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					Morris, Rosenberg & Booi                                                                                 1


Morris, Glynn                    Rosenberg, Shirene                      Booi, Monwabisi
AGAMA Energy (Pty) Ltd           SouthSouthNorth Project                 SEED Advisor
P O Box 606                      138 Waterkant Stree                     Environmental Department
Constantia 7848                  Cape Town 8001                          City of Cape Town
South Africa                     South Africa                            tel: +27021 360 1114
tel: +27 21 701 7052             Tel: +27 21 4251465                     fax: +27 21 360 1113
fax: +27 21 701 7052             Fax: +27 21 4251463                     email:
email:         email:


The retrofitting of the first ten pilot-houses and creches has been completed in Kuyasa, which is
located in Khayelitsha, Cape Town. Ceilings and ceiling insulation, solar water heaters (including
showers, hot water reticulation and drains) and efficient lighting (CFLs) have been fitted. A
community steering committee selected homes that would benefit from the energy interventions
that will serve both as a demonstration of things to come and as a basis for a baseline study for a
much larger (2309 unit) CDM project. Technical and social/behavioural monitoring have been
commissioned to track the performance of, and experience with, the installations for the next six
months. Local electricians, local plumbers and the community of Kuyasa have been involved in
the installation of these energy efficiency and renewable energy systems with assistance from
AGAMA Energy (Pty) Ltd - a locally based energy company.


The City of Cape Town is implementing a baseline study to assist in the development of a CDM1
project for households in Khayelitsha, South Africa. The initial phase of the project involves the
delivery of three key energy interventions in ten 30 m2 low-income houses in Kuayasa,
Khayelitsha, namely: enhanced indoor comfort afforded by insulated ceilings; hot water on
demand supplied by solar water heating systems and energy efficient lighting using compact
fluorescent light bulbs. This baseline project is intended to prepare for a full-scale CDM project
for a total of 2309 houses.

The project is implemented by SouthSouthNorth, AGAMA Energy and project facilitators, with -
and on behalf of - the City of Cape Town and is based on community participation in the project
management, installation and monitoring of the project. The initial supply and installation of the
interventions was completed in February 2003 and the levels of service provision and changes in
householders experience is currently being monitored - on the basis of quantified energy data and
also more qualified social behaviour criteria - for six months until the end of October 2003.
This paper describes the opportunity for sustainable building interventions within the context of
climate change mechanisms (such as the CDM), the implications of suppressed demand and the
technical and organizational aspects of the baseline study. It presents the assessment of energy
service needs, the sizing and design of the interventions, the installation experience and the initial
costs of the interventions. The learning from the project provides valuable insight and knowledge
with which to improve the benefits to participants in similar projects elsewhere.

1   Clean Development Mechanism within the Kyoto Protocol

                        SBE’03 Technology and Management for Sustainable Building
                                          CSIR, 26-30 May 2003
Morris, Rosenberg & Booi                                                                             2

The project framework – CDM within the context of suppressed demand

The Clean Development Mechanism offers a fundamentally new opportunity of funding the
investment in more sustainable energy services for low-income housing. Improved end-use
efficiency combined with the use of solar energy for water heating will result in measurable
avoided pollutant emissions and measurable energy consumption savings. This contributes to
‘energy poverty’ alleviation, but furthermore, the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, within the
framework of the CDM, provides a stream of revenue to the project owner which can assist in the
financing of the energy interventions. This process is described by Spalding-Fecher et al (2003).
A key question in the CDM process is the determination of a baseline against which the certified
emissions reductions are measured. This baseline needs to be established on the basis of the likely
energy use patterns in the beneficiaries’ homes over the longer term, which implies that the current
use patterns should not be used as the baseline. The question of the changes in demand needs to be
understood in terms of a suppressed demand which prevails as a consequence of the lack of access
to services and lack of affordability due to high prices of in-efficient (or inadequate) energy service
provision. The issue of suppressed demand is explored elsewhere in more detail by Winkler and
Thorne (2002).

This project is therefore a pioneer CDM project which seeks to explore the practical implications of
delivering more sustainable energy services while addressing these considerations.

The energy interventions

The three energy interventions – ceilings, solar water heating and energy efficient lighting - are
complementary and are intended to address the highest-priority energy service needs of the
beneficiaries. Prior to the project interventions, the households were using paraffin (mostly) for
space-heating (and cooking), stoves and pots for water heating and incandescent lights for lighting.
 These household energy use patterns were investigated by means of a small household energy
survey conducted through the project steering committee and the project facilitators.

The project interventions were developed on the basis of the most effective (and practical)
solutions for providing an immediate improvement in the levels of service which would provide
long-term benefits in terms of local and global criteria for sustainability. They also had to be
practical in terms of replication for the full-scale project.


The 30 m2 houses were originally built without ceilings and without a roof structure for ceilings.
The roof comprises fibre cement roof sheets which are screwed onto two 228 mm beams located at
the apex of the roof and also onto the 75 mm wall plates.

Alternatives for ceilings were investigated with ARG Design and the Development Action Group2
and after due consideration of the options, it was decided to use a fairly conventional ceiling
system comprising a combination of Sisalation (as a radiant heat barrier), two air gaps and gypsum
board (to provide convective and conductive heat barriers), and wooden quarter rounds for
cornicing (for aesthetic considerations and to seal the ceiling space from the rooms).

The criteria for selection of a ceiling system included:
        Environmental sustainability of the materials
        Availability of materials


                     SBE’03 Technology and Management for Sustainable Building
                                        CSIR, 26-30 May 2003
Morris, Rosenberg & Booi                                                                       3

        Affordability of the materials
        Familiarity with the materials and installation requirements among local artisans
        Suitability of the ceiling system to subsequent alterations on the house

The ceilings were installed by carpenters who were selected through the channels of the Ward
Council and the Project Faciliators.

The ceiling solution is shown schematically in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Schematic of the ceiling structure
Photographs of the completed ceilings are shown in Figure 2.

Figure 2: Interior views showing the painted white gypsum board celings

                     SBE’03 Technology and Management for Sustainable Building
                                       CSIR, 26-30 May 2003
Morris, Rosenberg & Booi                                                                              4

Solar water heating

The houses were built with a single cold water tap (and drain) at a plastic sink and a toilet.
Although provision had been made for a sitting bath or shower, neither of these nor drains or
plumbing were installed.

Based on a systematic process of sizing and design, the houses have been equipped with ten solar
water heating systems, of two different configurations, which have been purchased from three
different suppliers (SolarDome and Atlantic Solar in the Western Cape and Solar Beam in
KwaZulu Natal). This allows the project to obtain experience with different suppliers and gives the
suppliers a chance to participate.

The two types – direct heating 100 litre close-coupled systems with integrated electrical backup
heating elements (shown in Figure 3) and 55 litre direct heating integral systems with 25 litre
electrical storage geysers for backup water heating (shown in Figure 4).
The close-coupled systems are more expensive but allow for better overnight storage of hot water
than the integral systems. The two integral systems have been installed in houses which are used as

Figure 3: 100 litre close-coupled SWH system

The solar water heating systems and the hot water reticulation and drainage were installed by local
plumbers. The suppliers of the solar water heating systems provided training to these plumbers by
installing the first system of each type.

                      SBE’03 Technology and Management for Sustainable Building
                                       CSIR, 26-30 May 2003
Morris, Rosenberg & Booi                                                                                                                                           5

Figure 4: Prototype of the 55 litre integral solar water heater system

The solar water heating systems have been working well and have been tested, using simple one-
day draw-off tests, to determine the level of performance. The results of a typical draw-off test are
presented in Figure 5. The close-coupled SWH system yielded 85 litres of hot water above 45oC
and 95 litres of hot water above 40oC whereas the integral system provided 25 litres of hot water
above 45oC and 50 litres of hot water above 40oC.


                                                                                                                     85 litres of hot water above 45 deg C
                                                                                                                     95 litres of hot water above 40 deg C

              Water temperature [deg C]

                                                     25 litres of hot water above 45 deg C
                                                     50 litres of hot water above 40 deg C

                                                                                                             H#54-516 (Creche)

                                                                                                             H#54-610 (S_dome)

                                               0          20              40                 60         80             100            120             140    160
                                                                                         Hot water draw-off volume [litres]

Figure 5: Results of the hot water draw-off tests on the two types of SWH

Energy efficient lighting

The houses were supplied with two compact fluorescent light fittings, one in the living room and
one outside the front door. In addition, the houses were equipped with new circuit breakers in the
distribution board – for the lighting circuit and the backup electrical water heating element – and
wiring for the new appliances. The new circuit breakers and the wiring are shown in Figure 6.

                                                   SBE’03 Technology and Management for Sustainable Building
                                                                                    CSIR, 26-30 May 2003
Morris, Rosenberg & Booi                                                                              6

Figure 6: Electrical distribution board showing new circuit breakers on the right and wiring to the
new loads

The electrical installations were undertaken by three local electricians.

Thermal modelling

The thermal performance of the houses is currently being modelled (and verified using monitored
data) to establish a basis for the modelling of the full-scale project. The thermal modelling is being
performed using a version of the QUICK software.


Two levels of monitoring are currently under way - a technical monitoring study and an associated
social behaviour study. The overall performance of the energy interventions is being monitored in
all ten houses (and also in ten adjacent houses for indoor ambient temperature) using electronic
data loggers. The monitoring includes temperatures, water flow rates and electrical energy over a
period of at least six months. The results of the monitoring will be used for developing the baseline
for the project design of the full scale CDM project and also for validation of the thermal modelling
and evaluation of the full scale project.

The social behaviour study intends to track the beneficiaries’ experience of using the new energy
services to maximise the benefits to the householders and to inform the design of the full scale

Costs of the interventions

The initial costs of the interventions are summarised in Table 1. These costs are expected to be
reduced significantly in the full-scale project due to the economies of scale – bigger volumes – and
the efficiency of installation. It should also be borne in mind that the costs include plumbing for
hot water reticulation, showers bases, drains and painting / waterproofing as well as electrical
switchgear and reticulation for the solar water heater backup elements and the energy efficient
lights. These are necessary requirements for the energy interventions but do add costs over and
above those of the energy interventions themselves. Often these ‘extra’ costs could be avoided by
implementing the energy interventions at the construction stage of a housing project.

Table 1: Summary of the initial costs of the interventions
                     SBE’03 Technology and Management for Sustainable Building
                                        CSIR, 26-30 May 2003
Morris, Rosenberg & Booi                                                                              7

        1 WATER HEATING                                           Total cost    Per house

           Solar Water Heating
            SWH Contractors                                       R 46,928      R 4,693
            Contractors supervision and training                  R 1,600       R 160
             Local plumbers                                       R 4,920       R 492
           Sub total - SWH                                        R 53,448      R 5,345

           Hot water reticulation, drainage & showers
             additional materials                                 R 17,500      R 1,750
             local plumbers                                       R 2,200       R 220
           Sub total – reticulation and drains                    R 19,700      R 1,970

        2 CEILINGS

             Materials                                            R 23,000      R 2,300
             Local artisans                                       R 6,000       R 600
           Sub total - ceilings                                   R 29,000      R 2,900

        3 ELECTRICAL

             Materials                                            R 5,580       R 558
             Local electricians                                   R 2,250       R 225
           Sub total - electrical intervention                    R 7,830       R 783

        4 Grand total                                             R 109,978     R 10,998

City of Cape Town’s Perspective

A commitment to more sustainable housing

The project represents many things, but above all, it represents an opportunity for committing ‘low
cost’ housing developments to a sustainable development path. When viewed from the perspective
of the City of Cape Town - and to the countries of the South in general - sustainable development
is primary and climate change mitigation is secondary in CDM projects. This project fits well with
the national developmental goals as well as to the City’s strategic interventions. It also has a
potential for enhancing housing developments in the area, and furthermore, for ensuring
sustainable access to diversified sources of energy through promoting energy efficiency and the use
of renewable energy.
Cape Town, and indeed the whole of South Africa, lacks good housing projects that could be show-
cased as best practice. Housing projects which were show-cased at the World Summit on
Sustainable Development in Johannesburg bear testimony to the above assertion. The Kuyasa
Project, once completed, will represent another best practice housing development in Cape Town in
addition to the energy-efficient hostel upgrade at Lwandle township in Strand. Although the
project has still been under development, people have already been visiting it. The attractions at
the moment are the ten demonstration houses that have been retrofitted with the more sustainable
energy interventions.

Once completed, the project will be a large-scale demonstration of energy efficiency, energy
conservation and use of renewable energy in a housing development. Coupled with the high
profile of the area and the interest that is being generated by the innovativeness and ground
breaking nature of the project, the Kuyasa Project has a potential to be replicated to other areas.

                     SBE’03 Technology and Management for Sustainable Building
                                        CSIR, 26-30 May 2003
Morris, Rosenberg & Booi                                                                             8

Capacity building

As the project represent a paradigm shift in housing development, it has an important aspect of
capacity building for both the officials and the beneficiaries. Over the past year, numerous
capacity building presentations and workshops were conducted. Whereas capacity building impacts
are usually long term, the project had impacts in a short space of time. As a result of the capacity
building on energy issues developed by the project, five members of the Kuyasa Steering
committee are employed by BONESA3 to promote energy efficiency at Monwabisi Park, an area
adjacent to Kuyasa. Also, council officials from different line departments can utilise the
opportunities presented by CDM projects as they are now familiar with unique CDM projects’
rules and modalities. Again, as a result of the project, the additional amount from the national
housing department for improving the thermal performance of newly built houses, will be utilised
in Cape Town in a more effective manner.

Other benefits

Apart from the afore-mentioned benefits arising from the project, the project has other benefits. For
the beneficiaries, the project will reduce the health risks, create jobs and save money. For the local
authority, the project will contribute to the municipality’s endeavours aimed at poverty alleviation,
promotion of renewable energy and energy efficiency. Without any doubts, the project is laying the
basis for sustainable housing developments in the City of Cape Town.
As sustainable development is starting to gain prominence and opportunities from climate change
mitigation become apparent, Kuyasa Pilot CDM project represents an important case study. The
conference is an ideal platform for ensuring that the learnings from Kuyasa Project are replicated


The project has already provided a valuable context within which to investigate and implement
energy interventions which should have far-reaching social, environmental and economic benefits.
Interestingly, at least one other solar water heating system and a ceiling have been installed by
project artisans in non-project beneficiary homes in Khayelitsha. This indicates a degree of
awareness and receptiveness to these energy interventions which are a direct consequence of the
baseline project.


Spalding-Fecher, R; Mqadi, L and Oganne, G (2003). Carbon financing for environmentally sound
low cost housing: Financial implications of the Clean Development Mechanism for the Kuyasa
Housing Project, Domestic Use of Energy Conference 2003, Cape Technikon.

Winkler, H and Thorne, S (2002). Baselines for suppressed demand: CDM projects contribution to
poverty alleviation, South African Journal of Economic and Management Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 2,
June 2002, pp. 413-429.

    an energy efficient lighting initiative in South Africa;

                            SBE’03 Technology and Management for Sustainable Building
                                                  CSIR, 26-30 May 2003