Teaching & Learning Events Begin to design reading activities that will help your students comprehend the content of complex text and reach the benchmarks and Standards for reading and science or social studies. Goals/Standards: (#’S) CONTEXT CONTENT Engaging the Learner Teaching and Learning Events* State Goal 17. Understand world geography and the effects of In modeling the opening we: • students read letter and complete task geography on society, with People interact with their analysis; ask questions based on opening emphasis on the United States. environment to create cultures. If activities and letter Standard A. Locate, describe, and civilization depends on natural • inquiry begins with students reading articles provided explain places, regions, and resources then their demise may be by teacher features on the Earth. the result of overuse; Students • jigsaw information in teams, organize and share with explore cultures that collapsed class because of this mistake. Teachers • mini lessons begin use an apple to represent the Earth Vocabulary activity Benchmark and slice away portions that • activity represent resources. • activity • activity Student teams are asked to • activity Benchmark populate an international village Note taking with graphic organizer based on current population • activity State Goal 1. Read with figures. They must then “feed” the • activity understanding and fluency. village based on what they think • activity Standard A. Apply word the people will need. analysis and vocabulary skills to comprehend selections Standard B. Apply reading strategies to improve understanding and fluency. Final Team Performance Individual Student Assessments Standard C. Comprehend a Teams create infomercials wide range of reading promoting sustainable growth materials. strategies and base their Read a variety of non-fiction materials to identify, describe reasoning on analysis of and locate important historical patterns of human information about trees growth and development. *Numbers after Teaching and Learning Events refer to assessments Emily Alford, 1998 Integrated Curriculum and Instruction De sign: Inquiry-Based Learning Authors: Lori Ufkes, Carthage School District; Becky Cowser, Peoria School District Title: Trees or Us Grade Level: 2nd S) Goals/Standards: (#Õ CONTEX T CONTENT Engaging the Learner Teaching and Learning Events* State Goal 12: Understand the fundamental concepts, principles and Note: prior to beginning unit students received instruction in the interconnectons of the life, physical and The teacher brings in a bird nest, QAR (Question and Answer Relationships) earth/space sciences products from trees, a broken identify essential questions and current thinking about our trees branch, etc. Teams are asked to and plants including their importance, parts and systems; Standard A. Know and apply concepts that brainstorm relationships between organize questions (1) explain how living things function, adapt and change. the items. Reading Strategy: Mak ing Connections, open or closed word sorts Standard B. Know and apply concepts that The Park Ranger speaks (and sends inquiry begins with students seeking information from books, describe how living things function, adapt and change. a letter) to the class explaining that internet and observations of trees Analyze the tree as a living system he/she can protect the trees that are Reading Strategy: Questioning; review “right there” and and determine the function of its within the forest preserve but not the “think and search” questions, students practice and become trees outside of the preserve. proficient in answering these types of questions using non- parts Children are harming the trees by fiction materials. Determine the growing patterns carving on them, clim bing on them, teams jigsaw information, record important facts and sketch and needs of plants Predict and verify the lif e cycle of naili ng things to them, breaking off trees showing major parts; share with class; hypothesize how plants leaves and branches, etc. parts of the tree serve the whole system Mini lessons on lif e cycle: teams grow Fast Plants (U. of Wisc.); Use the parts of trees to determine the species The Ranger will ask the class to (2); students will observe plants growing, draw and label Describe how trees impact our make a book for other children to pictures and describe growth patterns help them understand the importance Sort parts (root, stem, leaf, flower, seed) and “expert” teams daily lives and judge their value of trees and their needs. locate information about function and physical characteristics State Goal 1. Read with understanding Mini lesson: use celery and food coloring in water to show how and fluency. Standard A. Apply word analysis and plants distribute water and nutrients; experts write team vocabulary skill s to comprehend selections summary statement; share results orally (3) Individual Student Assessments Standard B. Apply reading strategies to Final Team Performance (1,3) Pre-test on tree parts and their functions. improve understanding and fluency. The children will make a trade book (2) Pre-test in which students sequence pictures of the life cycle of a Standard C. Comprehend a wide range of about trees to be shared with lower plant. reading materials. grade children. The book: (4) Post test: students sequence pictures of the life cycle of a plant Read a variety of non-fiction explains the importance of the of (5) Narrative writing prompt: Seasons in the Life of a Tree materials to identify, describe and trees and their parts locate important information about provides information about needs trees and protection of trees Emily Alford, 1998 *Numbers aft er Teaching and Learning Events refer to assessments What strategies do we use to comprehend text? What is TCP ? The Thermal Conversion Process, or TCP, copies the geological and geothermal processes of nature. The technology emulates what occurs daily in the earth's subduction zones, but uses an accelerated process. This process converts industrial waste and low-value streams into fuels, oils, gases and carbons, with no hazardous emissions into the environment. TCP mimics the earth's system; however, TCP takes only minutes to do what nature does over thousands of years. By controlling the temperature and pressure of this man-made system through the use of pipes, TCP produces high quality products, including valuable oils that do not contain any tars or asphaltines. The solid component is also produced the way nature would recycle its elements. TCP reforms even heavy metals into oxides that are safe and non-leachable and pass TCLP (leaching) standards. Why is it important to read nonfiction text? It is estimated that ___% of direct instruction is provided for reading nonfiction materials in the primary grades… ___% of the time spent reading and writing as adults is nonfiction. Stages of Inquiry in the Classroom Encountering the Issue Making Connections Text to text, text to self, text to • getting the “big idea” world • making connections Open and closed word sorts Task Analysis Asking Questions • defining the task Right there, think and search Author and you, in your head • asking questions Investigating Information Determining Importance • seeking, organizing, analyzing, Features, structures of text Note taking, graphic organizers • applying to project Facts to main ideas, summaries Reasoning with Information Inferring and Visualizing • evaluating, creating, judging, creating models using text clues and prior knowledge inferring, visualizing using implicit and explicit information • making decisions to reach conclusions (author and you) Acting on Decisions Synthesizing • synthesizing text to text, self and world • applying to new settings and contexts • communicating findings • in your head What happens when we provide non-fiction materials to primary children? They read more, are more willing to struggle with difficult text, choose trade books over games during indoor recess, and are empowered to find information that supports the inquiry question. The classroom mantra is…”did you know”? Non-Fiction Texts: True or False? “Students aren’t as interested in nonfiction as they are in fiction.” “When reading fiction the strategies are the same.” “Non-fiction text is too difficult for struggling readers.” Brainstorm: what’s this unit about? “It’s “Monday” morning, let’s begin... . Oh, I just received a note from the office to which I must attend. Tell you what, why don’t you plan a party while I’m working. We’ve worked so hard and I think we could use a party”. Students are asked to plan a party while the teacher tends to an “office” problem. They are given no guidelines for planning or decision making. After 15 minutes the teacher requests the party plan. Students process the obstacles to successful planning. Review: Step One The “HOOK” Open Word Sort beliefs congress patriotism governor Lincoln Memorial rights democracy Capitol senator responsibility House voting Senate government Step Two: Optional placement for vocabulary activity Any Guesses??? Debrief the party experience Let students know that you were introducing the next unit Ask if they can guess the topic Next step: Any guesses? Virginia Lake School Palatine School District 15 Palatine, Illinois Dear Students, I need your help! We have a lot of families moving into our community from other countries. They have so much they are trying to learn: a new language, new customs, and about a new community. They are eager to become a part of this country, and I would like our school to help them learn more about the United States government. We would like to be able to give these families a kit that has lots of information that will help them learn more about our government in our town, our state, and our country. We want them to know more about the leaders in our government. They could learn how to respect the law, what "patriotism" means, and their individual rights. They must know about our election process so they better understand how Americans cooperate to elect our leaders. Remember, these people don't speak very much English! That means you will need to include pictures, diagrams, and videotapes. You can make the kit so it will help them improve their English as they learn about our government. Thank you for your help! I'm looking forward to seeing your project when you are finished. Sincerely, Dr. Ludwig Principal Next step: Letter announcing partnership and tasks. Complete Task Analysis Ask, “What are we expected to do”? Record responses on chart paper Define the Task Ask Questions Create kits so that our What questions do we community can better have now? understand: • •Government in our town, • state and our nation • •Leaders in our • government • •The meaning of • patriotism, rights and responsibilities •How our democracy works through the election process Next: Task Analysis Inquiry Begins!!! Next: Let them begin! Semantic Features Chart Government Places to Importance Leaders and How they are Important know their jobs choosen decisions Local State National Note-taking organizer Essential Question How does a government help people make decisions? Coaching questions: (developed from the learner outcomes) What is the significance of patriotic symbols? What are the similarities and differences between local, state, and federal government? What process do we use to elect our leaders? Post your questions after students have posted theirs. MakingConnections Asking Questions Determining Importance Visualizing Drawing Inferences Synthesizing And then there is the v of w . If w were any less s , it would be less stable and could therefore disrupt delicate c activities. But if w were more v , it would prevent the movement of large m necessary for c division. And then there is the viscosity of water. If water were any less sticky, it would be less stable and could therefore disrupt delicate cellular activities. But if water were more viscous, it would prevent the movement of large molecules necessary for cell division. Dr. Timothy Johnson, Finding God in the Questions Making Connections: THE HOOK THE HOOK The teacher introduces the unit by having teams participate in a taste test; one cup is chocolate and water, one is chocolate and milk, and one is chocolate mixed with salt water. They must rate the three drinks and give their preference. Then students read Goldilocks and the Three Bears (reader’s theater). Following the reading teams look on the bottom of the glasses to reveal a picture of Venus, Earth, and Mars. Earth is considered the Goldilocks Planet and it is their task to discover why. AUTHENTIC CONNECTION: Levels of Authenticity 1.Someone from within the classroom 2.Someone from within the school 3.Someone from the local community or from outside the community AUTHENTIC CONNECTION: Highest Level of Authenticity Student-generated connections • If students have had other inquiry experiences in which a letter delivered the challenge, then it is most appropriate to use another form of invitation • Students with high competency levels in using inquiry strategies can be challenged to explore connections to up-coming unit topics and advise the class about possibilities • The teacher could also encourage teams of students to work on different projects connected to authentic needs in the school, community or world at large. Introduce the Young Producers’ Contest from www.earthsky.org/Teachers/YP/ The Young Producers’ Contest What is the Young Producers’ Contest? The Young Producers’ Contest is an annual event sponsored by the Earth & Sky radio series and the National Science Foundation. Each year, students around the world create their own science radio programs. We choose the five best and air them on the Earth and Sky program in the spring. Teams will share scripts with fifth grade students who are studying the planets to help them learn about space and to get feedback before submitting their scripts. Conclude with reader’s theater, The Goldilocks Problem. Student Decision Making: Levels of Empowerment 1.Staff member requests help in some aspects of planning 2.Staff member and students collaborate during planning and implementation 3.Students assume leadership with feedback and suggestions from staff 4.Students define issue, develop and implement action plan and operate within parameters established by teacher and class •Letters MUST be authentic, not fiction. Unless the students are told it is a simulated event, you cannot move forward as if the partnership between the class and the designated connection were real. Otherwise, it becomes an ethically questionable process whereby students are lead to believe the partnership reflected in the letter is real when it is not. • The teacher must reach out to people in the community to move the content beyond the constraints of a textbook. •The letter should outline the need that will be served and introduce the target audience. •Information needed by the audience should be outlined and the format for presentation specified (PowerPoint, etc.). Vir gin ia La ke Sch oo l Pa la tin e, Illin ois Dea r Fir st a nd Secon d Stud en ts , Wh o sh o uld live a nd wh o sh o uld d ie? I th in k I’ve go t Ch a rl o tte living in th e ba se m ent . Oth er s cr ea tur es a re wiggli n g in th e class r oom s, jump ing in th e ha llw a ys a nd fly in g in th e ca feteri a. Som e o f th em a re furr y, som e cr aw l, som e sco ot, som e sting a nd som e m a y b ite. W h at sh ould I d o ? I n ee d y our h elp to in ves tiga te th ese cr it ter s a nd tell m e wh ic h ins ects a re h a rmfu l a nd wh ic h o n es a re h elp ful . I n ee d to kn o w if I sh ould ca ll th e exte rmin a to r , if I sh o uld smo os h th em , o r if I sh o uld ca tch th e ins ects a nd r elea se th em o ut sid e. Co uld cen tip ed es b e u se ful in th e cour tya rd ? Do spid er s h elp p eop le? Do b ird s eat r o llie p o llies? W h at a bou t th e b ee s on th e pl ay grou n d? Do ins ects se rv e a n y u se ful purp os e? After y ou lea rn a bou t th ese ins ects, pl ea se let m e kn o w wh at y ou lea rn . Rep o rti n g th e in fo r ma tio n in a flip b oo k wo uld b e h elp ful to m e so I kn o w wh ic h ins ects I sh o uld r es cu e a nd wh ic h o n es , if a n y , I sh o uld n o t. Sin ce re ly, Th e He ad Cu sto di a n Text-to-Self Connections that readers make between the text and their past experiences or background knowledge. Goudvis & Harvey 2000 Text-to-World Connections that readers make between the text and the bigger issues, events, or concerns of society and the world at large. Goudvis & Harvey 2000 Text-to-Text Connections that readers make between the text they are reading and another text. Goudvis & Harvey 2000 Beavers by Helen H. Moore Read about beaver features, p. 24-27 Use post it notes and write: t/s = text to t/w = text to t/t = text to self world text T/S T/W T/T Open Word Sort krill web flippers fluke tentacles meat plankton wings insects trees ocean seals molars rainforest Semantic Features Chart Food Other Features Behaviors Threats to (predator prey habitat (size, body (nesting, animal relationships) features parts) life clycle, (location, hiding, description) movement, defenses) Mammals Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Insects Making Connections What do you do when the connections students make aren’t very helpful? Making Connections When you are five… . Think about the connections young children make by telling their stories! In September and October, kindergarteners are making connections to each other and their teacher, who is the first replacement for MOM. By November teachers can encourage text to self connections by using the following strategies. 1.Pair students and have them take turns discussing their stories as you pause after interesting pages. 2.Students discuss connections to the book. 3.Call on several students to tell about the connection made by their their PARTNER. Making Connections When you are five… . As students make connections to a book that you read aloud, record their responses on chart paper. I saw a beaver on Animal Planet. When I watched Animal Planet I saw Steve Erwin wrestling a crocodile. My grandmother has a beaver family at the lake where she spends the summer. They bite the trees near her house. She said they use the trees for their dams. My grandmother lives in Florida. Ask them to help you check the statements that help us better understand the book. Making Connections Anticipation Guides Me Text Mosquitoes eat plant nectar and pollinate plants. Mosquitoes make great food for fish. Honeydew is a favorite food of the male mosquito. The larvae do not breed successfully in water that has fish or frogs. Mosquitoes are the most dangerous Animal in the world. Making Connections with Words Vocabulary knowledge is the single most important factor contributing to reading comprehension. J. G. Laflamme, The effect of the Multiple Exposure Vocabulary Method and the Target Reading Writing Strategy on Test Scores. 1997 Three properties of successful vocabulary instruction 1.Integration (relating words to previous experiences) 2.Repetition 3.Meaningful use Making Connections With Words Open Word Sort krill web flippers fluke tentacles meat plankton wings insects trees ocean seals molars rainforest Closed Word Sort krill web flippers fluke tentacles meat plankton wings insects trees ocean seals molars rainforest Categories: •Animal habitats •Animal features •Food for animals •no clue Closed Word Sort ocean rainforest web meat krill trees insects plankton •animal habitats food for animals Categories: •Animal habitats •Animal features flippers fluke •Food for animals tentacles wing •no clue molars animal features Word Use in Text Page krill web flippers fluke tentacles meat plankton wings insects trees ocean seals molars Continuing Word Connections: Vocabulary Word My Definition Dictionary Use in Text Definition 1. Write about it… 2. Write about it.. 3. Write about it… 4. Write about it… 5. Write about it… C. Samojedny, 2004 1 2 3 5 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 12 Group 1 Birds Zoo Animals Farm Animals Group 3 Group 2 insects Directions: • Place index card with vocabulary word in the front of the book along with sticky notes. • Students work in pairs to place sticky note on every page where the word is printed. • After locating words they return to each page and make connections between the word and the picture to see if they can name the word. Making Connections With Words kit whales beavers cub waste dens omnivore herbivore droppings fur fins lodges and are connected because Making Connections With Words More About Beavers, Page 28, 29 Mini Lessons for Making Connections Engaging the Learner (jigsaw and letter) Power of Post-its (T/S, T/W, T/T) Open Sort/Closed Sort Connect Two Word Splash Tracking Words Word Detective Anticipation Guides Guided Practice Write or edit the letter Select or create organizer for jigsaw materials (tradebooks) Choose book for modeling Text to Text connections Select vocabulary strategy and create student handouts – including word tracking organizer Create anticipation guide = mandatory lessons = optional lessons Making Connections Asking Questions Determining Importance Drawing Inferences Synthesizing A sap-sucking insect may hold the key to a whole new class of antibacterial drugs, say scientists who have been looking at how these creatures combat infection. Readers ask questions to… Find specific information Clarify confusion Construct meaning Discover new information There are how many types of bees? How many eggs does the queen lay? What does the drone do? Where does a colony live? What do worker bees do for the colony? What do bees do with pollen? Where do bees live? Question/Answer Relationship (QAR) IN THE BOOK IN MY HEAD Right There: Author and You: answer answer in text, easy to not in text; must think find; words used in about what is known, question and used in what text is saying and answer are in same how it fits together sentence Think and Search: On My Own: words and answers using experiences come from different to answer question parts of text (or books) In the Book (Gathering Information In Your Head (Inference) Right There: Author and You (Inference) Queens Lay 1500 eggs each day. Which bee is the busiest? Right There: Why is it necessary for the queen to Drones mate with the queen bee. lay so many eggs? Worker Bees… •Make wax On Your Own •Feed the larvae •Collect pollen Do you know someone who works as hard as the bee? •Store pollen •Make honey •Guard the hive 1. I wonder... 2. what horses eat? 3. where horses live? 4. how horses help people? I wonder…? Choose a book, turn the pages and WONDER Write “I wonder… (about animals)?” Wonder and Wander in the books! http://www.yahoo ligan s.com/content/animals/species/3595.html Wher e do ants l ive? http://www.bijlmake rs.com/entomology/beg in.htm#ana tomy Under “Insec t ana tomy,” What are the body part s of an insec t? http://research.amnh .org/ento mology /socia l_ins ects/ants/ant_ colony_cyc le.html How does an ant colony begin? Wher e does the queen search for food? What are the queen’ s respon sibilities? How often do the ants need to be fed? What are the jobs of the worker ants? What is the larva l phase? What happens when the colony queen dies? http://www.fno.org/nov97/toolkit.html#anchor173647 What is an Essential Question? Generate an Essential Question for your unit. http://www.fno.org/nov97/toolkit2.html#anchor186984 What is the difference between an Essential Question and a Telling Question (also called Coaching Questions)? What part of your unit design (Inquiry-Based Learning Template) will assist you in developing Telling Questions? List your Telling or Coaching questions. How will you introduce your students to your Essential and Telling questions? created by E. Alford, 2003 How does a whale’s body help it survive? Questioning Moves Inquiry Forward Goals/Standards: (#’S) CONTEXT CONTENT Engaging the Learner Teaching and Learning Events* No questions = no inquiry! State Goal 17. Understand world geography and the effects of geography on society, with In modeling the opening we: People interact with their • students read letter and complete task analysis; ask questions based on opening emphasis on the United States. environment to create cultures. If activities and letter Standard A. Locate, describe, and civilization depends on natural • inquiry begins with students reading articles provided explain places, regions, and resources then their demise may be by teacher features on the Earth. the result of overuse; Students • jigsaw information in teams, organize and share with Call it directed research. explore cultures that collapsed because of this mistake. Teachers class • mini lessons begin use an apple to represent the Earth • Vocabulary activity Benchmark and slice away portions that • activity represent resources. • activity • activity • activity Benchmark Call it project-based learning. State Goal 1. Read with understanding and fluency. Student’s continue asking questions and seeking answers throughout the unit. Standard A. Apply word • Note taking with graphic organizer analysis and vocabulary skills • activity to comprehend selections • activity Standard B. Apply reading • activity But, do not call it inquiry-based strategies to improve understanding and fluency. Standard C. Comprehend a Final Team Performance Teams create infomercials Individual Student Assessments wide range of reading promoting sustainable growth materials. learning! Read a variety of non-fiction materials to identify, describe strategies and base their reasoning on analysis of and locate important historical patterns of human information about trees growth and development. *Numbers after Teaching and Learning Events refer to assessments Emily Alford, 1998 Mini Lessons for Asking Questions Question and Answer Relationships (QAR) Developing In the Book Questions (Right There, Think and Search) Wonder and Wander Essential and Coaching Questions Guided Practice Select book and create In the Book questions. Create Cyberhunt and guiding questions. Design activities for teaching the QAR. Kindergarten develop Wonder and Wander strategies. Create essential and coaching questions. Create planned opportunities for students to continue inquiry by asking and seeking information to their questions. Making Connections Asking Questions Determining Importance Drawing Inferences Synthesizing What are the three most important facts in this book? Beavers by Helen H. Moore • Read the chapter on Beaver Family Life and decide on the three most important ideas. • What are important strategies that beavers use to survive? Illinois School Park Forest, Illinois Dear Students, Our first Spirit Day is fast approaching. I am really looking forward to honoring the outstanding work of our students and teachers. We have planned the assembly, the treats, and the presentations -- but there’s one thing we forgot: A SCHOOL MASCOT! A school mascot is a very important symbol. We need to choose a school mascot that is worthy of our attention and promotes school spirit! Most people choose a mascot because of the way it looks. I think we should consider the way it looks and behaves in its environment. When we make our decision, we need to think about the animal’s survival, conservation, and importance. I understand that you are studying animals this year. Would you be willing to nominate ten animals to be our school mascot? The animals should represent all five classes - mammals, insects, reptiles, amphibians, and birds. Then we’ll have a school election to choose the best mascot for us. Be sure to include information about how these animals adapt and survive. We don’t want students choosing a mascot only because of the way it looks! I look forward to your nominations. Sincerely, Dr. Joyce Carmine, Principal Illinois School Finding Important Information The context puts the “ important ” into finding important information. Beavers by Helen H. Moore What did the author think was important for the reader to know about beavers? Let’s learn about beavers! Read the book using only features as table of contents and index • from clues for determining importance. • from labels and captions • from pictures Bold Text Italics Captions Labels Table of Conte nts Using The Features of Nonfiction Text to Determine Importance Table of Contents Index Titles, Headings Font Size Font Style Tables, Graphs, Charts, Diagrams, Labels, Captions Features of Websites Cutting Up With Facts Cows have four stomachs. They eat grass Ostriches can run 40 miles an hour. It can kick its enemies. Ostriches have long nails. Frogs pushes their stomach out of their body when if it eats something bad. Baboons live together in troups. Rabbits eat their droppings. Rabbits eat grass. Chameleons change colors to hide. Cobras puff out their necks to look bigger. Whales can talk to each other. The starfish stomach goes out of its body and into the shellfish Meercats stand guard to warn of danger. Cutting Up With Facts Features Cows have four stomachs. They eat grass Ostriches have long nails. Frogs pushes their stomach out of their body if it eats something bad. Rabbits eat their droppings. Rabbits eat grass. Baboons live together in troups. The starfish stomach goes out of its body and into the shellfish Behaviors Cobras puff out their necks to look bigger. Whales can talk to each other. Chameleons change colors to hide. Meercats stand guard to warn of danger. Ostriches can run 40 miles an hour. It can kick its enemies. Name: ____________________________________ Wha t are the two main types of trees? How ca n you tell them apart? What are the parts of a tre e and what do they do? Tree Part What doe s it do? In the box below, draw a picture of your favor ite tre e. Nex t to the picture , explain how to identify this tre e. Draw a picture of a tre e’s life cycle. What pro ducts are made fro m trees? How ar e trees imp ortant in your life? Scavenger Hunt Interactions of animals and plants How do animals use plants? Name of animal Part of plant used Human (animal) Part of plant used Moving Seeds Name of mover How seeds are moved Insect Life Cycle Note: see section on inferencing for completion of this format. Basic Information What do I know about plants and _________________? How do they survive? How do they change? Features that help it survive: Ways in which it helps others: Ways in which it may harm others: Virginia Lake, First Grade Reading and Taking Notes Reading Center: students read trade books about communities they write the name of the book and one fact that is important to the questions they are answering. Examples: This Is My Street People live on different streets and go different places. Needs and Wants The things you want sometimes don’t help us live. People Who Lead Us People who lead us are people like somebody who teaches people how to work as a team. Signs Sign help us and keep us safer like sign at the zoo say do not feed the animals. Created by Kathy Kroll Using Graphic Organizers to Determine Importance Semantic Features Charts Change Over Time Semantic Features Chart Food Other Features Behaviors Threats to (predator prey habitat (size, body (nesting, animal relationships) features parts) life clycle, (location, hiding, description) movement, defenses) Mammals Fish Birds Amphibians Reptiles Insects Change Over Time: Life Cycle of a Tree Change Over Time: Life Cycle of a Tree Maple key Maple seed Seedling Tree Tree dies (seed) sprouts grows matures Falls Seed Smooth Maple from Stretches inside trunk can live mature leaves to key becomes for 200 tree. sun. swells. rough. years. Many Spins Seed Leaves Produces holes to coat make blossoms made by forest splits chlorophyll which are animals floor. apart. and food fertilized. lightening Tiny root Becomes Makes Not Lies creeps dormant more enough under into the in winter. maple sap can leaves all damp soil. keys feed winter. (seeds). growth. Investigating Information Inquiry: After seeking information by conducting experiments Students use graphic organizers to organize Note: this was a second unit and this team created their own format for organizing information. Then they called 1-800-flowers Organizers for Note-taking The power of post-its Cutting up with facts Creating organizers for concepts (mapping the way) Open Word Sort krill web flippers fluke tentacles meat plankton wings insects trees ocean seals molars rainforest My Vocabulary List krill web flippers fluke tentacles meat plankton wings insects trees ocean seals molars rainforest Finding Important Information: Vocabulary Words And Concepts (WAC) A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Reading Strategy: Determining Importance Category What is it? Properties ANIMAL Compare/Contrast Describe it. What is it like? HAS WINGS MOUSE BAT MAMMAL FRUIT USES INSECT- “RADAR” EATING VAMPIRE Illustrations: What are some examples? A bat is an animal similar to a mouse. It is a mammal, has wings and uses radar to locate prey. Some examples are fruit, vampire and insect eating bats. Category What is it? Properties Compare/Contrast Describe it. What is it like? Earth Illustrations: What are some examples? The Frayer Model Definition Characteristics word Examples Non-Examples The Frayer Model Definition Characteristics Is warm-blooded, has fur • warm-blooded and makes milk. An • have fur example is a human. A • produce milk spider is not a mammal Mammal Examples Non- examples • human • horse • frog • spider • squirrel • whale • snake • lizard • dog • cow • turtle • shark • bat • rabbit • butterfly • chicken Mini Lessons for Determining Importance The Features of Nonfiction Text Key Points and Supporting Details Graphic Organizers, Note Taking IWAC, The Frayer Model, Concept Definition Guided Practice for Writing Lessons for Determining Importance Select books for teaching features Create or modify note taking format Create or modify graphic organizer(s) for whole group summaries and comparisons Use Frayer Model or Concept Definition Map and define a selected word for your unit Making Connections Asking Questions Determining Importance Drawing Inferences Synthesizing “Inferential thinking occurs when text clues merge with the reader’s prior knowledge and questions to point toward . . . a conclusion in the text.” Goudvis & Harvey, 2000 A volunteer, please… In the Book (Gathering Information In Your Head (Inference) Right There: Author and You (Inference) Queens Lay 1500 eggs each day. Which bee is the busiest? Right There: Why is it necessary for the queen to Drones mate with the queen bee. lay so many eggs? Worker Bees… •Make wax On Your Own •Feed the larvae •Collect pollen Do you know someone who works as hard as the bee? •Store pollen •Make honey •Guard the hive Cutting Up With Facts Features Cows have four stomachs. They eat grass Ostriches have long nails. Frogs pushes their stomach out of their body when if it eats something bad. Rabbits eat their droppings. Rabbits eat grass. Baboons live together in troups. The starfish stomach goes out of its body and into the shellfish Behaviors Cobras puff out their necks to look bigger. Whales can talk to each other. Chameleons change colors to hide. Meercats stand guard to warn of danger. Ostriches can run 40 miles an hour. It can kick its enemies. What can we infer? Cows have four stomachs. They eat grass Rabbits eat their droppings. Rabbits eat grass. What can we infer about grass? Ostriches have long nails. The starfish stomach goes out of its body and into the shellfish The cheeta has a spotted coat. Frogs pushes their stomach out of their body when if it eats something bad. Animal features… Considering all of the facts about animal features, what can we infer? What can we infer? Cobras puff out their necks to look bigger. Whales can talk to each other. Chameleons change colors to hide. Meercats stand guard to warn of danger. Ostriches can run 40 miles an hour. It can kick its enemies. Baboons live together in troups. Animal behaviors… Inferential Thinking ABC’s of Inferring Animal Survival A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Reading Strategy: Inferential Thinking Reasoning with Information: evaluating, creating, judging, inferring, visualizing, making decisions You are a tree in the fall. Your leaves are changing color for the first time. Tell what you see and how you feel. What would you say? I feel imbarrist because all the trees around me are pine trees and their leaves don’t change color. I’m scared because I wonder if somethings wrong. I don’t like it because I liked it when my leaves were green. I’m asking the pine trees if something is wrong but they don’t know because they have not dad it happen to them. I don’t see any other trees to ask so I don’t know what will happen next Uh-oh! Your leaves are turning brown and falling to the ground. Now how do you feel? What do you see? What would you say? I’m starting to wonder if I’m goinjg to die. I don’t know if this is something that should happen. I’m glad I got throught the other thing but this is even worse. This is worse than having a kid climb you. This is terrible. I hate it. I like green way better than brown. 2nd grade Response to writing prompt at the conclusion of the unit: You are a tree in the fall. Your leaves are changing color for the first time. Tell what you see and how you feel. What would you say? I look so pretty but I wish they were nice fresh green. The colors are so pretty but I wish it never happens. I will just haft to stay like this for a long time. At least I am alive. I do not like fall because it makes my leave turn different colors. Uh-oh! Your leaves are turning brown and falling to the ground. Now how do you feel? What do you see? What would you say? I look so bad and my leaves are falling off. The brown is werse than last time. I rather have colored leaves than brown. At least they will turn green again nest summer. I wish I was a needle leaf and not a broad leaf. 2nd grade Mini Lessons for Drawing Inferences Inferring Feelings Inferring from the Cover, Illustrations, and Text Inferring in Nonfiction Facts, Inferences, New Ideas Guided Practice Inferring meaning using Author and Me questions (create questions) Inferring meaning from text clues (words, pictures, notes) Writing prompt Making Connections Asking Questions Drawing Inferences Determining Importance Synthesizing “Synthesis at the highest level goes beyond merely taking stock of meaning as one reads. A true synthesis is achieved when a new perspective or thought is born out of the reading.” Goudvis & Harvey, 2000 Insect What should we do about ___________ in Life Cycle our school? How do plants and _______________depend on each other to survive? Help each other to stay alive? How do they work together? Basic Information What do I know about plants and _________________? How do they survive? How do they change? Features that help it survive: Ways in which it helps others: Ways in which it may harm others: Virginia Lake, First Grade Read aloud Step One Beginning Middle End Fact Fact Fact Fact Fact Fact Fact Fact Fact Read aloud Step Two Beginning Middle End 1. Fact, yada 1. Fact, yada 1. Fact, yada 2. fact, yada 2. fact, yada 2. fact 3. fact 3. fact, 4. fact Step Three Martin Luther King Jr. By: Frankie Forester Martin Luther King’s birthday is January 15. He got his Ph.D and was then Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. He won the Nobel peace prize in 1964. He had ideas that were good for black people and white people. Martin Luther King, Jr. gave many important speeches. His most important speech was his “I Have a Dream” speech. King wanted peace and everyone treated the same. Planet Power Point Checklist Name: _________________ Provide a checklist or other means of Qu i k Ti e™a nd a ph c m Gra ics de mp ssor co re informing students of the expectations for Planet:__________________ de h u aren ee dto see t i s p ic t re. their final team performance Check o ff each step when it is done. I have completed a chart that shows the distance between my planet and the sun, and my planet and the Earth. I have defined revolution and rotation. I have explained how revolution affe cts the seasons and years. I have explained how rotation affects ni ght and day. I have desc ribed the size of my planet. I have desc ribed the atmosphere of my planet. I have desc ribed the climate of my planet. I have included at least two unique features of my planet. My prese ntation includes a t least one picture of my planet. My prese ntation has my name on it. My teacher has ch ecke d my work and helped me to sa ve and print it. I have shared my presen tation with my class and my first grade friends. Writing experiences help prepare students for synthesis AND the final team performance. Final Product Organizer South Berwyn School District 100 Julie Dyra, Angelo Annoreno, Kathy Grimes These teachers used a The Nine Planets linked document to give their students a computer-based inquiry s Ahhh, itÕ just right! experience Scenario Why is Earth the “G oldilocks” planet? There are nine planets in our s olar system. Of those nine planets Earth is the “Goldilocks” planet. It is your mission to discover why this is true and to help other 3rd graders studying the solar system know why our planet is so special. ci ™ d km Qui T e an a pc o e r Gr ahi sdecmpr sso d e hs i e c areneeedto se t i pt ur . Task You will research each of the planets and compare them to each other and to the Goldilocks planet, Earth. Product You will create a Power Point presentation and book about a specific planet and compare that planet to Earth. Assessments U s et h i s c h ec kl i st f or you r p l a n e t un t i . South Berwyn School District 100 Julie Dyra, Ange lo Annoreno, Kathy Grimes Final Product Organizer Questions Here are some questions to think about while you are researching: Why does the distance from the sun influence the development of life on each planet? How does revolution and rotation affect seasons, days, and years? How do the size, atmosphere, clim ate, and unique features influence the development of lif e on each planet? Click here for your sites. Gather Gather information using internet sites and books. Organize Click on the pencil and paper to organize your research notes on a planning sheet. Conclusion Do you think Review your checklist to Earth is the make sure you have “Goldilocks” included all the planet? information required in your Power Point presentation and book. Display your booklet in the Library Media Center to share what you have learned about the planets with students, parents and friends. Let's have a class discussion... http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/families/index.html http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/depaola/index.html http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/snow/index.html http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/life/index.html http://www.bcps.org/offices/lis/models/weather/index.html Use the links to see how other teachers organize their inquiry units. Click on the assessment component to view the student product checklist. What will you include in a checklist to guide your students in completing their Final Team Performance? Ending the Unit: As well as using the Harcourt Science Assessment, students will share their research about the solar system to counteract misconceptions in a format decided on by the teacher or as a class. Possibilities include video , PowerPoint presentations, books, or brochures. In the final project, students must clearly demonstrate knowledge of the essential facts about their planet and expl ain reasons why high er life forms cannot exist on their planet. They will expla in why Earth is considered the Goldilocks planet. See follo wing rubric attached used to rate students on their scripts and cooperative skills in a final video project. Supporting Students with Synthesis Writing Experiences Effectively Using Technology to Communicate Completing the Final Product: Trees, Planets Guided Practice Your task: Use the template to describe the final product that students are asked to create for the authentic connection/audience. Create a Word document which more fully explains the ftp (final team performance and place in your desktop folder). Create a writing prompt to move your students toward synthesis. Assessment: Individual Accountability And Team Responsibility Holding Individuals Accountable Information Product: Final Team Performance First individual assessment Checks along the way… Teams work on product Second individual assessment Checks along the way… Teams work on product Third individual assessment Checks along the way… Teams work on product Unit Ends Integrated Curriculum and Instruction Design: Inquiry-Based Learning Author: Emily C. Alford Grades: K - 12 Professional Teaching Standards CONTEXT CONTENT Content Knowledge Engaging the Learner Teaching and Learning Events* #1 The teacher understands the • ICID training begins following modeling; PowerPoint is central concepts, methods of Participants are introduced to used to guide work inquiry, and structures of the the goals for the workshop and • select unit topics, map concepts discipline(s) and creates learning shares the unit organizer. • teams view examples of other teaching units with experiences that make the content Stages of inquiry are introduced interesting preparatory sets (hooks) and authentic meaningful to all students. by asking participants to share connections Instructional Delivery steps in resolving everyday • plan unit opening and complete the first part of the unit #6 The teacher understands and activities in which information organizer uses a variety of instructional is needed in order to make a • select format teams will use for the final performance and strategies to encourage students’ decision. write description which include concepts from map development of critical thinking, • inquiry (internet search) to identify resources to problem solving, and performance The instructor models a unit supplement textbook materials (activities, hot lists, web skills. opening using information on quests, lesson plans, reading materials for students, etc.) • identify elements of Integrated energy costs and coal usage. A • mini lesson: writing local benchmarks; teams use concept Curriculum and Instruction Design letter of request from a town maps and power verbs to write outcomes; align to Illinois and inquiry for structuring teaching leader to share information Learning Goals and Standards and planning units of instruction about the topic is used to focus • continue inquiry into Energy; read short articles overnight • identify content outcomes the task. • teams jigsaw information, organize and share with class for selected unit topic • review stages of implementation using PowerPoint • determine strategies for engaging the • begin designing teaching and learning events for each learner and plan ways in which benchmark students will demonstrate content mastery Final Team Performance Individual Student Assessments • analyze links between content, Teachers create units using the • Each section of unit is reviewed by instructor. benchmarks and standards and plan ICID template including targeted • map and local benchmarks show higher level performances teaching and learning events Illinois Goals/Standards, strategies for students • select format for assessing individual for engaging students in real-world • the context for learning provides student the “big picture’ for readiness for completing team contexts, teaching and learning the unit and focused direction with the authentic connection product = outcome is assessed events and assessments. • benchmarks are differentiated; teaching and learning events (Number refers to assessment) are aligned to benchmarks *Numbers after Teaching and Learning Events refer to assessments Emily Alford, 1998 Content-Area Rubric Knowledge Content information or processes. Unit Knowledge Elaboration 1 2 3 4 Key concepts, principles, themes, issues, facts, details, or processes (Process incomplete incomplete complete complete examples: conflict-resolution, scientific inquiry, computation, surveying a major errors minor errors minor errors accurate reading selection) Example: Process of scientific inquiry, including prediction and testing out prediction Rule of t humb: ŅKnowledgeÓsupplied by students will be the same fr om one person to another. Reasoning Analysis, evaluation and synthesis of evidence. Unit Reasoning Elaboration 1 2 3 4 incomplete incomplete complete complete Use of critical/higher-order thinking; presence and validity of major errors minor errors minor errors accurate support/evidence/references for statements/opinions/conclusions; no rationale some rationale some rationale strong consideration of al l elements and the re lationships/connections among t hem; rationale logic of interpretation/justification/explanation Example: Observation/factual support is provided for prediction and for findings after inquiry; relationships of all el ements ar e considered; logical and systematic application of plan to test prediction is evident Rule of t humb: ŅReasoningÓ is the unique use of knowledge by each student, though there may be common patterns. Communication: Clear message, specific terms and Communication Elaboration vocabulary while communicating knowledge and reasoning. Key terms that students should be able to use knowledgeably Communication of knowledge through: Of reasoning through: 1 2 3 4 _____drawings ____ drawings partly clear partly clear mostly clear totally _____labels ____ labels clear _____orally ____ orally no terms some terms most terms all terms _____in writing ____ in writing _____in English ____ in English _____in another language ____ other language Rule of thumb: “If they can use these terms and communicate their message, their language will reflect learning of essential unit knowledge and reasoning.” CONTEXT CONTENT Goals/Standards: (#’S) Engaging the Learner Teaching and Learning Events* • use ratio and proportion and draw to scale Final Team Performance Individual Student Assessments Return to your local benchmarks and • create Ask yourself:: “How will I standards. a garden design using know if measurements given for area at a scale each student has the knowledge and reasoning to communicate an understanding of the = outcome is assessed of 5:1; graph location of plants in concept(s)?” (Number refers to assessment) Select a format for given coordinates courtyard using checking student Emily Alford, 1998 knowledge. Guided Practice Use the design template to describe how you will know if students have hit the targeted benchmarks and standard. Include individual student assessments and a rubric for judging the final team performance in your folder. How will you evaluate the final team performance? Check out this website. You must login first then follow directions to create your own rubric. Include in your folder. • http://rubistar.4teachers.org/ You must sign in to create a rubric.. What about individual assessments? This site allows you to choose from available assessments or create your own. http://nb.wsd.wednet.edu/big6/big6_resources.htm Guided Practice Include in your folder copies of assessments designed for your unit. Briefly describe them on the design template. Include your rubric for the final team performance or create one using the website provided. Create individual assessments and include them in your folder Guided Practice Include a bibliography in your folder (Title of Book, author, publisher).