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HETEROTROPHIC CULTIVATION OF MICROALGA

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					   International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                          CARE 001


  HETEROTROPHIC CULTIVATION OF MICROALGA, Tetraselmis
suecica IN STIRRED TANK BIOREACTOR FOR BIOMASS AND BIO-
                     FUEL PRODUCTION

        Mojtaba Azma, Raha Abd Rahim, Rosfarizan Mohamad, Arbakariya B. Ariff

Department of Bioprocess Technology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Bimolecular Sciences,
                     Universiti Putra Malaysia, Selangor Malaysia
                           Email: mojtabaazma@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT

Heterotrophic cultivation technique of microalga, Tetraselmis suecica, in stirred tank
bioreactor (2 L) was developed aimed at improvement of the biomass production for
subsequent used in biodiesel synthesis. Heterothropic microalga cell was developed from the
adaptation of the phototrophic cell by photoperiodic, manipulation of medium and culture
conditions. The performance of heterothrophic cultivation of T. suecica was substantially
improved in term of growth rate, final cell concentration, yield and productivity as well as
cell composition. The cultivation time to reach maximum cell concentration was decreased
from 348 h in autotrophic to 139 h in heterotrophic cultivation. The final cell concentration
(74.34 ×10-2 g dry cell weight/L) was increased more than five times in heterotrophic
cultivation as compared to that obtained in autotrophic cultivation (14 ×10-2 g dry cell
weight/L). In addition, the maximum productivity (0.76×10 -2 g dry cell weight/L.h-1 ) for
heterotrophic cultivation was ten times higher than autotrophic cultivation (0.075×10 -2 g dry
cell weight/L.h-1 ). Interestingly, the percentage of total lipid and carbohydrate in the cells
were increased from 24.5% and 7.4 % to 51.9% and 14.1%, respectively. On the other hand,
the percentage of protein in heterothrophic cells were reduced to 10.5% compare to 45.7% in
autotrophic cell.

Keywords: Microalgae; Tetraselmis suecica; Heterotrophic; Biofuel




                                    ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA                                1
     International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                            CARE 002


    MICROWAVE PYROLYSIS/GASIFICATION FOR CONVERSION OF
               WASTE TO ENERGY: A REVIEW

                    M. Mokhtar, R. Omar , M.A. Mohammad Salleh, A. Idris

Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti
                  Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                            Email: rozita@eng.upm.edu.my


ABSTRACT

The disposal of wastes in Malaysia is becoming a serious problem in many industrialized and
public sectors. This is due to the high production of waste such as municipal solid waste,
sludge from waste water treatment plants, agricultural waste and other used non-
biodegradable products such as plastics and tyres. These wastes although are reused as
compost, fuel, recycled and so on, there are still abundant left. These leftovers pose problems
such as heavy metal leaching, leachates, green house gas emissions and mosquito breeding
grounds. The disposal cost of these wastes sometimes can be costly at up to RM 2,200/ton
such as petroleum sludge by Kualiti Alam. Several methods have been used to convert these
residues to energy via thermal treatment such as combustion, incineration and gasification.
However, pyrolysis becomes one of the popular methods as the alternative to the wastes
disposal recently. Not only energy (as gas) is produced, by-products such as chemical
feedstock and solid absorbent can be produced. The use of microwave for pyrolysis,
although relatively new for waste treatment, has several advantages compared to
conventional heating. This includes easy control of the heating process, time saving, higher
heating efficiency, etc. Tyre microwave pyrolysis plant in UK is known as the earliest plant
using microwave technology to breakdown polymer in used tyres. Since 1990s, there are
many patents for microwave pyrolysis. The processes based on microwave pyrolysis of waste
include coffee hulls, wood, coal, sewage sludge, hospital waste, plastic wastes, corn cobs and
rice straw. The most important factors influencing the yield of product during the pyrolysis is
temperature in range from 500 to 1000o C according to product preference. High temperature
favors gas products; whereas lower temperature favors liquid products. Comparatively,
microwave pyrolysis produced gas with higher hydrogen and carbon monoxide (syngas)
content compared to conventional heating. Liquid product also showed considerable
decrease in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) production which is of known
carcinogenic. Vitrification of heavy metals in solid product has also been proven.

Keywords: waste; microwave pyrolysis; biofuel; temperature




2                                     ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA
     International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                            CARE 003


      EXHAUST GAS CONCENTRATION OF CNG FUELLED DIRECT
               INJECTION ENGINE AT MBT TIMING

                          M.K Hassan1 , I.Aris2 , S.Mahmod2 , R. Sidek2
 1
     Advanced Automotive Technology Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, UPM,
                                    43400, Serdang, Malaysia
         2
           Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
                      Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400, Serdang, Malaysia
                                 Email: khair@eng.upm.edu.my


ABSTRACT

This paper presents an experimental result of exhaust gas concentration of high compression
engine fuelled with compressed natural gas (CNG) at maximum brake torque (MBT). The
engine uses central direct injection (DI) technique to inject the CNG into the cylinder. The
engine geometry bases on gasoline engine with 14:1 compression ratio and called CNGDI
engine. The injectors are positioned within a certain degrees of spark plug location. The
objective of the experiment is to study the influence and significant of MBT timing in CNGDI
engine towards exhaust gases. The experimental tests were carried out using computer-
controlled eddy-current dynamometer, which measures the CNGDI engine performance. At
MBT region, exhaust gas concentration as such CO, HC, NOx, O2 and CO2 , were recorded
and analyzed during the test using the Horiba analyzer. A closed loop wide band lambda
sensor has been mounted at the exhaust manifold to indicate the oxygen level during the
exercise.

Keywords: Compressed natural gas; high compression engine; CNGDI engine; ignition
timing; MBT of CNGDI




                                      ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA                                3
         International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                                CARE 004


        THE EFFECT OF COMBINED ROOF SOLAR COLLECTOR AND
        VERTICAL STACK IN ENHANCING THE STACK VENTILATION
                           PERFORMANCE

         Wardah Fatimah Mohammad Yusoff1 , Elias Salleh1 , Nor Mariah Adam², Abdul Razak
                                           Sapian3
    1
        Department of Architecture, Faculty of Design and Architecture, Universiti Putra Malaysia
          2
            Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty o f Engineering,
                                         Universiti Putra Malaysia
             3
               Department of Architecture, Faculty of Architecture and Environmental Design,
                               International Islamic University of Malaysia
                                     Email: washaz_dot@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT

This paper discusses on the potential of solar induced ventilation in enhancing the
performance of the stack effect natural ventilation. There are three distinguished solar
induced ventilation configuration, namely Trombe wall, solar chimney and roof solar
collector. The suggested solar induced ventilation for the hot humid climate is the combined
roof solar collector and the vertical stack. This combination is essential in collecting higher
solar radiation and achieving higher stack pressure. A physical experiment is conducted in
order to test and measure the air flow pattern, air flow rate, air velocity and air temperature
induced by the combined configuration of roof solar collector and vertical stack. The
previous studies on solar induced ventilation are referred in determining the measurement of
the configuration, which are the height, cavity width, length, tilt angle and openings’ area.
The results of the experiment prove on the feasibility of combining the roof solar collector
and vertical stack in inducing higher air flow rate compared to the application of one
configuration only.

Keywords: Solar induced ventilation; Hot humid climate




4                                         ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA
   International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                          CARE 005


    CONVERTER PERFORMANCE OF WIND TURBINE DRIVEN
  DOUBLY-FED INDUCTION GENERATOR FOR VARIABLE SPEED
           WIND ENERGY CONVERSION SYSTEMS

                                B.Chitti Babu, K.B.Mohanty

     Department of Electrical Engineering, Centre of Industrial Electronics & Robotics,
           National Institute of Technology Rourkela, Rourkela-769008, INDIA
                 Email: bcbabunitrkl@ieee.org, kbmohanty@nitrkl.ac.in


ABSTRACT

Due to intermittent production of wind energy and increased penetration of wind power in to
utility grid, variable speed doubly-fed induction generators are largely used. This paper
presents an overview of wind turbine driven doubly-fed induction generator connected to
utility grid. The study includes steady state and dynamic charactraristics, active and reactive
power control of such machine. The grid connection is mainly realized by control of PWM
back to back bidirectional power converter on the rotor side. The machine model is based on
dynamic vector approach in the stationary reference frame and the control-unit model is
based on the line-voltage oriented reference frame. A powerful MATLAB/SIMULINK was
used for the simulation of the wind energy conversion system of a 3 kW wind generator.

Keywords: doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG; voltage source inverter (VSI); power
quality; steady state analysis




                                    ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA                                5
    International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                           CARE 006


    ESTIMATING GLOBAL SOLAR RADIATION USING ARTIFICIAL
        NEURAL NETWORK IN A SEMI-ARID ENVIRONMENT

                                       Ali Rahimikhoob

    Irrigation and Drainage Engineering Department, College of Abureyhan, University of
                                        Tehran, Iran
                                   Email: akhob@ut.ac.ir


ABSTRACT

Global solar radiation (GSR) data are desirable for many areas of research and applications
in various engineering fields. However, GSR is not as readily available as air temperature
data. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are effective tools to model nonlinear systems and
require fewer inputs. The objective of this study was to test an artificial neural network
(ANN) for estimating the global solar radiation (GSR) as a function of air temperature data
in a semi-arid environment. The ANNs (multilayer perceptron type) were trained to estimate
GSR as a function of the maximum and minimum air temperature and extraterrestrial
radiation. The data used in the network training were obtained from a historical series
(1994–2001) of daily climatic data collected in weather station of Ahwaz located in
Khuzestan plain in the southwest of Iran. The empirical Hargreaves and Samani equation
(HS) is also considered for the comparison. The HS equation calibrated by applying the same
data used for neural network training. Two historical series (2002–2003) were utilized to test
the network and for comparison between the ANN and calibrated HS method. The study
demonstrated that modelling of daily GSR through the use of the ANN technique gave better
estimates than the HS equation. RMSE and R2 for the comparison between observed and
estimated GSR for the tested data using the proposed ANN model are 2.534 MJ m -2 day-1 and
0.889 respectively.




6                                    ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA
   International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                          CARE 007


     WIND ENERGY GENERATION AND POLLUTION CONTROL

                      Mohibullah, Md Nishat Anwar, Saifullah Payami

                            Electrical Engineering Department
                   Zakir Hussain College of Engineering and Technology
                                Aligarh Muslim University
                                       Aligarh (India)
                              Email: an_nishat@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT

In India, power generation from wind has emerged as one of the most successful programme
in the renewable energy sector and is making meaningful contributions to the overall power
requirements in some of the states. As per the projections made by MNRE, India, 10% of the
total capacity of power generation will come from renewable energy sources by the year
2012. It is envisaged that 50% of this capacity may come from wind power. The paper
describes a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) structure implemented in the
MATLAB-Simulink simulation environment by using the specialized PSB toolbox, designed
for modeling and simulation of energetic and electrical components. Also using WECS (Wind
Energy Conversion Systems) a study is done how it is effective in pollution control. An
analytical study is also made regarding the potential of wind energy in limiting the amount
of green house gases added into the atmosphere per year at different sites (selected on the
basis of their potential in wind generation). The amount of green house gases which will be
saved in the process is calculated from therein. The saving is of the order of 10 6 tons of CO2,
103 tons of SO2, 106 tons of NO, 10 tons of Soot and 103tons SPM.

Keywords: Wind energy; CO2 mitigation potential; Environmental benefits of renewable
energy




                                    ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA                                7
    International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                           CARE 008


    THEORETICAL EVALUATION OF AN INTEGRATED DESICCANT
                 DEHUMIDIFICATION SYSTEM

                                   S. K. Yeboah, J. Darkwa

Centre for Sustainable Energy Technologies (CSET), Division of Sustainable Development,
                       The University of Nottingham Ningbo China
       Email: Siegfried.yeboah@nottingham.edu.cn, jo.darkwa@nottingham.edu.cn


ABSTRACT

In hot humid regions where latent to sensible heat ratio is high, cooling and humidity control
is essential to achieve thermal comfort and to maintain an acceptable indoor air quality. In
such regions, ground coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems can provide energy efficient
cooling. However, the cycle of a typical GCHP system is limited to heating and cooling and
does not include humidity control. For this reason, an integrated desiccant dehumidification
GCHP system is proposed.

Keywords: Desiccant System; Energy Efficiency; Humidity Control; Ground Coupled Heat
Pump System




8                                    ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA
   International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                          CARE 009


 EFFECT OF THE COMPOSITION OF NATURAL GAS ON THE NGV
          PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSION

                             Asnawi, N. M. Adam, B. B. Sahari

    Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
             Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                              Email: asn_awy@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT

Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) is an alternative fuel that is environmentally friendly to
produce carbon emissions lower than gasoline or diesel. The composition of natural gas is
very diverse and is highly dependent on the production area, season, and climate. The
variations in gaseous fuel composition produced in the various countries can affect engine
performance and exhaust gas composition of vehicle. The objective of this paper is to study
the effect of fuel composition on the performance and emissions of CNG/DI engine through
running of car spark ignition engine using chassis dynamometer on full load and zero load.
The results showed that the engine performance was influenced significantly by the
composition of compressed natural gas. A correlation between the wobbe index and engine
power has been developed, and it is used to estimate the engine power when the composition
of natural gases changes.

Keywords: Natural gas; Exhaust emissions; Engine performance; CNG/DI




                                    ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA                                9
     International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                            CARE 010


WATER WASHING PRE-TREATMENT ON EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES
                 OIL PALM WASTES

                           N. Abdullah, F. Sulaiman, N. Che. Khalib

                                       School of Physics,
                       Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia
                              Email: yanti.zm08@student.usm.my


ABSTRACT

The water washing pretreatment on empty fruit bunches (EFB) wastes is investigated in this
study. The objective is to remove ash from EFB wastes in order to improve the quality of bio-
oil and to increase bio-oil yields. It was found that the feedstock with ash content less than
about 3 mf wt% is required to produce homogenous bio-oil via fast pyrolysis technology. The
optimum parameter of water washing pretreatment is required to produce the feedstock with
ash content approximately about 1 mf wt%. Therefore, this study is investigating the
effectiveness of water washing to remove ash by using variable of water washing
pretreatments. Tap water is used through out the work as washing in tap water would have a
significant economic advantage over washing in distilled water.

Keywords: Water Washing Pre-treatment; Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB); Bio-oil




10                                    ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA
   International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                          CARE 011


    BIOGAS HARVESTING IN PANGALENGAN CITY, INDONESIA

                                        Y.M. Yustiani

  Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Pasundan University,
                               Bandung 40153, Indonesia
                               Email: yonik@unpas.ac.id


ABSTRACT

Pangalengan city is well known as the milk production from cows. Nowadays, cow
population number is approximately 6900. Soil and water pollution caused by the cow dung
became a serious problem in the city. Only a small part of the dung was used as fertilizer.
Since several years ago, the reactor of biogas producted from cow dung was introduced to
the Pangalengan farmers. The application of biogas reactors in the Pangalengan city is
potentially reducing 5800 liters of fosil fuel consumption everyday. The biogas application
was stimulated by the local government and one private company of natural gas supply.
Financial support in this biogas application program was arranged by the community. The
biogas reactors are installed in every group of farmer. Each group manage the operational
of the reactor and distribute the gas to every member in the group.

Keywords: biogas; Pangalengan City; management




                                    ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA                                11
     International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                            CARE 012


MARINE CURRENT ENERGY ESTIMATION IN THE ALAS STRAIT -
                    INDONESIA

                             T.Suprijo1 , H. Bachtiar1 , A. Masduki 2
 1
   Coastal Oceanography Laboratory, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Technology, Institute of
   Technology, Bandung (ITB), Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung (40132), Bandung, Indonesia.
 2
   Indonesian Geological Marine Research Institute (PPGL), Jl. Junjunan No. 236, Bandung,
                                        Indonesia.
                              Email: totok@geoph.itb.ac.id


ABSTRACT

Nature endowed Indonesia with all forms of renewable energy resources, such as wind, bio-
fuels, ocean waves, tides and ocean currents. Intensive research, exploration and exploitation
of the resources are necessary to contribute in a sustainable manner to meet increasing
energy demand that has been experienced in Indonesia. This study tries to contribute in
exploration and estimation of marine current energy in the Alas Strait- Indonesia. The strait
is located in between Lombok and Sumbawa Islands. Ocean current observation, done by the
Indonesian Geological Marine Research Institute (PPGL), indicates that strong current flows
in this strait. Maximum current velocity observed in this strait is about 2.7 m/sec during
spring flood tide condition (PPGL, 2006). Based on that observation and by utilizing a three
dimensional ocean model, potential marine current energy in the strait was estimated in this
study. A three dimensional ocean model was utilized to simulate and reproduce ocean
currents in the Alas Strait. Fifteen days ocean currents data provided by the PPGL was also
used for validating the model. Further, we also evaluated ocean currents, as components of
tidal and wind induced currents, obtained from the 3D model to estimate marine current
potential energy in the strait. From the study that we have carried out, it shows that the strait
has a great energy resource of ocean currents. The available current power density that we
have estimated in the Alas Strait is about 1.038 – 2.685 kW/m2. These results indicate that
potential current energy of this strait can be converted to electricity power.

Keywords: tidal currents; marine renewable energy; current energy




12                                    ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA
   International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                          CARE 013


NEW BUILDING TECHNOLOGY BASED ON LOW EXERGY DESIGN

                                 F. Meggers, H. Leibundgut

    Institute for Building Technology, Building Systems Group, Faculty of Architecture
       ETH Zurich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology), 8093 Zurich, Switzerland
                              Email: meggers@hbt.arch.ethz.ch


ABSTRACT

The construction, operation and maintenance of all residential, commercial, and industrial
buildings are responsible for over half of global greenhouse gas emissions, and two-thirds of
global electricity is generated solely for building operation. This single sector has a huge
potential impact on the future sustainability of society, and therefore new advanced
technologies must be rapidly developed and implemented in what is often a slow-moving
sector. The concept of the low exergy building has created a new framework for the
development of high performance building systems. Exergy analysis has been used to help
minimize the primary energy demands of buildings through the minimization of losses in the
chain of energy supply in a building system. The new systems that have been created have
been shown to be more comfortable and more energy efficient. These systems include
integrated thermal mass systems heated by high efficiency heat pumps integrated with energy
recovery systems that eliminate the waste that is common in building systems. The underlying
principles and concepts of low exergy building systems will be presented along with the
analysis of several technologies being implemented in a lowEx building in Zurich,
Switzerland. These include an advanced ground source heat pump strategy with integrated
heat recovery, decentralized ventilation, and a unique active wall insulation system, which
are being researched as part of the IEA ECBCS Annex 49 (www.annex49.org).

Keywords: Buildings; Exergy; LowEx; Efficiency; Geothermal Energy




                                    ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA                                13
     International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                            CARE 014


         PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL FROM SLUDGE PALM OIL BY
           ESTERIFICATION USING P-TOLUENESULFONIC ACID

         Adeeb Hayyan1 , Md. Zahangir Alam1 , Mohamed E. S. Mirghani1 , Nassereldeen A.
               Kabbashi1 ,Yosri Mohd Siran2 , Noor Irma Nazashida Mohd Hakimi2
     1
     Bioenvironmental Engineering Research Unit (BERU), Department of Biotechnology
 Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. BOX
                            10, Kuala Lumpur, 50728, Malaysia
  2
    Processing & Engineering, R&D Centre, Sime Darby Research Sdn Bhd. Lot 2664 Jalan
             Pulau Carey, 42960 Pulau Carey, Kuala Langat, Selangor, Malaysia
                              E- mail: en_adeeb1@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT

Sludge Palm oil (SPO) is an attractive feedstock and a significant raw material for biodiesel
production. The most commonly preferred acids are sulfuric, sulphonic, hydrochloric and P-
toluenesulfonic acid. In this study biodiesel fuel was produced from SPO using P-
toluenesulfonic acid as acid catalyzed in different dosages with present of alcohol to convert
free fatty acid (FFA) to fatty acid methyl ester. The study showed that the FFA of SPO
reduced from 46% to less than 1% FFA using ratio of 6, 8, 10 % wt/wt P-toluenesulfonic acid
to SPO. The highest yield after esterification reaction was 73% using P-toluenesulfonic acid
of 10% wt/wt with 0.05% FFA. The results were favorable compared to the standard
specifications for biodiesel.

Keywords: Biodiesel; Esterification; P-toluenesulfonic acid




14                                    ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA
   International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                           CARE 015


                 QUANTUM DOT SENSITIZED SOLAR CELL

U. C. Ahamerula, M. Y. Sulaiman, K. Sopian, Z. Ibarahim, N. Ibrahim, M. A. Alghoul, L. C.
                        Haw, M. Yahya, N. Amin, M. H. Ruslan

              Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
                                 43000, Bangi, Selangor
                            Email: sulaiman_yusof@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT

The much awaited desire of replacing fossil fuel with photovoltaic will remain a fairy tale if
the myriad of issues facing solar cell development are marginalized. Foremost in the list is
the issue of cost. Silicon has reached a stage where its use on large scale can no longer be
lavishly depended upon. The demand for high grade silicon from the microelectronics and
solar industries has soared leading to scarcity. New approach has to be sought. Notable is
the increased attention on thin films such as cadmium telluride, copper indium gallium
diselenide, amorphous silicon, and the not so thin non-crystalline family of silicon. While
efforts to address the issues of stability, toxicity and efficiency of these systems are ongoing,
another novel approach is quietly making its appearance – quantum dots. Quantum dots
seem to be promising candidates for solar cells because of the opportunity to manipulate
their energy levels allowing absorption of a wider solar spectrum. Utilization of minute
quantity of these nanostructures is enough to bring the cost of solar cell down and to
ascertain sustainable supply of useful material. The paper outlines the progress that has been
made on quantum dot sensitized solar cells.




                                     ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA                               15
     International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                            CARE 016


      FINDING OF INFILTRATION RATES IN TERMS OF LEAKAGE
                 CHARACTERISTICS IN CAR CABIN

             HR.Ghezavati1 , NM.Adam2 , AA.Jaafar3 , M.A.Yaghoubi4 , A.Pakravan1
                         1
                       Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing
                           2
                             Institute of Advanced Technology
 3
   Department of Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia
                           43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                4
                  Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University
                             Email: mghezavatii@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT

The project was carried out to determine the likely infiltration rate of a gas into a car cabin
for different wind speeds and directions. Measurements were first made on six cabin of car
under both positive and negative pressures to determine their leakage characteristics both
with different air conditioning and vents statues. A tracer gas method was then used to
determine the air change rates in the car cabin for different wind speeds and directions.
Measurements on one vehicle enabled a constant to be evaluated which enabled infiltration
rates to be found for other vehicles in terms of leakage characteristics and wind conditions.
Predicted values of air change rates can be used to estimate the build-up of a contaminant
infiltrating into a vehicle.

The ACH in a stationary vehicle can be predicted from the leakage characteristics of the
vehicle. Predicted air change rates can be used to estimate the build-up of a contaminant
infiltrating into a vehicle. Measurement of the variation of air change rate with wind speed
on car cabin evaluated whereby the infiltration rate can be found in terms of leakage
characteristics and wind conditions.

Keywords: air infiltration; tracer gas; car cabin; characteristics; leakage




16                                    ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA
     International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                            CARE 017


    THE BENDING BEHAVIOR OF THE CHICKEN FEATHER/ EPOXY
           BIO-COMPOSITES (FEATHER FIBRE BOARD)

                              A.Z Romli1 , M.H Abidin2 , H.M Akil3
1
    Polymer Composites Research Laboratory (PoCRe Laboratory), Institute of Science, UiTM
    Malaysia, 2 Research Management Institute (RMI), UiTM Malaysia, 3 School of Material &
                             Mineral Resources Engineering, USM
                            Email: ahmad349@salam.uitm.edu.my


ABSTRACT

This research concentrates in examining the bending behavior of the new bio-composites
(feather fiber board) from chicken feather with epoxy matrix. There are 5 variations of the
feather loading into the epoxy matrix (i.e. 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50%). The feather fiber
board was prepared by using a technique called pressure assisted hand-layup method. The
feather fiber board was cut to the standard dimension for the 3 -point bending test. The test
was carried out at 5mm.min-1 . From the bending test, the parameter observed for the
determination of the feather fiber board behavior are the maximum bending stress, modulus
at the elastic region (taken between 5N – 25N of force value) and the strain at maximum
stress value. The results for the maximum bending stress and the strain at the maximum stress
value shows a steady decreasing trend whereas the modulus at elastic region shows an
increasing pattern at 30% incorporation of the chicken feather before drop again at 50%
loading. Based on the results of the 3-point bending obtained, the optimized loading for
feather fiber board is at 40% and 50%.

Keywords: Chicken feather; 3-point bending; bio-composites; feather fibre board




                                      ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA                                17
     International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                            CARE 018


   THE BEHAVIOUR OF ALUMINIUM AND COMPOSITE CNG
 VEHICLE REAR PLATFORM SUBJECTED TO LATERAL IMPACT

                                 B.B. Sahari1,2 , Nurhidayah Amir
                                 1
                                   Institut Teknologi Maju, ITMA,
      2
          Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
                   Universiti Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                                 Email: barkawi@eng.upm.edu.my


ABSTRACT

The paper present the crash behaviour of rear platform of a Compressed Natural Gas (CNG)
Direct Injection (DI) vehicle. The platform is designed to carry 3 CNG tanks. Three different
types of materials with different thickness were used in the analysis; namely aluminium, glass
fibre/epoxy and carbon/epoxy laminated composites. The results are presented in terms of
internal energy absorption and intrusion. The results are compared with the same platform
but made of mild steel. In this way, a suitable platform material to achieve light weight and at
the have same crashworthiness characteristics can be obtained. From the present work,
carbon fibre /epoxy laminated composite with thickness greater than 10 mm is suitable
material for the lightweight CNG rear platform.

Keywords: CNG vehicle rear platform; Composites materials; Crash behaviour




18                                    ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA
   International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                           CARE 019


 MODELLING OF THE RADIANT HEAT GAIN OF AN ENCLOSURE
SUBJECTED TO SOLAR RADIATION IN THE HOT-HUMID TROPICS

             Ijhar Hidayat Rusli1 , Nor Mariah Adam2 , Nawal Aswan Abdul Jalil2
  1
    Alternative and Renewable Energy Laboratory, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM,
                               Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
   2
     Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
                         43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                               Email: ijhar_bfx@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT

The current trend in increasing glazing areas in buildings has the significant potential of
increasing daylighting usage. However, daylighting is also accompanied by radiant heat,
which increases the heat gain in an enclosure and has the potential of causing local
discomfort to room occupants due to local heating of body parts. The current paper discusses
the implementation of a solar ray tracing algorithm in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
modelling domain in an attempt at visualizing the impact of radiant heat from the sun on
largely-glazed enclosures. The solar ray tracing algorithm imposes the intensity of the solar
radiation on the model, which, in turn, is dependent on the geographical location of the
enclosure in question and the time of year. Simulations were conducted of a lecture room at
the Faculty of Engineering, UPM which has one of its façades covered 60% in glazing and,
due to its orientation, is subject to immense amounts of radiant heat in the afternoons. The
results show that, having specified sufficiently the modelling parameters, such a method
could be applied to investigate window sizing and shading configurations for fenestration
design, the impact of selecting different glazing materials to determine the effects of the
transmissivity and absorptivity of the glazing on the enclosure heat gain, the ability to predict
window surface temperatures for mean radiant temperature determinations (and hence
thermal comfort prediction) and for simulating a HVAC system’s performance in regulating
the heat gain.




                                     ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA                               19
     International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                            CARE 020


DISTRIBUTION OF ANGLE FACTORS EXHIBITED BY OCCUPANTS
OF A TERTIARY INSTITUTIONAL BUILDING IN THE HOT-HUMID
      TROPICS FOR THERMAL COMFORT EVALUATION

              Ijhar Hidayat Rusli1 , Nor Mariah Adam2 , Nawal Aswan Abdul Jalil2
     1
      Alternative and Renewable Energy Laboratory, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM,
                                 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
     2
       Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
                           43400 UPM, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                                 Email: ijhar_bfx@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT

One of the factors that affect the thermal comfort levels of occupants of a built environment is
the amount of heat exchange they engage in with the short-wave radiation originating from
the sun. In quantifying this phenomenon, it is necessary to determine the projected area
factors between an occupant and the geometrical location of the sun. This paper presents the
projected area factors of an occupant of a tertiary institutional building exposed to short-
wave radiation from the sun at different hours of a day throughout a year. It is seen that, for
the current case studied, the months June and July show the highest projected area factors
among all 12 months. This suggests that it is within these months that the interaction between
an occupant and the radiant heat from the sun is greatest. An example of how the projected
area factors can be used in thermal comfort evaluation is also presented incorporating actual
measured irradiance values over a period of time. Such an analysis and the information it
provides allows for a more detailed investigation of the thermal comfort levels of a built
environment in relation to fenestration design and can be coupled with daylighting analysis
in virtue of a sustainable built environment.




20                                    ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA
   International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                          CARE 021


OPTIMIZATION OF AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS IN SADRA NEW
                      TOWN, IRAN

                   HR.Ghezavati1 , NM.Adam2 , S. Shahrooi3 , AR. Ghezavati3
    1
        Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,
                 University Putra Malaysia 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
                2
                  Institute of Advanced Technology, University Putra Malaysia
                        3
                          Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaysia
                                   Email: mehr_shi@yahoo.com


ABSTRACT

In recent years, Iran’s energy consumption has increased and become comparable to larger
energy consumers worldwide. The increased demand for artificial cooling through the use of
air conditioning units in other to provide comfort would also mean increased energy usage
and increased electricity cost to the occupants.
Most buildings are not equipped with suitable devices for natural and/or mechanical
ventilation. The window opening behaviour is useful for energy saving, by reducing the need
for mechanical cooling.

The appropriate selection of industrial and air conditioning system results in optimized
consumption of energy. The variety and climatic growing of Iran it make necessary the use of
various combined air conditioning systems. This research attempts at facilitating of making
decisions in saving energy field not only with regard to the costs and financial requirements
of establishing a system, but also in a several year period of time
In this research, a multi-purpose structure with commercial-administrative, residential,
recreational, and cultural applications has been taken into consideration. The designing
conditions for the design of air conditioning systems complying with the current international
standards. Accordingly, the optimized system is selected for every kind of application, taking
the appropriate climate into consideration. Then, the method of standard execution have
been compared with the current method that can have, and the appropriate methods has
been presented.

Keywords: Air condition; new town; saving energy; mechanical ventilation




                                    ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA                                21
     International Advanced of Technology Congress (ATCi),PWTC, Malaysia. November 3 -5, 2009


                                            CARE 022


         APPLICATION OF THE STRAIN ENERGY FOR FATIGUE LIFE
          PREDICTION (LCF) OF METALS BY THE ENERGY-BASED
                             CRITERION

                    S. Shahrooi1 , I. H. Metselaar1 , Z. Huda1 , H.R. Ghezavati2
     1
      Center of research for advanced materials, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur,
                                            Malaysia.
     2
       Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia,
                               43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
         Email: shahramshahrooi@perdana.um.edu.my, mghezavatii@eng.upm.edu.my


ABSTRACT

There are several approaches to the prediction of fatigue life of machine components and
structures so far. Fatigue is an important consideration in the design of structural elements
subjected to cyclic loading .For recognition of early failures of capability prediction of
fatigue life is very important. With an examination of the literature on multiaxial cyclic
fatigue it seems that there is no common criterion for different loading conditions. Recently,
special attention is being paid to energy criteria. In this study, the plastic strain energy under
multiaxial fatigue condition has been calculated in the cyclic plasticity models by the stress-
strain hysteresis loops. Then, using the results of these models, the fatigue lives in energy-
based fatigue model is predicted. A mean fatigue life factor of 3 has been obtained for the
models which are close to other researches regarding the plastic work method. Therefore,
this model can predict the fatigue life of metals in kind of plasticity models under condition of
proportional and non- proportional loading .Moreover, a weighting factor on shear plastic
work is presented to decrease the life factors in the model fatigue.

Keywords: Energy-Based criteria; Plastic strain energy; Fatigue life; Cyclic plasticity model




22                                    ISBN xxxx-xxxx @ 2009 ITMA

				
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