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The Lacey Act 1900

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					The Lacey Act 1900

 How it Pertains to Invasive
          Species
                The Basics
   Lacey Act: one provision of this act
    authorizes the Secretary of the Interior to
    adopt measures to aid in restoring game
    and other birds in parts of the U.S. where
    they have become scarce or extinct and to
    regulate the introduction of birds and
    animals in areas where they had not
    existed.
                      History
   The Lacey Act was first introduced by Iowa
    Congressman John Lacey in the House of
    Representatives in the spring of 1900.

   It was signed into law by President William McKinley
    on May 25, 1900.

   The original Act was directed more at the
    preservation of game and wild birds by making it a
    federal crime to poach game in one state with the
    purpose of selling the bounty in another. This type
    of act is generally referred to as an “Interstate
    Commerce Act”.
             History Cont’d
   It was also concerned with the potential
    problems of the introduction of non-
    native, or exotic species of birds and
    animals into native ecosystems.

   Finally, it sought to buttress state laws
    already in existence for the protection of
    game and birds.
              Invasive Species
                                 Zebra Mussel
Invasive Species:
Cause declines in abundances
  of native species and
  undesirable changes in
  ecosystem function, as well
  as economic losses.

Ex. Zebra mussels compete
  with other invertebrates
  and young fish for plankton,
  the primary food source for
  these groups.
       Present Form of Lacey Act
   Today, in it’s current form,    Rainbow Trout
    the injurious wildlife
    provision of the Lacey Act
    regulates the importation
    and interstate transport of:

   Salmonids-A family of
    fishes, including salmon
    and trout.
                                    Alaskan Salmon
   Live wild animals

   Live wild birds or their eggs

   Live or dead fish of any
    species on the list.
    Present Form of Lacey Act
                                 Zebra Mussel
   Mollusks or their eggs.

    Mollusk: typically having
    a calcareous shell of one,
    two, or more pieces that
    wholly or partly enclose
    the soft, unsegmented
    body, including the
    chitons, snails, bivalves,
    squids, and octopuses.
      Present Form of Lacey Act
                                           Lobster
                                 Shrimp
   Crustaceans or their eggs

   Crustaceans: Exoskeleton,
    a pair of often much
    modified appendages on
    each segment, and two           Crab
    pairs of antennae and that
    include the lobsters,
    shrimps, crabs, wood lice,
    water fleas, and
    barnacles.
       Present Form of Lacey Act
                           Common Coqui Frog
   Amphibians and their                          Cane Toad
    eggs.


   Amphibian: cold-
    blooded vertebrates
    (as frogs, toads, or
    salamanders)
    intermediate in many            Barred Tiger Salamander
    characters between
    fishes and reptiles
    and having gilled
    aquatic larvae and
    air-breathing adults
    Present Form of Lacey Act
   Reptiles and all their
    eggs.
                                  Brown Tree Snake
   Reptiles: an animal that
    crawls or moves on its
    belly (as a snake) or on
    small short legs (as a
    lizard), generally has a 3-
    chambered heart (except
    crocodilians ), body
    covered with scales,
    many species lay eggs,
    includes 3 major groups-
    snakes and lizards,
    turtles, crocodilians
     Effects of Invasive Species
   Once released or
    escaped into natural
    areas, many invasive
    species establish and
    spread quickly.

   Ex: Kudzu Vine from
    Japan. When left
    uncontrolled will
    eventually grow over
    almost any fixed object
    in its proximity including
    other vegetation. Kudzu,
    over a period of several
    years will kill trees by
    blocking the sunlight.
Effects of Invasive Species Cont’d

 After establishment,
  most invasive species
  are extremely difficult
  and costly to
  eradicate, if
  eradication is even
  possible.
 Ex. Wild Boar
               Lacey Act Faults
   Legal tools to regulate invasive species exist at the
    federal, state, and local levels, but only at the federal
    level can species from other countries be denied entry
    into the U.S.

   Unless regulated under another federal law, any live
    wild animal or bird etc., which are not specifically
    listed in the injurious wildlife provision of the Lacey
    Act, may be imported.

   In some cases, these provisions are subject only to a
    declaration at customs and could lead to a permit for
    commercial shipments from the USFWS.
    Discussion of Lacey Act Faults
   Despite 107 years of regulatory authority to protect the
    countries native species and ecosystems from harmful non-
    indigenous animals, only 17 taxa are currently denied entry
    into the U.S. under the Lacey Act.

   The process of adding taxa to the list requires time and
    resources.

   Since the passage of the Lacey Act in 1900, only 3 taxa
    have been successfully added to the list by petition.

   Only one of the above 3, the brush tail opossum, has been
    added in the last decade, in a process that took 7 years.
            Discussion Cont’d

   The Lacey Act includes no emergency measures
    prior to official listing to prohibit the importation
    or interstate transport of organisms.

   Unless a species is listed, importation and
    transport across state lines is allowed

   Thus, a species may enter the country and
    legally be transported between states while it is
    being considered for listing.
          Invasion Process

 There  are four steps to the invasion
  process:
 1) Transport
 2) Introduction
 3) Establishment
 4) Spread
    Interruption of Steps by Lacey Act

   The Lacey Act’s interruption of the invasion steps is not
    high.

   For the few taxa that have been prohibited entry, more
    than half were already present in the U.S. at the time
    of listing

   Spread occurred for most established species
    subsequent to listing.

   Because the Lacey Act does not authorize containment
    measures for listed and possession remains legal after
    listing, it probably does little to prevent the accidental
    release of a species
    Current List of Injurious Wildlife Taxa

                           Fruit Bat
   Fruit Bat                             Red-
   Mongoose/Meerkat                      Whiskered
   European Rabbit                       Bulubul
   Pink Starling
   Indian Wild Hog
   Multimmate rat/mouse
   Dioch
   Java sparrow
   Red-whiskered bulbul
   Walking catfish
   Raccoon dog
   Mitten crab
   Brown tree snake
   Zebra mussel                       Java Sparrow
   Brushtail opossum
   Snakehead fish
Current List of Injurious Plant
   Taxa for West Virginia
   Marijuana           Musk Thistle   Multiflora Rose
   Plumeless thistle
   Curled thistle
   Musk thistle
   Autumn olive
   Opium poppy
   Kudzu
   Multiflora rose
                        Opium Poppy
   Johnsongrass
Recently Added Injurious Species
   Constrictor Snakes          Silver Carp


   Black carp

   Silver carp

   Largescale silver carp
                                  Constrictor Snake

   Boiga snakes, such as the
    Brown Tree Snake

   Bighead carp
While well intended, the Lacey Act is a miserable failure at
invasive species introductions. Please read the link to The
Failure of the Lacey Act


     "Given the thousands of exotics moving through
     the trading system, that is a little like deciding
     to fight off a military invasion by letting in the
     enemy soldiers and then polling each one to
     determine individual levels of hostility".

     Life Out of Bounds by Chris Bright, page 203.