Power Point - TCPIP Model.ppt by handongqp


									        Communications Protocol

• All communications between devices require that the
  devices agree on the format of the data. The set of rules
  defining a format is called a protocol. At the very least,
  a communications protocol must define the following:
• rate of transmission (in baud or bps)
• whether transmission is to be synchronous or
• whether data is to be transmitted in half-duplex or full-
  duplex mode
• In addition, protocols can include sophisticated
  techniques for detecting and recovering from
  transmission errors and for encoding and decoding data.
              TCP/IP Model

Layer         Common               OSI
Name          Components           Reference

Application   HTTP, SMTP, POP3     Application
              FTP, DNS             Presentation

Transport     TCP, UDP             Transport

Network       IP, ICMP             Network

Physical      Ethernet, FDDI       Data Link
           TCP/IP Protocols
• Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
  – Web servers implement this protocol. Short
    for HyperText Transfer Protocol, the
    underlying protocol used by the World Wide
    Web. HTTP defines how messages are
    formatted and transmitted, and what actions
    Web servers and browsers should take in
    response to various commands. For example,
    when you enter a URL in your browser, this
    actually sends an HTTP command to the Web
    server directing it to fetch and transmit the
    requested Web page.
            TCP/IP Protocols
• Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
  – Used by e-mail servers (and sometimes Web servers)
    to send e-mail. Short for Simple Mail Transfer
    Protocol, a protocol for sending e-mail messages
    between servers. Most e-mail systems that send mail
    over the Internet use SMTP to send messages from
    one server to another; the messages can then be
    retrieved with an e-mail client using either POP or
    IMAP. In addition, SMTP is generally used to send
    messages from a mail client to a mail server. This is
    why you need to specify both the POP or IMAP server
    and the SMTP server when you configure your e-mail
            TCP/IP Protocols
• Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3)
  – A protocol used to retrieve e-mail from a mail server.
    Most e-mail applications (sometimes called an e-mail
    client) use the POP protocol, although some can use
    the newer IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol).
  – There are two versions of POP. The first, called
    POP2, became a standard in the mid-80's and
    requires SMTP to send messages. The newer
    version, POP3, can be used with or without SMTP.
           TCP/IP Protocols
• IMAP - Short for Internet Message Access
  Protocol, a protocol for retrieving e-mail
  messages. The latest version, IMAP4, is similar
  to POP3 but supports some additional features.
  For example, with IMAP4, you can search
  through your e-mail messages for keywords
  while the messages are still on mail server. You
  can then choose which messages to download
  to your machine.
• IMAP was developed at Stanford University in
             TCP/IP Protocols
• File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
  – The protocol for exchanging files over the Internet.
    FTP works in the same way as HTTP for transferring
    Web pages from a server to a user's browser and
    SMTP for transferring electronic mail across the
    Internet in that, like these technologies, FTP uses the
    Internet's TCP/IP protocols to enable data transfer.
  – FTP is most commonly used to download a file from a
    server using the Internet or to upload a file to a server
    (e.g., uploading a Web page file to a server).
             TCP/IP Protocols
   – Short for Domain Name System (or Service or
     Server), an Internet service that translates domain
     names into IP addresses. Because domain names
     are alphabetic, they're easier to remember. The
     Internet however, is really based on IP addresses.
     Every time you use a domain name, therefore, a DNS
     service must translate the name into the
     corresponding IP address. For example, the domain
     name www.example.com might translate to
   – The DNS system is, in fact, its own network. If one
     DNS server doesn't know how to translate a particular
     domain name, it asks another one, and so on, until
     the correct IP address is returned.
          TCP/IP Protocols
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)
  – Creates a reliable connection between two
    computers. TCP is one of the main protocols
    in TCP/IP networks. Whereas the IP protocol
    deals only with packets, TCP enables two
    hosts to establish a connection and exchange
    streams of data. TCP guarantees delivery of
    data and also guarantees that packets will be
    delivered in the same order in which they
    were sent.
               TCP/IP Protocols
• Internet Protocol (IP)
   – Provides addressing scheme.. IP specifies the format of packets,
     also called datagrams, and the addressing scheme. Most
     networks combine IP with a higher-level protocol called
     Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), which establishes a virtual
     connection between a destination and a source.
   – IP by itself is something like the postal system. It allows you to
     address a package and drop it in the system, but there's no
     direct link between you and the recipient. TCP/IP, on the other
     hand, establishes a connection between two hosts so that they
     can send messages back and forth for a period of time.
   – The current version of IP is IPv4. A new version, called IPv6 or
     IPng, is under development.
            TCP/IP Protocols
• Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
  – Provides error messages. an extension to the Internet
    Protocol (IP) defined by RFC 792. ICMP supports
    packets containing error, control, and informational
    messages. The PING command, for example, uses
    ICMP to test an Internet connection.
  – RFC - Short for Request for Comments, a series of
    notes about the Internet, started in 1969.An Internet
    Document can be submitted to the IETF by anyone,
    but the IETF decides if the document becomes an
    RFC. Eventually, if it gains enough interest, it may
    evolve into an Internet standard.
           TCP/IP Protocols
• User Datagram Protocol (UDP)
  – Does not establish a connection, just sends
  – a connectionless protocol that, like TCP, runs on
    top of IP networks. Unlike TCP/IP, UDP/IP
    provides very few error recovery services,
    offering instead a direct way to send and receive
    datagrams over an IP network. It's used primarily
    for broadcasting messages over a network.
  Connecting Your LAN to the
• Your ISP connects to the Internet
• A WAN connection is used between your
  building and the ISP
• A T-Carrier connection is often used
  – A digital connection for voice and data
Common T-Carrier Connections
  Other ways to Connect to the
• Integrated services digital network (ISDN)
  – Dial-up access
  – Basic Rate Interface (BRI) up to 128 Kbps
  – Primary Rate Interface (PRI) up to 1.544 Mbps
• Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
  – Often differing speeds for uploads and downloads
  – Depending on type, up to 6.1 Mbps for downloads
    and 1.544 Mbps for uploads
• Cable Modem
  – Shared access cable provided by cable TV company
    With the addition of users in the area transfer speeds
    will be reduced.
       Web Hosting Solutions
• Standard hosting
  – Your site resides on the same computer with many
    other sites
  – Cheapest solution
• Dedicated server
  – You have a server that only you use
• Co-location
  – Your own server is physically located at the company
    that does your Web hosting
              Web Browsers
                  Browser Wars

• A software application used to locate and
  display Web pages. The two most popular
  browsers are Netscape Navigator and Microsoft
  Internet Explorer. Both of these are graphical
  browsers, which means that they can display
  graphics as well as text. In addition, most
  modern browsers can present multimedia
  information, including sound and video, though
  they require plug-ins for some formats such as
  Acrobat Reader, Flash Player.
              Web Browsers

• The creation
• Netscape Navigator was developed by the team
  who had created the Mosaic web browser at the
  National Center for Supercomputing
  Applications. The company they created was
  initially named "Mosaic Communications
  Corporation" and their web browser "Mosaic",
  but a legal challenge from NCSA over the rights
  to the name resulted in the company and the
  product being renamed. The name "Netscape"
  was invented by sales representative Greg
Web Browsers
   Mosaic 0.9
                    Web Browsers
•   Release history
•   Mosaic Netscape 0.9 – October 13, 1994
•   Netscape Navigator 1.0 – December 15, 1994
•   Netscape Navigator 1.1
•   Netscape Navigator 1.22
•   Netscape Navigator 2.0 – September 18, 1995
•   Netscape Navigator 2.01
•   Netscape Navigator 2.02
•   Netscape Navigator 3.0 – August 19, 1996
•   Netscape Navigator 3.01
•   Netscape Navigator 3.02
•   Netscape Navigator 3.03
•   Netscape Navigator 3.04 – October 4, 1997
•   Netscape Navigator 4.0 – June 1997
              Web Browsers

The rise of Netscape
• When the consumer internet revolution arrived in
  the mid to late 1990s, Netscape was well
  positioned to take advantage of it. With a good
  mix of features and an attractive licensing
  scheme that allowed free use for non-
  commercial purposes, the Netscape browser
  soon became the de facto standard, particularly
  on the Windows platform.
               Web Browsers

The fall of Netscape
• Microsoft saw Netscape's success as a clear
  threat to the dominant status of the Microsoft
  Windows operating system. It began a wide-
  reaching campaign to establish control over the
  browser market. Browser market share, it was
  reasoned, leads to control over internet
  standards, and that in turn would provide the
  opportunity to sell software and services.
  Microsoft licensed the Mosaic source code from
  Spyglass, Inc., an offshoot of the University of
  Illinois, and turned it into Internet Explorer.
              Web Browsers

• The resulting battle between the two companies
  became known as the browser wars. Versions of
  IE were markedly inferior to contemporary
  versions of Netscape Navigator; IE 3.0 (1996)
  began to catch up to its competition; IE 4.0
  (1997) was the first version that looked to have
  Netscape beaten, and IE 5.0 (1998) with many
  bug fixes and stability improvements saw
  Navigator's marketshare plummet below IE for
  the first time.
                    Web Browsers
• In March 1998, Netscape released most of the code base for
  Communicator under an open source license. The product named
  Netscape 5, which was intended to be the result, was never
  released, as managers decided that the code needed a complete
  rewrite. This product, taking growing contributions from the open-
  source community, was dubbed Mozilla, once the codename of the
  original Netscape Navigator. Netscape programmers gave Mozilla a
  different GUI and released it as Netscape 6 and later Netscape 7.
  After a lengthy public beta, Mozilla 1.0 was released on June 5,
  2002. The same code base, most notably the Gecko layout engine,
  became the basis of several standalone applications, including
  Firefox and Thunderbird.

• These products, however, came too late for Netscape as a
  business. Eventually Microsoft emerged victorious in the browser
  wars, and Netscape was acquired in 1999 by AOL.
            Web Browsers
               Internet Explorer

• Internet Explorer 3 was the first major
  browser with Cascading Style Sheets
  (CSS) support released in August, 1996
  and it could handle the PICS System for
  content metadata. The improvements
  were significant, compared to its main
  competitor at the time, Netscape
             Web Browsers
                Internet Explorer

• The browser was not widely used until
  version 4, which was released in October
  1997 and was integrated with the
  Windows 98 operating system. This
  integration, however, was subject to
  numerous criticisms (see United States v.
  Microsoft). Version 5, released in
  September 1998, was another significant
  release that supported bi-directional text,
  ruby characters, XML and XSL.
              Web Browsers
                  Internet Explorer

• Version 6 was released on August 27, 2001, a
  few weeks before Windows XP. This version
  included DHTML enhancements, content
  restricted inline frames, and better support of
  CSS level 1, DOM level 1 and SMIL 2.0. The
  MSXML engine was also updated to version 3.0.
  Other new features included a new version of
  Media bar, Windows Messenger integration,
  fault collection, automatic image resizing, P3P,
  and a new look-and-feel that is in line with the
  style of Windows XP
                 Web Browsers
                     Internet Explorer

• For version 7.0 of Internet Explorer, set to ship with
  Windows Vista and as a separate download for Windows
  XP with Service Pack 2, large amounts of the
  architecture, including the security framework, have
  been completely overhauled. Partly as a result of these
  security enhancements, the browser will be a stand-
  alone application, rather than integrated with the
  Windows shell, and it will no longer be capable of acting
  as a file browser. The "beta 1" (build 5112) and "beta 2
  preview" (build 5299) pre-releases both operate in this
  new stand-alone manner.
                     Web Browsers
                    Developing Web sites For
• Browsers have been criticized for implementing non-standard HTML
  markup extensions such as the BLINK tag, which is sometimes
  referred to as a symbol for Netscape's urge to develop extensions
  not standardized by the W3C, and even mentioned in the fictional
  Book of Mozilla. Both IE and Netscape have also been criticized for
  following actual web standards poorly, often lagging behind or
  supporting them very poorly or even incorrectly. This criticism wasn't
  very loud during the days of its popularity as web masters then often
  simply developed for Netscape Navigator, but came to be an
  increasing annoyance to webmasters who wish to provide backward
  and cross-browser compatibility. Today, many web masters still
  struggle with cross-browser compatibility do not choose to support
  old versions, due to their poor and invalid web standard
Browsers   Netscape   Internet Explorer

  100        100         100

   200       200         200

   300       300         300

   400       400         400

   500       500         500
  What are Browser Plug-ins?

Flash, Acrobat Reader

                               Row 1, Col 1
Who came up with the Name Netscape?

            Greg Sands

What is Internet Explorer?


What is a payment method available for purchases up to
 $4999.99 for which a blanket contract does not exist?


        What is a Web browser?

A software application used to locate and
           display Web pages

         What is False?

The Netscape Browser came after
  Microsoft’s Internet Explorer

What are Cascading Style Sheets ?


Which payment method can be used for all purchases?

        Receipt and invoice

What is the National Center for
Supercomputing Applications?


Who Acquired Netscape in 1999?


Who did Microsoft License it’s IE Source Code From?

                Spyglass, Inc

What is a payment method that can be used for
            purchases up to $100?

             Petty Cash

What are the two most popular browsers ?

   Netscape Navigator and
  Microsoft Internet Explorer

What was Netscape Initially Called?


What is IE’s Latest Version?

   Version 7.0

What is a payment method that can be used for
          purchases up to $5,000.00?

        Direct Demand

  Who is the Instructor?

Michael Krueger.

Which Version of Netscape was Never Released?

        Netscape Version 5

          What is 1998?

Navigator's marketshare plummets
   below IE for the first time.

Who is the Pcard Program Manager?

 Sharon Brandstatt

• “Remember the more we LEARN, the
  more we GROW!”

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