Steering committee presentation.pdf - Steering Committee by gyvwpsjkko


									Steering Committee
Presentation to the
    FET Summit
  3 September 2010
   Starting Point: Consistent messages of a sector in
    crisis to the Minister and Department in 2009
   Step I: Recognition that the challenges are such that
    they need a concerted and intensive effort from all
    stakeholders and a commitment to making urgent
   Step 2: FET College Roundtable: WHAT ARE THE
   Step 3: Intensive investigation and solution seeking
    under the leadership of a key stakeholder steering
   Step 4: Steering Committee reports to Summit
   Step 5: Sustainable Change Management
   Prior to 2009: Massive work into re-
    conceptualising the sector:
     National Plan for FET
     Extensive Policy Work and Legislation
     Extensive Curriculum Work
     Recapitalisation
   Efforts made by many must be
 Diverse expectations of colleges - loss of clarity of
  mission and identity
 Multiple and overlapping changes simultaneously
  implemented within the system– mutually de-
  stabilising effects across the system of unanticipated
       Employer
       Governance
       Curriculum
       Management
       Programme driven funding and enrolment planning
       Regulatory environment
       Enrolment growth
   Complex changes must be:
     Deeply understood and accepted
     Systematically supported
     Rigorously monitored and evaluated
   Solutions must be flexible enough to
    accommodate the range of needs in the sector
    without compromising on developmental goals
   A variety of fit-for-purpose qualifications and
    programmes must cater for the range of needs
    in the sub-system
   We need a deeper understanding of:
     The people we depend on to deliver quality in this
      system , and implications for teaching and
     The social and economic complexity of the young
      people we seek to reach, and implications for
      teaching and learning
   Structural and systemic problems can be
    experienced as personal/organisational
   Loss of lecturers, low morale, high vacancy
   Poor performance: pass rate, drop-out
   Increasing reliance on private sector for skills
    training, growing loss of confidence in the
    public sector
   Increasing institutional instability and labour
   Policy statements may be judged on many
    grounds. For example:
     Is a policy based on accurate knowledge?
     Is it based on acceptable principles?
     Is it aiming to achieve acceptable objectives?
     How has the policy been arrived at?
     Who has been involved in the process of policy advice
      and development?
     Have reasonable means been chosen to reach the policy
   Policy documents often omit two important items
     How their proposals are going to be implemented (and
      by whom),
     Under what conditions they can be implemented
    In their absence, policy statements may seem to be
    no more than hopes and dreams.
   Policy proposals can only succeed if the affected
    constituencies feel that they are partners with a
    stake in the outcome and if they receive broad
    support in society
 South Africa needs to develop as a 21st century
  economy, but we have gaps in critical skills required
  for a range of social and economic development
  strategies currently being implemented by all
  spheres of government.
 Skills shortages in a number of occupations and
  economic sectors inhibit growth and investment.
 These skills shortages coexist with a relatively high
  level of unemployment and is indicative of a
  mismatch between the supply of, and demand for
•   Skill deficits and bottlenecks, especially in
    priority and scarce skills, contribute to the
    structural constraints to our growth and
    development path.
•   A skilled and capable workforce is critical for
    decent work; an inclusive economy; labour
    absorption; rural development; the reduction
    of inequalities and the need for a more
    diversified and knowledge intensive economy
   Too many talented young people and adults are
    excluded from economic participation – and social
     Many South African learners are poorly-prepared to
      undertake further learning when they leave school and
      cannot access post-school education and training
     A large number of youth and adults are not in
      employment, education or training with poor educational
     There is limited capacity of post-secondary institutions to
      absorb more students or to respond to needs
                             18        19        20        21        22        23       24 Total
Unspecified                2,595    2,457      3,786     4,762    4,998     4,054     4,699      27,351
Primary or less           61,056   64,285    70,496     78,564    73,575    75,261   77,425    500,662
Secondary education
                          51,192   59,643     73,194    79,050    83,367    81,502   80,649    508,597
less than Grade 10
Grade 10/Std 8 or
higher but less than      65,228   94,608    132,158   164,596   176,733   174,325 183,146     990,794
Grade 12
Grade 12/ NTCIII (no
                          47,447   65,190    89,292     99,797   100,711    96,139 100,080     598,657
Grade 12/Std 10
                          10,226   13,526     14,778    14,259   16,910     13,869   14,766     98,335
(with E)
Certificate with Gr 12     2,732    4,025     6,299      8,157     9,672     8,340    7,811     47,035
Diploma with Gr 12          388      1,151    2,464      3,461     6,103     5,733    5,995     25,294
Bachelors degree            188       322       430      1,774    1,460      2,831    2,347      9,352
BTech                         6       126       192        312       78       654      414        1,780
Post grad diploma                               244       405       400       581       867      2,498
Honours degree                                   60       220       383       694       337      1,695
Masters/PHD                                      48         77      110       135       50         420

Total                    241,056   305,333   393,441   455,434   474,501   464,119 478,587         15
Educational Qualifications                     Total


Primary or less

Secondary education less than Grade 10            71%

Grade 10/Std 8 or higher but less than Grade

Grade 12/ NTCIII (no exemption)                   21%

Grade 12/Std 10 (with E)                          0.9%   16
 “there remains a group of adult learners (largely rural and
  largely over the age of 40) who want basic reading and
  writing skills to empower themselves to read government
  notices, newspapers and the Bible.
 “A second group (younger and more urban) want to
  repeat a matric type of exam that will enable them to
  enter institutions of higher learning where the schooling
  system failed them.
 “A third group (also younger and hungrier) want a rapid-
  learning programme in English and maths that will allow
  access to trades, learnerships and the world of work.”
                    (Miller M&G Learning for All, July 23)
   Any ‘mode’ of differentiation must
    demonstrate a clear capacity of sector to
    enhance student access and success;
   HE differentiation must be optimally linked to
    the wider (and evolving) post-secondary
    education system;
   It must be linked to long-term HRD macro-
    planning driven by Government with its 30-
    year time horizon;
   A framework for differentiation should:
     be national, integrative and linked to the wider
      post-secondary education system…
     … must be linked to regional/local economic
      networks; and, it must enable portability of
      students, academics and knowledge across the
   Developing a framework for a continuum of
    institutions which are differentiated in
    relation to their strengths and purposes and
    linked to regional/local economic networks;
    and facilitate portability of students,
    academics and knowledge across the sector
   More young people MUST BE absorbed into social
    participation through learning and skills
    development opportunities
   BUT
   Colleges are only one of the institutional forms in
    the post-school education and training landscape:
     A specific niche in a differentiated PSETA system
     Differentiated within this niche
     Quality and sustainability
   Other institutional forms to increase access to
    education and training must be urgently expanded
    and transformed
   Public institutions of learning and institutions of the
    skills development sector are now in one
   With the birth of DHET the work of ‘Skills
    Development’, with its SETAs the NSF can now
    more easily complement that of our public
    institutions the colleges, the universities of
    technology, comprehensive universities and
   Workplace learning can become the visible
    supplement to institutional learning
 Determine skills development priorities after an
  analysis of the skills demand and trends, and supply
  issues within the sectors
 Identify a set of sector specific objectives and goals
  that will meet sector needs, economic or industrial
  sector growth strategies, and meet scarce and
  critical skills in the sector.
 Identify strategies to address these objectives and
 Identify activities that will support these strategies
 Implement and resource these activities
 Report on performance in relation to these
  objectives and goals
   These are ‘Professional, Vocational, Technical and
    Academic Learning’ programmes that meet the critical
    needs for economic growth and social development.
   They are also programmes that generally combine
    course work at universities, universities of technology
    and colleges with structured learning at work.
   This is achieved by means of professional placements,
    work-integrated learning, apprenticeships, learnerships,
    internships and the like.
   To achieve this goal, there must not only be improved
    access to, and success at post-school learning sites, such
    as universities and colleges, but there must also be
    structured bridges to the world of work and quality
    learning upon arrival there.
   The challenge for SETAs and the beneficiaries
    of relevant NSF funding is to partner with
    institutions of learning to provide the bridge
    to the world of work and a special grant is
    proposed for this purpose. It would apply to
    all of the different types of partnerships
    between workplaces and learning institutions
 These are programmes which make it possible for
  adults and youth to have access to education and
  training opportunities that will enable them to acquire
  a minimum qualification at Level 4 of the NQF.
  Foundational Learning Programmes as well as Adult
  Education and Training Programmes fall under this
 They are broadly envisaged to fill in the learning gaps
  left by an incomplete or inadequate schooling and to
  enable learners to enrol on other programmes leading
  to occupational success.
   Where sectoral or national programmes specify an
    entry requirement of NQF Level 4 or above, these
    programmes must be complimented by the
    provision of either Adult Education and Training or
    Foundational Learning Programmes which enable
    those who do not meet these requirements to
    have the opportunity of doing so. Number of
    learners assisted to access further learning to be
    counted against programmes entered.
   Funds from the national Skills Funds are used
    for the projects identified in the national skills
    development strategy as national priorities
   Current policy and legislation regarding the FET
    College sector is rooted in the education-training
    divide that preceded the establishment of the
    Department of Higher Education and Training in
    2009. Articulation between colleges and higher
    education is weak, the complementary
    responsibilities of ‘skills development’ and public
    institutions have not been developed and
    development of the colleges across the nine
    provinces has been uneven.
   While the Colleges Act of 2006 envisaged a broad
    role for colleges, the almost exclusive focus on the
    NCV in the National Plan of 2008 and the 2009
    funding norms has helped to address the needs of
    one part of the colleges’ target audience but has
    directed the colleges away from the desired goals of
    differentiation and diversity. Colleges have become
    increasingly de-linked from the worlds of skills
    development and occupational training, and a cul-
    de-sac for learners hoping to progress into higher
   FET is broadly defined in terms of programmes at
    levels 2-4 on the NQF and is located “at the
    intersection of General and Higher Education and
    the world of work” (White Paper 4) and in terms of
    the law the colleges are intended “To enable
    students to acquire knowledge, practical skills, and
    applied vocational and occupational competence, in
    order to enter employment; a vocation, occupation or
    trade; or higher education.”
   New development opportunities have arisen with
    the establishment of the Department of Higher
    Education and Training (DHET) – in particular,
• To repair the fundamental divide between education and training,
  between FET and HE and between national and provincial
• To generate greater synergy between provider institutions and the
  institutions responsible for translating skills demand into supply
• For colleges to align their programmes and priorities with the
  needs of industry with the support of the SETAs
 The contribution of the colleges to national
  development priorities must be understood within
  the context of the broader institutional landscape,
  which includes public adult learning centres, high
  schools, technical high schools, NGOs and private
  providers of FET.
 We must also consider current processes under way,
  in particular the NSDS III, the revised SETA
  landscape, the Collaboration for Occupational Skills
  Excellence (COSE) project as well as the revised
  quality assurance environment.
   National plans for the sector must address the
    enormous social challenge of young people who are
    not employed or in education or training, noting:
    • the need to find systemic ways of increasing the scale of
      provisioning of programmes that support access to
      sustainable livelihoods
    • the broader institutional landscape that is required to
      address this
    • the kinds of programmes that will be needed for different
    • the relative costs of the different types of programmes
• the need to enable colleges with more capacity to
  play a larger role while creating the space for
  other colleges to stabilize and then increasingly
  play a more substantial role
• the need to balance the dual imperatives of
  quality and growth in a manner that places the
  learner at the centre
• the important role that the National Skills Fund
  can play, operating within an increasingly
  developmental paradigm
   Colleges are public institutions that are widely
    distributed across the country, and have the potential to
    reach a substantial number of vulnerable youth and
    young adults. It is important therefore that their
    offerings are able to respond to local needs (in the
    various communities in which they are located) as well
    as regional and national needs.
   Prior to 2010, colleges were placed in a precarious
    situation by delays and sometimes cuts in provincial
    funding; as a result of the shift of the funding function
    from PEDs to the DHET, funding is still channelled
    through provinces but there is no longer leeway for
    provinces to change the grant allocation to the college.
   Colleges are now required to plan their enrolments, for
    the purpose of the government subsidy, on the basis of
    the programme budget allocations they receive from the
    Department of Higher Education and Training (DHET)
    rather than on the basis of the number of staff they have
    or the number of students they can ‘fit’ into the college.
   Colleges are permitted to offer occupational and other
    programmes in the form of “fee for service income”;
    however, the full cost of offering these programmes is not
    always recovered and the amount of funding received
    through these programmes is not clearly documented.
   The employment provisions of the 2006 FET Colleges Act have
    had a destabilising effect upon the colleges and there have
    been unintended consequences. These include a loss of some
    qualified and experienced staff, unsatisfactory salaries and
    conditions of employment for many council employees, and
    tensions surrounding the reporting lines and accountability of
    college principals and deputy principals.
   While not a direct consequence of the Act, college staff who
    remain on the provincial payroll have seen their remuneration
    and benefits fall behind those of their peers in the school
   Contributing factors include the parlous financial position of
    many colleges, exacerbated by the introduction of the NCV
    and of the 2009 funding norms and standards.
   Some colleges have been insufficiently innovative and
    enterprising in attracting alternative sources of income;
    however, college management structures are under-
    developed and under-staffed in many instances, with large
    numbers of vacancies and individuals in acting positions,
    sometimes for years at a time.
   While the employment policies and practices of college
    councils and college management appear in some instances
    to be short-sighted, the state, on the other hand, has by and
    large abrogated its responsibilities towards staff who are,
    after all, employed in public institutions.
   The result of all this is in many instances an erosion of trust
    between college staff and government, and between staff
    and college councils and management.
   There is a range of challenges that are of critical and
    immediate concern in relation to how colleges are
    able to plan and manage funding. The list below is
    preliminary and emerges from interactions that
    Task Team 3 has had with various stakeholders in
    the college subsector.
Financial Issues
• Budget shortfalls because of over-enrolment and
    financial risk in some colleges because of too few NCV
•   Bad debt not provided for or well managed
•   NSFAS delays, sometimes because of poor quality
    information from colleges and flawed marketing and
    enrolment planning
•   Poor throughput creates blockages in the system,
    with students carrying too many subjects
•   Unit costs are less than real programme costs in some
Financial Issues
• The funding transfer process has been resolved in
    principle but not in practice
•   Poor analysis underpins enrolment planning
•   Weak management capacity, especially in financial
    management and planning (NB poor procurement
•   Weak capacity to generate additional (non-
    exchequer) revenue
•   Late results, late influx of students and local political
    pressure, especially to admit NCV students, affect
    planning negatively
Staffing Issues
   Staff who left the colleges had to be replaced, creating a
    financial burden
   Inadequate treatment of staff (because of differing
    conditions of service) and poor communication affect
    morale and relationships
   Staff competence is variable, staff development is weak
   Many managers are in acting positions
Teaching and Learning

   Poor throughput creates blockages in the
    system, with students carrying too many
   Poor student support/placement/selection
    and lack of remedial action
   ‘Institutional autonomy’ is a relative and imprecise
    term; the key challenge is to define the distribution
    of powers and functions across different levels of
    the system, ensuring that –
    • A balance is found between the management discretion that a college
      requires in order to deliver relevant programmes in a flexible and
      responsive manner, and the role of the state in planning and
      overseeing the development and the performance of the public FET
      college system.
    • The colleges are seen as an extension of the developmental state,
      particularly in ensuring that the needs of disadvantaged groups or
      communities are met, or that market failure with respect to the
      provision of critical or priority skills is addressed.
 ‘The colleges are seen as an extension of the developmental state,
    particularly in ensuring that the needs of disadvantaged groups or
    communities are met, or that market failure with respect to the provision
    of critical or priority skills is addressed.
•   The college system becomes highly responsive to the needs of employers
    and the demands of the labour market.
•   Colleges receive appropriate levels of support and development
•   Colleges demonstrate that they have the capacity to exercise the powers
    and functions that are assigned to them.
•   Key stakeholders play an important practical role in policy and
    governance through structured dialogue and consultation at the system
    level and the institutional level (articulating labour market and social
    demand and ensuring the responsiveness of the colleges).
   ‘Differentiation’ among colleges should displace and replace
    the discourse of ‘institutional autonomy’. Differentiation
    (which is in fact is a reflection of current realities within the
    sector) is taken to mean that each college will be
    distinguished by its individual Programmes and
    Qualifications Mix (PQM), which may differ from other
    colleges in terms of the range and level of programmes
    offered, and the numbers enrolled, driven by a long-term
    national development plan for the college system in
    response to various factors including:
• the geographical location of the college;
• the local labour market;
• the communities served by the college;
• linkages with higher education;
• regional, provincial and national growth and development
  plans and HRD strategies;
• the capacity of the college to offer particular programmes,
  as determined by the relevant Quality Council or other
  quality assurer; and
• historical inequalities.
                                DHET: developing,
                             steering, monitoring the
                                FET college sector

Colleges: quality delivery                              QA: assesses 'fitness for
 of relevant education                                    purpose;' QA and
        and skills                                           accreditation

                          Stakeholders: signalling
                             demand, ensuring
                         promoting accountability
   The role of DHET should be interrogated and developed on the
    basis of two fundamental propositions:
    • that colleges are public institutions, and a vital component of the post
      -compulsory education and training system in meeting the country’s
      developmental, economic and social needs; and
    • that colleges must be empowered through policy and legislation, and
      appropriately staffed and resourced, to respond effectively to the
      demands of the labour market and the needs of employers, as well as
      to the needs of communities and the public policy imperatives of
   A PQM approach is the appropriate vehicle for the approval
    and funding of college programmes.
   The PQM approach suggests that approval of each college’s
    PQM will be based on two related but distinct processes:
    approval by the appropriate quality council of the
    programmes each college proposes to offer and approval by
    DHET of the overall PQM for each college, based on college
    performance data and the objectives of a broad national plan
    for the college sector.
   The implementation of an effective and efficient
    PQM-based process depends on a number of key
    factors, not all of which are currently in place. These
    • Appropriate planning, financial and administrative capacity in the
    •   Properly constituted, strong, effective and informed college
    •   Appropriate planning, financial and administrative capacity in
    •   Effective and informed industry and stakeholder representation
        and engagement at the system level as well as at the institutional
    •   Clarity regarding the programmes to be offered by colleges, and as
        to the specific quality assurance bodies that the various
        programme offerings will be subject to
• The capacity of the quality assurance bodies themselves, noting,
  for instance, that the HEQC currently has no experience of or
  systems for quality assuring the colleges, and that the QCTO is still
  at an embryonic stage of development
• The introduction of a PQM-based mechanism is therefore a
  medium-term, developmental objective. Clear, simple and
  transparent interim arrangements have been developed by the
  DHET for the approval of college plans and programme offerings,
  and these arrangements need to be refined in close consultation
  with stakeholders.
• More ambitious system objectives arising from the long-term
  national plan for post-compulsory provision (which will, for
  example, include expanded access, the improvement of quality,
  and the establishment of new institutions or types of institutions)
  will require dedicated development funding, over and above
  programmes-based funding determined via the PQM.
   There should be a number of core programmes from which
    FET colleges will determine their PQM. These programmes
    are proposed as the ‘flagship’ programmes for the FET
    colleges and it is suggested that these should assist to
    establish a clear identity for the colleges.
   It is proposed that this ‘college identity’ should have the
    following elements:
     The colleges’ flagship programmes should be substantive and result in a
     The flagship programmes should be general vocational programmes
      and occupational programmes, noting the recommendations of Task
      Team 2 regarding the need for a clear RPL, selection and assessment
      process (and for student support services to be integrated into all levels
      of college life), foundational learning programmes, and an
      ‘employability’ or ‘work readiness’ component in flagship programmes.
 New funding norms and standards should support
  and drive all components of FET college flagship
 The colleges’ flagship programmes should have a
  clear relationship to workplace opportunities and
  enhance employability (work readiness training
  and placement support will be necessary).
 The flagship programmes offered by the FET
  colleges should articulate with other programmes
  (ensuing both horizontal and vertical progression).
 The flagship programmes should articulate with
  other programmes (ensuring both horizontal and
  vertical progression).
 The criteria for determining the PQM need to be
  discussed in detail in the post-Summit phase, noting
    • Institutional diversity (not all colleges will provide the same PQM) will
      mean that where learners wish to access a programme that is not
      available in their locality the possibility of a supplement to the bursary
      needs to be considered.
    • A consequence of differentiation will be that colleges may develop
      areas of specialised expertise.
• The ability of colleges to assist learners to locate opportunities for
  practical learning and work experience and for final assessment will be
  crucial, and must be funded.
• FET colleges with the capacity to do so should be encouraged to play
  an important role in the delivery of other programmes, such as
  programmes that support sustainable livelihoods in the communities
  that surround colleges campuses; colleges that do not have the
  necessary capacity will be encouraged to partner with other providers
  in this regard, and funding must be allocated in a systematic manner
  to ensure that sustainable livelihoods programmes grow to the
  required scale.
• In the definition, review and development of the flagship programmes
  institutions such as SETAs and the Quality Councils will be vital
 Task Team 3 has proposed four principles to guide
  recommendations for FET college interventions prior to
  and during 2011:
1. There is an urgent need to support certain colleges to
    plan and prepare more effectively for 2011, and receive
    ongoing support into the first quarter of 2011 to avoid a
    recurrence of the crisis in which they currently find
    themselves. The DHET should devise criteria against
    which the risk status of colleges can be analysed, based
    on financial and operational indicators, and assign
    targeted support for those colleges that are currently in
    the highest risk category. This support may require
    additional financial as well as technical support to avoid
    the repercussions of the current financial crisis in these
2.   There is an urgent need to stabilise the FET college
     subsystem in 2011 in order to lay the foundation for
     sustainable growth. The challenges outlined
     represent significant risks to growth and if colleges
     are to grow in a sustainable manner it is necessary to
     dedicate 2011 to interventions that can address
     destabilising factors and prevent them from
3.   Considering the weak capacity in many colleges to
     adhere to acceptable planning and management
     practices, there is a need to prioritise standards and
     capacity for effective planning and financial and
     human resource management.
4. Before plans for 2012 can be fully developed, there is a
   need to address key knowledge gaps that impact on the
   DHET’s capacity to clearly plan for and support
   sustainable growth in the college subsystem. These
   gaps include:
   Comprehensive data on lecturer competencies and
     Comprehensive data on the actual financial status of colleges
      beyond what is provided in the Annual Financial Statements
     Comprehensive data on infrastructure to determine the
      capacity of the subsystem to grow
     Comprehensive mapping of student needs and assessment of
      student support approaches
     Comprehensive data on employer demand for vocational and
      occupational programmes
   It is proposed that a new policy vision and
    legislative framework for the colleges sector
    should include the following elements:
    • It should locate the public FET colleges sector within a single policy
      and legal framework for post-compulsory education and training
    • It should define the role of colleges in relation to skills development
      and occupational training, general and community education, adult
      education and training, and higher education, and the wider
      institutional landscape of public and private providers.
    • It should identify the core mission of FET colleges as general
      vocational and occupational education and training. An ancillary
      mission of FET colleges, depending on context and the capacity of
      colleges, should be community service.
    • It should position colleges as responsive, high-quality, non-university
      post-compulsory education and training institutions, serving a variety
      of target groups and meeting local, regional and national needs
   Elements of a new policy vision and legislative
    framework for the colleges sector (continued):
    • It should map the relationships between colleges, SETAs and higher
        education institutions.
    •   It should create a common but flexible programme approval and quality
        assurance framework for colleges aligned with that for higher education.
    •   It should create linkages between colleges and other post-school education
        and training institutions, through simple and transparent funding, quality
        assurance and programme approval arrangements that are broadly
        consistent across the wider post-school education and training system.
    •   It should provide for robust and effective linkages between colleges and the
        workplace, together with representation by employers and other
        stakeholders at the policy, institutional governance and operational levels.
    •   It should define the central role of DHET vis-à-vis the FET colleges as
        building and developing a national sub-system of institutions which
        articulates effectively with general and higher education and which will
        meet the social and economic demands of South Africa for access to
        vocational education and skills and community education.
   All colleges should, in principle, enjoy the same levels of discretion
    and control over their affairs, and this should be clearly stipulated
    in policy and legislation.
   The state should consider where more interventionist approaches
    are required, to ensure that government priorities are addressed
    and that market failure is redressed.
   The adoption of broad systems-level planning by DHET, balanced
    by the advisory and governance roles of industry and other
    stakeholders, and accompanied by a PQM-based planning process
    at the college or institutional level, should provide both the policy
    framework and the planning and steering tools required to
    balance the public policy objectives of a developmental state with
    the demands of society and the labour market, and to do so in
    relation to the institutional ‘facts on the ground’ in each college.
   FET colleges will have a dual mission:
    • They should provide large numbers of school leavers with
      access to good quality general vocational programmes
      that equip young people to enter the workplace or follow a
      learning pathway. This is the current priority for
      stabilisation in the subsystem.
    • They should provide the large numbers of out-of-school
      youth and young adults who are not in employment or
      education and training with access to occupational
      programmes that can enhance employability and/or lead
      to job creation.
   While colleges continue to offer their core programmes (NCV and
    occupational programmes), collaborative funding mechanisms will
    provide the potential resource base for funding specific projects
    targeting out-of-school youth and young adults. Funding should also be
    sourced through partnerships with donors or municipalities for such
    projects. These projects should be governed by a set of key principles,
    including the following:
    • The projects should address skills supply which will contribute to more
        sustainable job creation and economic development in rural and peri-urban
    •   These projects should be set up to demonstrate models for replicable and
        sustainable delivery which could potentially be mainstreamed in colleges in
        the future.
    •   The programmes delivered through these projects must adhere to the basic
        principles for college programmes established by Task Team 2. This requires a
        broader definition of the type of workplaces that learners could access to
        include informal workplaces.
    •   The projects will require careful design and management with strong support
        and coordination from the DHET.
    •   The projects should be governed by a set of measurable indicators and targets
        and colleges must be held accountable for achieving the targets set

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