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                                   Combat Systems                                                                                           April
                                                                                                                                           

by Brian Crane

  A new order of equipment has just arrived, so if you’re interested in increasing the effectiveness of your
  training, please let either myself or Sifu Dennis know! We currently have boxing gloves (various styles and
  weights), Muay ai style leg guards, and focus mitts (price list inside), and will be placing an order shortly for
  some more headgear, so be sure to reserve yours. For regular attendees of the Sunday class, we recommend that
  you bring along a good mouthguard, as there will be a greater focus on sparring-style drills. Also, if anyone is
  interested in competing in amateur kickboxing, please contact me at the email address below.

  I highly encourage you to share your knowledge, opinions, or experiences concerning either the club, or martial arts in general, by submitting an
  article for this publication. To submit an article, announcement, or advertisement please contact Brian Crane at

   Travels and Training in                                                               Other places of interest we visited were Roppangi Hills, a shopping
   Japan                                                                                 plaza, that included office buildings, an observation tower (which
                                                                                         we did not enter), condominiums, and of course stores. A short
by Guro John Maidment                                                                    train ride from there was Tokyo Tower, which kind of looks like the
                                                                                         Eiffel Tower, and from its observation deck were enjoyed a 360
   Despite years in the martial arts I never visited Asia during my                      degreee view of night-time Tokyo.
   active years. My motivation for finally going was a girl of course,
   my friend, Saki Inoue, and my new found passion, photography.                         Saki's graduation was on the 22nd, just 2 days after my arrival, but I
                                                                                         was well prepared and got some great photos during the diploma
   Saki was attending UCLA for a year, visiting here from Tokyo, and                     presenation as they allowed me to move around directly in the front
   we we lucky enough to meet at a fashion show.. She was my                             of the large classroom. I was able to meet many of her classmates,
   primary model during 2006, and we became good friends over this                       one of her teachers, and the former and current deans of the
   time. Before she returned to Japan in September (2006), I                             university. All the faculty were Caucasian and all the students could
   inquired if she had a photographer for her university graduation                      speak English to some degree, most quite well. After the diplomas
   which was to be in March. When I was told no, I offered to do it,                      were presented there was a reception, and later that night an after
   and from there we made plans for my trip. I also knew that it                         party at a club, where again I was the official photographer, courtesy
   would be a trip where I could visit some unique places to do travel                   of Saki.
   photography too, and that we could also so some more
   photoshoots together.                                                                 During my trip, I also got to go to a party held in a park, under the
                                                                                         Cherry Blossom trees, which were not in bloom, unfortunately. It
      e trip lasted 8 days, and except for 1 morning and 1 evening I                     was also the coldest and windiest day of trip! ese parties are
   was busy the whole time. We explored the restaurants and sights                       frequently held in the spring from what I understand, and that day
   of Shibuya, the district where my hotel for the first 3 nights was                     there were many groups celebrating.
   located- neon lights and billboards were everywhere, litter was
   nowhere. "Such a clean city,” was one of my earliest observations.                    Later that evening we went to see a comedy show, an improv
   We also travelled by the Metro Rail system to Asakusa to a large                      performance, conducted by Saki's acting coach and some of his
   temple located almost in the center of Tokyo, and 1 day her                           friends. Despite the language barrier it was quite funny, and they
   parents drove us about 1 hour outside of the city to visit temples                    were also able to speak some
   and shrines in and around Kamakura City. Being some 800 years                         English. During the show I volunteered a suggestion for one of their
   old, these statues, cemeteries, and buildings were amazing. e                         skits and they used it! After the show they sat with myself and Saki
   grounds were well maintained, with gardens and paths, and stairs -                    for awhile talking mainly with her of course, but also a little with
   there seemed to always be stairs to climb, as many were located on                    me. It was at this club that I met a girl who said she had trained
   hills.                                                                                with Sifu Yuri for 3 years in Jeet Kune Do.

  Personal security is an individual commitment - make a decision you can live with.   Available for seminars or private lessons: Diversified Combat Systems (709) 749-5254
        Diversified Combat Systems                                                       Monthly Newsletter: April 2007                                       Page 2

Speaking of martial arts, Saki had trained privately with me several
times while living in L.A., and we reviewed her material while I was                                        Jeet Kune Do’s Five
                                                                                                            Ways of Attack
in Japan. We trained 3 times, once outdoors in Kinuta Park, near her
family's residence. We covered some Jun Fan Kickboxing, Trapping,
and Self Defense; plus drills from the Filipino Martial Arts,                        by Guro Dennis J. White
including Double Stick, Single Stick, and empty hands. Last year,
Saki used the skills she had learned during the talent portion of the                   I’m sure most of you have heard the expression, “Your best defense
Miss Japanese Summer Festival and placed first! Besides training for                     is a strong offense.” I myself, find the variation “A strong offense is
personal enjoyment, and self defense skills, she also hopes the                         your best defense.” to be the more accurate of the two expressions,
martial arts knowledge will be useful to her as an actress.                             because the statement itself indicates that offense is the priority
                                                                                        that is uppermost in mind. Jeet Kune Do's approach to self
                                                                                        defense likewise subscribes to a similar philosophy, establishing
                                                                                        offense as a priority, and emphasizing attack and the application of
                                                                                        bodily force as a prime directive. In order to classify the attacking
                                                                                        strategies that are used in his art, Si Jo Bruce Lee broke them
                                                                                        down into five distinct categories. In the list below, some
                                                                                        categories are relatively self explanatory; others require more
                                                                                        clarification, especially for the neophyte, and the first on the list
                                                                                        has a subcategory.
                                                                                                  1)          Simple Direct Attack (SDA)
                                                                                                              a.) Single Angulated Attack (SAA)
                                                                                                  2)          Hand Immobilization Attack (HIA)
                                                                                                  3)          Progressive Indirect Attack (PIA)
                                                                                                  4)          Attack By Combination (ABC)
                                                                                                  5)          Attack By Drawing (ABD)
                                                                                        Jeet Kune Do favors attack over defense, therefore our focus is
                                                                                        predominantly on hitting, our preference being to strike rather
                                                                                        than block whenever possible, because we feel it gives us a
                                                                                        physical, tactical, and psychological advantage over our opponent.

                                                                                            e primary reason that we make attack our priority, is simply
                                                                                        because action is faster than reaction. If you wish to test this
                                                                                        theory, have a friend hold an ordinary ruler by one end between
                                                                                        his/her index finger and thumb. Now hold your hand open so
                                                                                        that it is positioned at about the 8” mark so you can catch the
     Sifu/Guro John Maidment in Kinuta Park, Tokyo                                      falling ruler between your thumb and fingers, simply by closing
                                                                                        your hand when your friend releases it unexpectedly. You will find
                                                                                        it is virtually impossible to catch, unless you first compensate for
                                                                                        the time lag required for visual and mental processing, by
                                                                                        anticipating when the ruler will be released, and initiating your
                                                                                        response just prior to the visual stimulus (release of the ruler).

                                                                                           e time lag referred to exists because first, we must visually
                                                                                        perceive what is happening, then mentally select a course of action
                                                                                        in order to execute our response; this information must
                                                                                        subsequently be relayed to our neuro-muscular system in time to
                                                                                        prevent the ruler from escaping our grasp by closing our grip. In
                                                                                        J.K.D. we know that the time between stimulus and response
                                                                                        (response time) can be shortened with practice, and that a
                                                                                        physically slow student can be taught to compensate for a lack of
                                                                                        genetic speed by improving their perceptual speed. Teaching a
                                                                                        slow student quick seeing can often help equalize things in
   Saki Inoue training in the Filpino Martial Arts with Guro                            situations where the attacker may be genetically gifted with more
   John Maidment during his visit to Tokyo, Japan.                                      white (fast twitch) muscle fibers, or is simply younger and quicker

Personal security is an individual commitment - make a decision you can live with.    Available for seminars or private lessons: Diversified Combat Systems (709) 749-5254
          Diversified Combat Systems                                                     Monthly Newsletter: April 2007                                       Page 3

than the defender. In J.K.D. we have nine different classifications for speed;             simultaneously managing to maintain the integrity of the original
I've mentioned only physical speed and perceptual speed here, in order to                teaching.
clarify the reasoning behind my assertion that action is faster than reaction.
                                                                                         Whenever possible I personally prefer to include the elbow strike during
Our first category is Simple Direct Attack, and in Si Jo Lee’s book the “Tao              application of the figure four takedown, in my practice, because of its’
of Jeet Kune Do”* on page 194 the editor makes note that, despite extensive              efficiency. Personal experience has taught me that if executed properly
explanations given to his students on this topic, the section of his book                and with speed, the elbow strike when combined with the figure four
devoted to the five ways of attack is probably the most incomplete. He                    rarely fails to score.
suggests that this may be because; these were among the last delineations
Bruce had made concerning his art prior to his death. It’s obvious that the              Next on the list is Progressive Indirect Attack or PIA, and although
editor may be correct, because simple direct attack also includes a                      similar to indirect attack, there are some critical differences between the
subcategory (single angulated attack), and single angulated attack is the only           two methods. Indirect attack is an attack aimed at an initial target with
one of these two specific categories mentioned in this section of the “Tao”.              the intention of drawing a block, and is characterized by a subsequent
Simple direct attack is conspicuously absent from this section, however as               withdrawal to attack on a different line when the opponent commits to
it's name implies, SDA consists of one single attacking motion, one punch,               the block. We often see this manifested as a feint in most boxing matches;
one kick, an elbow strike etc. At first glance Single Direct Attack and Single            one boxer feints a low jab and when the other takes the bait attempting to
Angulated Attack resemble one another; this is because they are related. By              block the attack, the jab is withdrawn and the real attack, e.g., a hook, is
adjusting body angulation and adding footwork during the delivery of a                   launched on the high line. e difference between Progressive Indirect
single direct attack, the trajectory of the SDA is varied, the original tactic is        Attack and indirect attack is subtle, but nevertheless it is still there, and
altered, and through this metamorphosis single direct attack becomes single              it's that very subtlety that makes it so effective. In progressive indirect
angulated attack. Single angulated attack is generally regarded as the more              attack, the attacker advances a good half of the distance towards his
viable strategy of the two options to use against a charging attacker who                opponent, and the first strike is thrown with enough commitment to
over commits himself, using too much forward pressure.                                   make it believable. As the recipient of the P.I.A. commits to a course of
                                                                                         action and begins to block, the attacker does not withdraw and
Our next category is Hand Immobilization Attack or HIA, and as is often                  recommence the attack as a boxer would, instead, he quickly alters the
mentioned in any discourse on HIA, Si Jo Lee (in retrospect), felt that hand             line of intention by drifting to his secondary target, avoiding the
immobilization may be an incomplete description of the category, often                   opponents block with no visually perceptible withdrawal of the attacking
explaining to his students how immobilizations may also be applied to the                limb. It is the ultimate tool of deception, and while observing yourself in a
feet, legs, and neck as well. Hand immobilization attacks are also called                mirror as you shadow box, I suggest you practice throwing in an
Phon Sao or trapping hands in Wing Chun Gung Fu, and the primary                         occasional progressive indirect attack, it will help you determine whether
concern of this category is temporarily immobilizing one or both of the                  or not your PIA would be believable to a training partner when viewed
opponents’ hands so you can successfully hit him. Most beginners get caught              from his/her perspective, and you can try it out on someone the next time
up in the mechanics of trapping itself, and there are some martial artists               you spar.
who congratulate themselves because they have counters for trapping, and
that's wonderful; but unfortunately it is here that both groups miss the boat,          Instructor Candidate Anatomy Quiz
each failing to realize that it’s not the trapping that is our objective. Hand
immobilization is merely a tactic or tool that gives us a means to score with                       A.)        What is the name of the muscle group at the
our weapons, and like any other tactic or tool, it should be discarded and                                     front of the thigh above the knee?
traded for another when it fails to work. Si Jo Lee himself said, "Any
technique, however worthy and desirable becomes a disease, when the mind                            B.)        How many muscles does this group consist of?
is obsessed with it." Unlike J.K.D., the hand immobilization attacks of Wing
Chun are not used to secure opponent control in grappling range by Wing                             C.)        Name each of the muscles that comprise this
Chun proponents; this was an insightful adaptation made by Si Jo Lee in                                        group.
order to tie ranges together as he developed his Jeet Kune Do outward from
it’s Wing Chun nucleus. Similar modifications were made by Si Gung                        Answers Next Issue
Inosanto as the art continued it’s evolution after Bruce's passing, and it
disturbs me greatly when I hear people say that Si Gung Inosanto is ruining
or changing J.K.D., when anyone with an intelligence quotient higher than a              Attack by Combination is simple to explain, it is basically a chain of
grape who has read the Tao, realizes that the single most fundamental                    simple direct attacks, each one delivered with the intention of scoring.
guiding principle of J.K.D. was that it was to always be adapting and                    Attack by combination is most evident in boxing events where
evolving. I've personally been witness to Si Gung Inosanto's integrity in this           combinations are performed using hand techniques, or in kickboxing
regard and in his respect for his mentors' teaching, at the instructors’ camp I          events using combinations of hands and feet. Muay ai utilizes the same
attended in August of 2000 in Los Angeles. While demonstrating a figure                   method but also adds the use of elbows and knees, hence the moniker
four takedown in a Jun Fan class, he was very clear when he emphasized                   (the science of eight limbs). All of the above are arts which use Attack by
that, when Si Jo Lee taught this technique it did not include the elbow strike           Combination as a matter of routine practice.
to the mandible during the takedown. Si Gung Inosanto further elaborated
by saying that the addition of the elbow is something derived from his                      e remaining category, Attack by Drawing or ABD, is a tactic used to
explorations into the Filipino Martial Arts, and should not be confused with             invite the opponent to attack what he believes to be an exposed or easily
Jun Fan as it was taught in Bruce's lifetime. In my opinion Si Jo Lee could              accessible target. is tactic usually manifests itself as a face that
not have left the art in the hands of a more capable emissary, because Si                protrudes through an open guard, a dropped hand, or raised elbow that
Gung Inosanto has followed Si Jo Lees instructions and established                       uncovers a target that’s just too tempting to resist. Sometimes after
guidelines better than anyone alive today professing to teach the art, while             receiving an attackers Muay ai round kick to the thigh, faking a

 Personal security is an individual commitment - make a decision you can live with.   Available for seminars or private lessons: Diversified Combat Systems (709) 749-5254
          Diversified Combat Systems                                                     Monthly Newsletter: April 2007                                       Page 4

damaged leg can often deceive the opponent into initiating a second attack
to what he believes is an already injured body part, yielding the same result.
   is requires some acting, but is a very effective tactic to employ in a street
altercation, often luring an opponent into a false sense of security, which
bolsters his confidence encouraging and drawing his attack. When he senses
his prey is injured the predator smells victory, as a result he frequently
becomes over confidant, often making rash or impulsive decisions he would
not ordinarily make against a more capable adversary. As a result of this
deception, victory may be snatched from his hands at the very moment he
feels he has achieved it, and let me tell you, nothing is quite as satisfying as a
ruse that results in success. Attack by drawing then, is a strategy used
primarily to set up counterattacks. It is a risky tactic, but one that must out
of necessity be occasionally resorted to, when other attempts have
failed. Attack by drawing relies upon deception, strong defensive
skills and equally strong counters to pull it off effectively. I hope this
explanation has given some clarification to the five ways of attack for
those of you who train with us, and of course, as is always the case
with any knowledge you acquire, if you understand it, it’s yours.

* published by OHara Publications Inc. California

    Class Schedule
    Combat Room, PE-2001 in the MUN                                                      Training Equipment
    Physical Education Building                                                             e following items are available through the club for
                                                                                          purchase. Please contact Brian Crane for inquiry or
     Diversified Combat Systems                                                            purchase. All prices are with tax included.
     Mondays       8:45 - 10:00
        ursdays    9:00 - 10:15                                                                   16 oz Boxing Gloves                                        $ 85.00
     Sundays       3:30 - 5:00                                                                    14 oz Leather Kickboxing Gloves                            $ 80.00
     Contact: Dennis J. White
       email:                                                              Hand Wraps & Skipping Rope                                 $ 15.00

       phone: 709-749-KALI (5254)                                                                 MMA Gloves                                                 $ 40.00

     Republic Jiu Jitsu                                                                           Focus Mitts                                                $ 65.00

     Wednesdays 8:45 - 10:30                                                                      Shooto Gloves                                              $ 60.00
     Saturdays     3:00 - 4:30 (Beginner)
                   4:30 - 5:30 (Advanced)                                                         Used 16 oz Gloves and Muay ai                              $ 110.00
                                                                                                  Style Leg Guards (limited quantity)
     Contact: Paul Woodruff
       email:                                                      If you would like something that is not listed, please
         web:                                                  let us know. We have a variety of training equipment
                                                                                          available for delivery, including training weapons.

   I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I


 Personal security is an individual commitment - make a decision you can live with.   Available for seminars or private lessons: Diversified Combat Systems (709) 749-5254

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