cover in summer and a larger water vapour deficit at the
      air-water interface that induces a cooling effect in the lake. Keywords: Climate change,
      Atmosphere-lake interaction, Air-water interfaces.

      PERSOON, C. and HORNBUCKLE, K.C., The University of Iowa Dept of Civil and
      Environmental Engineering, 4105 Seamans Center for Engineering, Iowa City, IA, 52242.
      Consistent Spatial Distribution of Atmospheric PCBs „hot spots‟ Over Time in Intra-City

              Identification of atmospheric PCB ‗hot spots‘ has been done using passive samplers at 35
      spots throughout metro Chicago in order to determine intra-city spatial distribution and variation
      in PCB concentrations. By using spatial data collected with passive samplers from 2007-2009,
      we can now begin to understand spatial-temporal trends in intra-city PCB concentrations. This

May 17-21, 2010                                       207                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      study hypothesizes that atmospheric PCB ‗hot spots‘ are consistent over time in an intra-city
      environment, and PCB concentrations can be contributed to spatially localized sources within
      Chicago. Using spatial and temporal autocorrelation, coupled with non-parametric statistical
      analysis ranking, preliminary results suggest that intra-city PCB concentrations in Chicago are
      spatially distributed consistently over time and that PCB concentrations are both declining and
      accumulating throughout Chicago depending on the sites spatial distribution and the localized
      source. Keywords: Atmospheric circulation, Spatial distribution, PCBs.

      J.3, and STOW, C.A.4, 1Michigan State University, 13 Natural Resources, East Lansing, MI,
      48824; 2316 Mark Jefferson, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI, 48197; 3NOAA,
      Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Blvd E, Seattle, WA, 98112; 4NOAA Great
      Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, 4840 South State Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108.
       Spatial and temporal analysis of nutrient vs. light limitation of benthic algae in Saginaw
      Bay, Lake Huron.

              Excessive algal growth has plagued Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron for decades. While
      reductions in nutrient inputs resulted in significant ecosystem improvements, benthic algal
      growth, and the resulting decaying benthic algal detritus (―muck‖), has persisted. Light and
      nutrients are likely limiting factors of benthic algae in Saginaw Bay, but the system is complex
      due to the impacts of multiple stressors including a) fluctuating water levels, b) dreissenids,
      which have increased nutrients and light to the benthos, and c) anthropogenic nutrient loading.
      To investigate this problem, we collected benthic algal samples along depth, light, and nutrient
      gradients from June – August 2009 throughout the southwest portion of Saginaw Bay. We used
      pulse-amplitude-modulated fluorometry to assess the photosynthetic health of the samples and
      measured internal phosphorus, carbon, and nitrogen ratios to understand growth conditions.
      Endogenous phosphatase detection was used to determine community phosphorus limitation.
      The highest algal density was observed at an intermediate distance from the Saginaw River
      primarily at depths of 2-4 meters. We will discuss the interacting impacts of light, nutrients, and
      wave stress in determining the spatial variability in the regions of highest growth as well as the
      implications this has for managing this system. Keywords: Benthos, Nuisance algae, Nutrients,
      Multiple stressor, Management, Beach fouling.

      PETRIE, S.A., Long Point Waterfowl, P.O. Box 160, Port Rowan, ON, N0E 1M0. Waterfowl
      Use of the Great Lakes: Future Challenges and Opportunities.

              The Great Lakes system contains 20% of the world‘s fresh water, sustains an economy
      for approximately 30 million people, and supports millions of waterfowl throughout their annual
      cycle. The Great Lakes watershed supports breeding and both spring and fall migrating
      waterfowl, with estimated peak populations of 1.3 million pairs, 7 million, and 12.8 million
      respectively. A large and growing overwintering population also uses the area. I will highlight
      the current state of the landscape in relation to supporting the annual life cycle needs of
      waterfowl. I will briefly summarize breeding, wintering and spring waterfowl use of the Great
      Lakes watershed and summarize the state of our knowledge during each segment of the annual

May 17-21, 2010                                      208                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      cycle. Information regarding current challenges to management for waterfowl in the Great Lakes
      watershed will be discussed: invasive species, expanding human populations, continued loss and
      degradation of habitat, the effects of climate change, and wind farm developments. What the
      future holds for Great Lakes waterfowl and their habitats will be discussed. Keywords: Avian
      ecology, Waterfowl, Invasive species, Wetlands, Mollusks.

      PIERCE, L.1, CRAWFORD, E.2, WILLEY, J.2, and STEPIEN, C.A.1, 1Lake Erie Center and
      Dept. Environmental Sci., University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, 43616; 2George Isaac Cancer
      Research Center, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, 43614. Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia
      (VHS) Immersion Challenge in Juvenile Muskellunge Using StaRT PCR: A Quantification

              A unique and especially virulent strain of fish viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS; IVb)
      outbroke in 2005 in the Great Lakes and subsequent years, killing several economically and
      ecologically important fishes. Despite efforts to reduce detection time with DNA diagnostics,
      cell culture - which is a weeks long laborious process - is the only currently approved method to
      detect VHS. Our laboratories developed and tested a new standardized reverse transcriptase
      polymerase chain reaction (StaRT-PCR) assay to detect and quantify VHS strains with rapid
      detection time, lower detection threshold, and intrinsic quality control via a standardized mixture
      of internal standards.We partnered with Drs. Faisal and Kim of Michigan State University to
      conduct an immersion challenge experiment using four doses of VHSv-IVb (1-100,000 plaque
      forming units/ml) in duplicate tests of 45 juvenile muskellunge. Kidney and spleen tissues were
      removed from two fish per tank at time points for comparative testing by MSU with cell culture
      and plaque assay/qRT-PCR for viral quantification versus our StaRT-PCR test results. Our test is
      projected to benefit aquaculture, hatchery, and baitfish facilities and Great Lakes fishery
      managers in accurately detecting the presence of the virus within hours. Keywords: Genetics,
      VHS, Invasive species, Fish diseases.

      PIGGOTT, A.R., Environment Canada, 867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6.
      Groundwater Discharge to Surface Water in Southern Ontario and the Great Lakes Basin.

              Groundwater is an important component of the hydrologic cycle and water resources of
      southern Ontario and the Great Lakes basin. Groundwater is widely used as a water supply,
      particularly in rural areas, and its discharge to wetlands, lakes, and rivers maintains aquatic
      habitat and in-stream conditions, particularly during periods of otherwise low flow. Groundwater
      discharge to surface water is the endpoint of the process of groundwater recharge, flow, and
      discharge. Estimates of this discharge can be interpreted using geological data in a consistent
      manner across broad regional scales. For example, it is estimated that roughly 50 percent of
      streamflow in southern Ontario is due to groundwater discharge where this fraction varies from
      less than 20 percent in areas with fine textured geological materials such as clay to greater than
      70 percent in areas with coarse textured materials such as sand and gravel. Research addressing
      issues such as the dynamics of groundwater discharge, impacts of land and water use, and
      implications of climate variability and change is required to complete this initial regional scale

May 17-21, 2010                                      209                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      assessment. Keywords: Great Lakes basin, Groundwater, Hydrologic cycle, Streamflow,

      PILGRIM, E.M.1, SCHAROLD, J.V.2, DARLING, J.A.1, and KELLY, J.R.2, 1Ecological
      Exposure Research Division, U.S. EPA, 26 Martin Luther King Dr., Cincinnati, OH, 45268;
        Mid-Continent Ecology Division, U.S. EPA, 6201 Congdon Blvd., Duluth, MN, 55804.
       Genetic diversity of Diporeia in the Great Lakes: comparison of Lake Superior to the
      other Great Lakes.

              Abundances of Diporeia have dropped drastically in the Great Lakes, except in Lake
      Superior where data suggest that population counts actually have risen. Various ecological,
      environmental, or geographic hypotheses have been proposed to explain the greater abundance
      of Lake Superior Diporeia. None of these hypotheses, however, have included the possibility of
      multiple distinct evolutionary lineages of Diporeia in the Great Lakes. Using mitochondrial DNA
      (cytochrome oxidase I) sequence data, we compared populations of Diporeia from Lakes Huron,
      Michigan, Ontario, and Superior. Analyses of this sequence data show Lake Superior Diporeia
      are a distinct evolutionary lineage that likely diverged over 100,000 years ago from Diporeia of
      the other Great Lakes. Although these results alone likely are not sufficient to explain the
      disparity in Diporeia abundance between Lake Superior and the other lakes, the presence of
      distinct evolutionary lineages of Diporeia within the Great Lakes should be addressed in
      subsequent investigations of the different population densities of this amphipod.
      Keywords: Genetics, Amphipods, Diporeia.

      PINEL-ALLOUL, B., GRIL, Département sciences biologiques, Université de Montréal, C.P.
      6128, Succ. Centre ville, Montréal, Québec, QC, H3C 3J7, Canada. The Role of Wind in the
      Generation of Multiscale Patterns of Plankton Heterogeneity: Implications for Ecosystem

      induced circulation governs water temperature and stability and the formation of water masses in
      freshwater systems. Environmental heterogeneity due to vertical and horizontal structuring of
      lakes and rivers is reflected in the distribution of plankton food web components (bacteria,
      phytoplankton, and zooplankton). Wind physical forcing constitutes the first step of a hierarchy
      of abiotic (temperature gradient, nutrient fluxes) and biotic (microbial biological coupling)
      processes which are the proximal forces driving plankton patchiness. However, the relative
      importance of physical and biological processes for driving plankton food web distribution varies
      with scale. We present a review on the relative role of wind in structuring plankton patchiness
      with a multiscale perspective. The focus will be on timescales over which physical drivers like
      wind contribute to the onset and the persistence of patches both vertically and horizontally. The
      importance of the application of new and advanced technology to assess physical forcing of
      plankton patchiness at the same time and space scales is also discussed. Keywords: Lake model,
      Plankton, Water currents.

May 17-21, 2010                                     210                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      PORTISS, R., 5 Shoreham Drive, Downsview, ON, M3N1S4. Environmental Monitoring in
      Support of Aquatic Habitat Toronto/Fish Communities of the Toronto Waterfront.

             Baseline environmental monitoring data has been collected and assembled in order to
      provide agency partners; Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources,
      Toronto Region Conservation, City of Toronto, with pre-construction environmental data for
      major in water works associated with the Toronto Waterfront Redevelopment projects being
      carried out by WATERFRONToronto. This information can be used to provide informed
      decisions and to track and evaluate the design features and structures that are part of the
      construction projects. This baseline data can be compared to the ongoing monitoring program
      and is used to evaluate and add insight into the designs that are being recommended by the
      Aquatic Habitat Toronto as outlined in the Toronto Waterfront Aquatic Habitat Restoration
      Strategy. This presentation can also provide an overview of the current state of fish communities
      on the Toronto Waterfront as collected by electrofishing methods and show trends that have been
      observed over the 16 year study period. Keywords: Habitats, Fisheries, Monitoring.

      POSTE, A.E.1, HECKY, R.E.2, and GUILDFORD, S.J.2, 1University of Waterloo, 200
      University Ave. W., Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1; 2University of Minnesota-Duluth, 2205 East Fifth
      Street, Duluth, MN, 55812. Seasonal Dynamics and Bioaccumulation of Microcystin in
      Ugandan Lakes.

              Few studies have quantified microcystin (MC) in East African lakes, despite the fact that
      these lakes are a critical source of both water and food for the human and animal populations that
      rely on them. Water and fish samples were collected monthly from September 2008 to February
      2009 from several Ugandan lakes, including Lakes Edward, George, Mburo, Saka, and two
      embayments of Lake Victoria (Murchison Bay and Napoleon Gulf). Water samples were
      analyzed for chlorophyll and nutrient concentrations, and MC was measured using ELISA. MC
      concentrations in water regularly exceeded the WHO drinking water guideline of 1.0 μg/L. Mean
      concentrations were highest in Lake Saka (27 μg/L), followed by Lake George (8.5 μg/L),
      Murchison Bay (7.4 μg/L), Lake Edward (2.9 μg/L), Lake Mburo (2.5 μg/L), and Napoleon Gulf
      (1.8 μg/L). The WHO TDI for MC is 0.04 μg/kg/day. For a 60 kg person eating 100 g fish, 33%
      of the fish collected from Lake Saka would exceed this threshold, while 24% from Murchison
      Bay, 21% from Napoleon Gulf, 10% from Lake Mburo, 6% from Lake George, and 2% from
      Lake Edward would also exceed this threshold. This study reveals the potential for detrimental
      health effects on those who rely on these lakes for water and food, and indicates that fish
      consumption can be an important route of MC exposure. Keywords: Africa, Microcystin,
      Bioaccumulation, Harmful algal blooms.

      POULOPOULOS, J. and CAMPBELL, L.M., Department of Biology & School of
      Environmental Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L3N6. Stable Isotope Analyses
      Reveal Structural Changes in Lake Simcoe Fish Food Webs From 1950s, and Impacts on
      Hg Bioaccumulation.

May 17-21, 2010                                      211                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              The Lake Simcoe ecosystem has been subjected to many disturbances over the last half
      century, including introductions of non-native species, mercury contamination, and
      eutrophication. One result of such disturbances was the decline of the cold water fishery since
      the 1950s. Yet while such impacts are broadly recognized, it is difficult to fully understand them
      without greater knowledge of historical trophodynamics. Many museums house large
      ichthyology collections that have the potential to fill this knowledge gap. We used stable isotope
      analyses on such collections to determine the historical food web structure, and compared this to
      the modern food web. While basic trophic relationships are similar in the two time periods, some
      species‘ diets have noticeably shifted, while others have not, revealing a species-specific effect
      of the disturbances on the food web components. Overall, there is greater overlap in stable
      isotope composition among species in the modern web. As part of this project, we have assessed
      Hg biomagnification in the modern and historical food webs, and found similarities in the
      patterns of biomagnification. Our results provide a new insight into the ongoing changes in the
      Lake Simcoe fish community. Keywords: Stable isotopes, Food chains, Mercury.

      POULOPOULOS, J. and CAMPBELL, L.M., Department of Biology & School of
      Environmental Studies, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L3N6. Hg biomagnification
      trends in 3 large lakes after 80 years of food web changes.

              Mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxic chemical of global concern, particularly in aquatic
      ecosystems. Systematic measurements of fish Hg concentrations that were initiated in the 1970s
      show that since that time, Hg has declined in many regions, including in the large North
      American lakes Nipigon, Simcoe, and Champlain. However, it is difficult to know whether the
      declines have returned concentrations to more historical levels, since almost no data on
      biological Hg contamination from before the 1970s exists. We used 50-80 year old ichthyology
      collections from museums to determine historical food web structures of our study lakes, and
      then measured Hg concentrations in corresponding historical and modern fish from those lakes.
      We found that Hg biomagnification patterns are similar today compared to the historical period
      under study, despite several structural changes to the food webs. This suggests the lake
      communities have some resilience against changes to Hg contamination. Keywords: Food
      chains, Mercury, Stable isotopes.

      QUINN, J.S., Biology Department, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton,
      ON, L8S 4K1. Santa Saves the Day for Nesting Herring Gulls Threatened by Double-
      crested Cormorants.

              Double-crested cormorants have displaced nesting herring gulls nesting in Hamilton
      Harbour. The numbers of breeding herring gulls in the harbour have been declining, apparently
      due to loss of nesting habitat to encroaching cormorants. I decided to try a novel method for
      discouraging ground-nesting cormorants, while allowing herring gull nesting. My field assistants
      and I placed a 1.6 M singing dancing Santa Claus equipped with a motion detector and powered
      by a deep cycle 12 V battery through an inverter in the middle of the area being taken over by
      cormorants. Under permit, cormorant nests were removed on one to three day intervals. The
      battery was replaced with a fresh battery twice a week and the Santa was shifted on the island

May 17-21, 2010                                      212                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      once a week to reduce habituation. We staggered this treatment at different locations to allow
      statistical analysis. The Santa treatment was effective at repelling nesting cormorants and
      allowed nesting by herring gulls in close proximity to the Santa. Mechanical problems limiting
      Santa‘s movement led to recurrences of cormorant nesting activity nearby. This method is likely
      adaptable to other situations where a more bold ground nesting bird needs protection from nest-
      site competition from a less bold ground nesting species. Keywords: Invasive species, Avian
      ecology, Biodiversity.

      RAMIN, M.1, LABENCKI, T.2, GUDIMOV, A.1, STREMILOV, S.1, BOYD, D.2, and
      ARHONDITSIS, G.B.1, 1University of Toronto, Toronto, ON; 2Ontario Ministry of the
      Environment, Toronto, ON. Integration of Mathematical Modeling and Bayesian Inference
      for Setting Water Quality Criteria in Hamilton Harbour.

              The credibility of the scientific methodology of mathematical models and their adequacy
      to form the basis of public policy decisions has frequently been challenged. We argue that the
      development of novel methods for assessing the uncertainty underlying model predictions should
      be a top priority of the modeling community. Bayesian calibration of process-based models is a
      methodological advancement that warrants consideration in aquatic ecosystem research and can
      be used to guide the water quality criteria setting process in Hamilton Harbour. In this study, we
      present the results of a Bayesian calibration exercise and examine the ability of the model to
      reproduce the average observed patterns. Several critical questions regarding the future response
      of the system are addressed. Our results show that the water quality goals for TP (17 μg L-1) and
      chlorophyll a concentrations (5-10 μg L-1) will likely be met, if the recommendation for
      phosphorus loading at the level of 142 kg day-1 is achieved. We also provide evidence that the
      anticipated structural shifts of the zooplankton community will determine the restoration rate of
      the Harbour. Finally, the coupling between the benthic and pelagic habitat and the importance of
      the allochthonous organic matter in sustaining the secondary production invite further
      investigation. Keywords: Benthic–pelagic coupling, Mathematical models, Risk assessment,
      Water quality, Ecosystem restoration, Eutrophication.

      RANDALL, R.G., KOOPS, M.A., and MINNS, C.K., Fisheries and Ocean Canada, 867
      Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. Comparison of approaches for integrated
      management in coastal marine areas of Canada with the historical approach used in the
      Great Lakes (Bay of Quinte).

             Approaches for ecosystem-based management in coastal marine areas, prompted by
      Canada‘s Oceans Act, are similar to and consistent with the long-standing, integrated
      management of the Bay of Quinte in Lake Ontario. The similarities include the identification of
      conservation objectives, biologically and ecologically significant species, and indicators of
      ecosystem health to measure cumulative effects of multiple stressors. The history of integrated
      management in the Bay of Quinte is examined, in retrospect, using the terminology that has been
      adopted for coastal marine areas in Canada. The three key conservation objectives, maintaining
      productivity, preserving biodiversity and protecting habitat, is common to both freshwater and
      marine ecosystems. We recommend that the Bay of Quinte be identified as a Great Lakes Coastal

May 17-21, 2010                                      213                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Management Area, to continue the area-based integrated management approach, but also to
      demonstrate transition from a negative (degraded area) to a positive (area of high productivity
      and biodiversity) ecosystem focus. Keywords: Ecosystem-based management, Ecosystem health,
      Bay of Quinte.

      RANDALL, R.G.1, BROUSSEAU, C.M.1, and HOYLE, J.A.2, 1Fisheries and Oceans Canada,
      867 Lakeshore Road, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 2Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 41
      Fish Hatchery Lane, Picton, ON, K0K 2T0. Effect of macrophyte density on spatial
      variability in the abundance and growth of littoral fishes in bays of Prince Edward County,
      Lake Ontario.

              Biomass density and growth characteristics of pumpkinseed sunfish (Lepomis gibbosus),
      yellow perch (Perca flavescens), and other cohabiting species varied among different bays of
      Prince Edward County in eastern Lake Ontario. Catch rates, biomass and estimated production
      (where P = average biomass times P/B) was highest in the bays with abundant aquatic
      macrophytes. The fish density-biomass component of production was related to macrophyte
      cover, but the growth component (and P/B) was not. Results support the contention that changes
      in aquatic vegetation during recent years in the Bay of Quinte has affected the abundance and
      production of pumpkinseed sunfish and other cohabiting phytophilic fishes in this region of
      eastern Lake Ontario. Keywords: Fish populations, Habitats, Bay of Quinte.

      RANKIN-GOUTHRO, E. and KRANTZBERG, G., McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W,
      Hamilton, ON, L8S 1K4. The Lorax Can Win: Using Scenario Building to Create A New
      Vision and Invigorate An “Activist Agenda” for the Great Lakes St. Lawrence Basin.

              There is movement across the Great Lakes St. Lawrence Basin to create a binational
      vision. As promulgated by a group of Great Lakes stakeholders, the desired vision is one of
      sustainability intertwining the environmental, economic and social agendas. The creation of a
      new vision is timely. Scientists are warning this globally significant ecosystem is at a tipping
      point while heightened public awareness and government commitment are coalescing in a
      moment of ripeness creating a spark for transformational change. While this transformation is
      exigent, it is by no means certain. Moving the nascent vision through to adoption will require
      sanction from numerous orders of government and other interests that span an immense
      geographical and multi-jurisdictional area. Through the use of scenario building, four alternative
      futures open to the Great Lakes St. Lawrence Basin are explored. These futures and the ensuing
      discussion serve as a strategic means to inform the evolution of this new vision and underscore
      the urgency of action. Thus, we argue for an ―activist‖ agenda in which all interests recognize the
      antecedent nature of the resource and the necessity of creating a macro and micro management
      regimes that integrate social, economic and environmental priorities. Keywords: Policy making,
      Great lakes governance, Environmental policy, Ecosystem health.

      RATTAN, K.J.1 and SMITH, R.E.H.2, 1Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Gloucester Point,
      VA, 23062; 2University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON, N2L 3G1. Using Traditional Methods

May 17-21, 2010                                      214                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      and Chl a Variable Fluorescence for Determining Nutrient Status in Oligotrophic and
      Eutrophic Systems.

              Traditional methods of determining nutrient status in phytoplankton and variable
      fluorescence were used to evaluate the physiological response to phosphorus (P) limitation in
      oligotrophic to eutrophic lake systems, based on P and Chl a concentrations. Metabolic assays
      were used to estimate nutrient status at sites located in Lake Erie, Lake Ontario and Lake Huron.
      Variable fluorescence ratios (Fv/Fm) and rapid light curve (RLC) parameters were measured by
      Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometer. Phytoplankton communities were associated
      with nutrient status, where nanoflagellates were prevalent in P deficient sites and cyanobacteria
      and diatoms were prevalent in eutrophic sites. In summer, P deficiency was strongest in the most
      oligotrophic site and least in the most eutrophic site. N status indicators and variable
      fluorescence revealed no N deficiency. P amendments showed a positive effect on Fv/Fm, and
      RLC parameters at P deficient sites and little or no effect on the least deficient site. N additions
      revealed a modest positive effect on Fv/Fm and RLC parameters in the most oligotrophic sites.
      Results confirmed that Fv/Fm and RLC parameters can reveal P deficiency and indicate its
      severity among the range of sites sampled, and provide evidence that P limitation could be
      driving the differences in composition. Keywords: Phytoplankton, Phosphorus, Water quality.

      RAZAVI, N.R., CHAN, W., COLE, L., WANG, Y., and CAMPBELL, L.M., Department of
      Biology, Queen's University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6. Characterizing the Food Web of a
      Chinese Reservoir to Identify Differences in Mercury Concentrations Between Wild and
      Farmed Fish.

              Freshwater fish are an important constituent of the Chinese diet, and the use of reservoirs
      for the capture and culture of fish is widespread in China. This study focused on an important
      reservoir in the Eastern Plains Lake Region of China, where elevated concentrations of mercury
      in top trophic predators such as yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco) were found.
      Preliminary trace element results indicate that wild and farmed fish species had markedly
      different concentrations. In this study, we will examine food web biomagnification trends for
      mercury and several elements for both wild and farmed fish. In 2008 and 2009, fish of several
      feeding guilds were collected from markets and from fishermen. Stable isotope results indicate
      distinct isotopic patterns among some fish species collected at different markets, suggesting
      some of the wild fish species brought in the market may not be from the reservoir, thereby
      providing a useful measure not only of food web structure, but also confirming the origin of
      wild-caught fish. Mercury and element bioaccumulation trends, as well as the importance of fish
      origin will be discussed. This study contributes essential risk assessment data that is presently
      lacking for many Chinese fish species, and helps to evaluate the importance of the residual
      effects of reservoir creation. Keywords: Isotope studies, Trophic level, Fish.

      REAVIE, E.D.1, BALCER, M.D.2, and CANGELOSI, A.A.3, 1Natural Resources Research
      Institute, University of Minnesota Duluth, Ely, MN, 55731; 2Lake Superior Research Institute,
      University of Wisconsin Superior, Superior, WI, 54880; 3Northeast-Midwest Institute,

May 17-21, 2010                                       215                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Washington DC, DC, 20001. Testing Ballast Water Treatments at the Great Ships Initiative
      Land-based Facility: Zooplankton and Phytoplankton assessments.

              Ballast water discharge from ships is a significant source for the introduction and spread
      of aquatic invasive species. The Great Ships Initiative (GSI) is evaluating candidate shipboard
      treatment systems for their ability to prevent the introduction of freshwater nuisance species.
      Potential treatments are evaluated at the land-based test facility in Duluth/Superior Harbor (Lake
      Superior). The facility meets International Maritime Organization (IMO) guidelines and is the
      only system dedicated to testing ballast water treatment applications on freshwater organisms.
      Numbers of surviving ambient organisms in treated discharge are sampled and assessed using an
      array of methods. Specific GSI methods for sampling and assessing live plankton in size classes
      relevant to the IMO standards will be detailed. The 10-50 micron size class (largely algae and
      protists) is assessed using high-resolution microscopy and fluorescent-metabolic stains, and the
      >50 micron size class (zooplankton) is assessed using lower resolution microscopy and
      movement detection of organisms. Lessons learned during the methods development process,
      and outstanding issues still to be resolved, will be presented. GSI test findings will support the
      development of ship-board treatment systems that meet and surpass IMO standards for
      preventing species introductions. Keywords: Invasive species, Ballast water, Phytoplankton,
      Viability, Zooplankton, Ships.

      REDDER, T.M., MCCULLOCH, R.D., DEPINTO, J.V., and GRUSH, J., 501 Avis Drive, Ann
      Arbor, MI, 48108. Development and Application of a Fine-Scale Model to Evaluate
      Sediment Dynamics in Toledo Harbor and the Western Basin of Lake Erie.

              Sediment management is a significant challenge in many Great Lakes harbors, where
      frequent dredging maintenance of navigational systems is often required. Toledo Harbor, which
      provides navigational access from the western basin of Lake Erie through the lower 10 miles of
      the Maumee River, provides a good example of these challenges. The navigation channel in
      Toledo Harbor is subject to significant rates of sedimentation resulting from the combined
      effects of suspended sediment loading from the Maumee River and wind-wave resuspension and
      redistribution of bed sediments in Maumee Bay and Lake Erie. Dredging and disposal activities
      are conducted on an annual basis by the U.S. Corps of Engineers to maintain the channel at
      considerable expense. A fine-scale EFDC hydrodynamic and sediment transport model of the
      Maumee River/Bay and Lake Erie western basin is being developed to assist in the evaluation of
      the relative contribution of tributary loadings and wind-wave resuspension to the sedimentation
      problem. The sediment transport model is being calibrated to deposition volume estimates based
      on dredging surveys, along with other supporting datasets. Once calibrated, the model will be
      applied to evaluate the feasibility of alternative sediment disposal locations and related projects
      intended to enhance the quality of aquatic habitat. Keywords: Sediment transport, Model studies,
      Sediment control.

      REDISKE, R.R. and O‘KEEFE, J.P., Annis Water Resources Institute, 740 W. Shoreline Drive,
      Muskegon, MI, 49401. Assessment of PCBs and PBDEs in Fish from Several Trophic
      Levels in Western Michigan Drowned River Mouth Lakes.

May 17-21, 2010                                      216                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

              Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxic Chemicals (PBTs) continue to pose a threat to human
      and environmental health in the Great Lakes basin. Polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) are
      considered one of the most significant toxic chemicals in the Great Lakes ecosystem. We
      conducted an investigation of PBDEs in fish from multiple trophic levels in Kalamazoo Lake,
      Muskegon Lake, White Lake, and Pentwater Lake. Forage and predator species were collected
      from each location and analyzed for PBDE congeners by negative chemical ionization gas
      chromatography mass spectrometry and % lipids. PBDE concentrations were found to be
      variable across study sites and species, suggesting that a diffuse source such as atmospheric
      deposition is responsible for contaminant levels observed. The highest concentrations in common
      carp were found in Kalamazoo Lake and Pentwater Lake (218 ng/g and 62 ng/g, respectively).
      The highest concentrations in walleye and northern pike were found in Muskegon Lake (84 ng/g
      and 14 ng/g, respectively). Concentrations of PBDE in yellow perch, round goby, and
      largemouth bass were similar and ranged from 1-10 ng/g. PBDE #47 was the predominant
      congener detected in all species. Keywords: PCBs, PBDEs, PBTs.

      REDMAN, R.A.1, CZESNY, S.J.1, and MACKEY, S.D.2, 1Illinois Natural History Survey,
      University of Illinois, Lake Michigan Biological Station, 400 17th Street, Zion, IL, 60099, US;
        University of Windsor, Habitat Solutions NA, 37045 N Ganster Road, Beach Park, IL, 60087,
      US. Evaluation of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush spawning habitat: Are southern Lake
      Michigan‟s offshore reefs attractive?

               Historically, lake trout was the dominant predator throughout the Great Lakes. Following
      its extirpation from Lake Michigan by the mid 1950s, restoration of lake trout involved stocking
      efforts that began in 1965. More recently, management for sustainable, naturally reproducing
      lake trout stocks has become a critical objective throughout the Great Lakes. Lake trout
      aggregate at offshore reefs in southern Lake Michigan during the spawning season, but little
      information exists on egg deposition or habitat characteristics of these reefs. Sidescan sonar and
      underwater video was used to develop substrate maps for Julian‘s and Waukegan Reefs and
      identify potential lake trout spawning habitat. Recon and detailed sidescan surveys indicated the
      presence of additional, unknown bedrock substrate south of the area originally associated with
      Waukegan Reef. Multiple areas over Julian‘s and Waukegan Reefs were identified as potential
      lake trout spawning habitat due to the presence of coarse cobble-boulder substrates. These areas
      were targeted with deep-water egg traps during the 2009 spawning season, but no intact eggs or
      egg chorions were found at either reef. Underwater video from Waukegan Reef validated the
      presence of dreissenid mussels, which appeared to completely cover the surfaces of this reef
      complex. Keywords: Lake Michigan, Fish habitat, Lake trout, GIS, Spawning habitat.

      REEVES, H.W.1 and FEINSTEIN, D.T.2, 1USGS Michigan Water Science Center, 6520
      Mercantile Way, Suite 5, Lansing, MI, 48911; 2USGS Wisconsin Water Science Center, 3209 N.
      Maryland Ave., Room 338, Milwaukee, WI, 53211. Regional Groundwater Availability in
      the Lake Michigan Basin.

May 17-21, 2010                                      217                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

               USGS recently completed a regional groundwater flow model for the Lake Michigan
      Basin. The transient, 20-layer, two-million-node model incorporates multiple aquifers and
      pumping centers with cones of depression that extend into deep saline waters. The model
      simulates the exchange of water between surface-water bodies and shallow sequences of
      heterogeneous glacial deposits that overlie stratified, dipping bedrock of the Wisconsin Arch and
      Michigan Structural Basin. Model results illustrate the response of water levels, groundwater
      divides, and base flow to pumping. The greatest changes in these water level and groundwater
      divides occur in the western part of the basin around pumping centers that withdraw from the
      deep part of the flow system. Groundwater discharge directly to Lake Michigan is estimated to
      be approximately two percent of the overall regional groundwater budget. Most of the
      groundwater flow in the system is ultimately delivered to the lake as discharge to surface water
      tributary to the lake. An inset model embedded within the regional groundwater flow model
      illustrates potential streamflow depletion by a pumping well and potential effects of climate
      change. The regional and inset model results highlight the contrast between abundant water
      resources at the regional scale with limitations at local scales. Keywords: Water distribution,
      Hydrologic budget.

      REID, S.F.1 and VELIZ, M.A.2, 1Planning Department, County of Huron, 57 Napier Street,
      Goderich, ON, N7A 1W2; 2Ausable Bayfield Conservation Authority, R.R. 3, 77108 Morrison
      Line, Exeter, ON, N0M 2G0. Community Involvement in Water Quality Decision Making in
      Huron County, Ontario.

              National press coverage of polluted Lake Huron beaches, 100 km of shoreline developed
      for seasonal cottages and year-round homes, a county total livestock herd that outnumbers people
      by 10 to 1, and the recent Walkerton tragedy, set the stage for community conflict over water
      quality in Huron County, Ontario. Responsibilities related to surface and ground water were (and
      are) divided among agencies and organizations at all levels of government. The public and
      special interest groups within the community felt frustrated by a perceived lack of action and an
      even greater lack of coordination. In January 2004 the County of Huron formed a Water
      Protection Steering Committee comprising representatives of stakeholder groups including
      lakeshore residents‘ associations, industry associations, municipal councils, and agencies. Six
      years later, WSPC projects continue to attract outside agencies and funders, and also encourage
      behaviour change in the community. A case study - the North Bayfield Watershed Plan is linking
      individual actions to downstream water use. Through workshops and watershed tours over 30
      projects have been completed in a 40 sq.km area since the planning process began in 2007.
      Watershed planning, with an emphasis on individualized environmental action plans will help
      enhance and protect Lake Huron. Keywords: Public participation, Water quality, Lake Huron.

      RENNER, V.E. and EVANS, D.O., Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Trent University,
      Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8. The Thermal Regime of Lake Simcoe Has Been Modified by
      Invasion of Zebra Mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, and Climate Change.

            We evaluated the influence of zebra mussels and climate change on the thermal regime of
      Lake Simcoe. Atmospheric temperature data was compiled and vertical temperature profiles

May 17-21, 2010                                     218                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      from the surface to the lake bottom were obtained at bi-weekly intervals at two deep offshore
      sites from 1975 to 2008. Mean volume weighted temperatures were calculated for the epilimnion
      and the hypolimnion on each profile date and adjusted by linear interpolation to August 31 each
      year. We also determined the dates of ice-in and ice-out, seasonal heat content of the epilimnion
      and hypolimnion, and dates of onset and decay of thermal stratification. Water clarity improved
      after lake-wide colonization by zebra mussels in 1996. Maximum and mean epilimnetic
      temperatures increased by 2 to 3°C from 1975-2008. The temperature of the hypolimnion did not
      change. The effects of climate change are evident mainly in the spring where warmer winter and
      spring air temperatures have caused earlier ice-out. Increased water clarity, caused by zebra
      mussels, together with climate warming has resulted in warmer, deeper epilimnia. Increased heat
      content of the epilimnion has extended the duration of stratification and delayed fall mixing and
      winter ice-on. These changes have potentially important implications for physical and biological
      lake processes. Keywords: Zebra mussels, Heat content, Climate change, Thermal regime, Lake

      RENNIE, M.D.1, EVANS, D.O.2, LA ROSE, J.L.3, and ROBILLARD, M.M.4, 1Trent University,
      2140 East Bank Drive, DNA Building (2nd Floor), Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 2Ontario
      Ministry of Natural Resources, 2140 East Bank Drive, DNA Building (2nd Floor), Peterborough,
      ON, K9J 7B8; 3Lake Simcoe Fisheries Assessment Unit, 26465 York Road 18, Sutton West, ON,
      L0E 1R0; 4Lake Simcoe Fisheries Assessment Unit, 26465 York Road 18, Sutton West, ON,
      L0E 1R0. Isotopes reveal changes in the importance and identity of offshore resources to
      coldwater fishes in Lake Simcoe.

               The offshore ecosystem of Lake Simcoe has changed dramatically during the past 20-30
      years, characterized by improvements in deep water oxygen conditions, increasing anthropogenic
      activities around the lake, changes in the thermal dynamics of the lake and major species
      invasions. We describe how these changes have affected the importance of nearshore vs.
      offshore resources for coldwater fishes in Lake Simcoe by examining trends in stable isotopes of
      carbon and nitrogen from archived fish and invertebrate tissues. Preliminary results show that
      consumer species (lake whitefish, lake herring, rainbow smelt) all demonstrate pointed shifts
      towards more nearshore resources at or just prior to the close of the last century. In contrast,
      predatory lake trout show a more gradual and increasing reliance on offshore resources during
      this same period, accompanied by a decline in trophic position. We suggest that the patterns in
      consumer fishes are consistent with the expectations of a nearshore shunt of resources in Lake
      Simcoe associated with dreissenid establishment in the mid 1990s. However, trends in lake trout
      may more closely reflect declines in the pelagic fish community and what appears to be an
      unprecedented increase in Mysis diluvania densities in the lake. Keywords: Fish, Stable
      isotopes, Trophic level, Offshore, Lake Simcoe, Dreissena.

      RENNIE, M.D.1, EBENER, M.P.2, and WAGNER, T.3, 1Trent University, 2140 East Bank
      Drive, DNA Building (2nd Floor), Peterborough, ON, K9J 7B8; 2Inter-Tribal Fisheries and
      Assessment Program, Chippewa Ottawa Resource Authority, 179 W. Three Mile Road, Sault
      Ste. Marie, MI, 49783; 3U.S. Geological Survey, Pennsylvania Cooperative Fish & Wildlife
      Research Unit, Pennsylvania State University, 402 Forest Resources Bldg, University Park, PA,

May 17-21, 2010                                     219                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      16802. Can migration mitigate the effects of ecosystem change? Patterns of dispersal,
      energy acquisition and allocation in Great Lakes lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis).

              Fish can migrate in response to poor or declining home range habitat quality in order to
      seek out better resources. Despite dramatic changes in the benthic food web of the Laurentian
      Great Lakes since the colonization of dreissenid mussels, coincident changes in growth rates
      among benthivorous lake whitefish populations have been variable. We hypothesized that this
      variation could be in part mitigated by differences in migratory habits among populations, where
      more mobile populations have an increased probability of encountering high-quality habitats
      (relative to the home range). Results from four Great Lakes populations support this hypothesis;
      relative growth rates increased regularly with migration distance. The most mobile population
      showed the smallest decline in size-at-age during a period of significant ecosystem change, and
      had among the highest estimated consumption and activity rates. In comparison, the population
      with the greatest declines in size-at-age was among the least mobile, with only moderate rates of
      consumption and activity. The least mobile population of lake whitefish was supported by a
      remnant Diporeia population and has experienced only moderate growth declines. Our study
      provides evidence for the potential role of migration in mitigating the effects of ecosystem
      change on lake whitefish populations. Keywords: Lake whitefish, Diporeia, Dreissena,
      Migrations, Mercury, Bioenergetics.

      VALIPOUR, R.1,BOEGMAN, L.1, BOUFFARD, D.1, and YERUBANDI, R.2, 1Civil
      Engineering Department, Queen‘s University, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N6, Canada; 2National
      Water Research Institute, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6, Canada. Large Scale Internal Waves in
      the Central Basin of Lake Erie.

              Wind induced large scale waves play a crucial role in physical processes and the resultant
      biological activities in Lake Erie. To have a better understanding about how these basin-scale
      internal waves influence the oxygen distribution throughout the water column, time series data of
      velocity and temperature were recorded in the central basin of Lake Erie during the summer of
      2008/09. We applied rotary spectra to the velocity data and spectra of available potential energy
      from temperature time series to show a dominant clockwise peak around 17 hour. This well
      known near inertial peak is due to the presence of Poincare waves during stratification periods.
      The present study tries to clarify the physical characteristics of the Poincare waves in the central
      basin of Lake Erie by calculating the cell size in which Poincare waves undulate, the wave
      number, the period and the shape of these waves during the stratification periods as well as the
      associated velocity profile throughout the water column. Keywords: Central basin of Lake Erie,
      Poincare wave, stratification period, Lake Erie, Basin scale, internal waves.

      RICHARDS, R.P., Heidelberg University, 310 E. Market Street, Tiffin, OH, 44883.
      Probabilistic Analysis of Exposure to Atrazine in Northwest Ohio Rivers: Seasonal

              The National Center for Water Quality Research at Heidelberg University has monitored
      atrazine concentrations in the Maumee and Sandusky Rivers since 1983, and has generated

May 17-21, 2010                                       220                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      atrazine concentrations from more than 2000 samples for each river. Atrazine is widely applied
      in these watersheds. Atrazine is more likely to impact non-target organisms via chronic rather
      than acute exposure, so it is of interest to know the distributions of concentrations averaged over
      different periods of time, ranging from several days to ninety days. We created complete daily
      time series of concentrations, then processed them to determine the probability of occurrence of
      average concentrations as a function of the time of year. The results are plotted as a raster graph
      comparable to those often used in limnology. This analysis shows, for example, that significant
      probabilities (>0.5) of atrazine concentrations exceeding 5 µg/L are concentrated in May and
      June. As the length of the averaging period increases, the probability of concentrations greater
      than about 5 µg/L decreases, but the probabilities of lower concentrations do not. Averaging
      does not reduce the total exposure – the sum of the concentrations, but only changes the
      distribution of the concentrations, making high concentrations less frequent and low
      concentrations more frequent. Keywords: Tributaries, Environmental contaminants, Atrazine.

      RICHMAN, L.1, SOMERS, K.1, WILLIAMS, D.2, REINER, E.1, and HOBSON, G.1, 1Ontario
      Ministry of Environment, 125 Resources Rd, Etobicoke, ON, M9P 3V6; 2Environment Canada,
      867 Lakeshore Rd, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. MONITORING METAL AND PERSISTENT
      complanata) and QUAGGA MUSSELS (Dreissena bugensis) COLLECTED FROM THE
      NIAGARA RIVER (1983-2009).

              Historically, the Niagara River received significant discharges of persistent,
      bioaccumulative, toxic chemicals from outfalls and hazardous waste sites. Since 1983, the
      Ontario Ministry of Environment Mussel Biomonitoring Program has monitored 77 Canadian
      and U.S. sites for the presence of toxic chemicals using caged freshwater mussels. The Program
      provided information on contaminant sources between Fort Erie and Niagara-on-the-Lake (e.g.
      Hyde Park waste site, Gill Creek, Pettit Flume), and has been instrumental in documenting the
      effectiveness of remedial actions implemented in tributaries and hazardous waste sites. In 1995
      and 2003, tissue contaminant concentrations were also monitored in indigenous quagga mussels
      at 9 locations in the River to assess anticipated changes in response to ongoing remedial efforts.
      Concentrations of PCBs, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorobutadiene and octachlorostyrene in
      quagga mussels in 2003 were lower than those measured in 1995, consistent with reported
      decreases in mean annual water concentrations of these compounds. In contrast, metal
      concentrations were similar in both years and consistent with values reported in mussels from
      other industrialized areas in the Great Lakes Basin. Overall, results suggest that remedial efforts
      to improve water quality in the Niagara River have been successful. Keywords: Niagara River,
      Environmental contaminants, Biomonitoring.

      RIGOSI, A.1, MARCÉ, R.2, ESCOT, C.3, and RUEDA, F.4, 1Instituto del Agua, Department of
      Ecology, University of Granada, Calle Ramon y Cajal 4, Granada, 18003, Spain; 2Catalan
      Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Scientific and Technological Parc of the University of,
      Girona, 17003, Spain; 3Empresa Metropolitana de Abastecimiento y Saneamiento de Aguas de
      Sevilla, S.A. EMASESA, Calle Escu, Seville, 41003, Spain; 4Departamento de Ingeniería Civil,

May 17-21, 2010                                      221                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Universidad de Granada, Granada, Spain. Calibration strategy for dynamic succession
      models including several phytoplankton groups.

              An accurate description of the relationships between physical environment and ecological
      conditions, and a proper representation of phytoplankton succession structure, are central topics
      in water quality modeling.In this work a new calibration strategy is proposed for a dynamic
      ecological model, that differentiates five phytoplankton groups. Sensitivity analysis and global
      automatic calibration algorithms are successfully applied to the deterministic, highly
      parameterized model to solve over parameterization and reduce time of calibration.When the
      level of description of phytoplankton groups was adequate to system complexity, it was possible
      to calibrate phytoplankton groups separately and then simulate them toghether without reducing
      model performance.Model results reproduced the seasonal evolution of most of the algal groups
      considered in simulation, when an adequate information set was included in the calibration
      process.Through the applied method we prove that a good representation of phytoplankton
      succession is feasible without simplifying model structure or limiting number of simulated
      phytoplankton groups. Our findings illustrate that integration of automatic calibration strategies
      in complex deterministic ecological models is a useful approach to improve model performance.
      Keywords: Phytoplankton, Optimization algorithms, Water quality, Calibration, Model studies,
      Coupled models.

      RITCEY, A.L. and CAMPBELL, L., School of Environmental Studies, Queen's University,
      Biosciences Complex, Room 3134, Kingston, ON, K7L 3N5, Canada. Governance Across
      Borders: Disparate approaches to remediation in the International Region of the St.

              The St. Lawrence River Area of Concern (AOC) is a binational AOC under the auspices
      of the International Joint Commission. The AOC is an 80 km stretch of the international section
      of the St. Lawrence that is jurisdictionally divided between Canada and the United States.
      Collectively, there has been a joint goal and problem statement for the entire AOC.
      Independently, separate Remedial Action Plans (RAPs) have been structured and implemented in
      Cornwall, ON and Massena, NY. Guided by the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, the
      Cornwall RAP is completing the final stage of the program with the aim of delisting this year.
      This paper will explore the governance approaches undertaken by the Cornwall RAP, which has
      prepared them to de-list ahead of Massena. The research methods include stakeholder interview
      analysis, document and literature review, and observations from restoration council meetings,
      conferences and workshops. From these analyses, the Cornwall RAP has shown to employ an
      inclusive and collaborative governance model, which provides avenues for discussion, learning
      and consensus building among diverse stakeholders. To reinforce the binational character of the
      AOC, lessons from this approach should be adapted on a regional basis to support a collaborative
      St. Lawrence River wide effort. Keywords: Environmental policy, Regional analysis, St.
      Lawrence River.

      ROBILLARD, M.M.1, MCLAUGHLIN, R.L.1, and MACKERETH, R.W.2, 1Department of
      Integrative Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, N1G 2W1; 2Centre for Northern Forest

May 17-21, 2010                                      222                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      Ecosystem Research, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Lakehead University, Thunder
      Bay, On, P7B 5E1. A framework to guide research into complex migratory systems applied
      to migratory brook trout in Lake Superior.

              Migration is a complex form of behaviour that presents significant scientific and
      management challenges. In fishes, the migratory behaviour of many populations remains poorly
      characterized despite advances in tracking methods and the analysis of tracking data.
      Consequently, qualitative descriptors of migratory behaviours (eg. resident and migrant) are
      often assigned to populations or sub-populations when supporting data are lacking and adoption
      of these classifications can overlook the diversity of ecological mechanisms that can generate
      individual variation in migratory behaviour. We developed a rigorous theoretical framework to
      distinguish among competing hypotheses that could give rise to the apparent resident and
      migrant forms. We can distinguish between these hypotheses by addressing four ecological
      uncertainties: evidence of two forms differing in ecology, evidence of non-random mating,
      evidence of two versus one growth trajectory, and evidence that individuals purported to be
      residents complete their lifecycle in one habitat. Presented as a decision tree the framework
      prioritizes the order in which these uncertainties are addressed. We use Lake Superior brook
      trout to demonstrate how this framework has been used to guide research delineating the
      migratory system giving rise to the lake and stream resident forms. Keywords: Migrations,
      Trout, Lake Superior.

      ROBINSON, C.1, XIN, P.2, LI, L.2, and CROWE, A.S.3, 1Civil and Environmental Engineering,
      The University of Western Ontario, London, ON, N6A 5B9, Canada; 2School of Engineering,
      University of Queensland, Brisbane, 4066, Australia; 3Environment Canada, Canada Centre for
      Inland Waters, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6, Canada. Effect of waves on composition of
      groundwater discharge and associated chemical fluxes to nearshore waters from sandy

              While groundwater discharge to oceanic waters has received significant attention in the
      past decade, the groundwater pathway and its contribution to chemical loading to the Great
      Lakes remains poorly understood. Nevertheless much knowledge is transferrable between the
      oceanic and lake environments. Groundwater discharge comprises not only terrestrial
      groundwater but also water recirculating across the sediment-water interface. In quantifying
      groundwater discharge rates it is essential to identify these separate components. The mixing of
      the fresh and recirculating waters creates an important subsurface reaction zone in nearshore
      aquifers that strongly controls the fate of contaminants discharging and cycling through the
      nearshore sediments. The shorelines of the Great Lakes are often subject to significant wave
      actions. The analytical model of Longuet-Higgins is applied to quantify wave-driven
      recirculation showing that it may constitute a major part of the total nearshore groundwater
      discharge. In addition, a near-shore wave model (BEACHWIN) coupled with a saturated-
      unsaturated groundwater flow model (SUTRA) is applied to demonstrate the wave effects on
      watertable fluctuations and subsurface flow patterns. Input conditions used are based on the
      range of conditions at the sandy shores of the Great Lakes. Keywords: Coastal processes,
      Groundwater, Waves, Beaches, Water quality, Groundwater-coastal water interactions.

May 17-21, 2010                                     223                                      Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      ROBINSON, S.A.1, FORBES, M.R.1, and HEBERT, C.E.2, 1Carleton University, 1125 Colonel
      By Drive, Ottawa, ON, K1S5B6; 2Environment Canada, National Wildlife Research Centre,
      Raven Road - Carleton University campus, Ottawa, ON, K1A0H3. Parasitism, Mercury
      Contamination and Stable Isotopes in Cormorants.

              Contaminants and parasitism have been positively related in free-ranging birds. One
      proposed explanation is that contaminants reduce host immunity resulting in a greater
      susceptibility to parasitism. However, alternative explanations should be addressed to further
      inform and test hypotheses about relationships between contaminants and parasitism. We
      investigated whether total mercury and Contracaecum spp. were related in double-crested
      cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and whether there was support for contaminants and infective
      stages of parasites being co-ingested. For breeding cormorants, males had 1.5 times more total
      mercury in breast muscle than did females and > 2 times more Contracaecum spp. (nematodes).
      Different males were responsible for the two sex biases hence separate explanations for each
      pattern were required. Males foraged in more pelagic areas and at a slightly lower trophic level
      than did females, as determined by stable C and N isotope signatures, respectively. Sex biases in
      parasitism but not mercury concentration could be explained by sex differences in use of
      foraging habitats. We found similar results in a second sample of cormorants from another lake
      ecosystem; therefore, we rule out the likelihood that original patterns were due to chance.
      Keywords: Mercury, Parasites, Avian ecology, Cormorants.

      ROBLIN, R.J.1, LU, Q.1, DUCKETT, F.J.L.1, and TAYLOR, S.R.2, 1Baird & Associates, 1267
      Cornwall Rd, Suite 100, Oakville, ON, L6J 7T5; 2Essex Region Conservation Authority, 360
      Fairfield Ave. West, Suite 311, Essex, ON, N8M 1Y6. Implications of Reverse Flow in the
      Detroit River for Source Water Protection Studies.

             There are three Canadian municipal intakes located in the Detroit River: two at the
      Windsor water plant and one at Amherstburg. It is well known that reverse flow occurs in the
      downstream reaches of the Detroit River as a result of Lake Erie surge from the east. However,
      less known, is that reverse flow also occurs near the upstream end of the Detroit River, causing
      the River to flow toward Lake St. Clair and potentially move water-borne contaminants in an
      upstream direction. The Intake Protection Zone (IPZ-2s) for the three intakes were delineated
      considering 10-year return period events. Reverse flows were found to occur along the length of
      the Detroit River during some of the model simulations. Quinn (1988) and Derecki and Quinn
      (1990) note that reverse flows may occur along the Detroit River as a result of low flows in the
      St. Clair River (due to ice jams) and/or during strong meteorological events (as documented
      during a December 15, 1987 event). As a result of the modelled reverse flows the IPZ-2s for the
      Windsor and Amherstburg intakes extend a considerable distance in the downstream direction as
      well as the upstream direction. The next phase of work involves calibrating the model to the
      observed 1987 reverse flow event, in order to refine the downstream extent of the IPZs for the
      Windsor intakes. Keywords: Water currents, Model studies, Detroit River.

May 17-21, 2010                                     224                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      DIAMOND, M.L.1, BACKUS, S.4, JANTUNEN, L.M.5, and DAGGUPATY, S.5, 1Department
      of Geography, University of Toronto,, 100 St George Street,, Toronto, ON, M5S 3G3;
        Departmental Address Department of Chemical Engineering & Applied Chemistry, University
      of Toronto, 200 College Street,, Toronto,, ON, M5S 3E5; 3Ontario Ministry of the Environment,,
      125 Resources Road,, Toronto, ON, M9P 3V6; 4Environment Canada,, 867 Lakeshore Road,,
      Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6; 5Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street,, Toronto, ON, M3H
      5T4. Urban Sources and Loadings of Toxics to Lake Ontario from the Greater Toronto

             A multimedia measurement and modeling project has been undertaken to evaluate the
      fate and transport of selected POPs in Toronto, Canada. This allows assessment of the relative
      importance of loading pathways and sources of POPs from atmospheric deposition (wet and dry),
      stream runoff and waste water treatment plants to nearshore Lake Ontario. The project has
      involved determining concentrations in a year long measurement campaign of selected POPs
      (PCBs, PAH, PCMs and PBDEs) in air, soil, precipitation and tributary waters in Toronto,
      Canada. These data are used to estimate loadings and also in a coupled multimedia-air dispersion
      model. This presentation will give an overview of the initial three months of this data. Results
      from this work show that there is a strong urban-rural gradient in concentrations of all the
      compounds studied, however the loading and significance of each pathway to the lake differ
      between the chemicals. Keywords: Urban areas, Environmental contaminants, Pollution

      ROCKWELL, D.C.1, SCHWAB, D.J.2, and JOSHI, S.J.3, 1CILER - University of Michigan, 755
      Raintree Drive, Naperville, IL, 60540-6331; 2NOAA- Great Lakes Environmental Research
      Laboratory, 4840 South State Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108; 3Michigan Sea Grant Outreach
      Coordinator, 4840 South State Road, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108. 60 Hour Beach Water Quality
      Forecasting Models.

              NOAA's Center of Excellence Great Lakes and Human Health is developing and testing a
      60 Hour beach forecasting model. Forecast models are the next step in predictive models and use
      only parameters that come from the National Digital Forecast Database (NDFD) and the Great
      Lakes Coastal Forecast System (GLCFS) to estimate recreational water quality at beaches. These
      variables include rainfall, wind direction and velocity, lake currents, interpolated air temperature,
      surface water temperature, cloud cover, and time of sampling. The predictive model developed
      using deterministic model parameters will allow the NWS to provide 24/7 forecasts for beaches
      with forecast models. These forecasts will provide timely communications to the public via
      normal weather forecasts. Such forecasts of beach health and daily swimming conditions will
      allow the public to plan recreational trips to the beach. Using USEPA‘s Virtual Beach with these
      explanatory real time measurements, E. coli is being modeled at test-bed beaches. An initial
      model has an R2 factor of 38.7% and an adj. R2 factor near 35.6%. This is comparable to
      regional nowcast models (adj. R2 between 14-43%) but at the low end of models used to manage
      swimming based on beach measured parameters (adj. R2 between 38-42%). NWS alpha test beds
      are planned this summer at three beaches. Keywords: E. coli, Water quality, Beach, Model
      testing, Public education, Bacteria.

May 17-21, 2010                                       225                                         Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      ROEHM, C.L. and WILSON, M., Great Lakes Center, Buffalo Stae College, SUNY, Buffalo,
      NY, 14222, USA. Nutrient dynamics in coastal wetlands of Lake Ontario affected by algal

              Coastal wetlands act as pollution buffers. In their absence, direct input of non-point
      source pollution into aquatic ecosystems is known to cause severe eutrophication. However, in
      regions with a long history of non-point source inputs of nutrients, coastal wetlands are
      supersaturated and may act as nutrient sources to nearshore lake regions. In this study we studied
      (field and lab) the seasonal dynamics of nutrients in a set of coastal wetlands on Lake Ontario.
      The results to date indicate a release of P from the sediments in the main pond at each sampling
      period, with increasingly high concentrations in the water column and the formation of algal
      blooms in July. The highest rates of denitrification were found in the most oligotrophic pond,
      accompanied by a rapid decrease in PO34- over the bioassay time. The more eutrophic ponds
      experienced increasing concentration of PO34- in solution. The results indicate that the
      oligotrophic pond is limited and, hence, still a potential sink for excess nutrients, unlike the
      eutrophic ponds which experienced algal bloom events during the summer. These results present
      large implications for coastal management, since release of P from sediments into the water is
      evidenced by algal blooms and potentially causing an additional P loading to nearshore
      environments of Lake Ontario. Keywords: Coastal ecosystems, Ecosystems, Wetlands, Algal
      blooms, Nutrients, Lake Ontario.

      ROGERS, E.D.1, HENRY, T.B.2, TWINER, M.J.3, GOUFFON, J.S.4, SAYLOR, G.S.5, and
      WILHELM, S.W.6, 1Center for Enviro. Biotechnol., Depart. Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries,
      University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 2Center for Environmental Biotechnology,
      University of Tennessee, Ecotoxicology and Stress Biology Research Center, University of
      Plymouth, Plymouth, Devon, UK, Knoxville and Plymouth, USA and UK; 3Department of
      Natural Sciences, University of Michigan-Dearborn, Dearborn, USA; 4Affymetrix Core Facility,
      University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA; 5Center for Environmental Biotechnology,
      Department of Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA; 6Department of
      Microbiology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA. From Zebras to Cats: Development
      of Transcriptional Biomarkers in Larval Zebrafish for Application to Channel Catfish
      Exposed to Microcystis and the Cyanotoxin Microcystin.

              Microcystis blooms occur worldwide and are particularly persistent in the western basin
      of Lake Erie with microcystin (MC) toxin concentrations occasionally exceeding the WHO
      advisory level of 1 µg/L. While fish kills have been globally associated with elevated MC
      concentrations, sub-lethal effects are largely unknown. We exposed zebrafish (Danio rerio)
      larvae to purified MC-LR (0-1,000 µg/L) or lyophilized M. aeruginosa containing 4.5 µg/L MC-
      LR and determined effects on global gene expression. Bioinformatic analyses have identified the
      molecular effects of MC toxin exposure consistent with its known mechanism of action (i.e.,
      protein phosphatase inhibition, cell signaling, regulation of cytoskeleton, ion regulation,
      oxidative stress). Furthermore, these analyses also identified a novel, MC-independent
      phenomenon involving estrogenic effects (i.e., vitellogenin genes) of the Microcystis cell lysates.

May 17-21, 2010                                      226                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      These analyses not only identified mechanisms of toxicity for MC in fish and revealed new
      pathways of interest for both the MC toxin and one of its producers, M. aeruginosa, but also
      identified genes to be used in the future as the basis towards the development of diagnostic
      and/or prognostic biomarkers in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) exposed in vitro and in situ
      to these cyanobacteria species and their toxins. Keywords: Algae, Cyanotoxin, Toxic substances,
      Biomarkers, Fish, Toxicology.

      Main St W, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1. Development of an inventory of coastal wetlands for
      eastern Georgian Bay, Lake Huron.

              Coastal wetlands of eastern Georgian Bay provide critical habitat for a variety of wildlife,
      especially spawning and nursery habitat for Great Lakes fishes. Although this unique insular
      landscape has been designated a World Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO and may potentially be
      the largest concentration of coastal wetland habitat in the Great Lakes, a complete inventory is
      lacking. This is impeding proper recognition of the region and management and conservation
      efforts. Here we outline the methodology, analyses, and applications of the McMaster Coastal
      Wetland Inventory (MCWI) created from a comprehensive collection of IKONOS satellite
      imagery from 2002-2007. We focus on the coastal zone, operationally defined as habitat within 2
      km upstream of the 1:100 year floodline of the lake. Wetlands were manually delineated in a GIS
      as two broad habitat types; coastal marsh and upstream wetland. Within eastern coastal Georgian
      Bay there are 5451 distinct wetland units with an areal extent of 13753 ha, nearly 4 fold that of
      pre-existing inventories. The MCWI provides the most current and comprehensive inventory of
      coastal wetlands in eastern Georgian Bay and further validates the significance of this region as
      the coastal wetland hotspot of the Great Lakes. Keywords: Coastal wetlands, Inventory,
      Georgian Bay, Fish habitat, GIS.

      ROSWELL, C.R.1, HÖÖK, T.O.1, and POTHOVEN, S.A.2, 1715 West State St., West Lafayette,
      IN, 47907; 21431 Beach St., Muskegon, MI, 49441. Diet Selection and Growth of age-0
      yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in Saginaw Bay, Lake Huron.

              Yellow perch are important economically, recreationally, and ecologically in Saginaw
      Bay, Lake Huron. Monitoring in recent years has indicated that production of age-0 perch in
      Saginaw Bay increased after the collapse of the Lake Huron alewife population, which had
      potentially competed with or preyed upon larval yellow perch. However, despite this increased
      production of young yellow perch, age-0 perch are smaller, and recruitment to the adult
      population has not increased. To understand the influence of early life stages on recruitment, we
      sampled larval and juvenile yellow perch, zooplankton, and benthic invertebrates at up to 18 sites
      in Saginaw Bay on a weekly basis during April-October 2009. We tracked changes in size,
      condition, and diet composition over time. Perch hatched in late April and early May, and were
      large enough to be vulnerable to capture in bottom trawls by mid-July. Most larval yellow perch
      consumed primarily zooplankton, while juvenile perch consumed zooplankton and benthic
      invertebrates. High densities of yellow perch and other benthivorous fish may contribute to

May 17-21, 2010                                       227                                        Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      reduced growth during the juvenile stage. Keywords: Fish diets, Early-life, Yellow perch, Fish
      growth, Recruitment.

      ROUSSI, C.1, HART, B.1, WHITE, B.1, SHUCHMAN, R.1, and KERFOOT, C.2, 1Michigan
      Tech Research Institute, 3600 Green Ct., ste.100, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105; 2Michigan Tech
      University, 1400 Townsend, Houghton, MI, 49931. A Ship-based Distributed Sensor
      Network for Lake Superior Water Quality Measurements.

              The study of Lake Superior water quality would benefit from frequent, long-term, and
      accurate, measurements. These requirements can be difficult or expensive to satisfy. The
      National Park Service operates, on a regular schedule, a ferry between Houghton, MI, and Isle
      Royale National Park. This vessel covers the same routes during the summer operating season,
      and is an ideal platform from which to make measurements. However, the measurement system
      was constrained in a number of ways: there must be no changes to the ship structure or systems,
      it must be automated, requiring no crew interactions, and the sensors must span several decks. A
      novel architecture was developed to meet these goals. A distributed array of sensors, including
      GPS location speed, direction, temperature, turbidity, chlorophyll, pH, conductivity, and a
      meteorological array, was deployed and tested. During the 110km passage, measurements were
      made every 30s (a maximum spacing of 210 m between measurements), and logged by a control
      computer. These data were displayed graphically to the passengers during the collection, and
      transmitted to MTRI for analysis via Internet when the ship docked in Houghton. Results (to be
      incorporated into the GLOS data management system) indicate accurate,timely,and economical
      measurements can be made from a ship-borne system. Keywords: Water quality, Lake Superior,
      Measuring instruments.

      ROWSELL, R.D. and DEPALMA, S.G.S., Environment Canada, WS&T, 867 Lakeshore Road,
      PO Box 5050, Burlington, ON, L7R 4A6. GUI Structured Quality Assurance of Shipboard
      Water Quality Measurements in Canadian Freshwaters.

              Environment Canada in Burlington, ON has collected water quality information in
      support of the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement (GLWQA) and other research for the last 3
      decades. Although strict calibration procedures are followed to ensure quality of the collected
      raw data, a formal method must be implemented as a systematic approach for identifying and
      flagging anomalies in the dataset. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed in
      Matlab® that will enable users with a solid understanding of water quality in freshwater
      environments to assess shipboard data from water quality profilers prior to archiving for further
      analyses. This quality assurance (QA) method incorporates automated checks and manual visual
      inspection of the data by a qualified QA officer. Based on internal calculations and user
      assessment, QA flags are inputted into the data files, which indicate the quality of the data and
      note if any necessary changes were made. Systematic QA methodology of freshwater profiles
      will greatly enhance the quality and reliability of water quality information collected by
      Environment Canada. Furthermore, implementation in GUI format will facilitate the timely
      correction of minor data errors in preparation of further scientific analyses.
      Keywords: Graphical user interface, Great Lakes basin, Quality Assurance, Water quality.

May 17-21, 2010                                     228                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      PADDOCK, R.W.4, and GREEN, R.5, 1Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab, 4840 South
      State Rd, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108, US; 2Office of Geological Survey, 2100 West M32, Gaylord,
      MI, 49735, US; 3GVSU Annis Water Resources Institute, 740 West Shoreline Dr, Muskegon,
      MI, 49441, US; 4UWM Great Lakes WATER Institute, 600 East Greenfield Ave, Milwaukee,
      WI, 53204, US; 5Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary, 500 West Fletcher St., Alpena, MI,
      49707, US. Exploration of Submerged Karst Systems in Lake Huron.

              In the northern Great Lakes region, limestone karst features such as caves and sinkholes
      were formed as sediments, deposited some 400 million ybp during the Devonian era,
      experienced erosion. Submerged karst features were discovered in northern Lake Huron at
      depths of 92 meters and greater during a 2001 sidescan sonar survey expedition conducted by the
      Thunder Bay National Marine Sanctuary (TBNMS). Additional karst features near shore have
      been known for some time but have received little scientific exploration. Initial explorations
      undertaken in September, 2003 used a CTD system and an acoustic tracking system integrated
      with an open frame remotely operated vehicle (ROV) to provide high-resolution depth,
      temperature and conductivity maps. Studies during the 2005-2009 sampling seasons used aerial
      photography, ship-deployed CTD profiling of the water column, physico-chemical mapping,
      time series measurements, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) surveys, diver observations and
      bathymetric mapping to obtain a better understanding of sinkhole features and to observe
      physical interactions of the systems‘ groundwater with Lake Huron. Findings to date have led to
      a better understanding of distinct sub-ecosystems created by high conductivity ground water of
      relatively constant temperature influencing sinkhole benthic regions. Keywords: Lake Huron,
      Groundwater, Geochemistry, Karst, Ecosystems.

        LimnoTech, Ann Arbor, MI, 48108; 2Cooperative Institute for Limnology and Ecosystem
      Research, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI; 3School of Natural Resources and
      Environment, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109; 4NOAA Great Lakes
      Environmental Research Laboratory, Ann Arbor, MI, 48105. 3-Dimensional Water Quality
      Models for Assessing Hypoxia in Lake Erie.

              Hypoxia (dissolved oxygen < 2mg∙L-1) in the central basin of Lake Erie has reemerged
      as a potential hazard to ecosystem health, despite reductions in nutrient loading required by the
      Clean Water Act, the Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, and other policy changes. A suite
      of ecosystem models were developed to investigate the role of transport and nutrient loading to
      the system. The 3-dimensional model domain allows for the investigation of the near shore
      dynamics and the implications for hypoxia. The first model employs a simplified lower food web
      that focuses on the phytoplankton growth and decay processes and nutrient uptake. A framework
      will then be presented for adding more complex lower food web dynamics, including dreissenids
      and benthic algae to highlight their importance in nutrient cycling in the near shore areas.
      Keywords: Mathematical models, Lake Erie, Oxygen.

May 17-21, 2010                                     229                                       Toronto, Ontario
53rd Annual Conference on Great Lakes Research

      P.K.2, and GHARABAGHI, B.1, 1School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON,
      N1G2W1, Canada; 2Ontario Ministry of Environment, Toronto, ON, Canada. Mapping
      Baseflow Dominated and Rapid Runoff Response Dominated Watersheds in Southern

              Information regarding the dominant form of streamflow response from a watershed, i.e.
      slow response and baseflow dominant or rapid response and surface runoff dominant, is vital for
      effective and efficient management of water resources. Baseflow Indices (BFIs) were determined
      for 115 unregulated watersheds across southern Ontario using six available methods, and were