ESN Wheat Fact Sheet 0408 qxp (PDF)

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					A New Generation in
Smart Nitrogen



Controlled Release Fertilizer
A smarter source of nitrogen. A smarter way to grow.




                wheat
ESN - A New Nitrogen Technology For Wheat


                                           ESN Recommendations For Wheat
                                           Establish Proper Nutrient Management Practices
                                           All sound nutrient management programs start with proper soil testing.
                                           The maximum benefits of ESN will not be realized if other limiting factors
                                           are not properly managed. Take a good soil test following recommended
                                           procedures and apply other nutrients and lime as recommended from the
                                           soil test. Eliminating other soil chemical, physical, and biological limitations
                                           will help realize the maximum benefit from ESN. We do not recommend
                                           ESN without proper soil testing.

                                           Nitrogen Nutrition of Wheat
    ESN - A New Nitrogen                   Proper N nutrition of wheat is critical to high yields and quality. Nitrogen
    Technology For Wheat                   stimulates tillering, head development, and protein storage in the grain.
    ESN is a new agricultural grade        Nitrogen sufficiency at tillering is crucial, because potential head number
    controlled-release nitrogen (N)        is influenced by tillering success. Excessive N early can cause excessive
    fertilizer from Agrium. ESN            vegetative growth and lodging. Head size can suffer if N deficiency occurs
    maximizes N-use efficiency and         before stem elongation. Winter wheat uses about 30-40% of its N by the
    minimizes N losses to the              five to six leaf stage (start of stem elongation) and about 60-70% from the
    environment by encapsulating N         start of stem elongation to maturity. Controlling the rate of N supply can
    inside a special polymer coating.      also increase grain protein by providing greater N availability during
                                           heading. The controlled N release of ESN can help produce high yields
    Predictable Nitrogen Release
    The unique coating allows water        and quality while reducing excessive vegetative growth.
    to diffuse into the granule,
    dissolving the N within. Nitrogen      Interactions of weather conditions, timing of N demand, and potential for
    inside the coating liquifies, yet      N loss should be considered in determining the most appropriate ESN
    remains encapsulated. The N            application for different geographies and uses. The following recommendations
    solution moves through the             are the result of field-testing over several years at many locations. Actual
    coating at a controlled rate           results may vary depending on weather and soil conditions.
    reducing N exposure to various
    loss mechanisms.
                                           US Great Plains
    Soil Temperature                       Wheat is a dominant crop in the semi-arid plains of the US. The potential
    The N release rate through             for winter N-loss is low in this environment. ESN generally performs best
    the coating is governed by             on winter wheat when applied in the fall at seeding. ESN should be
    soil temperature, which also           applied on spring wheat in the spring at planting time but may also be
    determines wheat growth and            applied in the fall. For fall applications, ESN is recommended as a single
    nutrient demand. The rate, at          N source to provide controlled feeding during the fall establishment period
    which water and N solution             and rapid growth the following spring. ESN blends easily with other
    move through the coating, is
                                           granular fertilizers and provides convenient one-pass fertilization. Spring
    slow in cold soils and increases
    as the soils warm thereby              top-dress applications on winter wheat or spring pre-plant applications on
    increasing N supply as wheat           spring wheat usually perform best if blended with soluble nitrogen sources,
    demand for N increases. ESN            such as ammonium sulfate or urea. Blending should follow guidelines for
    provides a steady N supply for         post-dormant spring top-dress described in Table 2.
    the growing wheat plant.
                                           Eastern Humid Regions - US Corn Belt
    Improved Nitrogen-Use                  Wheat is a common crop in the humid regions of Eastern North America, but
    Efficiency and Reduced                 N management presents numerous challenges. Excess precipitation during
    Losses
                                           winter and especially during early spring produces high potential for N loss by
    By supplying N as the crop
    needs it, N-use efficiency is          leaching and denitrification. Most of the N fertilizer is top-dressed in the
    increased. For growers, better         spring in order to avoid some of these losses. Nitrogen sources containing
    efficiency means increased             urea are subject to volatilization losses when applied in this manner. ESN is
                  continued on next page   a tool that can help overcome these losses if used properly.
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                                    A smarter source of nitrogen. A smarter way to grow.

The northern part of the region, north of approximately interstate 80, is        yields, improved grain quality,
                                                                                 and reduced workload by
characterized by winter soil temperatures below freezing. Under these
                                                                                 replacing multiple N applications
conditions, the encapsulated N in ESN can be protected against winter            with a single application. The
and early spring losses. In this area, ESN can be applied either in the fall     protective coating benefits the
or in the spring. When applied in the fall, ESN performs best when used          environment by reducing the
as the sole nitrogen source.                                                     exposure of fertilizer N to
                                                                                 leaching, volatilization, and
The southern part of this region, south of approximately interstate 80, may      denitrification losses. The result
have soil temperatures too warm to sufficiently retard N release from ESN.       is improved environmental
Under these conditions, premature N release and greater potential for N loss     stewardship and increased
may occur. In this region, ESN may not provide adequate protection for fall      production efficiency.
applications and is recommended as a spring top-dress.
                                                                                 Field Testing ESN’s Value
                                                                                 For Wheat
In areas where fall application of conventional N sources is not                 ESN has been tested and
recommended, spring ESN application is preferred. However, conventional          proven as an effective N
N sources are sometimes applied in the fall contrary to recommended              source for wheat by university
best management practices. If N is to be applied in the fall, research           researchers and growers in
has shown that ESN out-performs conventional N sources. This is not              both the United States and
an endorsement against the local recommended practices, but a                    Canada. Testing in a variety
management tool to reduce potential fall and winter N loss.                      of environments has
                                                                                 demonstrated the versatility of
Table 1. Geographic regions and general use guidelines for ESN                   ESN and how it should be used
                                                                                 in various conditions.
Region            Boundary        N-loss Potential       Recommended Use
Semi-arid                                 Low            Fall: Preferred
Great Plains                                             Spring: Acceptable
Humid US            North of              High           Spring: Preferred
Corn Belt        Interstate 80                           Fall: Acceptable
                   South of               High           Spring: Preferred
                 Interstate 80                           Fall: Not recommended


Performance of spring ESN applications often improves when blended
with a conventional N source. Winter wheat breaks dormancy and takes
up N at soil temperatures that may be too cool for sufficient release from
ESN. Supplying 25-60% of the N with a conventional N source, such as
ammonium sulfate or urea is recommended to provide the immediate N
needs of the wheat crop. ESN blends easily with conventional N fertilizers
such as ammonium sulfate, urea, phosphates, and potash. The later the N
application occurs, the greater the demand for immediate N supply and
the lower the percentage of ESN recommended in the blend (Table 2).


Table 2. Wheat development and ESN nitrogen management

                                                      Recommended Blend
 Time of Application                               ESN        Conventional N
 Fall: at planting or after emergence             100%          Not needed
 Winter/spring: on dormant wheat                 75-100%          0-25%
 Spring: on actively growing wheat               40-75%          25-60%
         (2 to 5 leaves)
 Spring: just before jointing                    0-30%               70-100%
         (beginning of stem elongation,
         5 to 6 leaf stage)

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ESN - A New Nitrogen Technology For Wheat


                                                       Map of U.S. Regions

                                                                                                       Spring
                                                                                      Fall           (preferred)
                                                                                  (preferred)          or fall
Other                                                                              or spring

Considerations                                                                                              Spring

• ESN is not recommended for
application before October in the
Eastern humid regions, but may
be applied as early as mid-
September in the semi-arid
Great Plains.
• Spring wheat should follow
recommendations for
post-dormant spring top-dress
applications, using an appropriate
blend of ESN and a soluble N
source such as urea or
ammonium sulfate.
• Where greater grain protein is
desired, ESN has consistently
produced greater protein than
conventional N sources. For this
objective, a greater proportion of
N as ESN than the percentages
described for blending may provide
a greater protein advantage.
• Cooler weather conditions
during vegetative growth may
suggest lower percentages of
ESN in the nitrogen blend.
• Warm weather conditions during
vegetative growth may suggest
higher percentages of ESN in the
nitrogen blend.
                                                       How can we help?
                                                       To make ESN a part of your nitrogen program, contact an authorized retailer or Agrium
                                                       representative. For technical information, our agronomists can be reached during busi-
                                                       ness hours.


    Agronomists                                        Sales Representatives                                                   Agronomy Info. Line

    13131 Lake Fraser Dr. SE   4582 S. Ulster Street   Canada                            U.S.                                  800-661-NPKS (6757)
    Calgary, Alberta, Canada   Suite 1700                                                                                      USA and Canada
    T2J 7E8                    Denver, CO, USA         Alberta          Manitoba         Cedar Rapids, IA   DeWitt, MI         877-265-0405 USA
                               80237                   Daren Bryant     Craig Davidson   Mark Mangin        B.J. Bilas
    Ray Dowbenko                                       (403) 815-4787   (204) 761-5991   (303) 588-8333     (517) 669-5499     email: esn@agriumat.com
    (403) 225 7174             Alan Blaylock                                                                                   www.AgriumAT.com
                               (303) 804-4479          Saskatchewan     Ontario          Breese, IL         Hillsboro, ND
                                                       Mandy Huska      B.J. Bilas       John Niemeyer      Andy Steinberger
                                                       (306) 547-7217   (517) 669-5499   (618) 526-7728     (701) 436-3930




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