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					2   The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT

                                                                                                         Foreword                                                                               7

                                                                                                         Towards Unity and United Action                                                        8

                                                                                                         Summary oF the ProceedIngS                                                            14

                                                                                                         oPenIng Statement
                                                                                                         Dr Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, Minister of Foreign Affairs, South Africa                  34

                                                                                                         Statement by
                                                                                                         Mr. K.D. Knight, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade, Jamaica               40

                                   Report Commissioned by                                                Statement by
                               The Department of Foreign Affairs                                         Mr Patrick Mazimhaka, Deputy Chairperson, African Union                               42
                                    Tel: +27 12 351 1000
                                                                                                         oPenIng addreSS by
                       Pictures: Department of Foreign Affairs and GCIS                                  Mr P.J. Patterson, Prime Minister of Jamaica                                          45

Page 78: A child in traditional gear at a cultural event during the AU diaspora conference held in       Keynote addreSS by
                                           Senegal 2005.
                                                                                                         Dr Pallo Jordan, Minister of Arts and Culture, RSA                                    50
Inside front cover picture: A woman performing a dance at a cultural event during the AU diaspora
                                 conference held in Senegal 2005.                                        Keynote addreSS by
                                                                                                         Dr. The Honourable Ralph Gonsalves, Prime Minister of St Vincent and the Grenadines   61
                                      Report Prepared by
                               The Africa Institute of South Africa                                      conFerence Statement and Plan oF actIon                                               70

                          PO Box 630, Arcadia, Pretoria, South Africa                                    cloSIng Statement by
                            Cnr Edmond St & Bailey Lane, Arcadia
                                    Tel: +27 12 304-9700                                                 Dr Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, Minister of Foreign Affairs, RSA                           76
                                   Fax: + 27 12 323-8153

                                                          the South african, african union and carib-                   and to initiate dialogue on common challenges; strengthen
                                                          bean diaspora conference was held in Kingston,                partnerships and co-operation between the peoples of the
                                                          Jamaica from 16 – 18 March 2005. The theme of                 two regions; establish mechanisms for building stronger po-
                                                          the Conference was “Towards Unity and United                  litical and economic relations between Africa and the Carib-
                                                          Action by Africans and the African Diaspora in the            bean; identify new opportunities for future collaboration that
                                                          Caribbean for a Better World: The Case of South               can be of mutual benefit in political, economic, social and
                                                          Africa”. Over 250 delegates from Africa and the Af-           cultural spheres; develop a common agenda for confronting
                                                          rican Diaspora in the Caribbean participated in the           common problems between Africa and the Caribbean and to
                                                          Conference. The participants included Ministers               support the implementation of AU decisions on the African
                                                          and Parliamentarians, Diplomats, Business Peo-                Diaspora.
                                                          ple, Academics, Civil Society, Non-Governmental
                                                          Organisations, the Media, Cultural Organisations,             the Programme of action adopted by the Conference will
                                                          Rastafari and the Youth.                                      undoubtedly enhance the quest for Afro-Caribbean Diaspora
                                                                                                                        Solidarity and promote linkages between the two regions.
                                                          the conference, which formed part of South
                                                          africa’s 10 years of democracy celebrations,                  It is important that both the african union and carI-
                                                          was the result of the initiative of the Government            com should continue to develop collaboration and concrete
                                                          of South Africa to acknowledge the contribution of            mechanisms for the institutionalisation of relations between
                                                          the African Diaspora in the Caribbean in the anti-            the two Bodies.
                                                          Apartheid struggle. The Conference, which was
                                                          co-hosted by South Africa, the African Union (AU)             I believe the conference contributed to reinforcing the
                                                          and the Government of Jamaica, contributed to the             reconciliation of hope and the spirit of renaissance between
                                                          efforts of the AU to reach out to the Diaspora.               the people of the Caribbean and their brothers and sisters
                                                                                                                        on the African continent. This will, undoubtedly, lead to a
                                                          the objectives of the conference were to: re-                 political reaffirmation by the two regions of the intellectual
                                                          affirm the historical and cultural bonds between              contribution we can make together, underlined by the poten-
                                                          Africa and the African Diaspora in the Caribbean;             tial capacity of the skills banks we have brought about in our
                                                          create linkages between Africa and the Diaspora               individual countries since independence.

Minister of Foreign Affairs, Dr Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma.

                                                                                                         The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT       7
                        Towards Unity and United Action of Africans and the
                        African Diaspora in the Caribbean for a Better World:
                        The Case of South Africa

    the celebrations to commemorate                                                        South Africa’s celebrations took
    South africa’s 10th anniversary of the                                                 place in the context of a 21st cen-
    defeat of apartheid, and the establishment                                             tury that is underpinned by Af-
    of true democracy and social justice for its                                           rican development imperatives.
    citizens, have continued unabatedly since                                              In a speech at the University of
    1994. The victory over apartheid was pri-                                              the West Indies in June 2003, Mr
    marily defined by the outcome of the strug-          “...the African                   Thabo Mbeki, President of South
    gle of those who were oppressed. At the                                                Africa, made the following obser-
    same time, however, the contribution of the          intelligentsia united             vations:
    global anti-apartheid movement was also
    of great significance in this regard.                in the search for                 Over the past few years, we have
                                                                                           made bold to speak about an Af-
    In remembrance of this decade-long feat,             ways and means by                 rican Renaissance. We have also
    the Government of South Africa planned a                                               spoken of the need for us as Afri-
    series of activities in various parts of the         which to confront                 cans to ensure that the 21st cen-
    world, with a view to thanking those who                                               tury becomes an African century.
    supported the anti-apartheid struggle and            this problem.”                    In reality, I stand here today to talk
    to engage them on the challenges of the                                                about what we might do together
    post-apartheid transition to democratic rule.                                          to accomplish these goals, under-
    These celebrations were organised under                                                standing that when we speak of an
    the theme “A People United for a Better                                                African Renaissance, we speak of
    South Africa and a Better World”.                                                      a rebirth that must encompass all
                                                                                           Africans, both in Africa and the Af-
    One such activity was a conference involv-                                             rican Diaspora.                                            Delegates at the South African-African Union-Caribbian Diaspora Conference.
    ing the African continent and its Diaspora,
    which was duly held in the Caribbean between 16 and 18                 The recent formation of the African Union and the
    March 2005, under the theme: “Towards Unity and United                 formulation, adoption and implementation of the          Mbeki added that in response to this encumbrance,                 Diaspora Conference, therefore, was also a
    Action of Africans and the African Diaspora in the Caribbean           New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)         “...the African intelligentsia united in the search for           contribution to the efforts by the African Un-
    for a Better World: The Case of South Africa”. This publica-           agenda attest to the realisation of this quest for a     ways and means by which to confront this prob-                    ion to reach out to the African Diaspora.
    tion is the Report of the latter Conference – the initiative of        rebirth of the African continent and its peoples.        lem.”
    the Government of South Africa –jointly organised with the             Within this 21st century, deemed the ‘African cen-                                                                         hIStorIcal JuStIFIcatIon
    Government of Jamaica and the Commission of the African                tury’, NEPAD has, amongst other developments,            President Mbeki then made his own clarion call:                   Africa’s quest for unity and social and eco-
    Union (AU).                                                            committed itself to “determine what is wrong in our      “Perhaps the time has come for the African intel-                 nomic recovery is a centuries-old endeavour.
                                                                           societies and what we want done to correct these         ligentsia in the Americas, the Caribbean, Europe                  The common historical experience of, first
    The contribution of the Caribbean region to the struggle               wrongs and design any programme of action aris-          and Africa to come together again, this time to                   slavery, and later colonialism, ensured that
    against apartheid in particular, and colonialism in general,           ing out of this determination...”.                       make the statement – the problem of the Africans                  Africans developed a commonly shared con-
    has for decades been an inspiration to the masses on the                                                                        in the 21st century is the problem of poverty, un-                sciousness as one people with a common
    African continent. It is for this reason that South Africa’s Ten-      In his address at the University of the West Indies,     derdevelopment and marginalisation – and togeth-                  destiny. This consciousness converged into
    Year Anniversary celebrations would have been incomplete               President Mbeki told participants that the aim of        er search for ways and means by which to confront                 a Pan-African Movement that developed in-
    without touching base on the Caribbean islands. The com-               the envisaged reforms was to change the condi-           this problem.”                                                    stitutionally from the turn of the 19th century
    memoration of the ten-year anniversary, with the realisation           tions that have, for many years, imposed the “sta-                                                                         under the leadership of the Diaspora. Pan-Af-
    of a Diaspora Conference, not only provided a platform for             tus of underlings” on Africans everywhere. He then       The African Union, since its inception and espe-                  ricanism rests on four fundamental pillars:
    reflection on the historic solidarity between the peoples of           reminded them of the first Pan-African Congress in       cially in the aftermath of the Maputo Summit of July              1. A sense of common historical
    Africa and the Caribbean, but also strengthened the resolve            London, where W.E.B. Du Bois made the prophet-           2003, has taken a number of decisions and meas-                       experience;
    and determination of all those of African descent to confront          ic statement that the problem of the 20th century        ures aimed at strengthening links between the                     2. A sense of common descent, identity
    the plight and predicament of the African continent.                   would be the problem of the colour line. President       African continent and its Diaspora. The Jamaica                       and destiny;

8     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                        The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   9
     3. Opposition to racial discrimination and colonialism; as                                                                                                                                    Clearly, the Pan-Africanism of the 19th and
         well as                                                                                                                                                                                   early 20th century was not confined to pam-
     4. A determination to create a ‘new’ Africa.                                                                                                                                                  phlets, meetings, conferences, congresses,
     Pan-Africanism, a product of the negative encounter be-                                                                                                                                       conventions and schemes for the return to
     tween African people and European imperialism, is principal-                                                                                                                                  mother Africa. The role and contribution of
     ly manifested in the record of the struggle of Africans against                                                                                                                               ordinary masses of Africans, in their daily
     these foreign forces. Such struggles have taken place on the                                                                                                                                  struggles against chattel slavery and coloni-
     levels of overt, armed and covert resistance to enslavement                                                                                                                                   alism, was equally critical.
     and imperialism.
                                                                                                                                                                                                   The vital factor in the post-World War II
                                                                                                                                                             Minister of Foreign
     The relationship between Africa and the African Diaspora                                                                                                Affairs, Dr Nkosazana
                                                                                                                                                                                                   phase of the Pan-African movement, with
     bears its roots in the slave trade of the 1500s through to the                                                                                          Dlamini Zuma Addressing               its primary focus on colonialism, was the
     1800s, which shipped millions of Africans across the Atlan-                                                                                             delegates at the South                bringing together of the ongoing and distinct
     tic to the New World of Europe and the Americas. The so-                                                                                                African-African Union-                struggles of the African masses, from peas-
     called slaves struggled for survival and freedom to preserve                                                                                            Caribbian Diaspora                    ants, workers, and the unemployed, to the
     their dignity and to assert their worth as human beings. They                                                                                           Conference.                           lumpen elements and the intelligentsia.
     succeeded in adapting themselves to their new environment
     but were never completely assimilated because they also                                                                                                                                       the contrIbutIon oF the
     retained various facets of their intrinsic African cultures. This                                                                                                                             carIbbean PeoPle
     bond of spiritual kinship that connected them to the mother                                                                                                                                   In this phase of the movement, the contribu-
     continent was reflected in the lyrics and cultural resonance                                                                                                                                  tion of the Caribbean people to Pan-African-
     that permeated the plantations and households in which                 the first Pan-African Conference in 1900); Marcus      the Diaspora and the Independence Movement in                   ism was considerable and took many forms.
     they lived and worked amidst suffering, humiliation and dep-           Garvey (Jamaica); George Padmore (Trinidad);           Africa coincided with each other and became mutu-               Frantz Fanon – from the French Caribbean
     ravation.                                                              Norman Cameron (British Guiana); and C.L.R.            ally reinforcing. Continental Africans supported the            – is one such example of direct Caribbean
                                                                            James (Trinidad). The fight against white suprem-      African Diaspora quest for equality and civil rights,           militant engagement in the African anti-co-
     The Caribbean region has made a crucial contribution to the            acy and racism, the liberation of Africa from colo-    while the latter campaigned strenuously for African             lonial struggle. Fanon’s Black Skin, White
     ideal of Pan-Africanism at all levels. First, in the grand record      nialism, and the unification of Africans throughout    Independence. The Pan-Africanist philosophy of                  Mask and Walter Rodney’s How Europe Un-
     of anti-slavery struggles conducted on the plantations (slave          the globe, constituted the principal focus of their    the founders of the Organization of African Unity               derdeveloped Africa, remain the must-read
     conspiracies and revolts against enslavement, with the Great           actions.                                               (OAU) drew inspiration from their predecessors in               books for any person interested in the politi-
     Haitian Revolution of 1791-1804 being its highest achieve-                                                                    the Pan-Africanist Diaspora movement. The com-                  cal economy of the African predicament.
     ment) as well as resistance against the plantation establish-          Indeed, the activities and challenges of both con-     bined vision of continental Africans, on both sides
     ment (grand marronage and, later, in anti-slavery campaigns            tinental Africans, and Africans in the Diaspora,       of the Atlantic, created a vision for development               Rastafarianism, the Jamaican-originated
     in the metropoles). Olaudah Equiano, once enslaved in the              continued to impact upon each other, with history      and self-actualisation, which gave impetus to the               philosophy, was to have a pervasive influ-
     Caribbean, is one such pioneer, for his involvement in Brit-           as a common reference point. Those transported         struggle for independence in the 1960s and the                  ence at the more broadly cultural and psy-
     ish anti-slavery. Essentially, African Diasporan anti-slavery          across the Atlantic began as second-class citizens     formation of the OAU in 1963.                                   chological levels of support for the liberation
     efforts were frequently guided by African cultural, as well as         in their new abode, just as the establishment of the                                                                   of continental Africa, and the freeing of the
     military practices, and by a deeper and abiding commitment             colonial order on the African continent relegated      a new breed oF aFrIcan leaderS                                  consciousness of Africans more generally.
     of a return to the African continent.                                  their brothers and sisters to the same status on the   During the period towards decolonisation in Africa,             The names Bob Marley, Mutabaruka (for-
                                                                            continent. Hence, the quest for freedom and social     there emerged a new breed of African leaders in                 merly Allan Hope), Tappa Zukie, Peter Tosh,
     the FIrSt Pan-aFrIcan conFerence                                       emancipation became a shared concern. Africans         the form of, notably, Kwame Nkrumah, Julius Ny-                 and Tony Rebel represent a small element
     Numerous 19th and early 20th century Caribbean person-                 on both sides of the Atlantic divide felt the impact   erere, Sékou Touré, Kenneth Kaunda, Aimé Cé-                    of a lengthy list of popular artists (griots) in
     alities contributed decisively to the development of the Pan-          of vestigial discrimination in the aftermath of the    saire, and Léopold Sédar Senghor. These promi-                  the reggae music genre, who amplified the
     African movement and its ideas. These personalities include            abolition of the slave trade and the onset of the      nent figures not only led their respective countries            message of freedom for Africans in rhythm
     Edward Wilmot Blyden (Virgin Islands); T.E.S. Scholes (Ja-             20th century.                                          to independence, but also pioneered new ideas for               and song.
     maica); Henry Sylvester Williams (a Trinidadian who placed                                                                    African unity, which resulted in the establishment
     the word ‘Pan-African’ on the political map and organised              Thus, for example, the Civil Rights Movement in        of the OAU.                                                     Some Caribbean governments also became

10     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                    The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   11
                    The banner depicted in this photo pays tribute to the united front presented by the African Diaspora                                The distinguished guest speakers and invited parties gather for a group photo
                                                during the apartheid regime in South Africa.                                                                          during a recess period at the Jamaica Conference.

                                                                                 It is against this background that the historic Di-                                                                    This Tenth Anniversary celebration confer-
     directly involved in the African anti-colonial struggles. The                                                                     •   Strengthen partnerships and co-operation
                                                                                 aspora Conference was organised in March of                                                                            ence is an historic and critical project. It
     best example is that of Cuba: this country’s role was not                                                                             between the peoples of the two regions;
                                                                                 2005. The main objective of the Conference was to                                                                      has successfully elevated the debates and
     limited to providing educational and health training, and
                                                                                 provide an opportunity for, and initiate a dialogue                                                                    projects of both South Africa and the African
     other civil support to African liberation movements, but also                                                                     •   Establish mechanisms for building stronger
                                                                                 process, to pursue unity among Africans in Africa,                                                                     Union to higher levels. It is important that
     included direct military engagement in Angola against the                                                                             political and economic relations between Africa
                                                                                 with those in the Diaspora, and to search for solu-                                                                    this memorable occasion be understood as
     apartheid army. This latter role contributed directly to the ul-                                                                      and the Caribbean;
                                                                                 tions to the problems that confront its people.                                                                        a preliminary investigation, whose outcomes
     timate victory of the liberation movement in Namibia.
                                                                                                                                                                                                        should lead to, and/or connect with other
                                                                                                                                       •   Identify new opportunities for future
                                                                                 The key objectives of the Conference were to:                                                                          long-term projects on the Diaspora. Its suc-
     At the start of the 21st century, Pan-Africanism retained its                                                                         collaboration that can be of mutual benefit in the
                                                                                                                                                                                                        cess is thus critical, not only for South Africa,
     relevance, because the historical dynamics, which produced                  •   Reaffirm the historical and cultural bonds            political, economic and socio-cultural spheres;
                                                                                                                                                                                                        but also for the agenda of Pan-Africanism.
     it, remain a factor to this day. The conditions of poverty, un-                 between Africa and the African Diaspora in the
     derdevelopment and marginalisation of Africans are but one                      Caribbean;                                        •   Develop a common agenda for confronting
     example of this legacy. The challenges facing Pan-African-                                                                            common problems between Africa and the
     ism today include generating an understanding of the politi-                •   Create linkages between Africa and the                Caribbean; and
     cal economy of the African predicament, and uniting Africans                    Diaspora and initiate dialogue on common
     on the continent and in the Diaspora.                                           challenges;                                       •   Support the implementation of the African Union
                                                                                                                                           decisions on the African Diaspora.

12     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                         The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   13
     Summar y of the proceedings
                                                                                                                                                   Opening Statements and Keynote Addresses

     the South africa-african union-caribbean diaspora                      tiative of the Government of South Africa, to ac-
     conference was held in Kingston, Jamaica from 16 to 18                 knowledge the contribution of the African Diaspo-
     March 2005. The theme of the Conference evoked a sense                 ra in the Caribbean throughout the anti-apartheid
     of unity and united action amongst Africans on the continent,          struggle. The Conference, which was co-hosted
     and in the Caribbean Diaspora, as witnessed in the united              by South Africa, the African Union (AU) and the
     front, which led to the victory over apartheid in South Africa.        Government of Jamaica, contributed to the efforts
     Over 250 delegates from Africa and the African Diaspora in             of the AU to reach out to the Diaspora. The theme
     the Caribbean participated in the event. Among the partici-            of this prestigious event was summarised thus:
     pants were Ministers and Parliamentarians, diplomats, the              “Towards Unity and United Action by Africans and
     business community, academics, civil society, non-govern-              the African Diaspora in the Caribbean for a Better
     mental organisations, the media, cultural organisations,               World: The Case of South Africa”.
     members of the Rastafari religion, and the youth.                      The Conference was structured into a number of
                                                                            opening statements, two keynote addresses, eight
     The Conference, which formed part of South Africa’s Ten                working groups, a conference statement and plan
     Years of Democracy celebrations, was the result of the ini-            of action, as well as closing statements.

           The working groups focused on the following sub-themes of the Conference:

          1.       International affairs, peace and security;
                                                                                                                                                 Music is one of the many unifying aspects of African people, on the continent
                                                                                                                                                                             and in the Diaspora
          2.       the report of the un high-level Panel on threats, challenges & change;

          3.       democracy and good governance;                                                                                the conference was introduced with three open-                  wards an African Century: Closer collabora-
                                                                                                                                 ing statements by the Honourable Dr Nkosazana                   tion between Africa and the Caribbean in the
          4.       regional development and integration;                                                                         Dlamini Zuma, Minister of Foreign Affairs of South              conduct of international relations”.
                                                                                                                                 Africa; the Honourable Mr K.D. Knight, Minister of              The opening statements and keynote ad-
                                                                                                                                 Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade of Jamaica; and               dresses shared a number of common
          5.       economic co-operation and trade links;                                                                                                                                        themes and focus areas. They constitute a
                                                                                                                                 the Deputy Chairperson of the African Union Com-
                                                                                                                                 mission, His Excellency Patrick Mazimhaka. The                  common framework and the foundation for a
          6.       historical, socio-cultural and religious commonalities;                                                       Prime Minister of Jamaica, the Most Honourable                  vision, which can be summarised in the fol-
                                                                                                                                 P.J. Patterson, then opened the Conference. Two                 lowing ideas:
          7.       South-South co-operation and solidarity; and                                                                  keynote addresses were subsequently delivered.
                                                                                                                                 The Honourable Dr Pallo Jordan, the South African
          8.       Knowledge sharing.                                                                                            Minister of Arts and Culture addressed the topic:               •	 Common	Origin	and	Heritage	
                                                                                                                                 “Pan-Africanism in the 21st century: Its relevance
                                                                                                                                 and responses to globalisation”. The Prime Minis-               The Conference was a demonstration of
                                                                                                                                 ter of St. Vincent and Grenadines, the Honourable               the common origins and common heritage
                                                                                                                                 Dr Ralph Gonsalves delivered his address on: “To-               of the mother continent and its Diaspora. It

14     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                 The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   15
     was also a moment to affirm all the participants’ identity as           Pan-Africanism was characterised by internal ten-       Since the independence of Ghana, Pan-African                    summarised in the following questions:
     one people with these common origins. Dr Pallo Jordan cap-              sion between two schools of thought: on the one         conferences were regularly held on the African
     tured the spirit of this point in his keynote address by stating        hand, those who wished to return from the New           continent. In 1963, the OAU articulated in the most             1. What is the current condition of the
     that the thrust of his paper was “a shared history over the             World to Africa, and on the other hand, those who       concrete form, the ideals of Pan-Africanism. At the                political economy and society of Africa
     past five hundred years dictated that the fates of the African          sought to recast relations between Whites and Af-       same time, the unfolding independence of African                   and its Diaspora, which prompts the
     peoples who today live on either side of the Atlantic would             ricans in the New World, win equality for Africans,     states coincided with and also helped to stimulate                 necessity and desirability of an African
     be interwoven”.                                                         and gain independence in the territories where          the struggle for human (or civil) rights in North                  rebirth?
                                                                             they constituted a majority. With the independence      America. Since the late 1960s, the emphasis in Af-
     •	 Shared	Struggle	Against	Slavery,	                                    of African states in the second half of the 20th cen-   rica changed to that of the liberation of the south-            2. What, essentially, does an African
                                                                             tury, it rendered the one less relevant than before.    ern African region.                                                renaissance mean or entail?
        colonialism and apartheid
                                                                         Garveyism received special attention in the dis-            •	 Purpose	of	the	Conference                                    3. What role, if any, is there for
     A common thread in all the contributions                                             cussions of the Pan-African                                                                                   collaborative efforts between Africa
     was the experience of slavery. The slave                                             movement. According to Dr                  The Conference recalled a decision of the first                    and its Diaspora, especially in the
     revolts, and in particular, the movement         “... and the triangular trade Jordan, it was probably the first                Extra-Ordinary Session of the Assembly of Heads                    Caribbean, in the rebirth of Africa and
     in Haiti led by Toussaint L’Ouverture, has                                           trans-Atlantic mass movement               of States and Government of the African Union in                   the fashioning of an ‘African century’?
     been devotedly celebrated. The impact of         cycle of which it was an            among Africans in the Anglo-               March 2003, which decided to integrate the Di-
     the Atlantic slave trade on the populations                                          phone world. It served as a                aspora into the policy framework of the AU. This                4. What are the forms and content of such
     of African states, the damage it caused          indispensable link, were            complement for similar move-               was done by amending the Constitutive Act, to                      collaborative efforts in the conduct of
     African states on the Atlantic Ocean, the                                            ments like the Négritude, Afro-            provide a new Article that invites and provides full               international relations, in the interest of
     stifling of creativity and production on the     the material undergird              Cubanismo, Modernismo Afro-                participation of the African Diaspora as an impor-                 Africans’ humanisation?
     continent, and the resulting negative per-                                           Brasileiro and the New African             tant part of the African continent. The decisions
     ception of persons of African ancestry,          of the White racism that            Movement. Jamaica’s Prime                  of the Executive Council in Sun City in 2003, and               Speakers emphasised the fact that this Con-
     were highlighted in the presentations. The                                           Minister, Mr P.J. Patterson, re-           the decisions of the AU’s First Conference of Intel-            ference was required to reap tangible re-
     significance of the slave trade, according       legitimised and sustained           ferred to the contribution made            lectuals from Africa in Dakar, Senegal, in October              sults, and therefore argued for a Programme
     to Dr Jordan, “and the triangular trade cy-                                          by Marcus Garvey, including                2004, were noted. (Some of the AU’s efforts to                  of Action, giving prominence to the forma-
     cle of which it was an indispensable link,       it. The colonial conquest           the promotion of the spirit of ra-         reach out to, and expand/deepen contacts with the               tion of a partnership, or a more structured
     were the material undergird of the White                                             cial pride, fostering worldwide            African Diaspora, in various regions of the world,              approach to mutual interaction between the
     racism that legitimised and sustained it.        of Africa during the latter         unity among people of African              involve encouraging and supporting the creation                 two regions, and addressing the most press-
     The colonial conquest of Africa during the                                           descent, and establishing the              of AU Diaspora Chapters; including the Diaspora                 ing socio-economic matters, by increased
     latter part of the 19th century cemented         part of the 19th century            greatness of African heritage.             in the policy organs of the AU; making the African              opportunities for socio-economic progress
     this relationship while widening the circle                                                                                     Diaspora the sixth region of the Continent). This               in this regard.
     of stakeholders in racism and exponen-           cemented this relationship       A beacon in the history of the                Conference was conceived within the context of
     tially increasing its victims.”                                                   Pan-African movement was                      the AU decisions.                                               Minister Dlamini Zuma highlighted the fact
                                                  while widening the                   the Atlantic Charter and the re-                                                                              that the “skewed accumulation of wealth,
     The shared struggle against colonial-                                             sponse it solicited in the Carib-             The Diaspora Conference has been perceived as                   power, resources, and the unequal distri-
     ism and apartheid found its focus in the     circle of stakeholders in            bean, Africa and Asia. In 1943,               part of the continuous dialogue between the Carib-              bution of the benefits of globalisation have
     Pan-African movement. The consensus                                               the ANC drafted the Africans’                 bean and Africa. The wish has been expressed that               entrenched gross inequalities”. For Minis-
     amongst the presenters was that this         racism and exponentially             Claims. Two years later, the 5th              it be extended to the rest of the African Diaspora in           ter Knight (Minister of Foreign Affairs and
     movement sought to unite African com-                                             Pan-African Conference met                    other parts of the world, and that it also becomes              Foreign Trade of Jamaica), the Conference
     munities on both sides of the Atlantic       increasing its victims.”             in Manchester, Britain. This                  integrated in the broader South-South dialogue. In              was aimed at debating means of escaping
     Ocean. Primarily, its aim was to restore                                          Conference linked the struggle                this context, the Conference was seen as providing              the paradigm of dependence. Prime Minister
     the human rights of peoples of Africa                                             for African independence and                  a framework in which ideas could be transformed                 Gonsalves (St Vincent and the Grenadines)
     and those of African descent throughout                                           freedom to that of other colo-                into tangible outcomes. It is also an opportunity for           called for an alternative political economy for
     the world. The Caribbean is well represented in this move-     nised peoples, which later laid the foundation for               the creation of new areas for partnership and co-               Africa “which releases the people’s creative
     ment, in particular Marcus Garvey, George Padmore, C.L.R.      the Afro-Asian Solidarity Movement and the Non-                  operation. Prime Minister Gonsalves condensed                   enterprise and spirit, which utilises Africa’s
     James, Aimé Césaire, Franz Fanon and Walter Rodney.            Aligned Movement (NAM).                                          these points in his keynote address, which can be               abundant natural resources for the African

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                                                                                                                                                        Working Group Deliberations

     people themselves, which promotes an integrative economic              by amending its Constitutive Act. The amendment
     framework regionally and continent-wide, and which evolved             invites and encourages the full participation of the
     an appropriately-designed popular, participatory democratic            African Diaspora as an important part of the conti-
     form of governance, indeed, the New Partnership for Africa’s           nent. The reason for the mobilisation of the Diaspo-
     Development (NEPAD)”.                                                  ra is foremost historical, and in particular motivated
                                                                            by the Pan-African movement. This movement not
     Issues of particular concern were the fact that Africa has             only sought human rights and independence, but
     grown poorer in the last 25 years, persistence of the colonial         also a world in which Africans would be in control
     patterns of trade, poor and expensive transport across the             of their own destiny, and would become significant
     continent, HIV/AIDS, and the uneven and skewed distribution            actors in the global family.
     of economic income and growth across Africa. Prime Minister
     Gonsalves ascribed this characterisation to the nature and             Incorporation of the Diaspora in the AU has socio-
     character of Africa’s political economy, the international eco-        logical, political and economic implications. From a
     nomic system and its unfair trading regime, and the inefficacy         socio-economic point of view, the AU encourages
     of African states’ political apparatuses. “It is surely generally      Africans all over the world to work together and
     accepted that the failure in Africa to establish effective, demo-      improve their common prospects through bilateral
     cratic nation-states has been not only a political question, but       and multilateral trade. Africans should also unite
     also an economic one of the first order”. Concrete proposals           and develop common, mutually reinforcing posi-
     raised in this respect were a permanent, inter-governmental            tions in multilateral trade negotiations.
     African-Brazilian-Caribbean Commission to spearhead the
     collaborative efforts; to build close links with the emerging          The AU Commission is actively engaged in integrat-
     economic power-houses (Brazil, Russia, India and China);               ing the Diaspora into the continental activities. It
     and to strengthen relations with the USA, Canada, Europe,              has implemented an outreach programme of AU Di-
     Latin America and the Middle East.                                     aspora fora and regional chapters on a global scale.
                                                                            Its main purpose is to sensitise and enlist the sup-                           The Jamaican delegation represented the host country in full force.
     Socio-economic matters are directly affected by climate                port of the African Diaspora. The first AU Diaspora
     change and natural disasters. In 2004, the Caribbean was               Forum was held in Washington, D.C. in December
     struck by a devastating hurricane. The recent tsunamis have            2002. The regional chapters are intended to pro-         •	 Working	Group	1:	International                                common values in the international domain.
     also taken their toll on the region. Minister Dlamini Zuma             mote co-operation with the AU. They are also de-                                                                          The rule of law in the international context
     was of the view that the ability of people to recover from such        signed to further encourage consolidation with civil        Affairs, Peace and Security                                   is therefore emphasised. The Cuban per-
     disasters, was determined by their socio-economic strength.            society groups, governments and regional organi-                                                                          spective was that instead of a peaceful and
     “At a time when the harmony between us and nature is criti-            sations. The first regional chapter is the Caribbean     PreSenterS:                                                      prosperous world after the Cold War, it has
     cal, we need to look at those who are most vulnerable and              Diaspora chapter, established in September 2004.         1. The Honourable Fred Mitchell (Minister of                     become characterised by unilateralism, in-
     discuss what can be done”.                                                                                                         Foreign Affairs and Public Service, Bahamas)                  creasing globalisation and dismantling of the
                                                                            The AU has been associated with the Pan-Afri-                                                                             international legal order as it emerged after
     A Programme of Action also needs to look at the question               can Commission and numerous consultations with           2. The Honourable Emilio Caballo Rodriguez                       World War II.
     of women’s empowerment and their relation to social, eco-              CARICOM, to strengthen and consolidate relations.           (Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, Cuba)
     nomic and cultural development. Both regions should en-                The AU Commission’s Strategic Plan for 2003 to                                                                            A recurrent subject, during the presentations,
     sure that women are represented in government, academia,               2007 is designed to strengthen these ties, particu-      3. Prof. Borg (Director of the Bureau of the                     was the desire for the international com-
     the judiciary and the mainstream economy.                              larly through its Bridge Atlantic Initiative. The Com-      Chairperson of African Union Commission)                      munity to conform to a system of rules and
                                                                            mission also promotes a policy for the inclusion of                                                                       practices agreed upon by all. Those should
                                                                            the Diaspora in AU policy organs, such as the Eco-       a common theme in the discussions was the                        include peace and security for the state, and
     •	 The	AU	and	the	Diaspora	                                            nomic, Social and Cultural Council (ECOSOCC).            prevalence of unilateralism in international rela-               respect for its sovereignty and territoriality.
                                                                                                                                     tions and its justification for pre-emptive actions.             Each nation should have the right to exist,
     In March 2003, the first Extraordinary Session of the Assem-           In the remaining part of this résumé, the delibera-      Most of the speakers articulated a commitment                    to live their way of life and be treated with
     bly of Heads of State and Government decided to formally               tions of the eight Working Groups are summarised.        towards multilateralism in the Caribbean region.                 human dignity. At present the international
     integrate the Diaspora into the policy framework of the AU                                                                      They also expressed a search for consensus on                    community is too asymmetrical, and there-

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     fore the powerful and weak states should together work for             Peace and Security Council, the Pan-African Parlia-        weapons of mass destruction, while for the South,                 the protection of vulnerable peoples. At the
     the security of the world. It raises the question: when can            ment and ECOSOCC.                                          the main priorities are threats of poverty and dis-               same time, it would also enhance South-
     the international community intervene in a sovereign state                                                                        ease. The challenge for the panel was to strike a                 South co-operation.
     to correct its moral or legal order? Legitimate examples of            •	 Working	Group	2:	The Report of the                      balance between the two concerns. Moreover, the
     intervention were apartheid South Africa or during the geno-                                                                      speakers acknowledged the pivotal role of the Se-                 The main question for Ambassador Kumalo
     cide and official murders in Kosovo, Bosnia and Rwanda.                       UN High-Level Panel on Threats,                     curity Council in all multilateral, global affairs, and           was how the Panel Report could be imple-
     Intervention should, however, not be in the form of pre-emp-                                                                      therefore the question was how this Council should                mented from an African and Caribbean per-
     tive strikes, but only in response to actual threats. The Cu-                 Challenges and Change                               be reconfigured to suit both concerns. For the de-                spective. His response was that in addition
     ban view was that 11 September justified a new approach                                                                           veloping world, the Security Council is considered                to the direct, tangible advantages of such an
     by the USA: an ambience of terror used as a justification for          PreSenterS:                                                to be of paramount importance, and therefore the                  approach, a joint African-Caribbean effort
     unilateral action (against Iraq and others) and for threaten-                                                                     intense debate about it.                                          in the UN on this matter would strengthen
     ing to use military force. In this regard, new concepts are            1. Ambassador Raymond Wolf (Secretary                                                                                        their diplomatic bargaining power. In support
     now used, namely pre-emptive war, humanitarian interven-                  Multilateral Affairs, Ministry of Foreign Affairs       The Jamaican assessment of the Panel Report is                    of South Africa’s strong advocacy of multi-
     tion and the responsibility to protect.                                   and Trade, Jamaica)                                     that it can be perceived as:                                      lateralism, his point of departure was that
                                                                                                                                                                                                         it would be very difficult to achieve a bet-
     Multilateralism is discussed mainly in the context of the UN           2. Ambassador Sibi Diyara (Ambassador to the                                                                                 ter world without the UN. At the same time,
     Security Council actions, and collective measures are tar-                UN, Somalia)                                            •   Laying the basis for effective meaningful                     the agendas of the North and the South are
     geted mainly at underdeveloped states. On the other hand,                                                                             reform of the UN;                                             substantially different in emphasis: the chal-
     the North is silent about human rights violations (like xen-           3. Ambassador D.S. Kumalo (Permanent                                                                                         lenge is therefore how to address security
     ophobia and racial discrimination) in their own countries.                Representative to the UN, South Africa)                 •   Promoting the interests and concerns of                       and development issues simultaneously in
     Hence it is necessary to change the correlation of forces                                                                             smaller and vulnerable states in the context of               a balanced manner. Given the mandatory
     in the Security Council and address its lack of democratic             The panel that introduced this theme, comprised                global economies and global security; and                     powers of the Security Council, security is-
     transparency.                                                          three ambassadors, with an intimate knowledge of                                                                             sues enjoy an advantage, because they are
                                                                            the UN Report. They discussed the Report of the            •   Providing concrete support for improvement in                 almost always treated as mandatory mat-
     The Cuban presentation also emphasised the unsustainable               High-Level Panel appointed by the UN Secretary-                the efficiency of the UN on the basis of equity,              ters. Therefore, the Security Council agenda
     character of the prevailing economic order and the increase            General in 2003 with the task “to assess current               accountability, transparency and inclusiveness                has been mostly a security agenda, but this
     in the gap between the incomes of the richest and poorest              threats to international peace and security; to eval-          in decision-making.                                           Report has created the opportunity to also
     countries. The alternative is arguably the Bolivarian (Simón           uate how our existing policies and institutions have                                                                         introduce a development agenda. The Re-
     Bolivar) approach for the Americas, implemented by Ven-                done in addressing those threats; and to make              Most of the Report’s chapters, according to this as-              port, according to Ambassador Kumalo, cre-
     ezuelan President Hugo Chavez, which represents the aspi-              recommendations for strengthening the United Na-           sessment, are leaning towards the North’s security                ated an important linkage between security
     rations for a fraternal and united American continent based            tions so that it can provide collective security for all   agenda (terrorism, weapons of mass destruction,                   and development, but failed to address de-
     on social justice.                                                     in the twenty-first century” (United Nations General       internal and inter-state conflicts). This agenda’s                velopment in a comprehensive manner.
                                                                            Assembly, A/59/565, 2 December 2004). The Re-              importance is not denied, but the South’s concerns
     The AU perspective acknowledges serious stumbling blocks               port has been discussed at a UN Summit of Heads            must not be overlooked in addressing the security                 Both the Jamaican and South African per-
     that prevent democratisation and economic development but              of State and Government in September 2005. In              concerns. The observation was made that the Re-                   spectives introduced another element into
     at the same time is optimistic about a future for the continent        the meantime, the AU has already responded to              port neither recommends strengthening the Gen-                    this debate, namely that the Report should
     of self-assertion in the international community. Nevertheless,        the Report in the form of a position paper. Accord-        eral Assembly’s, nor ECOSOCC’s institutional ca-                  be linked to the Jeffrey Sachs Report on Glo-
     the continent continues to experience the highest number of            ing to Ambassador Kumalo, Africa is the only re-           pacity. It also does not address a suitable measure               bal Development Issues, which is directed at
     civil wars in the world. On the other hand, conflicts are com-         gion in the UN system, which took this approach of         to enhance international economic co-operation                    the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).
     ing to an end – notably in Angola, the Sudan, Somalia, Sierra          responding collectively to the Report.                     and global development.                                           In line with his point of departure, Ambassa-
     Leone, Burundi and already in apartheid South Africa. The              The speakers agreed that the difference between            The Somalian ambassador’s input concentrated                      dor Kumalo identified a number of common
     main crises are in respecting the rule of law and democracy,           1945 and 2005 is that in the past, the UN’s man-           on the need for Africa and the Caribbean region to                areas of possible co-operation that exist be-
     as well as the nett regression in the continent’s trade and eco-       date was interpreted mainly in the context of peace        conduct mutual consultations in order to highlight                tween Africa and the Caribbean, namely:
     nomic growth in the past 25 years, as well as pandemics and            and security, personified by the actions of the Se-        the relevance of ‘soft threats’ (poverty, disease
     infectious diseases. Since the late 1990s, leaders decided to          curity Council. In 2005, the other side of the coin        and deterioration of the environment) for the UN                  •   Environmental degradation, including
     define the future of Africa in the form of the AU, NEPAD, the          is that of the needs for development. Presently, the       agenda. Such co-operation is necessary for the                        national disasters such as the
                                                                            North is still mainly concerned with terrorism and         promotion of humanitarian issues and to ensure                        hurricanes in the Caribbean;

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                                                                              The presenter from Jamaica (Dr Sims) concentrat-                                                                          to the liberation movement. The 1980s were
     •   WTO trade negotiations;                                              ed on the relationship between gender, race and          •   Education to create awareness of this need;                  characterised by a notable withdrawal or lim-
                                                                              democracy in Africa. After identifying the achieve-                                                                       ited participation by women in formal politics
     •   Post-conflict reconstruction: what should be done when               ments made in respect of gender equity, she also         •   Capacity-building;                                           in Africa. The most likely explanation for this
         the peacekeepers have left and there are not sufficient              identified the systemic barriers for women of the                                                                         was the prevalence of patriarchic, military
         institutional and developmental resources to sustain the             Diaspora. The main barrier is the pressure exerted       •   Training; and                                                dominance of politics during this period,
         peace?;                                                              on them to be what they are not – to change their                                                                         which alienated women even more. With the
                                                                              figure or the colour of their skin – the symptom of      •   Promotion of entrepreneurship: economic                      democratisation wave in the 2000s, women’s
     •   Disarmament and non-proliferation of arms; and                       unacceptable social pressure. Instead, women                 initiatives by women can create jobs for                     participation in formal politics also increased.
                                                                              should ask themselves what they could extract                themselves and for other women; they can
     •   Terrorism.                                                           from their African roots and how they should reas-           alleviate women’s unemployment and poverty,                  Feminism, as a global movement and po-
                                                                              sert themselves in society. A few suggestions were           and can eliminate gender-determined values,                  litical idea, and its relationship with democ-
                                                                              raised in this respect, such as: the educational             which limit women’s capacity to conduct                      racy, is a complex phenomenon. Western
     •	 Working	Group	3:	Democracy and Good                                   system should be changed to promote a sense of               successful business.                                         feminists focus mainly on their personal bat-
                                                                              pride for those in the Diaspora about their African                                                                       tles, especially equality with men. Feminists
         Governance                                                           connection; the concept of beauty should be rede-        Gender equity depends on development, and the                    in Africa, on the other hand, focus on change
                                                                              fined to include Africans; the stereotypes of HIV/       partners of this development include:                            and fundamental transformation of their own
     PreSenterS:                                                              AIDS should be addressed to dispel the notion that                                                                        lives, as well as society at large.
     1. Dr Glenda Sims (Executive Director, Office of Women’s                 it is associated with young women in their most          •   Government: it is responsible for legislation to
        Affairs, Office of the Prime Minister, Jamaica)                       productive years, who increasingly become victims            enhance people’s awareness of gender equity                  In respect of democracy in Africa in general,
                                                                              of the pandemic, due to being unable to govern               and development;                                             the discussion highlighted the fact that the
     2. Dr Amami Aswur (President, Egyptian Businesswomen’s                   themselves.                                              •   Civil society: its responsibility in the                     public sector, in many states, does not have
        Assocation)                                                                                                                        partnership is to educate people about their                 the budget and organisational capacity to
                                                                              The presenter from Egypt (Dr Aswur) focused on               rights;                                                      perform most of the basic functions expect-
     3. Ms Nomboniso Gasa (Independent Consultant, South                      the impact of patriarchy on good governance and          •   Private sector: it can promote development by                ed of it. The notion of good governance pre-
        Africa)                                                               democratisation. According to her, it is a father-cen-       exercising its social corporate responsibility.              sumes the presence of a professional and
                                                                              tred hierarchical order with fathers always being su-                                                                     independent bureaucracy and presupposes
     This working group received three inputs from presenters,                perior to their sons, and therefore, the competition     The South African input was made under the ban-                  a sound tax base to finance their functions.
     emphasising the relevance of gender and race for democ-                  amongst sons for their fathers’ favour. Women are        ner of ‘developmental democracy’. Persons with                   Hence, the importance of development can-
     racy in Africa. The group’s chairperson introduced the dis-              purely defined from a male point of view, and the        influence on the presenter Nomboniso Gasa’s di-                  not be over-emphasised.
     cussion by emphasising the symbiotic relationship between                roles of males and females are rigidly designated        rection of thinking include Guy Mahone, Adebayo
     democratic ideals and national liberation. It was stated that            and restricted. Militarism is inseparably associated     Olukoshi, Margaret Randall and Kwame Nkrumah.                    •	 Working	Group	4:	Regional
     the concepts of democracy and good governance should not                 with a patriarchal society and culture. Democracy,       Their ideas raised questions about democracy’s
     be seen as imported ideals from outside the continent, but               on the other hand, is defined by the presenter as        sustainability, the relationship between democracy                  Development and Integration
     as an integral part of it. However, the disappointments in               the “power of choice and voice”; in other words,         and development, and Nkrumah’s notion that polit-
     the decades after independence, because of the autocratic                the freedom to express and the freedom to speak.         ical independence be the primary objective before                PreSenterS:
     abuse of power, should be acknowledged. In the last two                  Democracy is therefore determined by power, and          any other liberation goals. All of these are consid-             1. Mr Mathale (NEPAD)
     decades, according to the chairperson, major achievements                the empowerment of women means discovering               ered relevant for the gender struggle.                           2. Mr Edwin Carrington (Secretary-
     on the way towards democracy and good governance were                    one’s own strength and teaching women how to                                                                                 General, CARICOM)
     recorded. The African Union’s commitment to a process of                 exert their influence.                                   At the turn of the 20th century, the gender strug-               3. Prof. Dennis Michael Ben (University of
     promoting democratic electoral guidelines; the assertive                                                                          gles in Western and Southern Africa (especially in                  the West Indies)
     responses to undemocratic practices in the Central African               Gender equity is closely associated with democ-          Nigeria and South Africa) had already taken sig-                 4. Prof. Sale (no affiliation)
     Republic and Togo; as well as the Conference on Security,                racy. It can be materialised in the form of:             nificant strides towards their ultimate objectives.
     Stability, Development and Cooperation in Africa (CSSDCA)                                                                         Frene Ginwala’s (former Speaker of the South Af-                 The discussion in this working group focused
     are all evidence of the progress made thus far. It is also im-           •      Democracy at home – removing any                  rican Parliament) research on the role of women in               on NEPAD and CARICOM, comparisons,
     portant to note that the AU adheres to the premise that good                    distinctions between the gender roles in the      the ANC before 1943 deserved special attention as                and possible regional co-operation between
     governance is a precondition for development.                                   domestic environment;                             an illustration of the contribution women had made               the two.

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                                                                            Regional integration within the sub-regions of Africa,      West Indies, and sport such as West Indies cricket.               lack of intra-regional trade, and the structur-
     nePad:                                                                 and co-operation between the regions of Africa and          During this discussion, the emphasis was only on                  al imperative to produce for extra-regional
                                                                            the Caribbean, differ in nature from the integration        CARICOM.                                                          markets. A changed pattern of integrated
     The rationale for the need to embark on regional formations            processes in Europe and Asia. The main difference                                                                             production and a common development
     in the South, and in Africa in particular, is that the majority of     is that in the case of the former, this involves South-     CARICOM’s origin can be traced to the free trade                  enterprise will improve integrated, regional
     African states are small in size, constituting a major obstacle        South integration of developing states with econo-          area (FTA) established in 1968. Its purpose was to                trade. An important challenge is: how can
     for economic and social development. This diminutive stat-             mies based mainly on agriculture. Intra-regional            remove tariffs on intra-regional trade commodities,               government structures be arranged to fa-
     ure is a structural explanation for their dependence on the            trade in Africa is still at a negligible level. The pros-   and to promote the movement of goods between                      cilitate such a process? Regional integra-
     outside world. Hence, the rationale for regional integration is        pect of South-South integration can only improve if         Caribbean countries without any duties or other re-               tion, as an option, presumes a federation of
     to enhance the magnitude of markets. NEPAD’s underlying                the best-performing African states and those in the         strictions. The regional policy of a common import                states, which is not always universally wel-
     philosophy underscores this reasoning.                                 African Diaspora come together as the driving force         tariff introduced in 1973, was not only aimed at co-              comed. In order to counter a jealous protec-
                                                                            behind regional integration processes. The view of          ordinating this tariff across the region, but also pro-           tion of state sovereignty, states should be
     According to Mr Mathale, the NEPAD representative of the               the presenter, Mr Mathale, was that these initiatives       tecting local producers. A common tariff enabled lo-              creative in identifying new possibilities for
     working group, the Partnership is a “strategic development             would only be meaningful if there were a common             cal producers in the region to compete with external              regional political arrangements, including
     plan that addresses economic, social and political dimensions          culture within the regions to serve as a binding force      products subject to the same tariff throughout the                exercising sovereignty in collective fashion.
     of Africa’s future development. It is a clear demonstration of         to sustain them.                                            region. The single market envisaged for 2008, will                In some specific instances, sovereignty has
     the willingness of African leaders to take responsibility for ac-                                                                  be characterised by the free movement of capital,                 to be re-arranged, such as the Caribbean
     tions needed to advance development. The vision, and way                                                                           skilled labour, and the right to establish enterprises            Court of Justice.
     forward, basically consist of creating a policy environment            carIcom:                                                    anywhere in the region.
     and institutions necessary to translate political commitment                                                                                                                                         CARICOM is often criticised for being too
     into economic benefits”.                                               Today the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) con-                CARICOM is not designed as an economic and                        state-centred. In response to this cen-
                                                                            sists of 15 members. It is a relatively small commu-        trade arrangement, but to integrate the region in a               sure, a dialogue with civil society has been
     Improvement in economic growth since the 1990s has pro-                nity in terms of population size. The total population      holistic manner, focusing on three areas:                         launched recently. The same extension of
     vided an optimistic prognosis for the future. This is partly the       numbers about 15 million, to which Haiti contributes                                                                          engagements should apply to the Assembly
     result of a decline in conflict on the continent, and an increase      7 million.                                                  •   Economics and trade;                                          of Caribbean Community Parliamentarians.
     in macro-economic stability. Nevertheless, regional integra-                                                                                                                                         Instead of including parliamentarians only,
     tion experienced constraints during this period and expecta-           CARICOM’s history of development can be summa-              •   Foreign policy co-ordination; and                             civil society groups should also be included
     tions were also not met. The volume of intra-regional trade            rised by the following key events:                                                                                            as observers.
     has declined or stagnated; integration has not led to a sig-                                                                       •   Functional co-operation in the areas of health,
     nificant structural change in African economies; and integra-          1968: establishment of the Caribbean Free Trade                 education, youth, sport, human resource                       Around the world, more than 40 organisations
     tion in the form of harmonisation of domestic policies has not               Area;                                                     development, etc.                                             are directly involved in regional integration. A
     made significant progress. CARICOM, on the other hand, has                                                                                                                                           common problem by all is the demarcation
     achieved a great deal more in the area of harmonisation and            1973: agreement on common external tariffs – the            Foreign policy co-ordination in the Caribbean is ex-              of their functional niche; they often overstep
     co-ordination of policies.                                                   Caribbean Community and Common Market;                ecuted in the form of trade (co-ordination regarding              onto others’ areas of interest and expertise. A
                                                                                                                                        the World Trade Organization, in negotiations for                 general observation about regional organisa-
     A significant source of development in Africa is fund transfers        2005: formation of a single market; and                     economic partnership agreements, and in the free                  tions in Africa is that they are not always suc-
     to the continent by nationals working abroad. In 2003, about                                                                       trade of the Americas), and in the establishment of               cessful. This is illustrated by the fact that:
     US$12 billion of these transfers were directed towards Africa.         2008: prospective emergence of a single economy.            a foreign policy position on the reform of the United
     Approximately 75% went to North Africa and about US$4 bil-                                                                         Nations. Related to it, is the ideal to develop the               •   The composition of trade amongst
     lion to sub-Saharan countries. Another source of develop-              Integration in the Caribbean should be understood           notion of one nation; the most immediate sugges-                      African countries has not changed very
     ment is that of migration by the African Diaspora back to the          in the context of globalisation. In Mr Carrington’s         tion is in the form of a common economic passport                     much;
     continent. This has the possibility of addressing the structural       view, the region is currently caught in a second            for the region.
     shortage of qualified expertise in entire economic sectors.            process of exploitation (after slavery) by the domi-                                                                          •   The structure of African economies has
     Returned Diasporians are normally better informed about lo-            nant economies of the North. Integration is seen as         A major component of the discussion concentrated                      also remained relatively unchanged; and
     cal conditions and more motivated than those with foreign              a counter-measure to limit this exploitation. Three         on African-Caribbean comparisons and possible
     technical knowledge.                                                   agents of integration were identified in the dis-           areas of regional co-operation. Two distinguish-                  •   Policies have not yet been harmonised
                                                                            cussion, namely CARICOM, the University of the              able weaknesses identified in both regions is the                     and co-ordinated.

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     This raises the question of why integration has made little
     progress, and why relations between Africa and the Carib-                •	 Working	Group	5:	Economic Co-                           •   The economies are vulnerable, and                                 prevents the utilisation of economies of
     bean have not developed according to expectations. The                                                                                  exports are dominated by only one or two                          scale.
     answer consists of four elements: firstly, the conflicts on the                 operation and Trade Links                               commodities, mainly primary products,
     continent have created insecurity, exploiting and depleting                                                                             such as raw materials and agricultural                        •   They are both constrained in their ability
     African countries’ resources. Secondly, conditions conducive             PreSenterS:                                                    products. Because these products (especially                      to participate in the decision-making
     for integration have not received sufficient attention, and ac-                                                                         agricultural) are plentiful and are produced                      process of the multilateral trade system,
     tors who could play a significant role in integration have thus          1. Ambassador Richard Benell (Director General of              throughout the world, they are subject to                         especially in the WTO. They have a
     far been neglected. Thirdly, patronage has undermined the                   the Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery)               intense competition in international markets.                     limited capacity in human resources
     effective management of resources and has encouraged the                                                                                                                                                  and technical research to sustain such
     search for available clientele; in other words, structural mis-          2. Prof. Shadrack Gutto (University of South Africa)       •   The structure of the economies of the least                       negotiations on their own.
     management and corruption have undermined integration.                                                                                  developed countries in Africa is very similar
     Finally, government decisions have only favoured short-term              3. Mr Aisha Salimi-Belhaji (University of Algiers)             to that of small economies, and therefore the                 •   They have limited institutional capacity
     interests, undermining capacity-building for the purpose of                                                                             regions’ problems of development are also                         for utilising the WTO’s dispute resolution
     development.                                                             Multilateral trade between African countries and               very similar. Markets are limited; this places                    mechanisms, and cannot afford the
                                                                              the Caribbean received most attention during this              restrictions on the type of production and                        required resources and legal expertise.
     The presenter, Mr Carrington, Secretary-General of CARI-                 working group. Trade, as a concept, has developed
     COM and Commissioner of the UN, responded to the same                    into a wide-ranging phenomenon, including trade in
     general question by looking at means of addressing this                  goods, services, investments, intellectual property
                                                                              rights, government procurement and competition
     deficit. He proposed three steps, namely that
                                                                              policy. It is also related to issues such as external
                                                                                                                                             In respect of the last poInt, the followIng suggestIons were consIdered:
     •   Parties should develop a shared mission and vision                   debt, the environment and labour. At the heart of
         and look for alternatives to the existing paradigm.                  international trade is the World Trade Organization            1. The African and Caribbean members of the WTO constitute more than a third of its total
         Governments should identify the means at their disposal              (WTO), which is responsible for resolving trade dis-
         and develop strategies to optimise their use.                        putes and for monitoring, revising and formulating                members. They should improve on the co-ordination of their efforts and exert their influence
                                                                              new rules for the multilateral trade system.
     •   This requires integration of a common reality,                                                                                         on the discussions and negotiations.
         determining what type of integration is preferred,                   In respect of trade, there is a need for the two re-
         and what the relationship between integration and                    gions to enhance their level of collaboration and              2. The two regions should find a way to rationalise their representation, which will enable them to
         development should be.                                               co-operation. Both are involved in economic part-
                                                                              nership agreements, and are in the alliance of the                share representation in the various structures of the WTO. It should also become possible for
     •   Integration depends on a political will to implement                 African-Caribbean-Pacific (ACP) group with the
         the relevant strategies. Such a will should include a                European Union (EU). The ACP could play an in-                    them to share in technical knowledge and preparation for improved participation in the WTO.
         commitment to transfer state sovereignty to the regional             fluential role in WTO negotiations, because with-
         entity.                                                              out its support, there would be no consensus and               3. The institutional capacity of individual states is currently limited. Therefore, it is necessary
                                                                              therefore no decision on a reformed global trade
     A prominent feature of the open discussion was the role of               regime.                                                           to pool resources. An example of such an effort is the Caribbean Regional Negotiating
     the Rastafarian movement – also as a mechanism of inte-
     gration. Speakers emphasised the fact that the focus should              A number of similarities in the economies of the two              Machinery, which executes the technical preparations and then makes recommendations to
     not only be on the Caribbean Rastafari Organisation, but                 regions were identified in the discussion. These
     on the spiritual movements in the Caribbean in general, as               were as follows:                                                  individual Caribbean states.
     well as the cultural values they embody in respect of the
     arts, dance, drama and music. Concerns about their ultimate              •      Trade is of paramount importance in their               4. A concerted effort is necessary to democratise decision-making in the WTO, in order to ensure
     goal to be repatriated to Africa, and to receive reparations,                   economies. In fact, it plays a disproportionately
     were raised in respect of the absence of mechanisms to ac-                      important role in their economies, and                     increased sensitivity for the needs of the South.
     commodate the Rastafari and respect their right to return to                    economic growth is therefore primarily
     Africa, not as migrants, but as returning Africans.                             dependent on external factors.

26       The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                        The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   27
     The working group also looked at a comparison of the eco-              ment is that trade policy is divorced from develop-                                                                          is of neither entirely European, nor African
     nomic structures of the two regions. The most prevalent                ment. The Doha round of WTO negotiations has                •	 Working	Group	6: Historical,                                  culture. One cannot separate these into the
     phenomenon is that both are very similar in terms of the               been described as a ‘development round’. It is seen                                                                          discreet entities that constitute the Créole
     commodity composition of their trade. This lack of diversifi-          as an attempt by states from the South to restore the          Socio-Cultural and Religious                                  process. Examples of the Créole culture are
     cation has resulted in what is known as vertical integration.          relationship between trade and development.                                                                                  found in language, music and religion (like
                                                                                                                                           Commonalities                                                 the voodoo in Haiti, which has African roots
     Vertical integration means incorporation with the previous co-         Apart from the need to embrace the common wis-                                                                               but is typically Haitian, or Rastafarianism).
     lonial power, and therefore trade continues to follow historically     dom shared by the African continent and the Carib-          PreSenterS:
     established patterns. Horizontal integration between two neigh-        bean region, to build their capacity to negotiate more                                                                       This theme was further discussed with the
     bouring countries is in many instances almost absent. Africa’s         effectively in the WTO, a number of suggestions             1. Prof. Vinish Hukun Singh (University of                       influence of the African continent on Car-
     vertical integration into global trade is one of its most prominent    were also considered as a redefinition of the trade            Mauritius)                                                    ibbean religion, food, clothes, methods of
     features and the single most important factor militating against       environment.                                                                                                                 savings and folklore. The speakers on the
     developing domestic and regional trade capacities.                                                                                 2. Ms Christine Qunta (Attorney, South Africa)                   panel used different approaches to explain
                                                                            These include,                                                                                                               the similarities of cultural expressions within
     A second important mitigating factor is the kind of macro-eco-                                                                     3. Prof. Wande Lewis (no affiliation)                            the two regions, one arguing that cultural
     nomic policies followed by African states over the past two dec-       •      The need for economic policy heterogeneity                                                                            assimilation was a direct result of the slave
     ades. In general terms, they were characterised by economic                   or pluralism of economic policy frames. Only         The topic was introduced under the rubric of ‘Global             trade, while the other argued that African in-
     structural adjustment. Their objective was to be deflationary                 South Africa has managed to develop a                Africa’, referring to three types of African contexts.           fluences could be detected in the period be-
     and therefore incapable of promoting growth and trade. Only                   degree of pluralist policy by making ‘shadow         The first stereotypical typology is ‘Black Africa’ or            fore Columbus (1492). The latter argument
     an innovative macro-economic approach will unleash new                        adjustments’ to maintain the confidence of           the ‘Black Continent’. This refers to sub-Saharan                was supported by etymological research –
     economic energy, and therefore the focus should be on new                     the markets. In most other instances, national       Africa or, from a Diasporan perspective, Ancient                 for example, that ‘jazz’ was originally a Sen-
     fiscal policies.                                                              currencies are still declining, and the argument     Africa or Mother Africa. Black Africa essentially                egalese term for ‘dance’, and that ‘reggae’
                                                                                   is used that currencies have not yet reached         served as the primary source of slave labour for                 was a word meaning the dance of God’.
     Inter- and intra-regional trade is suppressed by the prolifera-               appropriate exchange rates. The argument             the Americas, and is still a source of natural re-
     tion of bureaucratic barriers confronting investors from within               appears dubious, because the American dollar         sources to this day. Within this typology, this is the           Religion is considered a significant area of
     the region. The perception exists that foreign investments are                is also in crisis (perhaps this is because of the    real or imagined homeland of the people outside                  cross-pollination. The notion that ancestors
     better received than investments from within the region. An                   invasion of Iraq).                                   of Mother Africa. From an African perspective, the               have the ability to control lives, is reminis-
     area in need of improvement is inter-regional travelling. Flights                                                                  concept looks at the continent as fragmented into                cent of the Caribbean notion of dreams in-
     between states in the same region, or between Africa and the           •      The need to link trade to development, as well       artificial states, dominated by the neo-colonial her-            volving family members. Other religious ex-
     Caribbean, are cumbersome and time-consuming. The intro-                      as trade to industrial policy.                       itage of political, administrative, judicial and edu-            pressions in the Caribbean have honoured
     duction of direct flights will create new opportunities for eco-                                                                   cational institutions.                                           ancestors by leaving food for them, dancing,
     nomic interaction. They will have a direct impact on the flow of       •      The centrality of industrial policy to most of the                                                                    playing drums and singing with them. This is
     goods, capital, investments and human resources.                              issues discussed here.                               The second stereotype is ‘Black and White Africa’.               illustrated by a Caribbean chant based on a
                                                                                                                                        Southern Africa, in particular, represents strong                Yoruba practice. The construction of religion
     A major structural impediment to regional economic develop-            •      The requirement of a conscious policy to             elements of this phenomenon. South Africa has                    in a monotheist manner, with a supreme be-
     ment is that trade policies are dictated by external demands.                 create trade. One example of creating trade          been described as “a living laboratory of inter-cul-             ing as the highest spiritual being, is common
     An illustration of this point is that the current negotiations                is by means of shorter and more convenient           tural experimentation, in which Whites, Blacks,                  in both regions. Indeed, according to one of
     around the Economic Partnership Agreement are essentially                     trade routes, such as direct flights between the     Coloureds and Indians are slowly trying to invent                the contributions from the floor, this could
     a refinement of externally determined requirements. The EU                    point of origin and the final destination.           new inter-cultural modes of identity formation”.                 be traced to the pre-Columbus period in the
     conducts separate negotiations with the different economic                                                                                                                                          Caribbean region.
     communities within the ACP group: with ECOWAS and SADC;                •      The demand for a more sophisticated                  The third type is ‘Créole or New World Africa’, which
     South Africa; and CARICOM. According to the presenter, Ai-                    approach to regional and sub-regional                can be sub-divided into the ‘Afro-American World’,               Similarities in foods, and especially in the
     sha Salimi-Belhaji, this amounts to a ‘global economic com-                   economic co-operation. There is a need for           the ‘Caribbean New World’ and the ‘Afro-Cuban                    names and preparation of foods, were dis-
     mercial partitioning of the world’.                                           strategic ideas on how to use institutions of        World’. The New World Diaspora has witnessed                     cussed in the working group.
                                                                                   economic co-operation as instruments for             the creation of a new culture – the Créole culture.
     Another significant characteristic of the global trade environ-               creating trade.                                      ‘Créolisation’ is understood to be the mixing of dif-            Methods of saving money in one region are
                                                                                                                                        ferent cultures, in such a way that the outcome

28     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                          The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   29
                                                                                                                                                                                  “How did it happen
     also influenced by the other. The concept of a group of peo-                                                                                                                 that Africa is the
     ple accumulating its saved monies, which is then paid to the           working group 7: South-South Co-                          •   The development agenda                                                       • Decentralised healthcare
     members of the group on a rotational basis, is also practised                                                                        for the continent includes              most degraded and                    facilities also improved the
     in the Caribbean. The stokvel is a well-known practice of the                 operation and Solidarity                               the Millennium Development                                                   efficiency of the programme.
     same principle in South Africa.                                                                                                      Goals, and these should                 poorest [continent]
                                                                            PreSenterS:                                                   include a plan of action for                                                 • Different religious
     The impact of the slave trade on cultural, historical and reli-                                                                      families.                               in the world, whilst                 institutions were involved,
     gious notions is of such importance for the Caribbean, that            1. Ms Allison Anderson (CEO of Child                                                                                                       recognising the importance
     it necessitated a special focus. Unlike the Jewish Holocaust,             Development Agency, Jamaica)                           •   Integration of reproductive             it has so many                       of the spiritual dimension in
     the African slave trade is not assessed in terms of its social                                                                       health and HIV/AIDS                                                          peoples’ lives.
     impact, but has become a bone of contention regarding its              2. Prof. Bernard Magubane (Director, Democracy                programmes is required.                 resources?”
     magnitude. By now however, most researchers agree that at                 Education Trust, South Africa)                                                                                                           Prof. Magubane also warned
     least 10 million Africans were displaced in the four hundred                                                                     •   The best way for the Diaspora                                                 that while a great deal had al-
     years spanning the trade since 1445.                                   3. Mr James St. Catharine (Carrycot)                          to establish itself in Africa’s                                               ready been said about Africa
                                                                                                                                          development is through                                                        and the Diaspora, this body
     The slave trade’s demographic impact on Africa is often for-           The discussion concentrated on a number of as-                active engagement in the                                                      of information lacked a his-
     gotten. The magnitude of its slavery can be explained by the           pects, including the central role of the family in            preservation of the African                                                   torical knowledge. He posed
     fact that able-bodied persons were removed from their com-             African issues; the family unit and HIV/AIDS; the             family.                                                        the following question, “How did it happen
     munities, effectively wiping out younger generations, leav-            lack of historical knowledge in understanding the                                                                            that Africa is the most degraded and poor-
     ing behind older generations. Today, many African states are           present situation; and South-South co-operation in        •   For those concerned with strengthening the                     est [continent] in the world, whilst it has so
     still under-populated as a result of this occurrence.                  the context of crime and security, the environment,           African family, the primary objective should be                many resources?” He opined that an under-
                                                                            education, and health.                                        the fostering of political commitment and support              standing of tragedies, such as HIV/AIDS,
     Furthermore, technological under-development and cultural                                                                            for South-South co-operation in areas of training,             should be located in history. Magubane
     dysfunctionality are two obvious effects of the slave trade.           Ms Anderson made the following propositions as                advocacy and networking.                                       added that history was located in the politi-
     One of the presenters used Amilcar Cabral’s definition of              the basis of her presentation:                                                                                               cal economy, which led to the Atlantic slave
     culture to explain how the slave trade destroyed African cul-                                                                    •   In respect of training, advocacy and networking,               practice. Adam Smith (The Wealth of Na-
     ture in the Diaspora. Culture includes attitudes about life,           •      The family unit is Africa’s greatest asset.            special attention should be given to the needs of              tions) was used a reference point to explain
     the nature of the universe, religious beliefs and forms of art.                                                                      the youth and adolescents.                                     the origin of underdevelopment. Colonialism
     Culture is therefore immensely powerful because, according             •      The human dimension has to be the core of                                                                             was a world capitalist system, which linked
     to Cabral, when conquered people realise that they should                     the response to crises like HIV/AIDS.                                                                                 the states in the White world to one anoth-
     stand up to protect their culture, this constitutes the begin-                                                                   In the general discussion, the specific relevance of the           er, so that they could share the benefits of
     ning of resistance.                                                    •      The development of human capability rests          family for South-South co-operation was questioned.                this emerging economy. This practice also
                                                                                   mainly on the ability of families to ensure that   The point was not pursued in view of the increased                 meant increasing misfortune for the victims
     In view of the above observations, the working group consid-                  children are free from deprivation;                focus on HIV/AIDS and education in general.                        of this situation, mainly Africans. HIV/AIDS,
     ered three suggestions to respond to the need for increased                                                                                                                                         as a symptom of underdevelopment, was
     cultural interaction between the two regions. Firstly, formal          •      The relationship between kinship, politics         Prof. Magubane paid special attention to the Ugan-                 one such misfortune.
     and informal cultural, social and political links between the                 and civil order in Africa and the Diaspora         dan experience and identified the following as criti-
     Diaspora and the continent should be promoted. Music, like                    is critical for understanding major social         cal factors in the HIV/AIDS campaign:                              In the general discussion, the contribution of
     reggae, is a powerful tool in this regard. Secondly, the skills               problems in Africa. This includes male-female                                                                         Cuba to South-South solidarity and co-op-
     shortage in Africa can be addressed by making use of skills                   relationships, child-bearing and child-rearing     •   President Museveni’s leadership role. He                       eration was highlighted. Based on Cuba’s
     from within the Diaspora. Cuban medical doctors, for exam-                    practices, and the absence of parental role-           ensured government departments’ and NGOs’                      principles of internationalism and solidarity
     ple, already make an important contribution in South Africa.                  models because of AIDS fatalities.                     co-operation in the campaign.                                  with Africa and other underdeveloped coun-
     Thirdly, educational institutions should be reformed to make                                                                                                                                        tries, the main sectors of co-operation in-
     them authentically African. Related to this, is that indigenous        •      HIV/AIDS, conflict, crime and poverty have         •   HIV/AIDS was treated as a holistic problem                     clude education, sport and health care. The
     languages and filmmaking in Africa should be promoted.                        undermined the cohesion of the family unit in          and not only as a health issue. Poverty                        comprehensive health programmes in South
                                                                                   Africa.                                                eradication was seen as an integral part of it.                Africa and Nigeria are two examples of such

30     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                          The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   31
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Dignitaries enjoy a moment of rest between conference

                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Globalisation of communication defines the
     working group 8: Knowledge Sharing                                                                                                                                                                          environment within which Africans share
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 knowledge amongst themselves and with oth-
     PreSenterS:                                                                                                                                                                                                 ers. Currently, one of the most serious chal-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 lenges is how to enter into global connectivity.
     1. Dr Abiod                                                                                                                                                                                                 Global communication is not necessarily glo-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 bal but concentrated in urban centres. Rural
     2. Dr Hopon Done (CEO, Creative Production and Training                                                                                                                                                     areas and inner-city centres of poverty should,
        Centre, and President, Jamaican – SA Association)                                                                                                                                                        therefore, be integrated into this communica-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 tion network.
     3. Ms Baleka Mbete (Speaker of Parliament, South Africa)                 gain and less to lose in the process (Abiod).               •   Development of the private sector, which is
                                                                                                                                              perceived by many as the driving force in most                     concluSIon
     The frame of reference for this working group was the follow-            The question rightly posed, is what the prerequisites           societies, and therefore governments should
     ing:                                                                     for knowledge sharing are. The following three were             share knowledge on its promotion;                                  The Conference concluded with the adoption
                                                                              identified:                                                                                                                        of the Conference Declaration (see its text
     1. The nature of the challenges caused by the production,                                                                            •   A special emphasis on mathematics as an area                       later) and closing remarks by the host coun-
        distribution and the utilisation of information pertaining to:        1. There has to be an official commitment in each               of education, and as a key element in a culture                    tries’ Ministers of Foreign Affairs, South Africa
                                                                                 country to generate knowledge and to effectively             of science and technology;                                         and Jamaica, and the AU representative. The
         •   Indigenous knowledge;                                               use this knowledge in the development process.                                                                                  Declaration’s Plan of Action recommends the
                                                                                                                                          •   Major trade exhibitions; and                                       following as a way forward:
         •   Academic and scientific knowledge;                               2. Countries must formulate rational policies that
                                                                                 can translate the generated knowledge into               •   Networks of people-to-people contact in social,                    •   The AU and CARICOM should continue
         •   Technical knowledge;                                                practical, realistic and affordable long-term                professional, cultural, academic, business and                         to develop a concrete mechanism for the
                                                                                 national programmes.                                         spiritual areas.                                                       institutionalization of the relations between
     •   Innovations with the aim of enhancing productivity,                                                                                                                                                         the two bodies.
         competitiveness, equitable growth and development, in                3. Countries should cultivate a culture of knowledge        The South African Speaker of Parliament, Baleka
         light of the global order and the opportunity and constraints           sharing.                                                 Mbete, referred to the period of constitution-mak-                     •   The African and Caribbean governments
         it poses.                                                                                                                        ing in South Africa, in the mid-1990s, as a success-                       should explore and develop concrete
                                                                              Areas in which knowledge sharing is plausible, were         ful public participation project, and as an example of                     measures for promoting linkages between
     2. The challenges caused by the monopolisation of                        mentioned as follows:                                       knowledge sharing between citizens and negotiators.                        the two regions in the following priority
        processes of global and cultural exchanges, on the                                                                                According to her, it emphasised the importance of                          areas: trade and investment; science and
        intellectual property of the African and Caribbean peoples.           •      Technology used in outer space, including co-        ordinary persons, as opposed to political elites. The                      technology; education; culture; travel/
                                                                                     operation on the joint usage of satellites;          new political culture that emerged was one involving                       transportation and youth exchanges.
     The working group’s deliberations did not address all these                                                                          communication and dialogue, despite vastly different
     points. The discussions concentrated on means of knowledge               •      Communication technology;                            political backgrounds. Another element of this cul-                    •   African and Caribbean organs of civil
     sharing, the importance of communication, and other informa-                                                                         ture was gender representation, and especially the                         society should explore and develop
     tion technology manifestations as a means of knowledge shar-             •      Nuclear non-proliferation, including participation   unique experience of women. Even the parliamen-                            concrete measures for promoting linkages
     ing. The role of parliament, as a facilitator of knowledge shar-                in the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty;             tary culture, she added, had adopted many of these                         and collaboration between the two regions.
     ing, was also discussed.                                                                                                             elements. The Pan-African Parliament is still a new
                                                                              •      Environmental matters, including the Kyoto and       institution and its relationship with the Diaspora has                 •   Africa and the Caribbean, through their
     A working definition of knowledge sharing used in the discus-                   Montreal Protocols;                                  not yet been clarified. Parliament-to-parliament con-                      regional organizations, should explore ways
     sion was as follows:                                                                                                                 tact was, however, encouraged by the Speaker.                              of harmonizing international diplomacy
                                                                              •      Scientific research and technology development;                                                                                 in particular by utilizing the forthcoming
     It is the coming together of people, institutions or nations with                                                                    The participants emphasised the fact that knowledge                        United Nations Millennium Review Summit
     common concerns, needs determined to involve and a concept               •      Agriculture and food processing;                     sharing was essentially dependent on communication.                        and the World Trade Organization Doha
     or idea they can use to address their needs, it is normally un-                                                                      Africans, therefore, should find the tools, institutions and               Development Round, to advance the
     dertaken with the conviction that the participants have much to          •      Health concerns, such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, etc.;    structures to improve their communication and dialogue.                    agenda set out by this Conference.

32       The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                                The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   33
     Opening Statement
               Dr Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, Minister of Foreign Affairs,
               South Africa, for the South Africa-Africa Union-Caribbean
               Diaspora Conference
               Kingston, Jamaica, 16 March 2005

               your excellency, moSt honourable P.J. PatterSon, PrIme mInISter oF JamaIca;

               your excellency, honourable K.d. KnIght, mInISter oF ForeIgn aFFaIrS oF JamaIca;

               honourable Senator delano FranKlyn, mInISter oF State In the mInIStry oF
               ForeIgn aFFaIrS and ForeIgn trade oF JamaIca;

               your excellencIeS, mInISterS, and dePuty mInISter From aFrIca and the

               your excellency, mr carrIngton, Secretary-general oF carIcom and
               commISSIoner oF the un;

               your excellency, mr PatrIcK mazImhaKa, dePuty chaIrPerSon oF the au;

               your excellencIeS, ambaSSadorS and hIgh commISSIonerS;

               carIbbean and aFrIcan ScholarS and IntellIgentSIa;

               dIStInguIShed gueStS;

               ladIeS and gentlemen;

               comradeS and FrIendS:

     We are pleased to be among comrades and friends here in King-          common origin, but also widely regarded as the ‘Cradle   It was in 1994 that we gathered in Pretoria/Tshwane           you from our cause for freedom. Instead, the
     ston at this historic conference, which marks yet another important    of Humankind’, today we can all say with conviction      as friends and witnessed the inauguration of the              interconnectedness grew.
     milestone in the history of the African and Caribbean peoples.         that African blood flows through our veins.              first democratically elected President of South
                                                                                                                                     Africa, Nelson Mandela. Some of us shed a tear                You stood shoulder to shoulder with us and
     Accordingly, may I extend our gratitude to the people and govern-      Some of us have come from the long African coast-        or two on this occasion, because humanity had                 formed a mammoth movement because you
     ment of Jamaica for the hospitality extended to us, and the excel-     line from where our people were captured forcefully,     won against apartheid – a crime against humanity              saw an affront to our dignity and humanity as
     lent arrangements made for this conference.                            shipped off in chains to the Caribbean islands. We are   – and the Caribbean and the African continent had             an affront to your own dignity and humanity.
                                                                            gathered here to pay homage to the multitudes who        played an important role in this regard. We gath-             The solidarity with the people of South Africa
     We are gathered here today as friends who have taken some              fought for freedom – the heroes and heroines, who        ered there to share a common victory.                         became a great global movement against
     moments away from their busy day-to-day lives to reflect on our        with determination, tenacity and unwavering courage                                                                    black oppression and racism in the world.
     common origins and heritage, our shared struggles against slav-        cast this inhumane system of slavery into the dustbins   Accordingly, we have also gathered here in King-
     ery, colonialism and apartheid and also our common victories.          of history.                                              ston for the South African people to give thanks to           Our presence in the Caribbean also gives
                                                                                                                                     you, for the victory in South Africa was as much a            us an opportunity to make our acquaintance
     We are gathered here today also as a continuous quest for uni-         We are also gathered here as combatants in the           victory for the South African people as it was for            with and salute such great heroes as Nanny
     ty in action, a process started by our forbearers many decades         titanic struggle for peace, security and democracy       the Caribbean people.                                         of the Maroons, Tacky, Sam Sharpe, Paul
     ago.                                                                   and against underdevelopment and poverty.                                                                              Bogle and of course Norman Manley. Accord-
                                                                                                                                     Vast oceans and great distances did not stop you              ingly, we remember all those gallant fighters
     We have come together to affirm our identity as one people, be-        We are also gathered here as friends who have            from showing solidarity with us. The divisions that           from the Caribbean, who stood up against
     cause of our common origins. With Africa not only as our place of      shared challenges and a common destiny.                  geography imposes upon people did not separate                slavery, racism and oppression, among

34     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                    The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   35
     them the great Toussaint L’Ouverture, Marcus Garvey, Alex-                                                                            that a new Africa could                                                         cles of drought and flood.
     ander Bustamante, as well as José Marti, Simon Bolivar and             •      That first victory of our brothers and sisters          arise, and that a new world         “our common African                         Natural disasters also
     Harriet Tubman. Yet they knew full well that theirs was only                  in Haiti – by 1804, the victory of the San              could emerge free of racial                                                     continue to wreak havoc.
     a humble contribution in making the world a better place for                  Domingo Revolution was complete, with the               discrimination, oppression,         history is replete with                     The hurricane last year in
     Africans to live. They laid the foundations for all of us. Now                defeat of the Spanish, British and the French,          conflict and poverty.                                                           this region took its toll on
     it is our task to follow their lead.                                          and the establishment of the state of Haiti.                                                great feats of courage,                     the people and on eco-
                                                                                                                                        Chairperson and distinguished                                                      nomic life – in fact, this
     The valiant history of these Africans stolen from their homes          •      The Battle of Isandlwana of 1879, which saw          delegates:                             demonstrated by the                         conference would have
     continued to be a guiding light to those Africans still on the                the military brilliance in the great defeat of the                                                                                      been held in October,
     continent dispossessed of their land. Thus, on both sides                     most advanced army in the world at the time          This Conference owes its being         heroes and heroines                         were it not for the after-
     of the Atlantic, we wrestled hard to break the backbone of                    – the British army – at the hands of the Zulu        firstly a joint South African-Carib-                                               effects of this disaster.
     colonialism.                                                                  people.                                              bean Diaspora one, with a view         and heroic peoples,
                                                                                                                                        to celebrating the historic feat of                                                The recent tsunamis
     As the late President of the ANC, Oliver Tambo observed                •      The Battle of Adowa is another milestone             the defeat of that crime against       without whose loyal                         have also caused the im-
     during his visit to Jamaica for the People’s National Party                   because the Ethiopians, under Emperor Menelik        humanity, and to consolidate the                                                   mense loss of lives and
     Founders Day Banquet in July 1987:                                            II were victorious over the Italians in 1896. The    already excellent and warm re-         attachment to hope and                      livelihoods. We need to
                                                                                   world saw it as a victory of Africa over Europe,     lations between our peoples.                                                       acknowledge that the
                                                                                   which a historian describes as “a victory of                                                the vision of a bright                      ability of people to re-
     We make this tribute to your heroes, not to satisfy any                       freedom for Africans and other freedom-loving        The objective, however, grew in                                                    cover is determined by
       formal requirements of protocol, but because we                             people in the rest of the world”. The victory in     stature with the adoption of the       future for Africa, her                      their wealth. The rich can
       truly feel that these outstanding fighters belong                           Adowa inspired anti-colonialist movements,           idea by the African Union Heads                                                    mitigate the effects of a
       to us as well. They are of that detachment of                               the formation of early African nationalism,          of State and Government, to            people would long have                      disaster, but this is not
       men and women whose example reaches beyond                                  especially in Sierra Leone, Liberia and the          strengthen links with the Di-                                                      the case with the poor. At
       national boundaries and crosses the vast oceans                             Cape, in America, as well as in the Caribbean,       aspora, as part of the renewal of      perished”.                                  a time when the harmony
       to inspire all who are oppressed, to give hope and                          through Garveyism and through the Pan-African        the mother continent, Africa. We                                                   between nature and us is
       encouragement to those who are struggling.                                  movement inspired by W.E.B. Du Bois.                 are grateful to our continental                                                    critical, we need to look
                                                                                                                                        organisation, the AU, and glad                                                     at those who are most
     And what is it that specifically ties them to us? It is the            •      The movement towards African unity, with             that our African brothers and                                                      vulnerable and discuss
       vision that instructed their lives, that the voiceless                      the independence firstly of Ghana and the            sisters are here.                                              what can be done.
       can and must have a voice; that the downtrodden                             formation of the Organization of African
       and the despised should have an unfettered right to                         Unity (OAU), was another such defining               Our humble view of this Conference is that this is             Let us also use this opportunity to discuss
       shape their lives; that none has a prerogative to set                       moment where Africans on the continent               part of the continuous dialogue that is an impera-             matters arising out of the World Conference
       himself up as God presiding over the destinies of                           and the Diaspora sought to free themselves           tive between our two regions, and should extend to             Against Racism and how, as people of the
       others. These National Heroes of Jamaica and the                            as a continent, knowing full well, as Kwame          the rest of the African Diaspora, and as part of the           Caribbean and Africa, we should continue to
       Caribbean are tied to us because from these shores                          Nkrumah had pointed out, that each one’s             broader South-South dialogue.                                  fight racism in the world.
       thousands of miles from our own, they stood up and                          freedom depended on those of the others.
       even perished, to assert our own entitlement to a                                                                                We are gathered here as friends to share our                   We are gathered here as friends, also to de-
       democratic future.                                                   •      For us, the final defining moment that has           thoughts on a whole range of issues, in a world                termine how we can ensure that the youth
                                                                                   brought us together is the victory of the            where the power balance has reached explosive                  of Africa and the Caribbean can constantly
     Of critical importance is, as President Thabo Mbeki ob-                       African people, the Caribbean peoples and the        disequilibria. The skewed accumulation of wealth,              share ideas, their dreams and vision for their
     served, “our common African history is replete with great                     progressive forces of the world over apartheid.      power, resources, and the unequal distribution                 future. Most of them do not know each oth-
     feats of courage, demonstrated by the heroes and heroines                     It was the culmination of this struggle for          of the benefits of globalisation, have entrenched              er’s countries – at the moment, what con-
     and heroic peoples, without whose loyal attachment to hope                    national liberation that inspired all of Africa      gross inequalities.                                            nects them is the music on both sides of
     and the vision of a bright future for Africa, her people would                and the world and it helped to open the road                                                                        the Atlantic. The sounds of the African drum
     long have perished”.                                                          for the second wave of the struggle for peace,       We are also gathered here at a time when climate               have remained unchanged across the Carib-
                                                                                   democracy and sustained development to               change is real and its effects are felt across the             bean, Brazil and the African continent. Since
     Indeed among these great feats of courage are:                                sweep the African continent. We all believe          globe resulting in devastating hurricanes and cy-

36     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                        The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   37
                                                                                     An aerial view of the Jamaica Diaspora Conference venue
                                                                                     and the podium.

     the youth possess the future, we must strengthen these ties and create               eradicate poverty, how to use our collective strengths to
     opportunities for genuine social interaction.                                        make social and economic progress in the world econo-
                                                                                          my and to confront the international financial, investment
     Chairperson:                                                                         and trade regimes that favour developed economies, and
     As the Guianese British poet, Grace Nichols has written in her poem                  as well as the UN reform and issues of integration etc.
     “Epilogue” (from her poetry collection, I is a Long-Memoried Woman):
                                                                                          All of these subjects will be discussed at length at this
                                                                                          conference. The real challenge is what do we do in terms
        I have crossed an ocean.                                                          of concrete actions and follow-ups and how to give practi-
        I have lost my tongue.                                                            cal content to our thoughts so that we advance our agen-
        From the roots of the old one,                                                    da of prosperity and development in practical ways.
        a new one has sprung.
                                                                                          Our unity is essential because alone we are weak, but
     In this poem, Nichols refers to the struggles of an African woman who has            together we are a united force; we can speak and act with
     been enslaved and forced to cross the Middle Passage. In her newfound                the strength of one powerful voice.
     alienation, this black woman has to re-invent herself. Her voice is one of
     defiance. Yet, it is also her strength that comes across – the capacity to           The great leaders of Africa and the Caribbean tried to build
     survive, to speak and to dream and rebuild a future.                                 a new world and it is precisely this task that we are grap-
                                                                                          pling with in the present, which brings us here – to forge
     Gathered here at a time when the entire world is reflecting on the imple-            a new road ahead, because only when we recognise the
     mentation of the Beijing Platform for Action and the Millennium Develop-             journey that we travelled in the past and the milestones in
     ment Goals, we cannot help but play our part in this regard and pay trib-            the present, shall we arrive at a new consciousness and
     ute to the strength and resilience of women in Africa and the Caribbean.             know with certainty what needs to be done.

     In our history, women slaves had to try by all means to survive and to               Let us proceed on this journey with the hope that we shall
     ensure that their children also survived. Women in Africa have, for centu-           succeed in our endeavours. I would like to conclude with
     ries, been the main tillers of the land, producing all the necessary food for        the words of a Senegalese poet, Paulin Joachim, in the
     entire communities and have thus been responsible for food security. It is           lines he wrote to a fellow poet, David Diop:
     the women, who often, against all odds, have been the bearers of culture
     and the nurturers of nature. It is the women who have been the mainstay                 And it is true we are wounded at the lowest point
     of the informal economy and have turned market places into vibrant sites                of hope
     for community, culture and people.                                                      But hope in us has never beaten its wing
                                                                                             It rises on our human horizons
     We know that 70% of the world’s poor are women and therefore the fight                  Like a fresh unfolding bud
     against poverty must take into account the feminisation of this poverty.                There lives in us unconquerable hope
     There cannot be sustained development without the emancipation and                      Snapping at the wheels of freedom
     participation of women and the empowerment of the girl child in particu-                In due course it hunts down with huge supplies
     lar.                                                                                    of stones
                                                                                             Against the wall that will crack in the end
     We also need to ensure that the agenda for co-operation between the                     For we will not leave the smallest scrap to the
     Caribbean and Africa has also at its centre the question of women’s em-                 demons of despair.
     powerment and their relation to social, economic and cultural develop-
     ment. We need to play our part as the Caribbean and Africa to ensure that            On that note, I thank you for making time to be here and
     the women of our regions are represented in government, in academia, in              wish you well in your deliberations.
     the judiciary and in the mainstream economy.
                                                                                          I thank you.
     Among the issues that this conference will address is also how to assist to

38     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT       The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   39
                     By Mr KD Knight, Minister Of Foreign Affairs and Foreign
                     Trade, Jamaica
                     At the Opening Ceremony of The South Africa-African
                     Union-Caribbean Diaspora Conference
                                                                                                                                     The theme of the Conference “Towards Unity and                  tinent but have actively sought to explore ar-
                     16 March 2005                                                                                                   United Action of South Africans and the African Di-             eas for co-operation and collaboration.
                                                                                                                                     aspora in the Caribbean for a Better World: the.
                                                                                                                                     Case of South Africa” is an appropriate one, as it              This Conference, the first of its kind, will
                                                                                                                                     speaks to the need for a concerted effort – a join-             further improve on these relationships. We
                                                                                                                                     ing of purposes – to achieve sustainable economic               applaud the objectives of the Conference,
                                                                                                                                     and social development, in order to enhance the                 which should result in a more structured
                                                                                                                                     quality of life of our peoples.                                 approach to our interaction and lead to in-
                                                                                                                                                                                                     creased opportunities for socio-economic
                                                                                                                                     To escape the paradigm of dependence, which we                  progress for our peoples.
                                                                                                                                     have inherited, it is mandatory that we now chan-               Since the end of apartheid, South Africa
                                                                                                                                     nel our energies to develop a programme of action               has asserted itself as an increasingly influ-
                                                                                                                                     tailored to our needs and circumstance, as well                 ential player in international relations and
                                                                                                                                     as create and build on partnerships both amongst                has experienced impressive growth in its
                                                                                                                                     ourselves and with the rest of the world.                       economy over the recent years. Recover-
                                                                                                                                                                                                     ing from a repressive system of apartheid,
                                                                                                                                     This Conference will not only provide a platform                the renaissance of this nation attests to
                                                                                                                                     for reflection on the historic solidarity between the           the indomitable spirit of its people, and we
                                                                                                                                     peoples of Africa and the Caribbean, but will also              share its commitment to the improvement
                                                                                                                                     strengthen the resolve and determination of Afri-               of the social condition of our brothers and
                                                                                                                                     cans everywhere to confront their problems, and                 sisters throughout Africa and the Diaspora:
                                                                                                                                     decisively so, the plight and predicament of the                “at home and abroad”, as the great Marcus
                                                                                                                                     continent and the circumstance of the Diaspora.                 Garvey would have put it.

                                                                                                                                     As part of the Diaspora, Jamaica and the wider                  We have long suffered the ill effects of pov-
                                                                                                                                     Caribbean was always conscious of the role it had               erty, underdevelopment and marginalisation
                                                                                                                                     to play in the struggle against apartheid. We con-              and it is indeed now time for us to band to-
                                                                                                                                     tinue in our commitment to fight against racism and             gether and search for ways to confront these
                                                                                                                                     oppression, as well as to empower and advance                   challenges.
                                                                                                                                     the black race. We not only considered it an hon-
                                                                                                                                     our to join in the fight against apartheid but saw              I am confident that this Conference will pro-
                                                                                                                                     it as our duty to rid the world of this scourge. So,            vide a framework in which we can transform
                                                                                                                                     today, we celebrate with South Africa and Africans              our ideas into tangible outcomes and create
                                                                                                                                     everywhere the liberation of our ancestral home                 the basis for the enhancement of economic
                                                                                                                                     – a liberty that was paid for in the blood, sweat and           and trade links between both regions. This
                              The Honourable Minister of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade, Mr K.D. Knight                           tears of our brothers and sisters.                              is also an opportunity for the creation of new
                                                                                                                                                                                                     areas for partnership and co-operation.
                                                                                                                                     The countries of the Caribbean and Africa have
                                                                                                                                     had close and friendly relations within international           Again, let me extend a warm welcome to all
                                                                               dialogue towards the development of mechanisms
     SalutatIonS!                                                                                                                    fora such as the UN, the Commonwealth, ACP,                     our visitors and assure you that the govern-
                                                                               to unite Africans in Africa, and those in the Di-
                                                                                                                                     NAM and the G77. Our commitment to strengthen-                  ment and people of Jamaica are committed
                                                                               aspora, as well as to identify solutions to mutual
     Jamaica is indeed honoured to host this event, the South                                                                        ing our relations with countries in Africa is rooted            to this consultative process and will continue
                                                                               challenges. It comes at a time when as people of
     Africa-African Union-Caribbean Diaspora Conference, and                                                                         in the common historical connections, which we                  to play a role in ensuring, not only the suc-
                                                                               African descent, it is imperative that we reinvent
     we welcome all participants from South Africa, the nations of                                                                   share. Over time, we have sought to not only for-               cess of this event, but also the continuance
                                                                               and reassert ourselves in order to ensure our ef-
     the African Union as well as our Caribbean neighbours.                                                                          malise diplomatic relations with both English and               of dialogue and co-operation to achieve our
                                                                               fective survival in the rapidly changing global en-
                                                                                                                                     non-English speaking countries of the African con-              objectives.
     This Conference seeks to provide opportunities to initiate

40     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                      The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   41
              By Mr Patrick Mazimhaka, Deputy Chairperson, African Union
              16 March 2005

                                                                                                                                                                                                       the New Economic Partnership for Africa’s
     the most honourable P.J. Patterson, Prime minister of                                                                                                                                             development, creates relative advantages.
     Jamaica; honourable dr nkosazana dlamini zuma, min-                                                                                                                                               Intra-African and South-South partnerships
     ister of Foreign affairs of the republic of South africa;                                                                                                                                         are vital aspects of this approach.
     honourable K.d. Knight, minister of Foreign affairs                                                                                                                                               As part of this strategy, the African Un-
     of Jamaica; his excellency edwin carrington, Secre-                                                                                                                                               ion Commission has worked assiduously
     tary-general of carIcom; honourable ministers; their                                                                                                                                              to realise these goals. Its first priority is to
     colleague commissioners; honourable members of                                                                                                                                                    expand and deepen contacts with the Afri-
     Parliament; distinguished participants; ladies and gen-                                                                                                                                           can Diaspora in the various regions of the
     tlemen.                                                                                                                                                                                           world. It began with an outreach process de-
                                                                                                                                                                                                       signed to sensitise and enlist the support of
     Let me start by expressing my gratitude for the hospitality                                                                                                                                       the African Diaspora for this process. This
     of the Government and people of Jamaica and the warm                                                                                                                                              consultation process that began with the first
     welcome to our land as ably put by the Honourable K.D.                                                                                                                                            AU-Diaspora Forum in Washington D.C. in
     Knight.                                                                                                                                                                                           December 2002, must, of necessity, remain
                                                                                                                                                                                                       a continuous enterprise, but is nonetheless
     excellencIeS,                                                                                                                                                                                     an essential foundation for expanding on the
                                                                                                                                                                                                       bonds of mutuality and a prerequisite for the
     dIStInguIShed gueStS and PartIcIPantS,                                                                                                                                                            successful mobilisation of Africans on the
                                                                                                                                                                                                       continent and across the Atlantic.
     It is an honour and privilege for me and my delegation to
     be here in this beautiful city and country, and amongst such                                                                                                                                      The experience has been very rewarding.
     a distinguished leadership of Jamaica and Caribbean as a                                                                        It reflected many of the Pan-Africanist beliefs and               For a large part, elements of the African Di-
                                                                            The incorporation of the African Diaspora in the
     whole. The presence of such a strong delegation from the                                                                        was critical to the political liberation of our conti-            aspora have been eager partners in this en-
                                                                            African Union has sociological, political and eco-
     Republic of South Africa, led by its illustrious Foreign Minis-                                                                 nent. The Diaspora agenda renews and reaffirms                    terprise. They have organised roundtables,
                                                                            nomic dimensions. In the first place, Africans hold
     ter, Dr Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, lends further credence to                                                                       this historical responsibility. The African Union has             seminars and workshops alone and in con-
                                                                            the strong belief that collectively, Africans on the
     the commitment of Africa to develop meaningful relations for                                                                    embraced the duty to live the Pan-African dreams                  cert with the African Union to promote and
                                                                            continent and in the Diaspora, are the common ar-
     the sake of our pledges on both sides of the Atlantic.                                                                          of our forebearers and expand on its themes and                   further disseminate the objectives in vari-
                                                                            chitects of their own future, and that this future is
                                                                            linked.                                                  processes.                                                        ous regions of the world –Europe, Asia and
     The Commission of the African Union is happy to be a partner                                                                                                                                      the Americas. There are also lessons to be
     in this enterprise. The African Union is constructed on a plat-                                                                 However, the project of change and renewal is not                 learnt from this journey so far. Some Africans
                                                                            The Africa Diaspora in Europe and the Americas
     form of unity and solidarity among Africans on the continent                                                                    confined to the political and spiritual dimension. It             on this side of the Atlantic are discouraged
                                                                            can become vital players, provided they are pur-
     and in the Diaspora. This vision implies a commonwealth                                                                         has critical socio-economic aspects. If Africa is to              by the current conditions of the continent.
                                                                            posefully mobilised. The reasons for such mobili-
     of democratic states that must rely on total and active mo-                                                                     assume its rightful place in the world and become                 The outreach process underlined the need
                                                                            sation are not hard to find. First, there are histori-
     bilisation of all segments of society in order to flourish. The                                                                 an arbitrator of its own destiny, it must become                  to emphasise commitment in the definition
                                                                            cal reasons: it is hardly necessary in this regard to
     outreach to the Diaspora comes in recognition of the fact                                                                       an essential actor in economic development and                    of the African Diaspora and to work hard to
                                                                            recall the history of the Pan-Africanism Movement
     that significant aspect of this community resides outside the                                                                   overcome its chronic disabilities, such as the debt               build a modern, progressive and united Afri-
                                                                            and its founding fathers: William Du Bois (USA),
     African shores and that the contribution of this community to                                                                   trap or peonage, ever deterioration economies, the                ca that would win the loyalties of Africans all
                                                                            Marcus Garvey, George Padmore and Kwame Nk-
     the building of the Union is as legitimate and as valuable as                                                                   ravages of the HIV-AIDS pandemic etc. In order to                 over the world. Building on this framework,
                                                                            rumah (Ghana in UK).
     those residing within the continent. Thus, the first Extra-or-                                                                  do this effectively, Africans all over the world must             the Commission has also encouraged and
     dinary Session of the Assembly of Heads of State and Gov-                                                                       come together and improve their common pros-                      supported the creation of regional structures
                                                                            They did not simply seek human rights and inde-
     ernment meeting in Addis Ababa in March 2003 decided to                                                                         pects through bilateral and multilateral trade and by             that would promote the objectives of co-op-
                                                                            pendent states; they sought a world in which Afri-
     formally integrate the Diaspora into the policy framework of                                                                    forging common, mutually reinforcing, and benefi-                 eration. The AU-Diaspora chapters and for-
                                                                            cans would be masters of their own destinies and
     the Union by amending the Constitutive Act to provide for                                                                       cial positions in multilateral negotiations, and in the           mation have been developed and are being
                                                                            significant actors in the larger global family. The
     a new Article 3(q) that invites and encourages the full par-                                                                    wider global arena. Building strong partnerships,                 developed in various countries and regions
                                                                            establishment of the Organization of African Unity
     ticipation of the African Diaspora as an important part of our                                                                  and meaningful dialogue, in the sprit of NEPAD,                   of the world, to work actively with the Union
                                                                            (OAU) in 1963 was but one step on the right path.
     continent, in the building of the African Union.

42     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                        The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   43
                                                                                                                                     Opening Address
                                                                                                                                                     By MR PJ Patterson, Prime Minister of Jamaica
                                                                                                                                                     16 March 2005

     in the implementation of the Diaspora agenda. I should like            gramme that could be highlighted but our gather-                                                                     First, let me add my own commendation to
     to recognise that elements of the Caribbean Diaspora chap-             ing here today emphasises the role that various                                                                      the Government of South Africa on conceiv-
     ter, which was inaugurated in September last year, are here            segments of the African society must play in this                                                                    ing this Conference as an essential element
     present with us today. This has proved to be one of the most           enterprise. The challenge is not just for the African                                                                in marking its 10th anniversary of democ-
     active and committed chapters and its sincerity and dedica-            Union Commission and other organs of the Un-                                                                         racy.
     tion underlines the unique nature of the Caribbean region in           ion. It is one that must spread and be equally em-
     this regard, as a place where relations can be developed in            braced by all segments of African society, includ-                                                                   Jamaica is privileged to welcome all the par-
     three contexts – with civil society, government and regional           ing governments, regional economic communities                                                                       ticipants to our national soil and to be co-
     organisations such as CARICOM.                                         and civil society alike. The South African initiative,                                                               host.
                                                                            that we are celebrating here today, is an indication
     Inevitably, the creation of regional structures has helped             of what should and could be done to facilitate the                                                                   The postponement from the original sched-
     to promote consolidation of relations with both civil society          success of the Diaspora agenda. We are proud to                                                                      ule served as a stark reminder that it was
     groups, governments and regional organisations. In the Car-            be associated with this enterprise and would wish                                                                    the same deadly winds – originating from
     ibbean, for instance, the AU has developed closer relations            that other member states were challenged by it,                                                                      the shores of Africa – that blew the slave
     with the government of Trinidad and Tobago and was ef-                 especially in the sphere of intergovernmental rela-                                                                  ships, which carried our ancestors across
     fectively represented at the Emancipation Day ceremonies               tions.                                                                                                               the Middle Passage, in the most cruel and
     there in August last year. The AU has also been associated                                                                                                                                  inhumane abduction.
     with the Pan-African Commission, that until recently was led           In the course of the coming three days, we shall
     by David Comissiong, a leading member of the Caribbean                 be exchanging experiences on many issues rang-                                                                       In the history of the universe, the slave trade
     chapter and through it, the Government of Barbados. Rela-              ing from challenges of building peace and security,                                                                  will always remain the nadir of human bru-
     tions with CARICOM are also developing apace and consul-               governance based on the rule of law, challenges                                                                      tality.
     tations are underway to further strengthen and consolidate             of globalisation and the preservation of core val-
     these relations. The trend in the Caribbean is not isolated.           ues; challenges of building economic and cultural                                                                    We gather at a most auspicious time, in the
     It is simply a general indication of what is happening else-           bridges across the south-south and building a com-                                                                   wake of the launch, a few days ago, in Lon-
     where.                                                                 mon vision. The quality of the participants and the                                                                  don, Addis Ababa and New York, of the Afri-
                                                                            overwhelming turnout makes for a very successful                                                                     can Commission Report.
     The Strategic Plan of the Commission for 2003-2007 is de-              Conference.
     signed to consolidate and strengthen these relations par-                                                                                                                                   The Report confirms much of what has been
     ticularly through its ‘Bridge Atlantic Initiative’. We are also        This Conference, spearheaded by the South Af-                                                                        envisaged by African leaders themselves,
     cooperating to ensure that global observance days, as the              rican and Jamaican governments is, therefore, a                                                                      which is so well articulated in the New Part-
     Africa Day and Emancipation Day celebrations, are com-                 good opportunity to go one step further than we                                                                      nership for African Development (NEPAD).
     memorated jointly as a mark of common African destiny,                 have done so far to build deeper south-south co-                                                                     As President Thabo Mbeki has said: “This
     mutual effort and aspiration. Similarly, the Commission has            operation, unity and solidarity, to generate a dia-                                                                  initiative was not conceived in Paris, Wash-
     pursued a vigorous policy of providing for the inclusion of the        logue on our rich and diverse, yet common history,                                                                   ington or Westminster, but by Africans them-
     Diaspora in the policy organs of the AU. Thus, twenty seats            and to mobilise support within our institutions and                                                                  selves”.
     are reserved for the Diaspora in the Economic, Social and              beyond for stronger economic, social, cultural and
     Cultural Council that will be inaugurated at the end of this           political linkages. Its importance cannot be over-                                                                   It is our earnest hope that the African Com-
     month. Diaspora delegates are included as a matter of rou-             stressed.                                                                                                            mission Report will not suffer the same fate
     tine in AU-civil society summits and as invited guests at the                                                                                                                               as other expert reports and firm promises,
     deliberation of the various policy organs. The various policy          Thank you for your kind attention.                                                                                   which have since been confined to the scrap
     organs of the Union endorse this position and there is now                                                                                                                                  heap of history. It deserves positive and im-
     apparently a conscious policy of deepening the processes of                                                                                                                                 mediate action.
     Diaspora participation in policy formulation and implementa-
     tion, in order to make it the sixth region of the continent.                                                                                                                                Both Africa and the Diaspora must insist that
                                                                                                                                     The Most Honourable Prime Minister of Jamaica,              the questions of poverty, disease and illitera-
                                                                                                                                                   Mr P.J. Patterson
     There are other elements of the African Union Diaspora pro-                                                                                                                                 cy, which are common to all of us in degree,

44     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                  The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   45
     if not in kind, must be resolutely addressed at long last.             tional Congress (ANC), in its fledgling years, was
                                                                            exposed to the Negro World, the work of Marcus
     Action, not talk, is imperative in order to fulfil the hopes, as-      Garvey, the great Jamaican of African ancestry.
     pirations and vision of African leaders and their people. The          The Congress found inspiration in his exhortation
     proposals must become operational for the benefit of the               to fight for rights and justice for Africans at home
     millions of those who seek the restoration of peace, security          and abroad.
     and the prevention and management of conflict. This holds
     the key to the pursuit of good governance, as well as the              This occasion calls for us to celebrate our strong
     eradication of widespread poverty and the reduction of the             historical bonds, to build on the existing frame-
     acute disparity of income between the rich and poor.                   work, to enhance current relations, and seek out
                                                                            new partnerships between Africa and the Diaspora.
     We are all in pursuit of accelerated growth and sustainable            This Conference provides us with an opportunity
     development to finally bring an end to the marginalisation of          to reaffirm our commitment to strengthening bilat-
     Africa and her Diaspora here in the Caribbean, and in the              eral relationships between African countries and
     rest of the Americas.                                                  those of the Diaspora. This event also highlights
                                                                            the need for continued pursuit of a unified posi-              The Prime Minister of Jamaica, the Honourable Mr P.J. Patterson addresses fellow speakers and other
     I have used every opportunity, when speaking in interna-               tion for the social and economic empowerment of                                               dignitaries at the Diaspora Conference.
     tional fora, as I did in my last address to the General As-            Africa and the Diaspora, a position that converged
     sembly, to stress the need for international action to remove          into the Pan-African movement, which held its first
     the remaining obstacles, for the elimination of poverty and            Congress in 1900.
     disease, by providing the necessary material support. I am
     convinced that Africa has the indigenous resources, the hu-            The roots of this relationship have evolved from          Caribbean also suffer from this legacy.                         reference to one of the greatest sons of South
     man potential, and the leadership to prevail over adversity.           the shared historical experience of slavery and                                                                           Africa and a towering spirit of our times. I re-
                                                                            colonial exploitation, the consequences of which          When slavery was eventually abolished, authoritar-              fer to Nelson Mandela, who for decades was
     To further this agenda, I remain firmly of the view that there         we encounter today in both African societies and          ian regimes were structured to keep us in bondage               engaged in resistance to the evil system of
     is a compelling need to reform, rebuild and improve the                those of the Diaspora. Our common history and             and subservience, so as to maintain and increase                apartheid. Like Mahatma Gandhi, his unwa-
     work of the United Nations in such areas as development                experience form the basis for the spiritual affinity      wealth for the colonial and imperial masters. The               vering resolve made it possible for a nation
     co-operation, humanitarian affairs and disarmament. There              that exists between Africans and people of African        shift in Europe towards industry during the late                to throw off the shackles of oppression. He
     remains an urgent need to alter the design and function of             ancestry.                                                 18th century heralded new and increasing chal-                  is a living legend for human compassion and
     the Security Council to fulfil its mandate in the realities of                                                                   lenges for continent and Diaspora alike.                        the capacity to forgive. He reminds us of an-
     the world today. The case for the African continent to have a          For almost 500 years, the Atlantic slave trade for-                                                                       other truly great African who lived many cen-
     permanent voice in the deliberations of the Security Council           cibly removed over 10 million Africans to destina-        Movements such as Pan-Africanism grew out of                    turies ago – St Augustine.
     is compelling and irrefutable.                                         tions in the Americas. This mass relocation has           our need to overcome these obstacles.
                                                                            wreaked permanent and enormous damage to our                                                                              I, for one, am proud of the contribution of
     I am well enough acquainted with all the leaders responsible           ancestors and their descendants on every conti-           We cannot overlook the seminal contribution of                  Jamaica and the Caribbean region to the
     for the African initiative to know that they are serious about         nent bordering the Atlantic. It led to the depopula-      Marcus Garvey, whose concern for the problem of                 struggle against colonialism and apartheid
     taking their continent forward. In the several fora where we           tion and stifling of African creativity and production,   blacks led him to found the Universal Negro Im-                 in Africa, through the works of our writers,
     meet, they have shared with leaders of the North and South             and was the genesis of a dependency relationship          provement Association (UNIA) in 1914. Its main                  musicians, orators, politicians and artists.
     their vision as to the global response that both Africa and we         with Europe.                                              objectives were to promote the sprit of racial pride,           The music of Bob Marley, of Peter Tosh
     in the Diaspora must promote. In this way, we will find place,                                                                   to foster worldwide unity among people of African               and Jimmy Cliff, has inspired Africans and
     purpose and zones of operational comfort, in a world which             The resulting negative perception of persons of Af-       descent and to establish the greatness of the Af-               non-Africans alike to not only recognise the
     is still configured in the interest of others rather than people       rican ancestry is one we are still struggling to over-    rican heritage. The inspirational teachings of this             continuation of the struggle for liberation
     of our kith and kin.                                                   come. Undeniably, the slave trade was the first           influential black leader in the 1920s were a spring-            and social justice, but to champion the inter-
                                                                            step towards modern Africa’s current status as a          board for the success in securing civil liberties for           national movement against colonialism and
     This Conference is timely for us in Jamaica and indeed                 region, where development has lagged far behind           blacks worldwide.                                               neo-colonialism. Songs such as “War” and
     for the African Union and South Africa, whose African Na-              that of the more industrialised nations. We in the                                                                        “Zimbabwe” inspired freedom fighters and
                                                                                                                                      We cannot speak about African liberation without                became anthems for change.

46     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                       The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   47
     Nor should we overlook the refusal of our outstanding crick-                                                                                                                                    and political challenges.
     eters, Lloyd, Richards, Holding and their colleagues, who
     refused the lure of money to play in racist South Africa.                                                                                                                                       It is imperative that Pan-Africanism, in this
                                                                                                                                                                                                     millennium, defines itself in terms of its so-
     The year 1994 represented the culmination of the movement                                                                                                                                       cial and political vision, bringing together the
     towards the liberation in Africa. The victory over apartheid                                                                                                                                    collective perspectives of the people of Af-
     was the outcome of the activist struggle of those who were                                                                                                                                      rican descent in our struggle to assert and
     oppressed. The contribution of the global anti-apartheid                                                                                                                                        affirm our humanity.
     movement was critical to this outcome. Jamaica is proud
     of having sustained its commitment to the struggle against                                                                                                                                      Perhaps it is appropriate that we recall that
     apartheid. Under Norman Manley, we were second only to                                                                                                                                          modern civilization has its roots in ancient
     India in declaring sanctions against South African products.                                                                                                                                    Africa both ancient Egypt and Nubia. The
     Jamaicans of my generation could not bring themselves                                                                                                                                           Egyptians, lest we forget, were pioneers
     to consume any product from a package marked ‘Made in                                                                                                                                           of human civilization in the areas of math-
     South Africa’. Successive Jamaican administrations, from                                                                                                                                        ematics, geometry, architecture, engineer-
     both sides of the political fence, have continued the strug-                                                                                                                                    ing, writing, agriculture, mining, astronomy,
     gle.                                                                                                                                                                                            music and art. Scientific evidence supports
                                                                                                                                                                                                     the claim that Africa is the ‘Cradle of Human-
     The hegemony of Western nations has, however, over the                                                                                                                                          kind’.
     years, sparked conflicts in Rwanda, Democratic Republic
     of Congo, Liberia and Sierra Leone. Within the Caribbean                                                                                                                                        We have inherited a great legacy. It now
     context, Haiti, the first independent black nation, has expe-                                                                                                                                   rests with our generation to validate our
     rienced 200 years of under-development. Small wonder that                                                                                                                                       claim to this heritage for the betterment of
     the message of peace, solidarity and redemption is of as                                                                        now our solemn duty as government and peoples,                  present and future generations and of all of
                                                                            Nor will it result in the reduction of poverty, igno-
     much significance today, in this, the 21st century, as in any                                                                   both of African countries and of the Diaspora, to               humankind.
                                                                            rance and disease.
     other period in recent history.                                                                                                 follow through on his vision. This can be achieved,
                                                                                                                                     undoubtedly, by building on the strong bonds of                 Africans cannot be ‘in decline’ – nor can its
                                                                            The view is now gaining wider acceptance that in
     In addition to the adverse effects of globalisation, with its                                                                   fraternity and friendship that we share. It involves            Diaspora. For history, ancient and modern,
                                                                            our world, no matter our military might, we best
     trade constraints and rapidly changing information and com-                                                                     encouraging racial pride, self-confidence and self-             has demonstrated among our people the
                                                                            protect ourselves through collective security. This
     munication technology, the survival of our countries is fur-                                                                    respect.                                                        invincibility of the human spirit against all
                                                                            means the fight against terrorism, internal conflicts,
     ther threatened by the scourge of the HIV/AIDS pandemic.                                                                                                                                        odds.
                                                                            HIV/AIDS, poverty, illiteracy, environmental degra-
     Notably, sub-Saharan Africa is the region most affected with                                                                    People like us are most certainly fit to rule and fit
                                                                            dation, must be waged simultaneously across na-
     the disease, followed by the Caribbean. Our womenfolk are                                                                       to govern and are able to ‘run things’, contrary to             How could we then not wish for this Confer-
                                                                            tional frontiers. It is indeed one and indivisible.
     at great risk and our orphanages threaten to multiply. This                                                                     what some of us continue to mistakenly believe and              ence, the sort of success that our ancestral
                                                                            Poverty reduction is therefore an overriding priority
     epidemic acts as a significant brake on economic growth                                                                         declare. Our challenge, then, involves celebrating              bonds and the enduring presence of Africa
                                                                            for governments on the African continent and in the
     and development. Its social and economic consequences                                                                           past achievements while charting a new course for               among us demand?
                                                                            Diaspora. Poverty is a major cause of the environ-
     are also already being widely felt in education, industry, ag-                                                                  further social, political and economic gains.
                                                                            mental degradation and resource depletion, which
     riculture, transport and human resources. There are those of                                                                                                                                    Once again I say, “Welcome,” on behalf of
                                                                            threaten present and future economic growth.
     us in our political lives, who have never concealed our un-                                                                     Pan-Africanism remains a relevant strategy for ad-              the government and people of Jamaica and
                                                                            These are only some of the issues with which we
     wavering commitment to equity and social justice, between                                                                       dressing the problems of Africa. Increasing pres-               the Caribbean. I wish your deliberations to
                                                                            will grapple during this Conference.
     nations and within our domestic borders. For this, we were                                                                      sure of economic competition from international                 be fruitful and serve to strengthen the sin-
     once branded ideological heretics.                                                                                              trade blocs in North America, Europe and Asia, en-              ews, which must sustain unity of action and
                                                                            Our common experience dictates that we form a
                                                                                                                                     sures that the achievement of visible economic and              purpose, as long as time shall last.
                                                                            closer bond as a people. We alone know the chal-
     Today, it is conceded that the force of globalisation and the                                                                   political unity on the African continent remains an             I thank you.
                                                                            lenges and struggles we have encountered.
     building of a market economy will not by themselves bridge                                                                      urgent quest. People of the Diaspora are no less
     the disparities between the developed and developing world.                                                                     affected, as we too face similar socio-economic
                                                                            Marcus Garvey advocated Negro self-reliance. It is

48     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                      The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   49
     Keynote Address
              By Dr Pallo Jordan, Minister of Arts and Culture, South
              Africa, at the South Africa-AU-Caribbean Diaspora
              16 March 2005
                                                                                                                                      aimed at bringing together the peoples of Africa,               The Shawnee themselves, despite deter-
                                                                                                                                      on the continent and those of the Diaspora, was                 mined resistance, in their turn, lost their land
                                                                                                                                      originally planned to coincide with the bicentennial            and their lives.
                                                                                                                                      of the Haitian revolution and the first decade of de-
                                                                                                                                      mocracy in South Africa.                                        Slaves from Africa replaced the indigenes as
                                                                                                                                                                                                      the labour force on all the islands of the Car-
                                                                                                                                      For most people, black and white, the name of Haiti             ibbean and in many parts of the mainland of
                                                                                                                                      evokes images of Voodoo, the syncretic Afro-Car-                North and South America. By the mid-18th
                                                                                                                                      ibbean religion practised on that island, or worse              century, with the exception of Cuba and one
                                                                                                                                      yet, memories of ‘Papa Doc’ Duvalier, the malevo-               or two other islands, the demographic pro-
                                                                                                                                      lent US-backed dictator who misruled Haiti until his            file of the Caribbean had been completely
                                                                                                                                      death in 1971.Yet there was a time when the name                transformed. African slavery had made it
                                                                                                                                      of Haiti had a very different meaning.                          overwhelmingly African. On the North Ameri-
                                                                                                                                                                                                      can mainland, African slavery sustained the
                                                                                                                                      The arrival of the Europeans in the Americas let                plantation economies of the South. South
                                                                                                                                      the genie of upheaval and rapid change out of                   America also acquired huge concentrations
                                                                                                                                      the bottle. It stimulated massive population move-              of Africans in Brazil and in the other territo-
                                                                                                                                      ments of willing and unwilling immigrants. Their dif-           ries along its Atlantic coast
                                                                                                                                      ferences notwithstanding, the Europeans shared a
                                                                                                                                      common goal: the conquest and exploitation of the               The creation of African communities on the
                                                                                                                                      Americas. Within the first century of contact with              American side of the Atlantic was a harrow-
                                                                                                                                      the Europeans, the peoples of the islands of the                ing process involving the horrors of the Mid-
                                                                                                                                      Caribbean had virtually been exterminated by the                dle Passage, the humiliations of the auction
                                                                                                                                      new arrivals. Along with foreign domination, forced             block and the brutalities of the plantation.
                                                                                                                                      labour, the gun and the whip, the Europeans had                 Close to 10 million Africans perished during
                                                                                                                                      brought strange diseases against which the local                transportation to feed the insatiable appetite
                                                                                                                                      populations had no immunity. Entire villages per-               for labour power of the plantation and min-
                                                                                                                                      ished in the ensuing epidemics.                                 ing economies, which the Europeans es-
                                                                                                                                                                                                      tablished in the New World. African slaves
                                                                                                                                      The holocaust of the indigenous peoples of the                  played a pivotal role in the triangular trade
                                                                                                                                      Americas and the Caribbean is spoken of only in                 spanning the Atlantic, producing the raw ma-
                                                                                                                                      whispers, but it is the inescapable truth that this             terials that were exported to Europe for man-
       Minister of Arts and Culture Dr Pallo Jordan introducing a delegate to Minister of Freign Affairs Dr Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma.   was the price exacted for ‘taming the wilderness’.              ufacture. Finished goods were in turn sold
                                                                                                                                      Merciless policies of defoulement, which in mod-                along the Atlantic coast of Africa in return for
                                                                                                                                      ern times has been dubbed ‘ethnic cleansing’, un-               human cargo bound for the Americas.
                                                                                                                                      derpinned Chief Tecumseh of the Shawnee’s bitter
     Pan-aFrIcanISm In the 21St century: ItS rele-                              of Africa and those of African descent throughout     reflection on the fate of the first nations of North            “The whole history of the slave trade and
     vance and reSPonSeS to globalISatIon                                       the world. In conception and in historical fact the   America:                                                        slavery is a sequence of revolts,” Professor
                                                                                pan-African movement sought to unite in action the                                                                    Oruno D. Lara told a UNESCO meeting of
     I have been asked to speak on the “Contemporary Relevance                  African communities on either side of the Atlantic                                                                    experts in 1978. Every part of the New World
     of Pan-Africanism”, a topic that is so wide-ranging that I ap-             Ocean in order to address their shared condition      Where today are the Pequot? Where are the                       where slavery was practised, experienced
     proached it with a degree of trepidation. Pan-Africanism has               as a colonised and oppressed people.                    Narragansett? The Mohican, the Pokanoket,                     its share of slave revolts, large and small. All
     had many different meanings over the ages, but the sense                                                                           and many other once powerful tribes of                        were crushed with terrifying brutality. All, ex-
     in which I shall be employing the term refers to the political             The term pan-African is usually attributed to Ed-       our people? They have vanished before the                     cept for the revolution of the African slaves
     project inaugurated by a group of African-descended intel-                 ward Wilmot Blyden, but the spiritual father of the     avarice of the oppression of the White Man,                   in the French colony of San Domingo. On
     lectuals and activists at the beginning of the 20th century,               movement that took that name was Henry Sylvest-         as snow before a summer sun.                                  22 August 1791, two years and one month
     with the aim of restoring the human rights of the peoples                  er Williams from Trinidad. Today’s Conference,

50     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                       The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   51
                           Dignitaries at the Diaspora Conference applaud the
                           efforts of the Jamaican government, its people and
                            the Diaspora at large, in the successful execution
                                                                  of the event.

     after the Storming of the Bastille, the slaves of San Domin-
     go rose, and in 12 years of war, inscribed one of the most
     inspiring chapters in the annals of humanity’s struggle for
     liberation. In January 1804, after the French expeditionary
     force of Napoleon, which was dispatched to the island, was
     defeated, Dessalines briefly halted the Independence Day
     proceedings, in order to rip out a band of white bunting from
     the new national flag. “We want nothing white in our flag!” he
     declared. So embittered towards their former white masters
     had the ex-slaves become. The liberators renamed their is-
     land Haiti and proclaimed it the first Negro Republic in the
     New World.

     Haiti, an African nation in the Caribbean, lit the torch of Af-
     rican freedom two centuries ago. That torch was passed
     on from Toussaint L’Ouverture to Henry Sylvester Williams
     ninety-six years later; it was carried across the finishing line
     by Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela ninety-four years later. When
     Nelson R. Mandela was sworn in as South Africa’s first dem-
     ocratically elected head of state in 1994, in every part of the
     world his inauguration was hailed as marking the official end
     of the system of institutionalised racism, which had assailed                Rights Act of 1875 was unconstitutional, ending           land, in order to create a workforce to serve the                 change the condition of Africans on the con-
     the dignity and human worth of every person of African de-                   the promise that the reconstruction of the South          colonial government, administrators and white set-                tinent and those in the African Diaspora. Its
     scent for the previous five hundred years of interaction be-                 once held. Two years later, the same Supreme              tlers.                                                            history dates from 1787 when Prince Hall,
     tween Europeans and Africans. The Atlantic slave trade and                   Court made its notorious Plessy vs Ferguson rul-                                                                            an African-American clergyman in Massa-
     the triangular trade cycle, of which it was an indispensable                 ing, sanctifying the doctrine of “separate but equal”,    As colonised people, Africans could claim no                      chusetts, campaigned unsuccessfully to re-
     link, were the material undergird of the white racism that le-               thus setting the stage for constitutionally enforced      rights. They were not citizens, but subjects gov-                 turn impoverished African freed persons to
     gitimised and sustained it. The colonial conquest of Africa,                 racial discrimination in the provision of public serv-    erned in terms of the colonial administration’s con-              the continent. The Quaker shipbuilder Paul
     during the latter part of the 19th century, cemented this rela-              ices.                                                     strual of ‘customary laws’. Even in countries, as                 Cuffe, anticipated Marcus Garvey’s Black
     tionship while widening the circle of stakeholders in racism                                                                           in the US, where the constitution guaranteed citi-                Star Line, by setting sail in one of the ships
     and exponentially increasing its victims.                                    After successive slave rebellions, all of which had       zenship rights to people of African descent, these                he had built with 40 other black Americans,
                                                                                  been suppressed with sadistic brutality, in 1885,         protections were ignored and they were treated                    subsequently founding a settlement in Sierra
     A conference of the leading European powers meeting in                       slavery was abolished in Brazil. Formal freedom           no differently from their kith and kin in Africa and              Leone in 1815.
     Berlin in 1884-1885 carved out the African continent and                     did not necessarily come with rights. Brazil’s former     the Caribbean. The colonial authorities exercised
     shared the pieces out among themselves as colonies and                       slaves occupied the lowest rung on the social lad-        a host of arbitrary powers, which they wielded at                 Like other movements of the oppressed and
     dependencies. By the end of that exercise, with the excep-                   der and were subjected to every form of legal and         their discretion or, worse yet, at the instance of set-           colonised of the time, the Pan-African Con-
     tions of Ethiopia and Liberia, every other part of the conti-                non-legal discrimination.                                 tlers or metropolitan vested interests.                           ference was the brainchild of an educated
     nent was under foreign rule. Apart from these two countries,                                                                                                                                             elite. The founders were drawn from the
     Haiti was the only other territory occupied by Africans and                  For those at its receiving end, colonialism was not       In 1900, a group of Africans from the USA, the                    Caribbean and North America. This Pan-
     their descendants in the New World that was self-govern-                     the benign, civilizing mission as dictated from the       Caribbean and the African continent gathered for                  African political leadership, like its counter-
     ing. As a race, virtually all Africans had been reduced to a                 literature of imperial nostalgia. In Africa, it invari-   the first Pan-African Conference. The struggle to                 parts elsewhere in the world, was very con-
     subject people, ruled and governed by others, usually whites                 ably entailed regimes of forced labour – enforced         restore African sovereignty was indeed among the                  scious of the precarious perch it occupied
     from Europe or their descendants.                                            with the whip, imprisonment and the gun – for the         leit motifs of the 20th century history.                          in a world dominated by the imperial pow-
                                                                                  benefit of public works, as well as for private pur-                                                                        ers of Europe. The US and Japan had only
     During the course of that same year, 1884, the Supreme                       poses. Taxes, and other impositions, were another         the bIrth oF a movement                                           recently staked their claims at the table of
     Court of the United States of America, ruled that the Civil                  favourite device for separating tillers from their        Pan-Africanism was and remains a movement                         imperial powers. Both had their eyes firmly
                                                                                                                                            born in struggle; a struggle waged to radically

52     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                               The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   53
     fixed on the Pacific region, where their rival interests would         Crafted in the cautious language of petitioners, ap-    of the movement, as the names Williams, Marcus                       chosen to tone down on agitation during the
     inevitably collide.                                                    pealing to the presumed sense of justice of their       Garvey, George Padmore (Malcolm Nurse), C.L.R.                       course of the World War, in the hope that
                                                                            colonial overlords, the address that Du Bois pro-       James, Aimé Césaire, Franz Fanon, and Walter                         a demonstration of loyalty would rebound
     The first stirrings of solidarity across the Atlantic came from        duced in 1900 may, with hindsight, strike one as        Rodney testify. The Caribbean was notably fecund                     to the benefit of their cause. Even in South
     the US, where African-American activists attempted to                  extremely naive. Yet, it focused on virtually all the   in breeding the organisers, theorists and tacticians                 Africa, where an Afrikaner (Boer) national-
     arouse their own community to the threats of African sover-            issues that would be at the core of the struggle for    of a movement that helped shape the trans-Atlan-                     ist rebellion in 1914 could be unfavourably
     eignty posed by the expansionist policies of the European              African freedom in the 20th century.                    tic African movement at key moments, helping to                      contrasted with the co-operation which the
     powers. The first recorded meeting took place in Chicago               Six years later, addressing an audience at Colum-       give it focus, thereby stimulating novel ideas that                  government received from African national-
     in 1893, where resolutions were adopted in opposition to               bia University in New York, a South African under-      kept it relevant to this African community for over                  ists, General Hertzog, founder and leader of
     France’s unwelcome attentions to Ethiopia. Trans-Atlantic              graduate, Pixley Kalsaka Seme, could more opti-         a century.                                                           the Afrikaner Nationalist Party, was able to
     African opposition to European colonial adventures received            mistically pronounce:                                                                                                        travel to London and Versailles, was accord-
     a welcome boost in 1895 when the Ethiopian armies repulsed                                                                     From its birth, Pan-Africanism in the New World                      ed a hearing, and was able to return to home
     an Italian expeditionary force intent on invading their home-          The regeneration of Africa means that a                 was characterised by an internal tension between                     with solid undertakings of greater autonomy
     land at Adowa. In virtually every part of the African world, on           new and unique civilization is soon to be            those who sought a solution in abandoning the                        for the white Union of South Africa.
     either side of the Atlantic, the name Ethiopia took on a new              added to the world. The African is not a             New World and resettling in Africa, vs those who
     meaning and acquired a mystique that continues to resonate                proletarian in the world of science and art.         sought to recast relations between whites and Af-                    Fifty-seven delegates, representing 15
     to the present date, as is evidenced by the convergence of                He has precious creations of his own, of             ricans in the New World, and win equality for Af-                    countries, attended the Conference, which
     thousands on Ethiopian soil, to mark the Bob Marley anni-                 ivory, of copper and of gold, fine, plated           ricans and independence in the territories where                     met in Paris, to give it easy access to the al-
     versary in recent months.                                                 willow-ware and weapons of superior                  they constituted the majority. These two schools                     lied powers. Though concerned with the po-
                                                                               workmanship. Civilization resembles an               co-existed, often extremely uncomfortably, into the                  sition of all Africans, the second Pan-African
     An African Association was formed in 1897 with Henry Syl-                 organic being in its development – it is             second half of the 20th century, when the arrival of                 Conference focused especially on the fate of
     vester Williams amongst its leaders. This London-educated                 born, it perishes, and it can propagate              African independence rendered the one less rel-                      Germany’s African colonies.
     barrister from Trinidad convened the first Pan-African Con-               itself. More particularly, it resembles a            evant than in the past.
     ference in London in 1900.                                                plant, it takes root in the teeming earth,                                                                                It placed two principal demands before the
                                                                               and when the seeds fall in other soils new           Though the strategies implicit in these two diver-                   Versailles Peace Conference:
     “The problem of the twentieth century is the problem of the               varieties sprout up. The most essential              gent approaches appear mutually exclusive, role
     colour-line,” declared the delegates at the first Pan-African             departure of this new civilization is                players regularly discovered issues that made co-                    •   That the allies administer the
     Conference,                                                               that it shall be thoroughly spiritual and            operation possible. The place the communities of                         former German colonies in Africa
                                                                               humanistic – indeed a regeneration moral             the Diaspora occupied within the movement, the                           as a condominium on behalf of their
                                                                               and eternal! O Africa!                               resources these communities commanded, as well                           indigenous peoples.
     the question as to how far differences of race-which                   Like some great century plant that shall                as the international profiles its leading figures en-
        show themselves chiefly in the colour of the skin                      bloom In ages hence, we watch thee; In               joyed, lent the strategists and tacticians from the                  •   That Africans be allowed greater
        and the texture of the hair-will hereafter be made the                 our dream See in thy swamps the Prospero             Diaspora a weight disproportionate to the numbers                        participation in the governing of their
        basis of denying to over half the world the right of                   of our stream; Thy doors unlocked,                   they commanded. Thus, we find that though the                            countries “as fast as their development
        sharing to their utmost ability the opportunities and                  where knowledge in her tomb Hath lain                North American African community was a strate-                           permits”, with a view to self-government.
        privileges of modern civilization.                                     innumerable years in gloom. Then shalt               gic minority in political terms, the tactics its political
                                                                               thou, walking with that morning gleam,               leadership devised, to take account of that reality,                 The language was still that of the loyal
     During the 20th century, the most consistent inspiration of               Shine as thy sister lands with equal beam.           were often applied in imitation, even in environ-                    subject petitioning his rulers, whom it was
     the Pan-African movement was Dr W.E.B. Du Bois, the first                                                                      ments where Africans were an outright majority.                      assumed would respond to a tone of ‘rea-
     African-American to earn a PhD from Harvard University. Du             As African voices became more assertive, so too         This was particularly true before1900, when the                      sonableness’. But the war, the experiences
     Bois chaired the committee that drafted “The Address to the            the continental dimension of the African freedom        ideas of Booker T. Washington were dominant.                         of African soldiers during the war, including
     Nations of the World”, adopted at the 1900 Pan-African Con-            movement assumed a higher profile. What is strik-                                                                            racist attacks by white American and British
     ference as its declaration. He convened every subsequent               ing about the international movement for African        reForm or revolutIon?                                                troops, had a radical impact on the politi-
     Pan-African Conference held outside the African continent.             freedom is the central role specific personalities,     When the second Conference was held in 1919,                         cal leadership. The victorious allied powers
     Du Bois remained deeply involved in the movement even                  bodies and initiatives emanating from the African       Williams was no longer in the picture and Dr                         chose to ignore the petitions and pleas of the
     after he had passed the baton to younger leaders from the              Diaspora, occupied within it. The Caribbean is par-     W.E.B. Du Bois assumed leadership. African lead-                     Pan-African Conference as they did those of
     mother continent.                                                      ticularly well represented in virtually every phase     ers on both sides of the Atlantic had deliberately                   Chinese, Indian and Arab nationalists, who

54     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                          The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   55
     had hoped that the contribution their people had made                         with legitimacy in the eyes of their rulers. When the
     to the allied victory, would at least earn them a token of                    US-trained Dr A.B. Xuma, President of the ANC in                     or economic. The peoples of the
     gratitude.                                                                    South Africa, commissioned a response to that                        colonies must have the right to elect
                                                                                   document in 1943, he penned a preface, which                         their own government, a government
     The ‘Regeneration of Africa’ invoked by Seme in his                           read in part:                                                        without restrictions from a foreign
     speech at Columbia has been the lodestar of the Pan-Af-                                                                                            power. We say to the peoples of
     rican movement since its inception. The movement was                          As African leaders we are not so foolish as to                       the colonies that they must strive
     premised on the inseparability of the condition of Africans                     believe that because we have made these                            for these ends by all means at their
     on the mother continent from that of Africans within the                        declarations that our government will                              disposal. The object of imperialist
     Diaspora, hence the integral involvement of the diasporic                       grant us our claims for the mere asking.                           powers is to exploit. By granting
     community and its leaders in its conception and in the                          We realize that for the African this is only                       the right to the colonial peoples
     prosecution of its project. It required the political inter-                    a beginning of a long struggle entailing                           to govern themselves, they are
     vention of the masses, through powerful movements on                            great sacrifices of time, means and                                defeating that objective. Therefore,
     both sides of the Atlantic during the inter-war years, for a                    even life itself. To the African people the                        the struggle for political power by
     leadership that placed its reliance on the power of mass                        declaration is a challenge to organize and                         colonial and subject peoples is the
     action to emerge.                                                               unite themselves under the mass liberation                         first step towards, and the necessary
                                                                                     movement…                                                          pre-requisite to, complete social,
                                                                                                                                                        economic and political emancipation.
     garveyISm and ItS tranS-atlantIc ImPact                                       Xuma’s preface was prescient. Churchill virtually re-
     The Garveyist movement was probably the first trans-                          pudiated the Atlantic Charter once it was clear that              It ended its declaration with a call to all the
     Atlantic mass movement among the Africans of the Eng-                         the axis powers had lost the strategic initiative. The            colonial peoples of the world:
     lish-speaking world. Its impact was felt in Garvey’s Carib-                   principles of the Atlantic Charter, Churchill said, ap-
     bean home, the US as well as in Anglophone Africa and                         plied only to the whites in Europe, and not to the                The Fifth Pan-African Congress,
     Britain. Garvey catalysed yet another movement, Rasta-                        colonial peoples of Africa, Asia and the Caribbean.                 therefore, calls on the workers and
     farianism, by linking the deliverance of the African world                                                                                        farmers of the colonies to organize
     from bondage to the coronation of an African emperor.                         But the struggle for African rights had taken on a                  effectively. Colonial workers must be
     When the Ethiopian nobleman, Ras Tafari was crowned                           new character, as expressed in the Declaration of                   in the front lines of the battle against
     Emperor Haile Selassie, the Lion of Judah in 1930, his                        the 5th Pan-African Conference, which met in Man-                   imperialism.
     name was adopted by a pan- African mystical sect with                         chester, Britain, in 1945. Though the participants
     growing numbers of adherents in every part of the Afri-                       from the mother continent were still a minority,                  This Fifth Pan-African Congress calls
     can world.                                                                    those who were present became names to conjure                       on the intellectuals and professional
                                                                                   in the following two decades – Kwame Nkrumah                         classes of the colonies to awaken
     Garveyism, in the British empire, found an echo in neg-                       from Ghana; Jomo Kenyatta from Kenya; Obafemi                        to their responsibilities. The long,
     ritude, in France’s Atlantic empire, Afro-Cubanismo in                        Awolowo from Nigeria; Hastings Banda from Ma-                        long night is over. By fighting for
     Cuba, Modernismo Afro-Brasileiro in Brazil, and the New                       lawi. The indomitable Du Bois was there, as were                     trade union rights, the right to form
     African Movement in among African intellectuals in South                      George Padmore and Mrs Amy Garvey, the widow                         co-operatives, freedom of the press,
     Africa. In each of these regions, the movements among                         of Marcus Garvey.                                                    assembly, demonstration and strike;
     intellectuals were accompanied by mass protest move-                                                                                               freedom to print and read the literature
     ments, such as the United Negro Improvement Associa-                          The accent of the moderate colonial subject was                      which is necessary for the education
     tion in the US and the Caribbean, and the Industrial and                      a thing of the past, as declared during the Confer-                  of the masses, you will be using the
     Commercial Workers Union (ICU) in Southern Africa.                            ence:                                                                only means by which your liberties
     It was only in the aftermath of the Second World War that                                                                                          will be won and maintained. Today
     this new mood of assertiveness became evident among                           We believe in the rights of all peoples to                           there is only one road to effective
     the leaders of African opinion in the Atlantic littoral coun-                   govern themselves. We affirm the right of                          action-the organization of the masses,
     tries. The Atlantic Charter, adopted by Roosevelt and                           all colonial peoples to control their own                          “COLONIAL AND SUBJECT PEOPLES
     Churchill in 1941 seemed to endow the demands that the                          destiny. All colonies must be free from                            OF THE WORLD – UNITE!”
     Pan-African movement had been making for forty years                            foreign imperialist control, whether political

56     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                      The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   57
     That battle cry was taken up in every part of the colonised            in South Africa; Adams College; Roma College in                                                                             bean and Asian states were able to muster
     world during the next two decades. What was notable about              Lesotho; as well as at Makerere in Uganda for lat-         favourable balance for the US.... In addition                    the isolation of Margaret Thatcher’s govern-
     the 1945 document was that it linked the struggle for African          er generations, resulted in a remarkable ésprit de         the US has indirect economic interest in                         ment, which could barely conceal its support
     independence and freedom to that of other colonised peo-               corps that united these leaders around a common            the key role which South Africa plays in the                     for the apartheid regime. In the US, trans-Af-
     ples, thus anticipating the themes of Afro-Asian solidarity,           vision.                                                    UK balance of payments, UK investment                            rica, a highly effective lobby group working
     the Non-Aligned movement and those of the Tri-Continental                                                                         in South Africa is currently estimated at                        in close co-operation with the Congressional
     movement of our day.                                                   The unfolding of African independence coincides            US$3billion, and the British have made it                        Black Caucus and the African-American
                                                                            with and helped stimulate the struggle for human           clear that they will take no action which                        community groups, was able to pilot sanc-
     In 1958, the first Pan-African Conference to be held on                rights in North America. The African community in          would jeopardize their economic interests.                       tions legislation through Congress in 1987.
     African soil began its deliberations in Accra, Ghana. The              the US had historically made a consistent contribu-
     veterans of the Pan-African freedom movement, Du Bois,                 tion to the liberation struggle on the mother con-      That is how the “National Security Study Memo-                      The mass struggles that swept through
     Padmore and James graced the occasion. But the leaders                 tinent in a number of ways. Its most high profile       randum 39: Southern Africa”, inspired by Henry                      South Africa during that same period con-
     were now visibly taking the lead from the mother continent,            leaders and public figures invariably were held         Kissinger, stated the matter in 1969. These were                    verged with these external pressures pre-
     culminating in the high tide of independence in Africa and             up as role models amongst Africans, especially in       the considerations that determined the options the                  cipitating an insurmountable crisis in the
     the Caribbean during the 1960s.                                        the Anglophone countries. Numerous future lead-         US, Britain and France chose in Southern Africa                     apartheid regime. By the end of 1988, it was
                                                                            ers of the African liberation movements studied in      during the 1970s.                                                   clear that it was just a matter of time before
     The founding of the Organization of African Unity in 1963,             US tertiary institutions, many in historically black                                                                        all political prisoners would be released, and
     and the establishment of its Liberation Committee in 1965,             colleges, where they came under the influence of        When the apartheid regime, having received as-                      negotiations to end apartheid subsequently
     was an affirmation of the mission adopted in 1945 but it was           Booker T. Washington, later of Du Bois, and some        surances of support from the US, attempted to ex-                   commenced in earnest.
     also a recognition that the tide of liberation had come up             under the influence of Marcus Garvey. When Italy        port a counter-revolution to Angola in 1975, it was
     against the immovable object of the white colonial in South-           attempted its second invasion of Ethiopia in 1936,      the small Caribbean nation of Cuba, with a popula-
     ern Africa. In 1965, Ian Smith led the racist white Rhodesia           Paul Robeson, the most famous African-American          tion smaller than that of New York city, that commit-               aFrIcan Freedom and the chal-
     Front in its Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI)              performer of stage and screen at the time, helped       ted its armed forces, materials and its international               lengeS oF the PreSent
     from Britain in the full knowledge that Britain would neither          found the Council on African Affairs, which mobi-       reputation to the defence of the project of African
     use armed force to suppress them, nor impede white-ruled               lised support within the African-American commu-        liberation.                                                         The thrust of my argument in this paper has
     South Africa from assisting them. The stubborn resistance of           nity and the wider US society for African liberation.                                                                       been that a shared history over the past five
     the white settler regime in Zimbabwe, the apartheid regime             The Council was eventually ‘red-baited’ out of exist-   Over the following fifteen years, Cuban troops de-                  hundred years dictated that the fates of the
     of South Africa, and of fascist-ruled Portugal, compelled the          ence during the McCarthy era. Robeson, Alpheus          stroyed the myth of white South Africa’s invincibil-                African peoples, who today live on either side
     liberation movements to match the words of the 1945 Dec-               Hunton, Du Bois, Louis Burnham, Lena Home and           ity; it called a halt to its strategy of intervention and           of the Atlantic, would be interwoven. Recogni-
     laration, “...that that they (the colonised peoples) must strive       others who rallied to the Council on African Affairs,   military destabilisation of independent Africa, and                 tion of that reality spurred the most far-sight-
     for these ends by all means at their disposal” with deeds.             were also leading players in the struggle for free-     finally inflicted a decisive strategic defeat on the                ed political leaders of the African Diaspora to
     In June 1967, the joint forces of the Zimbabwe and South Af-           dom within the US itself.                               forces of apartheid at Cuito Cuinavale, thus open-                  assume leadership of a trans-Atlantic move-
     rican liberation movements commenced joint operations into                                                                     ing the way for Namibian independence in 1990.                      ment for African freedom. This they achieved,
     Zimbabwe, announcing the outbreak of the Southern African              The African Diaspora was destined to play a de-         Among the pressures that finally compelled the                      by demonstrating in practice, that the blood
     liberation wars.                                                       cisive supportive role especially in the Southern       apartheid regime to the negotiating table, was the                  that binds these two communities is thicker
                                                                            African theatre of struggle, where the statesmen of     defeat suffered at Cuito Cuinavale.                                 than the waters of the Atlantic. The Pan-Af-
     The wars to liberate the Portuguese colonies, Zimbabwe,                Europe and the US outdid themselves in equivo-                                                                              rican movement they inspired, after close to
     Namibia and South Africa, were inter-linked and intertwined            cation, while quietly giving tacit support to the re-   Who was in whose trench during those thirteen                       a century of struggle, has reconquered the
     not solely by geography but also by the long-standing links            maining colonial and white supremacist regimes on       years, will always weigh heavily in the scales when                 sovereignty of the African continent and put
     amongst the freedom fighters of Southern Africa. The found-            African soil. This was baldly stated in a US policy     Africa considers the situation in the Caribbean. We                 an end to institutionalised racism on both the
     ing of the ANC in South Africa had inspired sister movements           document:                                               do not lightly forget our old friends, even when we                 mother continent and in the New World.
     in all of South-Eastern Africa, as far north as Kenya. Many of                                                                 have found new ones!
     the liberation movement’s pioneer leaders were accepted as                                                                                                                                         Despite this historic victory, Africa is an ex-
     spokespersons for the entire region. Relations established             US direct investment in southern Africa,                An extraordinary degree of co-ordination among                      tremely troubled continent, plagued by inter-
     as students at universities, in Europe and America, among                mainly in South Africa, is about $1 billion           the various fronts of a Pan-African effort to deal                  necine wars, political instability and its people
     pioneers; but increasingly, at Fort Hare University College              and yields a highly profitable return. Trade,         the final deathblow to apartheid occurred during                    afflicted by degrading poverty. The first free
                                                                              again mainly with South Africa, runs a                these years. In the Commonwealth, African, Carib-                   African nation of modern times, Haiti, is the

58     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                         The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   59
                                                                                                                                      Keynote address
                                                                                                                                                        By Ralph E. Gonsalves, Prime Minister of St
                                                                                                                                                        Vincent and The Grenadines
                                                                                                                                                        18 March 2005

     poorest country in the Caribbean, with a troubled history ex-          that will take us forward. There are important de-
     pressed in the 37 coups, which the island has witnessed. The           velopments taking place in Africa, many of them
     African communities of the Atlantic are not prosperous. In the         based on our own efforts. The reversal of the at-
     New World the legacy of slavery, compounded by nearly a                tempted coup in Togo in recent weeks is a case in
     century of constitutionalised racial oppression, has kept them         point. It is equally significant that it was the action
     at the lowest rungs of the social ladder. Despite the pervasive        taken by ECOWAS that achieved this feat.
     poverty evident in virtually every part of the continent, Africa re-
     mains a net exporter of wealth to Europe and North America.            We remain engaged with the issues of the Côte
                                                                            d’Ivoire, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan,
     Having won political freedom through their collective action           Sierra Leone and Liberia. The struggle to achieve
     during the 20th century, the challenge facing the peoples              peace and political stability on the mother continent
     of Africa in the 21st century is how to devise a programme             is going to require the same measure or commit-
     of action to break the chains of poverty and underdevelop-             ment, as well as the solidarity that brought us free-
     ment, which hold far too many of our people in thrall.                 dom during the 20th century. Yet, it is equally true
                                                                            that African capacity is gravely constrained by the
     ‘Globalisation’ is the name used to describe the develop-              limited finances of the continent, and the huge devel-
     ments in world economy, brought about by the rapid devel-              opmental challenges facing every African country.
     opments in telecommunications, international travel and the
     movement of capital and goods across international fron-               Here in the Caribbean, we have witnessed yet an-
     tiers. Though the African continent and the peoples of Af-             other coup in Haiti, coinciding with the bi-centen-
     rica have been at the core of evolution of the world system            nial of Haitian independence. The Caribbean com-
     since the 15th century, globalisation threatens to marginal-           munity was unable to thwart the aims of big powers
     ise our continent even further, compounding the social and             that took a direct hand in effecting ‘regime change’
     economic situation of Africans of the Diaspora. Africa has             in Haiti, and the interventions of the Black Con-
     attempted its own indigenously evolved response to globali-            gressional Caucus in the USA were greeted with
     sation, namely the New Partnership for African Development             utter contempt.
     (NEPAD), focusing on the development of infrastructure, the
     redefinition of trade between Africa and its principal trading         Nigh a century after he spoke these words, Pixley                                      The Honourable Prime Minister, Ralph E. Gonsalves
     partners, the exploration of intra-African trade, and the de-          Kalsaka Seme’s clarion call for the ‘Regeneration
     velopment of new partnerships amongst African nations and              of Africa’ should summon us all to the new battle-
     other developing countries.                                            fronts to defeat the scourge of poverty among the         towardS an aFrIcan century: cloSer                                Understanding when we speak of
                                                                            peoples of Africa. As in the struggle for political       collaboratIon between aFrIca and                                  an African Renaissance, we speak
     When I passed through London en route to Kingston this                 emancipation, self-determination and freedom, it is       the carIbbean In the conduct oF Inter-                            of a rebirth that must encompass
     past weekend, the British media were celebrating the pub-              by coordinating our efforts that we shall maximise        natIonal relatIonS                                                all Africans, both in Africa and the
     lication of the Blair Commission for Africa’s Report. Though           our striking force.                                                                                                         African Diaspora
     this report contains nothing that is significantly new, the pro-                                                                 In a speech at the University of the West Indies,
     file it has been given suggests that its validity resides in its       Pan-Africanism remains eminently relevant in our          in Jamaica, in July 2003, His Excellency Thabo                A series of questions accordingly arise for
     sponsorship, a European head of government, rather than                day because there is still so much unfinished busi-       Mbeki, President of South Africa, addressed the is-           consideration. Among these are the follow-
     its actual content. While it is highly commendable that a Brit-        ness amongst all of us. The future beckons. The           sue before us as follows:                                     ing:
     ish Prime Minister regards the issues of African poverty and           best and most lasting monument we can erect to the
     under-development as important, is it not high time that col-          generations who preceded us is to ensure that Africa      Over the past few years, we have made bold                    •   What is the current condition of the
     lective African initiatives be dominated by discourse about            does indeed walk tall. In the words of Seme,                to speak about an African Renaissance.                          political economy and society of Africa
     our continent rather than his?                                                                                                     We have also spoken of the need for us as                       and its Diaspora, which prompts the
                                                                            Then shalt thou, walking with that morning                  Africans to Ensure that the 21st century                        necessity and desirability of an African
     The trans-Atlantic African communities must interrogate that             gleam, Shine as thy sister lands with equal               becomes an African in reality, I stand                          rebirth?
     matter with the gravity that it deserves and provide answers             beam.                                                     here today to talk bout what we might
                                                                            Thank you.                                                  do together to accomplish these goals,                      •   What essentially does an African

60     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   61
                                                                              been fashioned by the African Union under the            Of the 48 countries in sub-Sa-                                                    and only one – Haiti – is
         Renaissance mean or entail?                                          leadership of President Mbeki, is the critical vehi-     haran Africa, only five have        “despite huge natural                         a LIC.
                                                                              cle in this quest for renaissance. NEPAD summons         been put in the category of
     •   Is an African Renaissance an essential pre-requisite to              all of Africa to take its destiny into its own hands,    an “upper middle-income             resources and talented                        Recently, Richard Dow-
         the collective self-mastery of Africa and its Diaspora so            to assume responsibility for its own failing, to en-     country (UMC)” by the World                                                       den, the Director of the
         as embody the guest to restore Africa’s greatness in the             hance its possibilities, and to reduce, as far as is     Bank. A UMC has an Annual           people, most of Africa’s                      Royal African Society
         21st century?                                                        humanly possible, it limitation. But the challenges      Gross National Income (GNI)                                                       in the United Kingdom,
                                                                              in this transformative process are immense.              per head, in 2002, of approxi-      economics have not                            wrote, “despite huge
     •   What really do we mean when we speak of ‘an African                                                                           mately US$9.075. In sub-Sa-                                                       natural resources and
         century’ in the 21st century?                                        In the last 25 years, Africa is the only continent       haran Africa, there are four        taken off”. He correctly                      talented people, most
                                                                              world-wide, which has grown poorer. Its share            “lower middle-income coun-                                                        of Africa’s economics
     •   What role, if any, is there for collaborative efforts                of world trade has halved in a generation and            tries (LMC)” with a GNI per         observed that: “Since                         have not taken off”. He
         between Africa and its Diaspora, especially its Diaspora             it receives less that 1% of direct foreign invest-       capita of between US$736.00                                                       correctly observed that:
         in the Caribbean, in the rebirth of Africa and the                   ment, globally. If fundamental alterations in Afri-      and US$2,935.00, but there          colonial times, Africa’s                      “Since colonial times,
         fashioning of an African century?                                    ca’s political economy do not occur, that is to say,     are 39 sub-Saharan African                                                        Africa’s economies have
                                                                              if business continues as usual, Africa will miss         countries in the “low-income        economies have been                           been designed to suit
     •   What are the forms and content of such collaborative                 the central targets for reducing poverty by more         country” (LIC) grouping with a                                                    the wants of outsiders,
         efforts in the conduct of international relations in the             than 100 years. If the current condition persists,       GNI per head of US$4 735.00         designed to suit the                          not the needs of the Af-
         interest of our people’s humanisation?                               it has been assessed that free primary education         or less.                                                                          rican people”.
                                                                              for all would not be provided until the year 2130                                            wants of outsiders, not
     These six queries constitute an integrated whole. Although               – some 115 years after the target set by the Unit-       A huge, oil-rich county like                                                      Once this is accepted,
       each contains its own thematic peculiarity, I shall seek               ed Nations in the Millennium Development Goals           Nigeria is in the “low-income         the needs       of the African              an appropriate re-design
       to address them in an omnibus or rolled-up manner but                  (MDGs).                                                  country” category. Forty years                                                    of Africa’s economies
       with the requisite logical progression.                                                                                         ago, Nigeria was much richer          people”.                                    comes forcefully on the
                                                                              Across Africa, the trade patterns of the colonial era    than South Korea, a country                                                       agenda.
     the aFrIcan condItIon: hIStory, realIty and                              persist, despite some efforts to alter these through     with roughly the same popu-
     dream                                                                    the creation or elaboration of regional trading blocs    lation. Nigeria’s oil wealth                                                     To be sure, aspects of
                                                                              in the northern, southern, eastern and western ar-       was squandered, while South                                                      Africa’s physical envi-
     First, I want to speak of the African condition, its history, real-      eas of Africa. Currently, according to the Economic      Korea invested in its people                                                     ronment are problem-
     ity and dream, in this classic entitled How Europe Underde-              Commission for Africa, trade among African coun-         and targeted vital export industries in the Western           atic and challenging. For example, old soils
     veloped Africa, by the Caribbean scholar and activist Walter             tries accounts for only 10% of their total exports       world. Today, South Korea is a leading export na-             and irregular weather patterns (including
     Rodney. He elaborated on the theory that Africa’s underde-               and imports.                                             tion, which has a per capita income 20 times larger           droughts) pose challenges. People do die
     velopment is directly connected to the dominant role played                                                                       than that of Nigeria’s.                                       comparatively younger in Africa because of
     by external monopoly capitalism and colonialism, in wrench-              Poor and expensive transport across Africa hinders                                                                     diseases such as malaria and HIV/AIDS.
     ing Africa from an autonomous, home-grown, sustainable                   increased intra-African trade. For example, ship-        Meanwhile, by comparison, of the 33 countries in
     political economy, and placing it on a path of a dependency              ping a car from Japan to Abidjan in Côte d’Ivoire        Latin America and the Caribbean, three are “high-             These issues, and others, are connected to
     relationship to an exploitative overseas capital wrapped in              costs US$1,500.00 but the shipping of the same           income countries (HIC)” with a GNI per head of                the nature and character of Africa’s political
     the incubus of colonial, racist over-rule.                               car from Addis Ababa in Ethiopia to Abidjan costs        US$9,076.00 or more. Fourteen of the Latin Ameri-             economy, the international economic system
                                                                              US$1,500.00.                                             can and Caribbean countries are in the UMC cat-               and its unfair trading arrangements, and the
     Clearly, an African rebirth demands an alternative political                                                                      egory; 14 are also in the LMC category; and only              efficacy of the political apparatuses of the
     economy, which releases the people’s creative enterprise                 Most of all, Africa, especially sub-Saharan Africa, is   two – Haiti and Nicaragua – are in the LIC group-             individual nation-states across Africa. It is
     and spirit, which utilises Africa’s abundant natural resources           ravaged by HIV/AIDS, to an extent which no other         ing.                                                          surely generally accepted that the failure
     for the African people themselves, which promotes an inte-               continent or region experiences. Even the relative-                                                                    in Africa to establish effective, democratic
     grative economic framework regionally and continent-wide,                ly prosperous Botswana, an upper middle-income           Within the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), 3                   nation-states has been not only a political
     and which evolves an appropriately designed popular, par-                country, is saddled with a rate of HIV injection of      of its member states are in the HIC category; 5               question, but also an economic one of the
     ticipatory democratic form of governance. Indeed, the New                some one-third of its population.                        are in the UMC grouping; 5 are in the LMC group;              first order.
     Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), which has

62       The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                    The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   63
                                                                                                                                                                                           The delegation from St Vincent and the Grenadines
                                                                                                                                                                                           accompanied their Prime Minister, the Honourable
                                                                                                                                                                                           Ralph E. Gonsalves to the Diaspora Conference
                                                                                                                                                                                           proceedings in Jamaica.

                                                                                                                                                                                                 civilization. It contains many shared features
     The reality of Africa is not one-sided: it consists not only of                                                                                                                             and experiences of the African civilization,
     failures, weaknesses and limitations; it contains also suc-                                                                                                                                 but it differs in many respects from it. The
     cesses, strengths, and possibilities. Often the difficulties,                                                                                                                               African civilisation is major, whilst that of the
     problems and limitations engender, particularly in academ-                                                                                                                                  Caribbean is much smaller in size. The Car-
     ics, evangelists and so-called ‘mainstream’ journalists, a                                                                                                                                  ibbean civilisation comprises largely migrant
     learned helplessness that recites the problems, not as a ba-                                                                                                                                peoples who have become ‘créolised’, whilst
     sis for solutions, but as an exercise in abstractions and even                                                                                                                              the population of Africa is mainly homeg-
     folly. Africa’s enormous material resources – tapped and                                                                                                                                    rown. Africa is also a continental civilisation
     untapped – its people; its rich and vibrant culture; its knowl-                                                                                                                             whole that of the Caribbean is largely and is-
     edge and wisdom; its history and spirit; its Diaspora; its new                                                                                                                              land civilisation. These differences ought to
     leadership, and more, are part and parcel of its many-sided                                                                                                                                 be appropriately considered in any of practi-
     reality.                                                                                                                                                                                    cal policies of collaboration between Africa
                                                                                                                                                                                                 and the Caribbean. However, the core of the
     The African reality necessarily gives rise to a quest, a dream.                                                                                                                             nexus between the African and Caribbean
     Some sleep to dream; others dream to change themselves                                                                                                                                      civilisation is captured in the majestic lan-
     and the world for the better. This dream, this quest, demands                                                                                                                               guage of Derek Walcott in his Nobel lecture,
     a notion of Africanness, which provides a transition from a                                                                                                                                 “The Antilles: Fragments of Epic Memory”:
     shared experience to a conscious expression grounded in
     collective solidarity and supported by practical actions arising                                                                                                                            Break a vase, and the love that reassem-
     from the people themselves. The Rastafarian movement in                                                                                                                                     bles the fragments is stronger than the love
     the Caribbean has provided one excellent example of effec-                                                                                                                                  which took its symmetry for granted when it
     tive transition from shared experience to conscious expres-                                                                                                                                 was whole. The glue that fits the pieces is
     sions within collective solidarity. This notion of Africanness is                                                                                                                           the sealing of its original shape. It is such
                                                                            consciousness as one people with a common
     at the core of the African civilization, which has spawned the                                                                                                                              love that reassembles our African and Asiat-
                                                                            destiny. This consciousness converged into a Pan-      Indeed, several 19th and 20th century intellectu-
     concept and programme of Pan-Africanism and which itself                                                                                                                                    ic fragments, the cracked heirlooms whose
                                                                            African movement, which developed institutionally      als and political activists from the Caribbean have
     first fashioned the Organization of African Unity (OAU) and                                                                                                                                 restoration shows its white scars. This gath-
                                                                            from the turn of the 19th century, under the leader-   been in the forefront of advancing Pan-Africanism,
     then, in July 2002, its formidable successor, the African Un-                                                                                                                               ering of broken pieces is the care and pain of
                                                                            ship of the Diaspora. Pan-Africanism rests on four     including; Edward Wilmot Blyden of the Virgin Is-
     ion. This is the continental vehicle for Africa’s Renaissance                                                                                                                               the Antilles, and if the pieces are disparate,
                                                                            pillars:                                               lands; T.E.S. Scholes; Marcus Garvey; Michael
     – both reality and dream; it constitutes the hope for an ‘Afri-                                                                                                                             ill-fitting, they contain more pain that their
                                                                            •      A sense of common historical experience;        Manley and Robert Nesta Marley of Jamaica;
     can century’ in the 21st century.                                                                                                                                                           original sculpture, those icons and sacred
                                                                                                                                   Henry Sylvester Williams; George Padmore; CLR
                                                                                                                                                                                                 vessels taken for granted in their ancestral
                                                                            •      A sense of common descent, identity an          James and Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Touré) of
                                                                                                                                                                                                 places. Antillean art is this restoration of our
     Pan-aFrIcanISm, the aFrIcan and carIbbean                                     destiny;                                        Trinidad and Tobago; Franz Fanon of Martinique;
                                                                                                                                                                                                 shattered histories, our shards of vocabu-
     cIvIlISatIonS                                                                                                                 Norman Cameron; Eusei Kwyana; Walter Rodney
                                                                                                                                                                                                 lary, our archipelago becoming a synonym
                                                                            •      Opposition to racial discrimination and         of Guyana; President Aristide of Haiti, and Presi-
                                                                                                                                                                                                 for pieces broken off from the original con-
     Pan-Africanism, and the joinder between our African and                       colonialism;                                    dent Fidel Castro of Cuba.
     Caribbean civilisations, constitutes the basis for the elabo-
     ration of closer collaboration between Africa and the Carib-           •  A determination to create a ‘new’ Africa,           The titans from Africa, including Jomo Kenyatta,
                                                                                                                                                                                                 In this analysis, the Caribbean’s politics fol-
     bean in the evolving international political economy.                     including its Diaspora.                             Kwame Nkrumah, Julius Nyerere, Sekou Touré,
                                                                                                                                                                                                 low Walcott’s “ Antillean art”. The question
                                                                            Pan-Africanism, a product of the negative encoun-      Léopold Senghor and Nelson Mandela, have
                                                                                                                                                                                                 to which we must now turn precisely is that
     The preparatory document that I received for this Confer-              ter between Africa and European imperialism, is        joined these important historical figures from the
                                                                                                                                                                                                 of the closer collaboration between Africa
     ence puts the bundle of issues succinctly in the following             principally manifested in the record of the strug-     Caribbean in this mammoth Pan-Africanist quest.
                                                                                                                                                                                                 and the Caribbean in an international politi-
     terms: Africa’s quest for unity and social and economic re-            gle of Africans against these foreign forces. Such                                                                   cal economy dominated by modern globali-
     covery is a centuries-old endeavour. The common historical             struggles have taken place on the levels of overt,     In my book, entitled The Politics of Our Caribbean
                                                                                                                                                                                                 sation, trade liberation and the revolution in
     experience of Africans of, first, slavery and, later, colonial-        armed and covert resistance to enslavement and         Civilisation, and published in 2001, I advanced the
                                                                                                                                                                                                 information technology.
     ism, ensured that Africans developed a commonly shared                 imperialism.                                           over-arching concept and reality of our Caribbean

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     An Agenda for Closer Collaboration

     how do the african and caribbean civilizations collabo-                       between african and the caribbean States.
     rate closely in pursuance of their joint and several in-                                                                  •	 Economic
     terests	in	an	era	of	enhanced	concentration	of	finance	                •	 Cooperating,	on	an	agreed	programme,	
     capital,	advanced	scientific	knowledge,	trade	liberalisa-                 at international organisations or inter-        •	 Collaborating	in	the	delivery	of	the	many-
     tion, and an increasingly unipolar political hegemony                     governmental bodies such as the united             sided information technology services be-                 •	 Education	and	Health
     backed by military might and cultural imperialism?                        nations, the world trade organization,             tween, and within africa and the caribbean.
                                                                               the bretton woods Institutions, the                                                                          •	 Facilitating	and	promoting	exchanges	
     the formulation of an appropriate strategy requires                       world health organization, the Food             •	 Building	links	to	harness	genetic	and	bio-                   of students and faculty members
     extraordinary care and skill. Its implementation calls                    and agricultural organization, the                 logical research in both africa and the car-                 between universities and research fa-
     for	enormous	flexibility,	discipline	and	patience.	There	                 International criminal court, the group            ibbean. cuba is already a growing biotech-                   cilities in africa, brazil and the carib-
     can	be	no	quick	fix.	This	is	one	for	the	long	haul	and	                   of 77, the non-aligned movement, the               nology centre. there are other research                      bean.
     a profound commitment on both sides, africa and                           African	Caribbean	Pacific	(ACP)	group,	            poles in africa and the caribbean in this
     the caribbean. moreover, while the immediate locus                        and the commonwealth of nations. this is           area	and	the	connected	fields	of	pharma-                  •	 Co-operation	fully	on	an	African-
     of action will be at the political level, failure is likely               most vital work of a detailed, pain-staking,       ceutical development. both the caribbean                     caribbean basis, and through inter-
     to result if the strategic action plan stays only at that                 ongoing kind around clear principles and           and africa are rich in materials for research                national	bodies,	to	fight	HIV/AIDS,	
     level. the strategy must connect with practical areas                     focused objectives. existing diplomatic            of these kinds.                                              malaria, tuberculosis at every level.
     in the economy, transportation, education and training,                   resources in the various capitals can be co-                                                                    this is a priority in view of the fact
     health, the environment, culture and sports. overall,                     ordinated	for	specific	purposes.                •	 Establishing	viable	air	and	sea	links	be-                    that	Africa	has	the	biggest	HIV/AIDS	
     we must recognise that this conscious expression, in                                                                         tween both africa and the caribbean. In this                 problem world-wide, and in the carib-
     political terms, a pre-existing nexus in the context of                •	 Building	together	very	close	links	with	the	       regard, brazil and venezuela are critical                    bean there are 10 of the top 15 coun-
     the international political economy, is of strategic sig-                 emerging economic powerhouses, namely,             allies.                                                      tries outside africa most affected by
     nificance	for	the	politic.	Further,	Africa	and	the	Carib-                 Brazil,	Russia,	India,	China	(the	so-called	                                                                    HIV/AIDS.
     bean must establish strategic partnerships with other                     BRIC	countries).	Brazil	has	the	largest	        •	 Facilitating	and	promoting	investment	by	
     nations to advance their joint and several interests.                     african population outside of africa and           africa in the caribbean and brazil vice-
                                                                               is critical to the collaborative enterprise        versa, not only through special incentive-                •	 Sports	and	Culture
     accordingly, I advance the following agenda for closer                    between africa and the diaspora.                   regimes but through the formation of an
     collaboration between the african and caribbean civili-                                                                      appropriately designed africa, brazil carib-              •	 Collaborating	in	myriad	ways	in	
     sation.                                                                •	 Strengthening,	on	an	agreed	programme,	            bean business council.                                       sports, especially in football, athlet-
                                                                               our relations with the uSa, canada,                                                                             ics, boxing, cricket, and lawn tennis.
     •	 Political                                                              europe, latin america, and the middle east.     •	 Pooling	skills	for	transference	to	Africa	ant	
                                                                               Sometimes africa can be the bridge, other          he caribbean. we can call it the Pan-afri-                •	 Facilitating	and	promoting	exchanges	
     •	 Granting	the	African	Union	observer	status	at	                         times the caribbean, oft-times both.               can Skills Project.                                          of	students	and	workers	in	the	field	
        carIcom and granting carIcom observers status                                                                                                                                          of culture, the arts, and works of the
        at	the	African	Union	as	first	steps	to	a	greater	                   •	 Encouraging	travel	facilitation,	including	     •	 Developing	a	joint	approach	to	energy.	                      creative imagination, generally.
        bonding between these two entities and leading                         the signing of agreements requiring no             africa, brazil and the caribbean possess 5
        towards a permanent, inter-governmental african                        visas, for travel between african and              central energy sources, geothermal energy,
        – brazilian caribbean commission to spearhead the                      caribbean countries. For example, St               hydroelectric	power	(the	Congo	holds	more	
        collaborative efforts.                                                 vincent and the grenadines has already             than 20 per cent of the world’s potential
                                                                               proposed a ‘no visa’ agreement between             supply),	hydrocarbons,	hydrogen	fuel	cell,	
     •	 Establishing	bilateral,	or	joint,	diplomatic	relations	                itself and ethiopia.                               and solar energy.

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                                                                                                                                                                                                    the Americans facilitated apartheid’s de-
     FInal commentS                                                                It took a Caribbean country – Cuba                                                                               mise. On the contrary, they were involved in
                                                                                                                                                                                                    what they called ‘constructive engagement’
     In February 2004, the British Prime Minister, Tony Blair,                     – peopled by former African slaves,                                                                              with the racist regime in South Africa. To be
     launched a 17-member Commission for Africa, consisting                                                                                                                                         sure, Europeans and Americans of all walks
     of mainly of European and African leaders. It reported on                     to send its internationalists fighters                                                                           of life and their non-governmental organisa-
     March 11 2005. Its recommendations relate to a number of                                                                                                                                       tions supported the anti-apartheid struggle
     critical issues including public debt, official aid, trade, cor-              to Angola, who in the process,                                                                                   but, at best, their governments were in prac-
     ruption and HIV/AIDS.                                                                                                                                                                          tical terms, equivocating. It took a Caribbean
                                                                                   overwhelmingly defeated the army                                                                                 country – Cuba – peopled by former African
     On the matter of public debt it was observed that between                                                                                                                                      slaves, to send its internationalists fighters
     1980 and 1995 Africa’s external debt almost trebled. Indeed,                  of the apartheid regime at Cuito                                                                                 to Angola, who in the process, overwhelm-
     the annual repayments to creditors, on the debt of US$160                                                                                                                                      ingly defeated the army of the apartheid re-
     billion, now exceed the amounts which many African states                     Cuinavale. It is this anti-apartheid                                                                             gime at Cuito Cuinavale. It is this anti-apart-
     spend on health and education. The Commission recom-                                                                                                                                           heid victory, which opened the door that led
     mends a 100% debt cancellation for poor African countries.                    victory, which opened the door that                                                                              to the negotiated surrender of the racist re-
                                                                                                                                                                                                    gime. This is not merely my perspective; this
     The proposal of the Commission, too, is to triple official aid                led to the negotiated surrender of the                                                                           is the authoritative judgment of the revered
     to Africa from 13 billion to 26 billion extra every year for three                                                                                                                             Nelson Mandela.
     years, rising to 39 billion extra a year thereafter. This is rec-             racist regime. This is not merely my
     ommended to be financed through extra donations from                                                                                                                                           In consolidating and extending the coopera-
     governments, a specially designed finance scheme, and tax                     perspective; this is the authoritative                                                                           tive bonds between Africa and the Carib-
     on airline ticket.                                                                                                                                                                             bean, I reiterate that we commence first by
                                                                                   judgment of the revered Nelson                                                                                   establishing a permanent, inter-governmen-
     The unfair trade patterns attracted the Commission’s atten-                                                                                                                                    tal African-Brazil-Caribbean (ABC) Commis-
     tion. For every US$1, which African countries earn in aid,                    Mandela.                                                                                                         sion to fashion and implement the public pol-
     they lose US$2 because of unfair trade barriers. Thus, the                                                                                                                                     icies of collaboration between our respective
     Commission calls for an immediate end to European and                                                                                                                                          civilizations, and we take it from there.
     US trade barriers and subsidies on cotton and sugar, and an
     end to all other trade barriers by 2010. This measure would                                                                                                                                    To spark a shake-up of the international po-
     save the European Union some US$26 billion per year in                                                                                                                                         litical system for the benefit of Africa and
     agricultural subsidies. But European farmers would probably                                                                                                                                    its Diaspora, including the Caribbean com-
     be adversely affected.                                                                                                                                                                         ponent of that Diaspora. This is an event of
                                                                            fected by HIV/AIDS in the next 20 years. The hand-                                                                      huge significance but its lasting, and historic
     Official corruption was estimated by the Commission to cost                                                                    difficulties or meet its profound challenges. His-              impact would be realised only if we take
                                                                            ing out of cheap anti-retroviral drugs is a good idea
     Africa some US$78 million per year. Billions of pounds in                                                                      tory has taught us that such reliance is at best                practical decisive steps to create the politi-
                                                                            but there is an urgent need for supportive medical
     stolen African assets – equivalent to more than half of the                                                                    problematic. To be sure, partnering with them on                cal mechanism with the requisite civil soci-
                                                                            infrastructure, including more nurses, hospitals,
     continent’s external debt – are held in foreign banks. The                                                                     terms, which are acceptable to Africa, is an im-                ety supports, to effect an agreed agenda for
                                                                            sanitation and utilities.
     Commission explicitly rules out the linking of aid to anti-cor-                                                                portant element in the way forward but historical-              collaboration. This focused reform between
     ruption measures but demands that Africa do much on its                                                                        ly, the conduct of the ruling elites in Europe and              Africa, Brazil and the Caribbean will, in turn,
                                                                            Clearly, these are praiseworthy proposals for
     own to clean up governmental corruption. It is important, too,                                                                 Africa from the Berlin Conference in the 1880s, to              strengthen the various individual countries
                                                                            which the Commission for Africa ought to be
     for foreign banks and governments to assist in the return of                                                                   the present time, gives rise to a justifiable skepti-           and their own separate integration efforts.
                                                                            commended. The extent of the implementation of
     the stolen billions to Africa.                                                                                                 cism. At the same time, we ought to be mature                   This is an idea of which the time has now
                                                                            these recommendations may determine, in part,
                                                                                                                                    and not permit a healthy caution to degenerate                  come. Let us get on with our work seriously.
                                                                            whether or not they represent a false hope or a
     Although Africa has just 10% of the world’s population, it ac-                                                                 into any unjustifiable cynicism.
                                                                            bright dawn. In any event, it is my view that Africa
     counts for two-thirds of all persons who are living with HIV/                                                                  Yet, Africa must be aware of its natural allies and             Thank you.
                                                                            cannot rely on Europe or America to remedy its
     AIDS. Some 89 million more Africans are expected to be af-                                                                     strategise accordingly. Neither the Europeans nor

68     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   69
     Conference Statement and
     Plan of Action
              For the South Africa-African Union-Caribbean-Diaspora
              Conference, Kingston, Jamaica,
              16-18 March 2005
                                                                                                                                   acknowledge the significant contribution of                         in the struggle against apartheid. The
                                                                                                                                   the Caribbean to the Pan-African tradition;                         Conference also provided an opportunity
                                                                                                                                   and develop an agenda for confronting                               to celebrate ten years of democracy in
                                                                                                                                   common challenges in order to support the                           South Africa.
                                                                                                                                   implementation of the African Union decisions
                                                                                                                                   on the African Diaspora.                                      7. The Conference gained a new
                                                                                                                                                                                                    appreciation of the creative way in
                                                                                                                                3. The gathering recognised and paid tribute                        which the Rastafarian movement had
                                                                                                                                   to the visionary role played by successive                       sustained the vision of the founders
                                                                                                                                   generations of Pan-Africanists from the                          of the OAU, and promoted an African-
                                                                                                                                   Diaspora and the Continent in the affirmation                    Caribbean identity and Afrocentric
                                                                                                                                   of a common identity.                                            values that strengthened the impulse for
                                                                                                                                                                                                    African liberation on both sides of the
                                                                                                                                4. The Conference confirmed the continued                           Atlantic, while serving as a positive force
                                                                                                                                   relevance of the vision that guided the Pan-                     for Africa globally.
                                                                                                                                   Africanists in their determination to promote
                                                                                                                                   unity, solidarity and co-operation among the                  8. The Conference recognized the
                                                                                                                                   people of Africa and the Diaspora as well as                     fundamental role played by artists
                                                                                                                                   the spirit of the 5th Pan-African Congress held                  and other cultural activists in the
                                                                                                                                   in Manchester in 1945, which underscored the                     liberation struggles and called for closer
                                                                                                                                   right of all peoples to freedom and to govern                    collaboration among these actors
                                                                                                                                   themselves without any restriction from any                      in the two regions. The Conference
                                                                                                                                   foreign power, and to control their own destiny                  recommended that the African Union
                                                                                                                                   and to be free from imperialist control.                         support the planned commemoration
                                                                                                                                                                                                    of the 50th anniversary in 2006 of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Congress of Black Writers that was first
                                                                                                                                5. The Conference recalled the decision of the                      held in Paris, France, in 1956.
                                                                                                                                   Assembly of Heads of State and Government
                                                                                                                                   of the African Union, of February 2003, to                    9. The Conference expressed its solidarity
                                                                                                                                   invite and encourage the participation of the                    with the independence struggle of the
                                                                                                                                   Diaspora in the activities of the African Union                  people of Curaçao and all other peoples
             Dr Eddy Maloka, CEO of the Africa Institute of South Africa and Rapporteur General of the Jamaica Conference.         as an important part of the continent, as well                   of the continent and the Caribbean
                                                                                                                                   as the decision of the Executive Council in                      who are still living under colonial rule,
                                                                                                                                   Sun City, South Africa, in October 2003, and                     as well as those who are occupied or
                                                                                                                                   other relevant decisions and initiatives of the                  threatened by invasion, especially the
                                                                                                                                   Organization of African Unity (OAU)/African                      Republic of Cuba. In this spirit, the
     conFerence Statement                                                                                                          Union (AU), including the decisions of the                       Conference called for the lifting of the
                                                                              2. The objective of the Conference was to            African Union First Conference of Intellectuals                  US-imposed blockade on the Republic
     1. Africans from the Continent and representatives of the                   celebrate the centuries old historical and        from Africa and the Diaspora held in Dakar,                      of Cuba.
        Diaspora from the Caribbean gathered at the Jamaica                      cultural bonds and re-affirm the spiritual        Senegal, in October 2004.
        International Conference Center, Kingston, Jamaica on                    affinity between Africa and the Diaspora                                                                        10.         The Conference further expressed
        16-18 March 2005, for a conference jointly organized by                  based on a common history and shared           6. The Conference further recalled that the                            its concern over the deeply troubled
        the African Union and the Governments of South Africa                    experiences; create linkages between Africa       gathering was the result of the initiative by the                   situation in Haiti given that it is the
        and Jamaica, with the theme “Towards Unity and United                    and the Diaspora; establish mechanisms            government of South Africa to acknowledge                           oldest, independent African state in the
        Action by Africans and the African Diaspora in the                       for building stronger political and economic      the contribution of the Diaspora in the                             ‘New World’, and called on the African
        Caribbean for a Better World: The Case of South Africa”.                 relations between Africa and the Caribbean;       Caribbean (including the labour movement)                           Union and the Caribbean Community

70     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                  The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   71
           and Common Market (CARICOM) to help the people                   c. Sharing and promotion of the knowledge of           i. Recognition of the development potential of                      effective law-making and oversight roles
           of Haiti find lasting solutions to their country’s crisis.          history, especially among the youth, through all       strategic co-operation between Africa and the                    and to ensure that they create space for
           The Conference commended the role of CARICOM and                    learning institutions.                                 Diaspora, the expansion of resource sharing,                     meaningful public participation, as well
           the African Union in rising to the cause of the Haitian                                                                    acknowledging the contribution of migrant                        as to encourage sharing of best practice
           people from the outset of the current crisis, including the      d. Development of a data bank of experts                  remittances as an economic resource.                             experiences across the two regions.
           sanctuary provided to President Jean-Bertrand Aristide              and research institutions in Africa and the
           by the Governments of Jamaica and South Africa.                     Caribbean, and encourage collaboration
                                                                               among these role players.                                                                                            •	 Solidarity
     11. In its consideration of the Report of the United Nations                                                                  •	 Society,	Women,	and	History
         High-Level Panel on “Threats, Challenges and                       e. Use of science and technology as a tool of                                                                           p. The need to acknowledge the solidarity
         Change”, the Conference commended the continent for                   integration and development. Co-operation           j. The need for further dialogue between Africa                     and support of the Cuban Government
         establishing a common African position on the proposed                in the area of science and technology should           and the Diaspora to establish and sustain a                      in the liberation struggle in Southern
         reform of the United Nations, ‘The Ezulwini Consensus’;               be explored with the view to establishing              common position on the issue of reparations                      Africa. The continuing Cuban offer of
         noted that CARICOM is currently considering their                     centres of excellence for the mutual benefit of        as well as a mechanism for its implementation.                   solidarity with countries of the South
         position on the report and that and the African Union                 the Caribbean and African peoples, and as a                                                                             should also be acknowledged.
         encourages Caribbean states to lend their support to                  basis for developing and creating opportunities     k. The Rastafari and other movements have
         the recommendation of the High Level Panel regarding                  for the absorption of human capital for the            served as cultural forces of integration in both
         United Nations Security Council reform, including the                 advantage of both regions.                             the Caribbean and Africa. Their status as                     •	 Multilateralism
         allocation to Africa of five non-permanent seats and                                                                         agents of sustaining and promoting an African-
         two permanent Security Council seats, with all the                                                                           Caribbean identity and an Afrocentric value                   q. The need for African and Caribbean
         prerogatives and privileges of permanent membership,                                                                         system should be recognised as a positive                        countries to co-ordinate their work within
         including the right of veto.                                       •	 Economy,	Trade	and	Regional	                           force of integration.                                            multilateral institutions, including pooling
                                                                                                                                                                                                       their resources and sharing technical
     12.         Participants at the Conference, in their discussions              Integration                                     l. The struggle for and the establishment of free                   expertise.
           in plenary sessions and the various working groups,                                                                        communities by Maroons in the Americas,
           made important observations and recommendations, the             f. Support for the efforts of CARICOM to                  especially in Jamaica and Suriname; the                       r. The inseparable nature of security and
           highlights of which include the following:                          accelerate its integration process, especially         role that Maroon communities have played                         the development agendas, and the need
                                                                               in the implementation of the Single Market             in preserving and promoting the African-                         to comprehensively address poverty
                                                                               and Economy, the facilitation of the freedom           Caribbean value system and traditional                           eradication and debt cancellation,
                                                                               of movement of peoples among its Member                knowledge. The Conference urges putting in                       and the centrality of the UN in the
     •	 Communication,	Education,	Science	and	                                 States and the co-ordination of the foreign            place a mechanism to protect the traditional                     maintenance of international peace and
                                                                               policies of its Member States.                         knowledge and intellectual property rights of                    security.
           technology                                                                                                                 Maroon communities.
                                                                            g. Expansion of stakeholder involvement in                                                                              s. The need for Africa and the Caribbean
     a. Knowledge production and sharing through the effective                 integration to include all relevant players         m. The need for a concerted effort to profile                       to continue working together with a view
        use of the available technology in order to ‘break down’               including civil society, youth structures, faith-      women leaders in Africa and the Caribbean                        to ensuring that the final outcomes of
        the barriers of ignorance and foster continuous dialogue               based groups, labour unions and the private            (from antiquity to the present) in order to raise                the consideration of the Report of the
        between the Continent and the African Diaspora.                        sector.                                                awareness about the rich history of women’s                      United Nations High-Level Panel on
                                                                                                                                      leadership in Africa.                                            Threats, Challenges and Change, as
     b. The need for the African Union and CARICOM to                       h. Eradication of trade barriers and the promotion                                                                         well as the Sachs Report are consistent
        formulate alternative media and communication models                   of investment between Africa and the                n. The importance of creating an enabling                           with the attainment of the NEPAD and
        to effectively communicate with each other and the                     Caribbean, pursuing robust policies of trade           and empowering environment for women’s                           Millennium Development Goals and the
        world at large, and to create an effective outreach                    diversification, and building strategies for           emancipation and gender equality.                                safeguarding and advancement of the
        strategy to disseminate their policies, positive images,               overcoming the legacy of colonial commercial                                                                            collective interests of their peoples.
        programmes and ideas.                                                  policy (in order to imbue national, sub-regional    o. The need to empower the legislatures in Africa
                                                                               and regional policies with a greater autonomy).        and the Diaspora by equipping them to play                    t. The need for an effective reform of

72     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT                                                                                                     The SouTh AfricAn, AfricAn union And cAribbeAn diASporA conference reporT   73
        all the organs of the United Nations, in particular, the
        strengthening of the UN General Assembly and the
        Economic and Social Council, as equally important
        organs in driving the international development and
        security agendas.

     •	 Follow-Up

     u. The institutionalisation of linkages between CARICOM
        and the African Union, and reinforcing ties and forging a
        symbiotic relationship between Africa and the Caribbean
        people in addressing common challenges, while
        endeavouring to speak with one voice on those issues.

     v. African and Caribbean states to ensure that they
        institute appropriate policy instruments to facilitate the
        interconnectedness between peoples of the continent
        and the Diaspora in all spheres of life.

     w. The need for an African-Caribbean Conference of this
        nature to be held on a biennial basis in rotation between
        the two regions, and recommends that the African Union
        should convene the forthcoming one in Africa.

     13.Against this background, the Conference committed
        itself to the following:

     Plan oF actIon

     a. That the African Union and CARICOM should
        continue to develop a concrete mechanism for the
        institutionalisation of the relations between the two

     b. That African and Caribbean Governments should
                                                                                                                                           A Rastafarian waves a flag in recognition of Pan-African solidarity, unity and cooperation.
        explore and develop concrete measures for promoting
        linkages between the two regions in the following priority
        areas: trade and investment, science and technology,                d. That Africa and the Caribbean, through their
        travel and tourism, education and culture, health, and                 regional organizations, should explore ways    14.       The Conference expressed its                                 the governments of South Africa
        environmental issues.                                                  of harmonizing international diplomacy in            appreciation to the government and people of                     and Jamaica, for co-organizing
                                                                               particular by utilizing the forthcoming UN           Jamaica for the hospitality and warm welcome                     this gathering. It also recognized
     c. That African and Caribbean organs of civil society                     Millennium Review Summit and the WTO Doha            extended to all the participants.                                with appreciation the high-level of
        should explore and develop concrete measures for                       Development Round, to advance the agenda                                                                              representation at the gathering by
        promoting linkages and collaboration between the two                   set out in this Statement.                     15.       The Conference also expressed an                             CARICOM.
        regions.                                                                                                                    appreciation to the African Union and

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     Closing Statement
           By Dr Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma, Minister of Foreign Affairs,
           South Africa, at the South Africa-Africa-Union-Caribbean
           Diaspora Conference
           Kingston, Jamaica, 18 March 2005
                                                                                                                               and together we have dreamt about our common                    regions, and that we need partners for de-
                                                                                                                               destiny.                                                        velopment.

                                                                                                                               We have deliberated on a range of issues – from                 Otherwise they will treat us as inferior and
                                                                                                                               the question of reparations to poverty eradication,             stick to the donor-beggar paradigm. We
                                                                                                                               from debt cancellation to peace and security. We                cannot afford for this to happen.
                                                                                                                               have discussed health, culture, the environment,
                                                                                                                               gender equality, economic co-operation, trade,                  The young Rastafarian artists last night re-
                                                                                                                               knowledge sharing, integration, South South co-                 minded us of the past glory of Africa, and
                                                                                                                               operation, to mention but a few.                                they asserted correctly that we must not be
                                                                                                                                                                                               slaves from the cradle to the grave.
                                                                                                                               I think it would be right to conclude that we have to
                                                                                                                               take our destiny into our own hands. We have to be              It remains for me to thank all of you for your
                                                                                                                               united and undertake united actions in a number                 participation in this Conference. We accord-
                                                                                                                               of crucial areas. That, in President Fidel Castro’s             ingly apologise for the mistakes and omis-
                                                                                                                               words, we should globalise solidarity. Our strength             sions made in the course of the Conference
                                                                                                                               is in our unity and through unity in action.                    and commit ourselves to improving on this
                                                                                                                                                                                               in the future.
                                                                                                                               Cuba, due to its internationalist outlook, under-
                                                                                                                               stands this more than anyone else because the                   We shall depart the Caribbean and the land
                                                                                                                               country has been at it for a long time. South African           of Marcus Garvey and Bob Marley with fond
                                                                                                                               can attest to the value of solidarity because we are            memories, inspired and knowing full well,
                                                                                                                               the benefactors of the solidarity of the people of              that we are connected forever.
                                                                                                                               the Caribbean.
                                                                                                                                                                                               We would like to invite you to Africa and
                                                                                                                               Duty challenges us to support and defend the rights             South Africa in two years time.
                                                                                                                               of those who are still struggling for self-determina-
                                                                                                                               tion in the Caribbean and in Africa.                            I thank you.

                                                                                                                               This should be high on our agenda. We should
                                                                                                                               strengthen South South co-operation and work to-
                                                                                                                               gether among ourselves to make our world a better
                   Edwin Carrington, Secretary-General of CARICOM and South African Minister of Foreign Affairs,
                                                       Dr Nkosazana Zuma.
                                                                                                                               For the African Renaissance to become a reality,
                                                                                                                               we must do what needs to be done ourselves. No-
                                                                                                                               body will do it for us.

           your excellencIeS, honourable col-                              not only a common past but also a shared destiny,   Accordingly, we are determined to send a message
           leagueS, mInISterS, dIStInguIShed dIP-                          we have spent the past three days strengthening     of hope to the African continent and the Caribbean
           lomatS, ladIeS and gentlemen:                                   our connections through a very stimulating, frank   that through unity in action, our historic mission
                                                                           and enriching discussion about ourselves and the    must and will succeed.
           We have reached the end of an historic occasion                 world around us.
           for the people of the Caribbean and of Africa.                                                                      If we started seriously cooperating among and be-
                                                                           We have reflected on our common past, our dif-      tween ourselves, our partners will interpret us and
           As brothers and sisters on different continents,                ferent experiences, the demands of the present,     understand that we are determined to develop our
           bound by the same umbilical cord that gave us

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     Notes                                                                       Notes

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