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					          Towards the development of
           a Disaster Risk Reduction
              strategy for UNICEF


           Report of the UNICEF Global Consultation
           on Disaster Risk Reduction and Education




Reduce Risks




                              … Protect Children

  UNICEF Global Consultation on Disaster Risk Reduction and Education
                    Chateau de Penthes, Geneva
                             5-6 July 2007




                        Jointly organized by:
         UNICEF Education section and Emergency Programmes




                                                                        1
CONTENTS

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY .......................................................................3

PART I: BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT ...............................................4

  Objective
  Structure
  Participants

  Introduction: Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) context
        1. Environmental context
        2. Institutional context
        3. UNICEF‟s strategic context

PART II: DRR CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK .......................................8

          1. Basic concepts
          2. Strategic keystones of disaster risk management

PART III: SCOPE OF DRR INITIATIVES AND STRATEGIES………….….10

           1. UNICEF DRR initiatives
           2. IFRC‟s DRR strategy
           3. Brainstorming on an overall DRR strategy for UNICEF

PART IV: KEY ISSUES OF DRR THROUGH EDUCATION………………….…16

           1.   Disaster Risk Education strategies
           2.   Action Aid‟s Disaster Risk Education strategy
           3.   A proposed Disaster Risk Education strategy for UNICEF
           4.   Disaster Risk Education Networks
           5.   Disaster Risk Education tools

PART V: TOWARDS A UNICEF STRATEGY TO DRR …………………………….22

           1.   Roles and accountabilities at CO, HQ and RO level
           2.   Proposed Action Plans
           3.   Proposed implementation strategy
           4.   Next steps recommended

ANNEXES………………………………………………………………………………………………….….25

Annex I: Agenda
Annex II: List of Participants
Annex III: Group work - Main DRR Areas of Action for UNICEF by sector
Annex IV: Group work - Roles and Accountabilities on DRR for UNICEF
Annex V: Group work - Plans of Action: HQ and ROs




                                                                                             2
                              EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

     The objective of the consultation was 1) to engage discussion on the development of
a global Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) strategy for UNICEF, 2) discuss the development
of a specific plan of action in the education sector, considered as a natural entry point
for UNICEF in this field.      In preparation for the consultation, a “Review of DRR
initiatives” and a “Wish list of possible future projects” had been undertaken, with the
support of all Regional Offices and Country Offices.

    The consultation brought together the key UNICEF staff at HQ/RO and Country
Offices experienced in DRR, with participation of experts and partner agencies in this
field for comments and advice.

Recommendations on UNICEF DRR strategy:

Within the actual context of increasing disasters and population‟s vulnerabilities,
humanitarian actors and partners along with UNICEF staff participants in the
consultation encourage the organization to develop a global strategy to better prepare
and mitigate risks for children and women. Participants support the development of
UNICEF commitments for a DRR strategy, in consideration of the existing legal platforms
that have been endorsed to date by the international community: the Hyogo Framework
for Action, the UN-ISDR system, and the MDG goals for poverty reduction.

UNICEF has been supporting DRR initiatives in the last decade within the framework of
the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR), therefore, the
organization can scale up activities in this field building on existing experience and
lessons learnt, improving strategies, and promoting innovative approaches. Disaster Risk
Reduction, as a cross-cutting theme by nature, is preferably not to be defined as a new
sector of activity but should be integrated in existing sectors:

      CCCs sectors as natural entry point linked with preparedness & transition,
      Mainstreamed in regular programming and included in development frameworks.

In order to come-up with a relevant strategy, it is recommended that UNICEF undertake
a study on specific disaster risk and vulnerability for children. In the meantime,
consideration should be given to include DRR into existing programmes and guidelines,
build UNICEF DRR capacities by providing guidance and training, and continuously
support existing DRR initiatives and innovative projects going on in the field.

Possible DRR approaches, with an education focus:

UNICEF‟s added value in DRR first lies in its long advocacy experience which could make
a strong contribution in raising awareness on DRR, and capacity building with national
and local authorities. It is recommended that one of the main approaches should be
community based, with emphasis on community participation. The main DRR areas of
action for UNICEF identified according to UNICEF‟s experience and mandate are
education & public awareness, safe constructions (including education and health
facilities), and disaster preparedness & response planning - involving all CCC sectors.

In the education sector, it was suggested that the strategy focus on the “3Ps” of the risk
management cycle: Prediction, Prevention, and Preparedness, through 3 main platforms
of action: Child Friendly Schools (safe constructions, school preparedness), Life Skills
Based Education (curricula development, drills, teacher training) and education in
emergencies (education cluster), making the school as a “community center” for DRR.
Advocacy for DRR can be mainstreamed within the four main education partnerships in
which UNICEF is engaged: United Nations Girls Education Initiative (UNGEI); Education
For All Global Action Plan (EFA-GAP); EFA Fast Track Initiative (EFA-FTI); and the Inter-
Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Cluster for Education in Emergencies.



                                                                                        3
PART I: BACKGROUND AND CONTEXT
Objectives

UNICEF‟s Education Section of Programme Division (PD) and Emergency Programmes
Division (EMOPS) jointly organized a Global Consultation on Disaster Risk Reduction
through Education in Geneva in early July 2007, in an effort to help formulate a strategy
on the issue to guide the organization over the next several years. The two specific
objectives of the consultation were 1) to engage discussion on the development of a
global Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR) strategy for UNICEF, and 2) discuss the
development of a specific plan of action in the education sector, considered as a natural
entry point for UNICEF in this field.

Structure

The agenda of the meeting fell naturally into 2 parts, reflecting the inductive structure of
UNICEF‟s analysis. Day One was devoted to discussion and brainstorming on an overall
DRR strategy for UNICEF, while Day 2 focused on discussions of DRR through education,
and definition of an action plan by region. The consultation was organised around
presentations, brainstorming and several group-work sessions.

Participants

The consultation brought together the key UNICEF staff at HQ level (PD/Education,
PD/Transition, EMOPS/Policy, EMOPS/EWP), regional emergency and education advisers
from all Regional Offices, staff members from Country Offices experienced in DRR (India,
Sri Lanka, Iran, Turkey, Algeria, Nicaragua, Guyana, Uzbekistan, CAR, Madagascar),
with participation of independent experts and partner agencies in this field (ISDR, IFRC,
UNESCO, INEE, Action Aid, Risk Red and others). In total, some 40 UNICEF staff
members and 11 outside experts participated in the consultation.

Introduction - DRR in context
(Presentations from Pierrette Vu Thi, Alan Court, and Salvano Briceño):

1. Environmental context:

The numbers of natural disaster events, numbers of affected people and related
economic losses have been increasing over the last decades. Due to global warming,
there have been and will continue to be more extreme rainfall, stronger tropical
cyclones, more intense and frequent droughts, more hot and cold spells, and more
coastal flooding. Extreme event surprises in some places are also expected and, in the
longer term, increased vulnerability from loss of land and livelihoods to increases in sea-
level and temperature rise (e.g., agriculture & fisheries will be affected). In local terms,
small increase in weather risks might cause big problems.

            "Climate change is expected to cause more severe and more
            frequent natural hazards. As our cities and coasts grow more
            vulnerable, these hazards can lead to disasters that are far
            worse than those we have seen to date. We have a moral, social
            and economic obligation to build resilience by 2015.
            Implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action will also help us
            reach the Millennium Development Goals."

            Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations, 2007

The humanitarian community may be unable to cope with the volume of assistance
required. Therefore, there is a need to advocate strongly for greater investment and
political commitment for disaster risk reduction AND conflict prevention, and to improve
the delivery of humanitarian services such that they become more efficient, effective


                                                                                          4
and streamlined. Humanitarian interventions, particularly in the recovery phase, must
operationalize the commitment to build back better.



                                       Global Hotspot study (World Bank)




                            = lowest 40%
                            = middle 30%
                            = highest 20%


                                    25 million km sq. and 3.4 billion people are relatively highly
                                  exposed to at least one natural hazard; 105 million people are
                                             relatively highly exposed to three or more hazards.




Disasters are not “natural”--they are related to the capacities of people to cope with
them. The degree of vulnerability increases in proportion to:

      Socio-economic poverty,
      Unplanned urban growth, lack of awareness and institutional capacities,
      Insufficient land use planning, housing, infrastructures located in hazard prone
       areas...
      Ecosystem degradation; coastal, watershed, marshlands, etc

                     Anatomy of “natural” disasters
          Natural hazard                X                 Vulnerability                          =   Disaster Risk

2. Institutional context:

The Disaster Risk reduction agenda has been progressing in the last years, starting from
the launch of the International Decade for Natural Disasters reduction in 1989, to the
adoption of the Yokohama strategy and Plan of Action in 1994, the Johannesburg Plan of
Action in 2002, and the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) 2005-2015. The UN-
International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN-ISDR) is supporting this process since
2000, thought its secretariat based in Geneva. There is several partnerships on specific
DRR topics:

   •   Education and Knowledge Thematic Platform (UNESCO, UNICEF, Action Aid, IFRC,
       Council of Europe, ADRC, ProVention, UN/ISDR…).
   •   International Recovery Platform (UNDP, Kobe) addressing knowledge and
       capacity building gaps in enhancing recovery operations.
   •   Indian Ocean Consortium (UN/ISDR, WB, UNDP, OCHA, IFRC, UNESCO/IOC,
       UNEP, WMO) launched by Special Envoy Pdt Clinton for Indian Ocean Countries.
   •   Platform for Promotion of Early Warning - EWC-III, March 2006, EW Checklist;
       Project portfolio, Global Survey of EWS; International EW Programme.
   •   CADRI (UNDP-OCHA-UN/ISDR) capacity building programme, former UN/DMTP.
   •   Gendering Disaster Risk Reduction: mainstreaming gender issues into DRR.
   •   NGO network: a global network of NGOs for Community Resilience to Disasters.
   •   Media network: a partnership of international organizations and communication
       professionals to increase the profile of disaster risk reduction into the news.
   •   Business Alliance for DRR: a global partnership led by the World Economic Forum
       with WB, IFC, WEF, Munich and Swiss Reinsurance, UN/ISDR and others

                                                                                                                     5
In June 2007, the “Global Platform for Disaster Risk Reduction” conference brought
together governments, UN agencies, NGOs and civil society to discuss the concrete steps
towards the implementation of the HFA. To date:

      Around 40 countries have developed a national platform for DRR
      At regional level, intergovernmental strategies (Africa, Asia, Andean region,
       Pacific, Euro-Mediterranean) and Collaborative Centers (China (Drought), Iran
       (Seismic risks), Japan (Recovery), Ecuador (El-Niño), Germany (Wildland Fires),
       Panama (Disabilities) have been established.

    “Are you aware if in your duty country a national platform for DRR has
    been established? Did you know that regional centers can provide you with
    information, knowledge and understanding on their hazard risk focus?”

Some guidelines have been developed for mainstreaming DRR into CCA/UNDAF (UNDP
and ISDR secretariat for UNDG) and PRSPs (WB, ProVention, UN/ISDR and UN
Millennium Office), and “Words into Action” provides recommendation on implementing
risk reduction under the HFA. DRR has been mainstreamed in 25 high disaster prone
countries targeted by UNDP (in CCA/UNDAFs) and in over 30 countries targeted by the
World Bank (mainly through PRSPs).

In the humanitarian context, EU/ECHO actively promotes policy dialogue to support DRR
mainstreaming efforts and UK/DFID allocates 10% of its humanitarian budget to DRR.
IFRC has adopted the HFA as guiding policy for their work. The “Matrix of commitment
and initiatives” available in PreventionWeb database, gives information on UN agencies
and regional organizations and government‟s activities to support and implement the
HFA.

Nonetheless, there remain certain gaps in the implementation of the HFA. Chief among
these are adaptation to climate change; education and school safety; growing disaster
risk in urban areas; empowerment of women for their role in DRR; and regional
cooperation to help scale proven practices. Those gaps have been identified as the main
programme focus recommended for the implementation of the HFA in the next period, in
which UNICEF could collaborate.




            Gaps in implementation of the HFA –
            Next steps, follow-up to the Global Platform (Chair’s Summary)
            Programme focus
                    •       Climate change adaptation
                    •       Many cities and urban areas are crucibles of growing disaster risk
                    •       Education and School Safety
                    •       Women play an important role on DRR and need to be empowered
                    •       Regional cooperation can play a major role in scaling proven
                            practices

             ISDR system development
                        •   More effort to engage development partners and other key
                            constituencies
                        •   Important to develop ISDR system’s regional mechanisms,
                            thematic capacities and networking
                        •   The Trust Fund for Disaster Reduction needs strengthening to
                            support joint work




                                                                                                 6
3. UNICEF‟s strategic context:

The need to deliver humanitarian emergency assistance in response to a natural
disaster, a socio-political crisis or any other emergency can be seen as a “failure” to
prevent the risk to happen. Conflict prevention and disaster risk reduction are
increasingly considered as key to protect human security.
Africa suffers the major number of deaths caused by disasters, and fully half of the
countries with highest under-five mortality rates are African countries emerging from
disasters or conflict; African populations generally suffer from the highest vulnerability
to disaster. In Asia, seasonal floods and mudslides affect millions of people yearly, and
monsoon failure leads to famines. This context underlines the need to reduce risks, for
example by building good preparedness and response systems, as well as developing
greater education and understanding on how to cope with risks, taking into
consideration traditional knowledge.

There are several reasons for an emphasis on disaster risk reduction:

The unprecedented scale of the Tsunami posed a new challenge and raised awareness of
the international community to put in place robust preparedness, mitigation systems and
mechanisms for recovery processes. Recovery should be used as an opportunity to build
DRR: “Build Back Better”, “Build Back Smarter”, and “Build Back Different”.

The education system can be used to bring the community together on DRR issues.
DRR makes a strong connection with young people, since one of their two main concerns
(“Voices of the youth” 2007) is climate change. DRR can be an essential part of regular
programming, especially in the education sector which inherently participates in raising
population‟s awareness & risks knowledge. The recent Dutch grant 2007-2011 that
focuses on education in emergencies and risk reduction, will provide an opportunity to
develop our capacities and initiatives in DRR.

In the context of the new responsibilities that UNICEF has taken in the cluster leadership
approach, we need to ensure risk reduction to prevent and mitigate risks, in addition
preparedness to ensure adequate assistance, and appropriate response & recovery.

In June 2007, UNICEF officially became a member of the UN International Strategy for
Disaster Reduction. As such, UNICEF supports the implementation of the five pillars of
the HFA, namely, governance, risk identification, knowledge and education, reducing
underlying risk factors and strengthening disaster preparedness for effective response.




                                                      Tsunami
                              Hyogo Framework        challenges
                                 for Action
                                                                       Avian/Human
                                                                         Influenza
                                                                           Threat
                 ISDR Membership

                                         Disaster Risk
                                          Reduction                         Dutch Grant
                                            context
                  MDG goal
            Poverty & Vulnerability
                  Reduction

                                                                         Transition &
                                                                     Risk Reduction Unit
                           Increasing Disasters Cluster leadership
                             Climate Change         approach




                                                                                           7
PART II: DRR CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
(Presentations from Allan Lavell, Ben Wisner, Marla Petal)

1. Basic concepts:

The ultimate goal of a conceptual framework is to clarify concepts in order to serve as a
basis for action. They are “building blocks for defining action and intervention”. As such,
the “Disaster Risk Reduction” concept is not easy, because it deals with changing
concepts: sustainable development and environmental concerns, social processes and
practice, making it difficult to reach consensus and homogeneity of understanding.

A “Disaster” does not constitute the hazard itself, but the social context related to the
impact of physical events where losses and damage severely interrupt routine
functioning of the affected society (product and palpable). The “Risk” is the probability
and levels of future damage and loss associated with the occurrence of adverse physical
phenomena (latent and process). Disasters constitute actualized or materialized risk
conditions that constitute in themselves new risk conditions that must be attended to.

The concept of risk management recognizes that risk is present in all stages of
development, specifically before during and after emergencies. The key to effective
management of disasters lies in recognizing the inherent and dynamic aspects of risk -
the “risk continuum” or “risk process”, which has various characteristics:     latent,
dynamic and changing, with more accurate expression at micro social and territorial
levels, subjective and objective in its expression and measurement, and choosing the
appropriate solution for dealing with these phenomena.

         “Risk” (and its major components-hazard, vulnerability and exposure)
         are socially constructed and can thus, in theory, be socially
         deconstructed or controlled”

This can involve a combination of elimination, reduction, containment or co-existence
with risk. Risk management can be prospective or corrective, linked with social and
economic change, including structural and non-structural measures. Risk reduction is not
just another sector but rather a transverse, cross-cutting concern. It owes to be
development based, participatory, decentralized, and cutting across the prevention to
reconstruction sequence. Adopting one or more of these strategies pre-disaster is
usually far more efficient and effective than mounting a post-disaster response.


                              Disaster Risk Reduction – A proposed conceptual matrix

                                                      Preparedness
                              Prevention Mitigation                 Response Transition
                                                      Early Warning

                 Education

                 Health

                 WatSan

                 Protection

                 Nutrition

                 HIV&AIDS

                 Others




                                                                                          8
2. Strategic keystones of disaster risk management:

The underlying vulnerability problems can be addressed through the global goal to
reduce poverty - part of the MDG agenda – since poverty prevent the adoption of
protective measures. UNICEF right based approach to DRR can support the MDGs, for
example: Child survival (MDG 4): e.g. safe schools (EFA goal is to put millions of
children in schools); Maternal survival (MDG 5); HIV-AIDS/Malaria reduction (MDG 6);
Education For All (MDG 2): include DRR in school curricula, safe school constructions;
Poverty reduction (MDG 1); Gender equality (MDG 3): include women in participatory
vulnerability analysis, women access to risk management related profession.

Disaster risk reduction can also be considered in the preparedness, response and
transition phase of all sectors of UNICEF‟s emergency response (Core Commitments for
Children in emergencies): water and sanitation, health and nutrition, education, child
protection, and HIV-AIDS. Risk reduction is multi-sectoral.

     “Do what you’ve been doing … Just do it with a more consistent view of risk!”




Disaster risk management should be considered in a multi-hazard approach, and within
the broader context of risk management, including conflict and socio-political issues.
Knowing risks is not enough, populations need to know “what to do” about risks: risk
management should focus on life saving, including psychosocial support. The most
effective approach to risk management is situational, participatory, with direct
community level engagement, taking into account disparities in gender, culture, origin
and disabilities. Capacities of population in analysing, finding solutions and addressing
their own risk is important, for example using the participatory “Vulnerability and
Capacity Assessment” exercise. In addition, advocacy with government is essential.



                                     Questions
                        Could/ should UNICEF be a world
                        leader in advocating safe schools?

                        Could/ should UNICEF monitor and
                        advocate against displacement of
                        marginal groups due to “climate change
                        adaptation” measures by nation states?




                                                                                       9
PART III: SCOPE OF DRR INITIATIVES AND STRATEGIES

1. UNICEF DRR initiatives – Round Table
(Presentations from COs and ROs, discussion)

Disaster Risk Reduction initiatives have been developed in the last years in many regions
and countries where UNICEF is working. Latin America and the Caribbean region
(TACRO) appears to have been the most active in this field since the launch of the
International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction in the 90‟s, but growing number of
projects have been developed in other regions in the recent years, mainly in CEE-CIS
region, South Asia (ROSA) and East Asia (EAPRO), in countries affected by seasonal
disasters, earthquake risk reduction following the Bam earthquake, and within the
tsunami affected countries.

The “Review of UNICEF DRR initiatives” and “Wish lists of DRR projects” showed a wide
range of DRR projects -- and ideas for future projects -- in various domains. Globally,
the most important fields are capacity building for national disaster preparedness
planning, DRR through education (school preparedness, structural and non-structural
school safety, school curricula, training of teachers, psychosocial support) and public
awareness.

A series of presentations by UNICEF Country Offices and Regional Offices - Uzbekistan,
Algeria, India, ESARO, Madagascar, TACRO, Iran, Turkey, Guyana, Nepal and Sri Lanka -
illustrated some of the on-going DRR initiatives (cf. “Review of UNICEF DRR initiatives”).

For example, in Uzbekistan, a comprehensive DRR project has been mounted, in order
to reduce the vulnerability of populations, children and women in high disaster prone
areas of the country, enabling local communities and institutions to better prepare for
and mitigate natural disasters. An important part of the project is focusing on capacity
building in the regions to coordinate and implement disaster preparedness operations.

The core programmatic components of the project are advocacy and public awareness
raising, small scale mitigation works, and education (designing and production of
training materials for pupils; training of teachers and pupils; simulations conducted at
school level, school competition). On the capacity building side, focus has been made
facilitation and coordination, institutional strengthening (training of sub-national
government institutions on Disaster Risk Management and Community-Based Disaster
Risk Management planning; training of life saving brigades on rescue technique and
procedures; first aid training), local capacity building and training (training of local
makhalla leaders; workshops at community level for the development and management
of community disaster preparedness action plans; simulations and evacuations at
community level).




                                                                                       10
In Latin America, A regional DRR project has been developed under the framework of
the global campaign “risk reduction begins at school”, in cooperation with ISDR,
DIPECHO, CEPREDENAC, CECC and Six Central American governments: Panama, Costa
Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala in DRR actions and to promote the
children's' right for life and education at all times.

One first objective is to integrate DRR best practices, tools and experiences in schools as
carried out by national, international, governmental and non governmental organizations
by identifying, compiling, systematizing and disseminating these tools at the regional
level and in all 6 countries. The other objective is to improve capacities of the national
education sector in all 6 countries to assist local DRR preparedness and response
initiatives, and increase resilience in identified vulnerable communities (eg. Nicaragua
and El Salvador).

The project was developed in an effort to recognize and link DRR global and regional
networks. The regional project considers different levels of intervention, from school,
municipality, to national, sub-regional and regional level.


                    LEVELS OF INTERVENTION – ONE EXAMPLE

                               Regional – Latin American & Caribbean


                                 Sub- regional – Central America,
                                   Caribbean, Andean, etc. …


                                  Country – Nicaragua, El Salvador


                                      Sub-National (Nicaragua)
                                          – RAAS, RAAN


                                            Municipality


                                               School



In the East and South Africa region, a project on DRR through education is being
developed, on account of continued humanitarian crises (wars, civil conflict, natural
disasters) where it was recognized that more efforts were needed in preparation and risk
mitigation. The situation has been assessed in 6 countries (Mozambique, Zambia,
Ethiopia, Rwanda, Madagascar, Zimbabwe).

On top of existing initiatives in response to disasters (supply distribution, schools
reconstruction, school feeding programme, creation of ECD centres and youth drop-in
centre, etc.), The project mainly consists in the development of preparedness and
response plan for the education sector, the development of preparedness manual for
teachers and pupils (primary school), and training for teacher and educational
authorities.

In Madagascar, the emergency preparedness programme includes support to the
development of national EPR strategy including coordination mechanisms, pre-
positioning of supplies before every cyclone season, training of educational authorities
in cyclone-prone areas, development of a teachers‟ & pupils‟ guide* and communication
materials.

The perception of increasing risk of disasters in the coming years highlights the need to
better prepare and respond. Therefore, consideration is given to an increased focus on
national EPR plans development, improved data gathering for situation/needs
assessment and M&E systems, support to DRR integration in school curriculum and in
teacher trainings, communication initiatives, and increased role/link with the
communities using creative approaches, and reconstruction of schools.
                                                                                        11
In India, a community based disaster preparedness project has been developed since
the last 3 years in pilot communities of West Benghal, focusing on community
participation, especially women. Thi8s multihazard project (Floods, landslides, drought)
included participatory vulnerability assessments, development of GIS, household
preparedness, development of education material, etc. An evaluation has made evidence
of the positive impact of the CBDP project by comparison of a pre-project and a post-
project floods (cf. table). The major lessons learned is that communities can take on
responsibility for protecting their own lives and livelihoods in the event of a disaster
provided they are adequately equipped with knowledge and skills.

    Details                       Flood 2000                 Flood 2004
1   Deaths                        11                         2 (not due to floods)
2   Loss of cattle                700 cattle                 Negligible
3   Loss of poultry               Over 10,000                Negligible
4   Loss of valuable              More than 3,000 families   None
    documents
5   Damage to children’s          Half no. of families       None
    books
6   Availability of food during   Big problem                No problem. Families had stockpiled 7-
    flood                                                    10 days food
7   Agriculture                   Loss of entire crop        Loss of entire crop.
                                                             New practices adopted but flood came
                                                             earlier and could not harvest

In Algeria, UNICEF is supporting a Convention developed by the Ministry of Education in
partnership with the Ministry of Interior for “Prevention of major natural disasters at
school”. The convention has 3 main components: risk information and sensitization,
implementation of school preparedness plan, and life skills/first aid training and
simulations for pupils and teachers. The project has been piloted in 64 schools, and aims
at being extended in other parts of the country in the future.

In Iran, following the Bam, Zarand and Lorestan earthquakes, the government has
increased its preparedness capacities. On top of its internal preparedness planning and
simulation, UNICEF supports the government on their emergency preparedness
programme, promoting use of emergency pre-fabricated school designs*, supporting the
development of a local “School in a box” kit, advocating and building capacities for
psychosocial approach within emergency response combined with life skills development,
inclusion of DRR in school curriculum, and developing a localized training module and
handbook on principles of child protection in emergencies.

                            * Emergency pre-fabricated school




                                                                                                      12
The main conclusion of the discussion on UNICEF DRR initiatives highlighted that we
need to take those initiatives to scale, drawing on the field experience. UNICEF can
develop a strategy on the basis of the practical knowledge of its own successful
experience in the field as well as theoretical/academic knowledge. UNICEF has also an
important role at global level, building upon a strong advocacy tradition.

Some of the gaps identified to achieve this objective are advocacy and technical
assistance to UNICEF COs and support global efforts to increase capacity and knowledge
on DDR, especially in education, and the need for harmonization of interagency efforts
towards DDR.

For example, it is recommended to develop capacities for the use of child protection
principles in emergencies for education sector, as well as systematic integration of
psychosocial support issues (eg. rolling out the Inter-Agency Standing Committee
guidelines on of psychosocial support and mental health).

Fundraising for integration of Disaster Risk Reduction programmes in emergency
response and reconstruction phase is also essential.


2. IFRC‟s DRR strategy (Presentation of IFRC‟s DRR strategy, by Kenneth Westgate)

The International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent is seen as a very
important player in disaster preparedness and humanitarian response, but they are also
committed to reduce risks. Disaster are seen both as a development & humanitarian
concern. The “Agenda for Humanitarian Action” 2003 is calling for investment in disaster
risk reduction, and its “Global Agenda” 2005 goals explicitly refers to disaster risk
reduction & Hyogo Framework for Action. IFRC is undertaking a complete revision of
disaster management strategy in support of the HFA for the coming 5 years focusing on
20 countries, and scaling up its DRR strategy through the “Global Strategic Alliance for
DRR” under development with other important players (ISDR, WB, UNDP).

IFCR offers increased support for safer and resilient communities by working at a local
and national level thanks to the volunteers network, through specific work at community
level using participatory approach in Vulnerability & Capacity Assessment (VCA). Within
this approach, one of the main challenges is to deal with conflicting priorities since
communities may have different wants and needs.         Furthermore, a major lesson of
IFRC‟s work on disaster risk reduction is that the process implemented at community
level has become a way of focusing on every days small scale disasters. Less visible
disasters become forgotten, even if numbers of affected people are equal to or higher
than those found in a more dramatic onset emergency like a volcano.

                       International Federation
                       of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies


                       Addressing root causes of vulnerability
                    Investigations (VCA) often starts from a disaster
                    management perspective, but end up supporting projects
                    addressing root causes of vulnerability.
                                                                 •Health issues
                                                                 •Drinking water
                                                                 •Basic community
                                                                 infrastructure
                                                                 •Education, public
                                                                 awareness & social
                                                                 development
                                                                 •Basic means of livelihood




                                                                                              13
3. Brainstorming on an overall DRR strategy for UNICEF
(Presentations by Angela Raven Roberts, Paul Hulshoff, group work and discussion)

Preserving resilience through DRR:

Disaster affected communities draw on their own reserves, strategies and networks to
cope with crises. Coping measures and threat to lives and livelihoods deepen the
vulnerability to current and future hazards. For example, it took more than 10 years for
resettled communities to recover from Ethiopia drought; during the drought period
between 1999 and 2002 Afghan farmers depleted their resources by selling their land.
Both coping mechanisms and structural solutions are needed, in all sectors. For
example, in Water, amongst pastoralists communities, new/improved water points used
for livestock should be capped post-drought to protect the environment. In Health,
immunization campaigns with 90% coverage should be undertaken with surveillance-
monitoring to make sure that vaccination is actually effective.

UNICEF‟s role is to help population avoiding negative outcomes of risks, since coping
with a risk is already a crisis situation: it is a source of „shame‟ and loss of dignity. Post-
disasters trauma should be seriously considered, as dignity is a key social capital for
recovery and resilience.

In order to develop a program to reduce the vulnerability we need to understand where
the disparities are. A comprehensive study should be undertaken in order to identify
causes of children and women‟s deaths and other negative consequences, existing
mechanisms, and new approaches needed. UNICEF needs to answer 3 questions:

   -   What are the threats to children and communities?
   -   What is already being done to protect them?
   -   What additional actions can be taken?

             “We need to answer this question asked by a child: “Am I safe?”


                                Am I Safe?
                       Thinking about a Strategy for
                              Risk Reduction
                         Processes         Institutions        Policies
                        (Safe from?)     (Safe through?)     (Safe by?)




Possible DRR areas of action for UNICEF:

The brainstorming on DRR possible areas of action showed a wide range of possible
activities in order to address risk reduction within the CCCs sectors (cf. Annex III “Main
DRR areas of action identified for UNICEF”). DRR as a multi-sectoral domain does not
constitute a new sector in itself, but can be mainstreamed into existing sectors.

The “Protection” group identified that the development of an evacuation plan and pre-
family reunification measures can reduce risk of children separation post-disaster. To a
larger extend, school and community disaster planning, with participation of children

                                                                                            14
and the community members, can make possible for the community to mitigate risks,
and enable them to adopting the right behaviour in case of a disaster. Public awareness
strategies can be developed to sensitize populations on risks and how to cope with
them. Psychosocial support training could also tackle issues related to coping with
disaster risk. Last but not least, ensuring that schools are safe disaster resilient spaces
is a key to protecting children in disasters situation.

The “Health” group focused its discussion on behaviour change communication since
public health messages related to the behaviour to adopt in case of disaster can
significantly reduce risk of post-disaster epidemics. Prioritizing child survival
interventions (eg. vaccination), in disaster prone areas would also be an important risk
reduction measure. Again, safety of the heath infrastructures should be ensured.

In “Water and Sanitation”, the identification of safe locations for WES infrastructures,
with consideration of multi-hazard resilience in the design and construction, proper
maintenance of WES networks, and alternative systems and structures constitutes the
best solution to prevent risks in case of disasters. Skills development based on hygiene
education is also an important risk reduction measure, linking with health and education
sectors.

“Nutrition” emergencies risk can be prevented by advocacy for the adoption of measures
such as breastfeeding, vitamin A, deworming, etc. (eg. the “Sahel Programme”), and
programme communication strengthening the mother‟s nutrition education and good
parenting. In addition, development of relevant monitoring and early warning systems
linked with adequate early response is a significant risk reduction measure.

Lastly, the “Education” sector deals with the global issue of increasing population‟s
knowledge about risk. This can include capacity development of teachers and the
education system to cope with risks, teaching about risks, school participatory
vulnerability and capacity analysis, and safe constructions-retrofitting standards for
schools.

Mainstreaming DRR in UNICEF‟s programmes:

A good natural entry point for risk reduction for UNICEF is to integrate DRR components
into its core emergency preparedness and response sectors (CCCs), as an extension of
emergency preparedness and response –with the goal to actually avoid the CCCs
response!

UNICEF has a good position and potential to work on DRR given its community outreach
and advocacy capacities, with an eventual leadership role in DRR. It is recommended
that UNICEF scales up its activities in the field of DRR, and develops a list of
commitments for a DRR strategy in close linkage with the emergency response,
transition and recovery strategies.

In addition, DRR issues can be integrated into regular programming, included in the
development frameworks (UNDAF, PRSPs, etc.), and embedded in existing policies and
standards. EMOPS is a center of knowledge for nature of hazards, risk and
vulnerabilities. Regular programs need to draw on this knowledge for developmental
approach to risk reduction.

UNICEF‟s approach can draw upon advocacy with government, capacity building of
national and local authorities, community based interventions with participatory
processes, and development of DRR policy & standards. DRR strategies should be
developed in close partnership with agencies and governments.




                                                                                        15
PART IV: KEY ISSUES OF DRR THROUGH EDUCATION
1. DRE strategies
(Panel presentation by DRE experts: Ben Wisner, Allison Anderson-INEE, Paola Albrito-
ISDR, on strategies, gaps to be filled and their recommendations on the best potential
areas of action for UNICEF, followed by a plenary discussion)

Disaster risk education strategies are closely related to the schooling system, where
there is consensus on 3 main priorities:

The first priority draws upon the evidence of many accounts worldwide of near misses in
terms of schools collapsing due to earthquakes, windstorms, avalanches, mudslides,
flash flooding, storm surges, etc. The learning environment itself should be safe from
disasters, which means that schools should be constructed in safe locations, and the
infrastructure should be disaster resilient. Important gaps exist in policy and advocacy
globally for promoting school building safety in the international arena, which could
constitute relevant area of contributions for UNICEF.


        “Education For All should not put millions of children into unsafe schools”


The second priority relates to the importance of integration of DRR in school curriculum
in terms of Action Area 3 of Hyogo Framework for Action: Knowledge management,
education and risk awareness. There is actually a gap identified in dissemination of
knowledge about risks through school curricula, especially important in disaster prone
countries, and lack of linkages between the different topics dealing with this issue: earth
science, emergency preparedness and drills. An example of a good practice is a school in
Eastern Kenya prone to drought and food insecurity engaged in integration of tree
seedling nurseries. The children are active participants in planting and learning about
deforestation, reforestation and the soil. Math is taught in this context as well as
reading and writing in relation to school nursery. The school therefore is actively
engaged as an entity and important focal point in the community.

The school can be the centre to active participation by young people with their teachers
and looking at capacities while addressing the “Am I safe” concept. Students and
teachers are a resource to assess their school and the community‟s hazards. School has
often been the hub of community based self-study of its own hazards & vulnerabilities as
well as its own capabilities and resources for dealing with them (VCA). This includes the
community uniting to demand social protection where personal protection is not
sufficient to cope with or mitigate the potential losses and disruptions.

The third priority relates to the importance of teachers training and ensuring proper
coordination efforts around the world. ISDR is hosting a central focal point for training
in DRR, but neither the ISDR thematic platform on education nor the training platform
clearly address teacher training. Teachers have to understand DRR, possess the
necessary skills and get pedagogical support. Internally, UNICEF also needs to focus on
development of internal capacities in order to support capacity building of partners.

But there are some threats: Education MDG is not being met yet, so we need to ensure
that DRR initiatives do not diminish efforts to achieve the goals of Education for All.
Secondly, teachers receive low pay & are poorly supported, which makes it difficult for
them to address an additional issue in their schooling programme. Lastly, schools
themselves may be in dangerous locations unprotected from high wind, flash flooding,
landslides, storm surge, and other types of natural disasters.




                                                                                        16
2. Action Aid‟s DRE strategy
(Presentation by Roger Yates)

Action Aid is working in 40 countries with a focus on inclusion of DRR issues into school
curriculum, schools as centers of community DRR using participatory vulnerability
analysis (e.g. in cooperation with WFP in South Africa), and psychosocial protection.
Action Aid is also supporting advocacy at global level, and has produced a report
analyzing the Hyogo Framework of Action according to children needs: “Analysis of the
HFA through the eyes of a child”.

Action Aid recommends that UNICEF strengthen its DRR activities in policy development,
support dialogue and advocacy on DRR at global level, and include DRR in a global
strategy. Internally, one effective approach is to draw and replicate innovations from the
field, and to identify and support committed individuals.

3. A proposed DRE strategy for UNICEF
(Cream Wright, UNICEF‟s Chief of Education Programmes, presented its analysis on how
UNICEF could include DRR into its education programmes. Mr. Fon Van Oosterhout,
representative of the Dutch Government, complemented with clarifications on the scope
of their support to education in emergencies and disaster reduction).

                   “DRR is an extension of what we are already doing;
                     it is a new concept to think about what we do”

Disaster risk reduction in context:

It is necessary to look at Disaster Risk Reduction in its proper context so as to define
and map the concepts to develop sensible strategies considering 3 dimensions - scale,
density, duration (global warming, hurricane, tornados, for example and effect on
farming, deforestation, etc) and review the capacity and resources for response of each
situation; for example, while California can afford to rebuild after an earthquake, Nepal
cannot. The impact of disasters can be reduced in improving response capacity &
enhancing risk management.

Risk is integral to human behavior and therefore, key elements of risk management are
people‟s awareness, assessment, avoidance and adaptation – if one cannot avoid the
risk (eg. earthquake), one can adapt to it. One of the most important parts of risk
reduction lies in engaging in behavior change & risk reduction by addressing knowledge,
belief values and approaching education as a whole. Risk management should be part of
quality education, with equal access to all.

Education – key issues and goals:

The new challenges for education in emergencies post-crisis and transition are countries
that are in transition which have been locked in serious conflict, it takes decades to get
back on development path. We need to ask ourselves what we are doing wrong and
need to challenge how we respond to emergency. Can we do better to prepare for
disasters? Can we do more to predict disasters? Can we do better to prevent disasters?

We can go beyond responding to emergencies by increasing our efforts in preventing
and mitigating risks, tackling root causes of vulnerability and root causes of disasters
themselves (for example forewarn disasters such as Tsunami, prevent deforestation and
global warming). There is a need to provide information for prevention, facilitate
knowledge for change and treat risk management as an integral part of quality
education.

Reference points for a framework:

A framework for action should be structured, time bound & interactive. Teachers are
facilitators of learning and need to incorporate into the curriculum the most current

                                                                                       17
concerns such as HIV/AIDS and Disaster Risk Reduction. There is a need to be
innovative in teaching about natural disasters, in dealing with the way knowledge is
presented. This type of education cannot limit itself to a fragment of the school day but
needs an interactive curriculum. Important elements to be included are information,
drills, campaigns, practice, knowledge, beliefs, values, education.

Learning should be based along different dimensions – not just about knowing the
answers in exams, but cognitive depth, where learners are empowered in their
behaviour. For example, research on the evidence-based has shown that the previous
HIV/AIDS campaigns did not translate to behaviour change. To achieve this we need
equitable access to quality learning, and learning in relation to the real world linking with
real life and community.

Building on existing platforms:

UNICEF can build on existing platforms: Life Skill Based Education (LSBE) curricula and
Child Friendly Schools (CFS).

Life Skills Based Education (LSBE), drawing lessons learned from HIV/AIDS
prevention, can include interactive & innovative curricula development on knowledge
about risks and how to cope with risks: information, drills, campaigns, practice,
knowledge, beliefs, values, education leading to behaviour change. Part of that includes
capacity building through teacher‟s training. The key goal is to manage risk behaviour as
people/countries will take calculated risks, taking into account cognitive and affective
domains; one of the main factors influencing behaviour is the belief system (eg.
religious belief). Curriculum development is linked to the sovereignty of every state, so a
dialogue with the government is necessary to solicit their investment in the school
curriculum. Information of the decision making system and perceived risks/rewards, is
very important. Integration of LSBE in education systems requires a strong investment
in dialogue and capacity building.

Child Friendly Schools (CFS): following a human rights based approach to education
in terms of progressive realization of rights - with right holders & duty bearers – and a
child-centred pedagogy where all decisions are made in best interest of child as a
learner, there is a need to tackle the issue of child safety at school and ensure that
school are safe learning spaces, in their location, design and construction1. Linkages to
the “school as a community” and the “school in the community” is possible to be made
where the school is treated as an entity within the community, as the link for the whole
community around risk reduction issues.

An opportunity to innovate:

UNICEF has been given the opportunity to innovate in these new areas in the field of
education and post-conflict transition, for which the Dutch government has made a
contribution focusing on various areas such as innovation, lessons learned, analysis,
research, piloting and to strengthening initiatives in Preparedness, Prevention and
Prediction (¼ of the contribution will be allocated to pilot projects in the field of DRR).

The government of Netherlands is supporting the Education For All as a main priority,
also involved in humanitarian assistance and DRR, with a very strong focus on
government capacity building. They are looking at education gaps for children and
youth, especially in fragile states, countries in crisis, etc. There is a need to help
governments to act and think better and implement programs drawing on the
experience of the best knowledgeable actors.




1
    The Education Section is in the process of hiring a design specialist to focus on school construction.

                                                                                                             18
                        Thinking, Planning and Acting for
                         Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)
                      • Tap into best available   • Learning Environment
                        info and knowledge          supports risk reduction
                      • Develop curriculum        • Advocate for DRR in
                        elements for LSBE           national plans/priorities
                      • Dynamic Knowledge         • Support Quality Centers
                        Maps on what works          for curriculum design
                      • Improve pedagogy that     • Establish Standards for
                        can change behaviour        pedagogical materials
                      • Teacher training for      • Design M&E to sustain
                        implementing DRR            investments in DRR




Comments:

Comments highlighted the importance of community based risk reduction, participation
& capacity building. CFS and LSBE can address risk mitigation and emergency
preparedness, making school a place to learn about disasters and a centre for
community participatory DRR (eg. disaster mapping, vulnerability and capacity analysis,
etc.) Training of teachers is a crucial element since one clue for success is teacher‟s
commitment.

In this process it is important that all members of the society be taken into account and
participate in the DRR strategy such as the indigenous population and persons with
disabilities. Psychosocial support for members of the community, including teachers, and
the need to focus on behaviour change for adolescents were flagged. UNICEF can draw
on its experience on behaviour change strategies (eg. AI-HI) for the development of
DRR public awareness programmes. Again, the importance of structural issues - not only
behavioural - was underlined, as a school should be a safe place to learn.

It was recommended that linkages with technical, scientific & private partners be
developed, including research institutes, public administration, higher education, teacher
unions, South–South networks, and very importantly, local expertise. There is a gap in
the public-private partnerships; taking into account the privatization of education is
crucial in terms of reducing risk.

4. DRE Networks
(Coordinators of two important networks dealing with education in emergency issues,
the ISDR thematic platform on education and INEE, presented the last updates on their
DRR related activities and how UNICEF could contribute)

ISDR Thematic Platform on Education and Knowledge
(Presentation by Paola Albrito–ISDR)

The ISDR Thematic Platform on Knowledge and Education is bringing together UN
agencies, NGO partners (UNESCO, IFRC, ADRC, Council of Europe, Action Aid, Plan
International, UNICEF, others), and more recently governments, supporting the priority
3 of the Hyogo Framework for Action: “Use knowledge, education and information to
build a culture of safety al all levels”. The main objective of the thematic platform is to
support national efforts in a coordinated manner on the issue of disaster risk education
and more extensively, information and knowledge. Its activities consists in reviewing
current initiatives and identify gaps in the subject, sharing lessons learnt and good
practices through NGO and other networks, producing reviews and guidelines (eg. “Let
our Children teach us”), supporting international campaigns (eg. “Risk Reduction begins
at school” 2006-2007 campaign) and work closely with active States in this field. The
thematic platform is also supporting awareness raising on the issue of education and

                                                                                        19
DRR by an active advocacy on education, school safety and DRR in the international
events and workshops dealing with risk reduction issues (eg. Asian Disaster Reduction
Conference, World Social Forum, Global Platform on Disaster Reduction, etc.)

Several initiatives are on track: a compilation of DRR education material for primary and
secondary school and good practices is being put together on an “on-line Library” with
the assistance of RiskRed; Guidelines for Governments on how to include DRR in school
curricula and how to address school safety are being developed; and a Global Platform
on Disaster Risk Education conference will be organised in October 2008 in which
UNICEF support would be the most useful.

Increased awareness on the issue of risk reduction and education is raising growing
expectations from the Thematic Platform. The next steps and challenges are to foster
the dialogue of members at the regional and national level and collaborate with
Governments - UNICEF can play a critical role - , ensure a strong link with DRR capacity
building & training initiatives (CADRI, former UNDMT), and involve Climate Change
Adaptation and Environmental Education Advocates. Given UNICEF‟s mandate in
education and child protection, its strong linkages with national governments, and its
important advocacy possibilities, UNICEF support in achieving the goals of the thematic
platform and active participation in the work plan 2008-2009 would be extremely
relevant.




Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE)
(Presentation by Allison Anderson-INEE)

The Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE) is an open network of
more than 1,400 representatives from UN agencies, NGOs, donors, practitioners,
researchers and individuals from affected populations working together to ensure the
right to education in emergencies and post-crisis reconstruction. Many of the key actors
are also members of the ISDR Thematic Platform on Education. Its main focus is on
emergency response & transition in the education area, so it is complementary with the
ISDR Thematic Platform on Education and Knowledge. INEE supports the IASC Education
Cluster, and the Working Group on Education in Fragile States.




                                                                                      20
                                 INEE is developing good practices and guidelines for
                                 education in emergency, such as “Good Practice on
                                 Shelter and School Construction” or the “Minimum
                                 Standards for Education in Emergencies”, which does
                                 not, but could easily cover objectives related to disaster
                                 risk reduction education: in the Standard 2: Protection
                                 and Well-being : Learning environments are secure, and
                                 promote the protection and mental and emotional well-
                                 being of learners, and Standard 3: Facilities - Education
                                 facilities are conducive to the physical well-being of
                                 learners. In addition, a good practice guide and a toolkit
                                 will be produced.

                                 INEE is planning to include disaster reduction topics for
                                 information sharing and discussion in its next global
                                 conference in 2008 (INEE Global Consultation Meeting),
                                 and actively participate in future events on disaster risk
                                 reduction and education.



5. Disaster Risk Education tools
(Presentation by Marla Petal (Risk Red), Craig Duncan (ISDR), and Brigitte Léoni (ISDR)
on practical DRE tools and initiatives).

ISDR is supporting the development of various tools that can be used for educating and
raising public awareness on disaster reduction.

                  “Committed individuals are key elements of success”

The “On-line Library” is a collection of DRR educational material for primary and
secondary school. An evaluation form has been developed in order to assess the quality
of the material: Is it adapted to the culture? Is the content correct? etc. In developing
education material, it is good to get multiple sources of information (people need cross-
cutting information from different sources), and engage with associations (e.g. boy
scouts), private companies, etc.

                                     Following the “Risk Land” game, developed in
                                     partnership with UNICEF in LAC, which has been
                                     translated in 15 languages to date, “Stop Disasters”
                                     video game (to be launched on 10 October 2007 for
                                     DRR International Day) aims at sensitizing children
                                     (9-14) to the simple notion of DRR and how to build
                                     a disaster resilient community.


The “DRR Field Library” is library-in-a-box with a set of DRR education material to be
deployed in communities prone to disasters. It contains educative material as well as
academic literature on disaster risks and risk management. The first pilot was
successfully used in Madagascar. ISDR would welcome a partnership with UNICEF to
develop this project further.

A “Media network” is being developed as a network of journalists worldwide aiming at
raising awareness on DRR issues. The goal is to explain to the general public why
disasters are happening and how this could be prevented.

The “Prevention web” has been conceived as a one-stop-shop website on DRR issues,
including all necessary information on initiatives, partners, etc. 60 different categories of
work in DRR have been identified(eg. hazard identification, environment protection,
education, etc.), for which all relevant guidance and material will be posted and
available on-line.
                                                                                          21
PART V: TOWARDS A UNICEF STRATEGY TO DRR
After a brainstorming on possible roles and accountabilities in DRR for all levels of the
organization (Cf. Annex IV “COs, ROs and HQ roles and responsibilities”), group works
by region formulated tentative regional and global Action Plans (Cf. Annex V “Action
Plan” for CEE-CIS, MENA, TACRO, ESARO/WCARO, ROSA/EAPRO and HQ). Then the
plenary discussion focused on recommendations for implementing DRR strategies
through education in UNICEF, and next steps to be taken.

1. Roles and accountabilities at CO, HQ and RO level

At global level, the main role suggested for headquarters was the identification of DRR
focal points who would support the development of an overall DRR conceptual
framework and policy for UNICEF, share corporate strategy with ROs and COs and
distribute information on existing tools, platforms and mechanisms. HQ level would
support the adjustment of global guidelines (INEE, UNDAF, etc.) to DRR issues,
represent UNICEF in international platforms (ISDR, IASC, others), advocate at global
level for DRR in education and other sectors.

The essential roles formulated for the regional level consist in technical support and
guidance to Country Offices, coordination and advice to the different sectors on how to
include DRR programs -- and in particular through the EPRP process and activities, and
facilitating the development of DRR material. The regional office role would also consists
in collecting and share best practices within the region, supporting the collaboration with
regional organisations (ISDR, IFRC, others.), institutions and networks, as well as
participation in regional internal and international conferences.

At country level, DRR would be supported by mainstreaming DRR in the country
programme cycle, for example, including DRR in protective environment initiative for
child protection with CFS and Education: advocate with government for enforcement of
safe schools standards, support school structure assessments, facilitate school
development of education material, advocate with government for inclusion of DRR
issues in school curricula. The emergency response and transition phase is a good time
to consider the integration of DRR projects, especially innovative pilots. Globally it has
been suggested that the Country Office support advocacy for the implementation of a
national DRR policy and action plan focusing on the most vulnerable and including child
participation, facilitate training for government officials, and facilitate the dialogue
between key stakeholders at national level.

2. Proposed DRE Action Plans

A brainstorming on the development of Action Plans for HQ and Regional Offices was
organised, gathering participants from the same level/regions (c.f. Annex V. “HQ and
ROs Plans of Action”). Many concrete suggestions came up from the exercise:

The “headquarters” group suggested that HQ Action Plan focused on the development of
guidance, capacity building and advocacy on DRR through emergency cluster, the roll-
out of CFS, and revision of LSBE. Strengthening specialised partnerships such as UNGEI,
FTI, IASC, EFA, and the ISDR system, and advocacy at the highest level (G8, Davos,
Senior management meetings, RMTs) have been mentioned, together with supporting
REAs to develop and mainstream DRR strategy and link with other sectors.

The “regional” action plans formulated many concrete ideas, such as:

   -   Formalise regional collaboration and establish regional networks
   -   Promote region-wide sensitization on DRR through RMTs, SPO meetings, etc.
   -   Assess regional particularities
   -   Conduct an analysis of equity issues in relation to access to risk education
   -   Include relevant indicators on Devinfo, EFAinfo and other systems
   -   Support and promote South-South cooperation

                                                                                        22
    -   Encourage country offices to consider DRR
    -   Increase coordination and joint actions within UNICEF sectors
    -   Advocate for the integration of DRR activities in preparedness plans
    -   Promote DRR into cluster coordination
    -   Promote inclusion of DRR into CCA/UNDAF
    -   Develop DRR tools and training
    -   Compile and disseminate DRR material and good practices to country offices
    -   Support the development of DRR community based activities
    -   Support the development of behaviour change strategies in all sectors
    -   Integrate DRR components into preparedness capacity building projects
    -   Support the development of extra-curricular material
    -   Advocate for safe schools
    -   Adapt material and strategies for working with excluded populations

3. Proposed DRE implementation strategy

In order to work on evidence based, an initial analysis of threats to children in natural
disasters has been suggested in order to identify their specific vulnerabilities and need in
disasters. In the same time, a review and analysis of UNICEF initiatives in this field
would draw lessons learnt which could help UNICEF defining a global DRR strategy.

In terms of programming, it appears clearly that the intrinsic nature of DRR activities is
cross-sectoral, and does not deserve to be treated at a separate field of activity, but
would better be streamlined into existing programmes. DRR issues can be treated as
additions into existing guidelines and training. For example, there is a possibility for CFS
strategies to include emergency drills, assessment of school constructions, advocacy for
safe schools at governments and with private sector, etc. Life Skills Based Education can
accommodate advocacy for inclusion of DRR issues in school curricula.

On the other hand, there are already existing DRR activities into UNICEF programmes
that could be reviewed and highlighted. In particular, emergency preparedness
activities, and especially capacity building with national and local authorities are already
contributing to risk reduction. Preparedness planning could easily expand to address
prevention and mitigation.

Internally, senior management meetings such as Regional Management Meetings
(RMTs), CCA/UNDAF meetings, Medium Term Reviews, etc. constitutes good forums to
sensitize the organisation on DRR issues. It is recommended that dissemination of
information and best practices be enhanced, and that support to CO initiatives continues
with development of partnerships via DRR global, regional, and local networks.

4. Next steps recommended (Summary by Cream Wright and Paul Hulshof)

As a summary, and on the basis of the discussion, the next following steps have been
recommended:

-   Undertake a study of actual threats to children in disasters situation.
-   Undertake a review and analysis of actual & past DRR initiatives (in progress).
-   Mainstream DRR in all sectors; DRR becomes integral part of what UNICEF does.
-   Build capacities by bringing on board expertise from regions, case studies, and
    experts.
-   Develop an organizational strategy and broad policy in DRR, after a collaborative
    consultation process.
-   Link DRR to issues of senior management concern such as global warming.
-   Work with partners: specialized UN agencies, national governments, and civil society.
-   Invest in resources for DRR initiatives & staffing.
-   3 platforms will support DRR though education initiatives: CFS and LSBE and Cluster
    Approach.




                                                                                         23
As a conclusion remark, Pierrette Vu Thi, Deputy Director of EMOPS, expressed her
support in the proposed plan of action, including the development and roll out of a global
DRR strategy, but warned not to loose sight of existing activities on the ground, and the
need to continuously support offices that are currently developing DRR initiatives.
UNICEF has the capacities to trigger the start of an important social movement.


              “Major changes in organizations means major opportunities”




                                                                                       24
 ANNEX I:
                        UNICEF CONSULTATION ON DISASTER RISK REDUCTION AND EDUCATION
                                                5-6 JULY 2007
                                                FINAL AGENDA
                                               Thursday 5 July                                                                         Friday 6 July
09:00 – 10:30
                Welcome statement                                                               Introduction
                     Pierrette Vu Thi, Deputy Director of EMOPS, UNICEF                              Cream Wright, Global Chief of Education, UNICEF

                Opening - DRR strategic & institutional context                                 DRR through Education strategies
                      Alan Court, Director of Programme Division, UNICEF                             Panel presentation: Ben Wisner-DRE expert, Allison Anderson-INEE coordinator,
                      Salvano Briceno, Executive Director, UN-ISDR                                    Paola Albrito-ISDR Disaster Risk Education cluster
                      Everett Ressler, Chief, Early Warning and Preparedness, UNICEF                 Discussion

                DRR concepts                                                                    Disaster Risk Education initiatives
                      Panel presentation from experts in DRR:                                         Presentation: Roger Yates, Action Aid international
                       Allan Lavell , Ben Wisner, Marla Petal
                                                                                                Disaster Risk Education tools
                                                                                                       Presentation & activity: Golden Library- Marla Petal, Risk Red
10:30 – 11:00                                        Coffee                                                                                Coffee
11:00 – 13:00   … DRR concepts                                                                         Presentation: Prevention Web & DRR Field library- Craig Duncan, ISDR
                      Discussion                                                                      Presentation & activity: Public awareness and Media- Brigitte Léoni, ISDR
                                                                                                       Discussion
                DRR initiatives – round table -
                       Presentations by COs and ROs of their “Review of initiatives”: TACRO,   Education/EWP/Transition project
                        ESARO, Uzbekistan, Algeria, India, others.                                     Presentation: Pilar Aguilar-Education in emergencies, Cream Wright
                       Discussion                                                                     Brainstorming on possible roles & accountabilities in UNICEF

13:00 – 14:00                                        Lunch                                                                                Lunch
14:00 – 16:00
                Discussion on developing an overall DRR strategy for UNICEF                     Definition of a possible Action Plan for UNICEF with focus on education
                       Presentation & brainstorming:                                           (with some support of the Dutch grant)
                        Angela Raven-Roberts, Regional Emergency Adviser, CEE-CIS                       Brainstorming on possible concrete activities at HQ, RO and CO levels
                       Presentation of a Strategy Matrix & brainstorming:                              Presentation of an Action Plan format
                        Paul Hulshoff, Transition Unit                                                  Group work by region on the Action Plan development
                       Group work by sector

                -   Objective: identify elements for a UNICEF DRR strategy                      -   Objective: identify elements for a UNICEF DRR Action Plan

16:00 – 16:30                                        Coffee                                                                                Coffee
16:30 – 18:00           Presentation of group work to plenary                                          Presentation of group work to plenary
                        Feedback and comments on proposed DRR strategy                                 Feedback and comments on proposed Action Plan

                        Presentation: Kenneth Westgate, IFRC‟s DRR strategies                  Discussion on next steps

                Closure of the day                                                              Closure – Summary statement - Cream Wright & Paul Hulshoff
                       Everett Ressler, Chief, Early Warning and Preparedness, UNICEF

19.00                                    Diner at the “Bain des Paquis”                                                                    END




                                                                                                                                                                                    25
         ANNEX II:
                                    PARTICIPANTS LIST
                         Consultation on Risk Reduction and Education
           UNICEF, 5 – 6 July 2007, Château de Penthes, 18, chemin de l'Impératrice, CH-1292
                                           Prégny-Genève

         NAME                                  TITLE                                    AFFILIATION
                                             HEADQUARTERS
Alan Court                 Director, Programme Division                            UNICEF NY
acourt@unicef.org

Cream Wright               Global Chief of Education                               UNICEF NY
cwright@unicef.org

Ellen Van Kalmthout        Senior Education Specialist, Education in Emergencies   UNICEF NY
ekalmthout@unicef.org

Pilar Aguilar              Education Specialist, Education in Emergencies          UNICEF NY
paguilar@unicef.org

Sonia Sukdeo               Education Officer                                       UNICEF NY
ssukdeo@unicef.org

Paul Hulshoff              Senior Programme Officer, Transition                    UNICEF NY
phulshoff@unicef.org

Hazel De Wet               Programme Officer, Humanitarian Policy and              UNICEF NY
hdewet@unicef.org          Advocacy, Office of Emergency Programmes

Annalies Borrel            Humanitarian Policy and Advocacy Unit, EMOPS            UNICEF NY
aborrel@unicef.org

Pierrette Vu Thi           Deputy Director, EMOPS                                  UNICEF Geneva
pvuthi@unicef.org

Jean McCluskey             Water& Sanitation Cluster Focal Point                   UNICEF Geneva
jmccluskey@unicef.org

Everett Ressler            Chief, Early Warning and Preparedness Unit              UNICEF Geneva
eressler@unicef.org

Frederick Spielberg        Early Warning and Preparedness Adviser                  UNICEF Geneva
fspielberg@unicef.org

Heidi Peugeot              Early Warning and Preparedness officer                  UNICEF Geneva
hpeugeot@unicef.org

Louise Gentzel             Early Warning and Preparedness officer                  UNICEF Geneva
lgentzel@unicef.org

                                     EAST ASIA AND PACIFIC REGION
Enrico Leonardi            Regional Emergency Advisor                              UNICEF EAPRO
eleonardi@unicef.org

Gary Ovington              Regional Education Advisor                              UNICEF EAPRO
govington@unicef.org

Emmanuelle Abrioux         Project Officer                                         UNICEF EAPRO
eabrioux@unicef.org

                                         REGION OF SOUTH ASIA
Srdjan Stojanovic          Emergency Project Officer                               UNICEF India
sstojanovic@unicef.org

                                                                                                   26
Ita Sheehy                 Project Officer                                       UNICEF Sri Lanka
isheehy@unicef.org

Adriana Zarrelli           Regional Emergency Adviser                            UNICEF ROSA
azarrelli@unicef.org

Susan Durston              Regional Education Advisor                            UNICEF ROSA
sdurston@unicef.org

                                    MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA
Farid Boubekeur            Education Officer and Emergency Focal Point           UNICEF Algeria
fboubekeur@unicef.org

Oulmi Faycal               Communication Officer                                 UNICEF Algeria
ofavcal@unicef.org

Afshin Parsi               Education officer                                     UNICEF Iran
aparsi@unicef.org

Thomas Davin               Regional Emergency Advisor                            UNICEF MENA
tdavin@unicef.org

                                THE AMERICAS AND CARIBBEAN REGION
Audrey Michele Rodrigues   Education Officer                                     UNICEF Guyana
amrodrigues@unicef.org

Anyoli Sanabria            Education Officer                                     UNICEF Nicaragua
asanabria@unicef.org

Claudio Osorio             Regional Emergency (Risk Reduction) and WES Officer   UNICEF TACRO
cosorio@unicef.org

Garren Lumpkin             Regional Education Advisor                            UNICEF TACRO
glumpkin@unicef.org

Ivan Yerovi                Regional Emergency Officer                            UNICEF TACRO
iyerovi@unicef.org

        CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE AND COMMONWEALTH OF INDEPENDENT STATES REGION
Fatma Uluc              Education Officer                     UNICEF Turkey
fuluc@unicef.org

Anna Kroon                 CP Officer                                            UNICEF Turkey
akroon@unicef.org

Oyunsaihan Dendevnorov     Local Capacity Building                               UNICEF Uzbekistan
odendevnorov@unicef.org

Angela Raven-Roberts       Regional Emergency Advisor                            UNICEF CEE/CIS
aravenroberts@unicef.org

Philippe Testot-Ferry      Regional Advisor, Education & ECD                     UNICEF CEE/CIS
ptestotferry@unicef.org

Asim Rehman                Emergency Project Officer                             UNICEF CEE/CIS
arehman@unicef.org

                                 EAST AND SOUTHERN AFRICA REGION
Robert Mc Carthy           Regional Emergency Adviser                            UNICEF ESARO
rmccarthy@unicef.org




                                                                                                     27
Aya Kibesaki                   Education Officer                                   UNICEF Madagascar
akibesaki@unicef.org

                                      WEST AND CENTRAL AFRICA REGION
Nathalie Hamoudi               Education Officer                                   UNICEF CAR
nhamoudi@unicef.org

Tanya Chapuisat                Regional Emergency Advisor                          UNICEF WCARO
tchapuisat@unicef.org

                                              EXTERNAL PARTICIPANTS
Fon van Oosterhout             Senior expert, Education and Development Division   Ministry of Foreign Affairs/ DGIS,
fon-                                                                               Netherlands
van.oosterhout@minbuza.nl

Costanza Farina                Secretary of the IBE council, Policy Dialogue       UNESCO International Bureau
c.farina@ibe.unesco.org                                                            for Education

Roger Yates                    Emergencies Director                                Action Aid
roger.yates@actionaid.org

Kenneth Westgate               Disaster Policy and Preparedness Department         IFRC
kenneth.westgate@ifrc.org

Allison Anderson               Coordinator, INEE Minimum Standards                 INEE
Allison.Anderson@theirc.org

Salvano Briceno                Executive Director                                  ISDR
briceno@un.org

Paola Albrito                  Coordinator, Disaster Risk Education Cluster        ISDR
albrito@un.org

Craig Duncan                   Information Mgmt System                             ISDR
duncanc@un.org

Brigitte Leoni                 Public Awareness and Media Relations                ISDR
leonib@un.org

Dr. Ben Wisner                 Researcher - consultant /Expert in DRR
bwisner@igc.org

Allan Lavell                   Researcher - consultant /Expert in DRR
allan_lavell@yahoo.com

Marla Petal                    Co-Director                                         Risk Red
mpetal@imagins.com

         Italic: Not present




                                                                                                            28
       ANNEX III:
                                Group Work: Main DRR Areas of Action

                                                         EDUCATION
    Prevention             Risk Mitigation               Preparedness Early Warning                                Transition

                           Assess inventory for
                                                    Use university advocates on national level
                           actual school
Adapt PVA at school
                           conditions.
and local level

Enforce national




                                                                                                 Response
standards on school
construction


Integrate university
advocates on national
level

Enhance capacity
development for
teachers and
educational systems.


                                                         HEALTH
                                                       Red = Strategy

    Prevention              Risk Mitigation                Preparedness Early Warning                                  Transition

                           Health infrastructure                                                                    Health
                           safety                                                                                   infrastructure
                               Advocacy                                                                            safety.
                                 building codes                                                                        Retrofitting
                                                                                                        Response

                               Good Constr.                                                                           Good
                               Retrofitting                                                                         construction

                           Advocate for
                           government studies
                           and projects

Behavior change
communications




Better parenting, public
health messages
relating to disasters



                                              Accelerate child survival interventions
                                                Prioritize high risk geographic areas

                                                   Community based interventions

                                                      Train of health workers
                                               Include DRR into existing guidelines

                              Use of Frontline health/community workers and advocacy campaigns



                                                                                                                             29
                                                            R


                                                            p
                                                            o
                                                            n
                                                            e
                                                            s



                                                            s
                                                            e
Prevention   Risk Mitigation   Preparedness Early Warning   Transition




                        WATER AND SANITATION




                                                                30
1. Community              1. Reduction of              1. Mapping WES resources and                        1. Re-
   participation to          toxicity in water            understanding limitations, e.g.                    assessment
   identify safe             supply (arsenic)             physical behaviour, financial                      of hazard
   locations for                                          restrictions.                                      context post
   WES                    2. Having alternative                                                              disaster
   infrastructure            WES                       2. Reinforcing WASH resources
                             systems/structure            and knowledge in particularly                    2. Update
2. Detailed                                               vulnerable communities                              construction
   assessment                                                                                                 codes
   undertaken                                          3. Propositioning of appropriate
                                                          WASH resources.

3. Skills based on
   health and
   hygiene
   education

4. Use of
   sustainable,
   appropriate
   technology

5. Watershed
   management

6. Designs to meet
   multiple
   hazards(India/
   Bangladesh etc)

7. Increase
   maintenance of
   WES urban
   networks


                      Risk of conflict from WES investments (immediate long-term implications)


                                                     HIV/AIDS
   Prevention             Risk Mitigation           Preparedness Early Warning                               Transition
                                                                                            Response




                                   Provided oral feedback




                                                   NUTRITION
   Prevention            Risk Mitigation            Preparedness Early Warning                                Transition
                                                                                                Response




                                       Sahel Program

                          Advocacy for Breast Feeding and Vitamin A
                                  Directives – MOH/ other




                                                                                                                  31
                                                     PROTECTION
         To avoid exploitation and violations and promote advocacy and capacity building of CO


   Prevention            Risk Mitigation             Preparedness Early Warning                     Transition

Pre-family                Train parents on        Increase child participation in               Safe spaces/
reunification             normal behaviour        community-based projects.                     schools child
measures: children        in disasters.                                                         friendly spaces,
should know                                                                                     where YP learn
names, age,                                                                                     about DRR
village, where to go                                                                            *target most
if there is a                                                                                   vulnerable: children
disaster.                                                                                       with disabilities,
                                                                                                girls, etc.
(Family disaster
plan)-teaching child
identification.

                         Promote retro-
                         fitting and non
                         structural risk
Integrate evacuation     reduction of
plan into family         schools,
disaster plan            community
                         centers: to ensure
                         structures safe
                         against hazards

                                                                                                Incorporate DRR



                                                                                     Response
                                                                                                information into
                                                                                                psychosocial
                                                                                                support, activities,
                                                                                                incorporating
                                              .                                                 physical
                                                                                                protection/safety,
                                        Advocacy                                                family reunification
                                                                                                information
                                                                                                    in a way that
                                                                                                   builds capacity of
                                                                                                   and empowers
                                                                                                   young people

                                                                                                Collaborate with
                                                                                                government to
                          Design school/community disaster plan                                 ensure education
                                                                                                continuity in safe
                                                                                                spaces as soon as
                                                                                                possible

                                                                                                Employ education
                       Ensure monitoring mechanisms are in place                                as a key protection
                                                                                                strategy.
                       Ensure coordination mechanisms are in place

 Develop legal framework and communication strategies to prevent rights abuses (in
                       disasters) and increase awareness.




                                                                                                            32
      ANNEX IV:
                           Group Work: Roles and Accountabilities

                                 ROLES and ACCOUNTABILITIES
                                      Headquarter Level

                         Roles                                              Accountabilities
                                                          Use tools for monitoring/assessing risk management and
Evaluate and screen IT infrastructure for myriad DRR
                                                          resiliency building initiatives in/through schools for quality
materials for promoting best practices.
                                                          assurance.


Identify focal points for ISDR knowledge and education    Develop and disseminate corporate DRR strategy and
platforms for regional and country DRR.                   PDA to COs ROs.


Clarify overall concept and framework for action within   Bolster UNICEF’s role on the “DRR Movement” in
UNICEF – to be used as both a policy and strategy.        Education, Advocacy, and other sectors.


Develop a good policy and conceptual framework on         Adjust UNDAF/CCA/SITAN guidelines with DRR
DRR.                                                      component.


Complete mapping of Who does What Where and               Evaluate and collect feedback on the use of tools provided
disseminate in an ongoing/online format.                  for national and regional use.

                                                          Inform about national platforms and other national
Advocate for DRR with IASC.
                                                          mechanisms.

Advocate for safe schools and integration of DRR into
                                                          Engage senior staff in DRR and on Education.
curricula.

                                                          Guide and inform regional and national offices on existing
Integrate DRR into INEE standards.
                                                          tools designed for implementing DRR activities.

Develop DRR capacity building.                            Ensure global partnership on DRR.


Lead and maintain active membership of the thematic
                                                          Clarify as to how UNICEF links up with global platform
platform on knowledge and education.


Share and inform mechanisms and platforms dealing with    Assist and provide financial support to regions/countries
education and DRR.                                        for innovating strategies.


Increase collaboration on communication issues with
ISDR and set-up high advocacy communication strategy
to test profile of DRR with children.


Raise DRR in IASC forum.




                                                                                                          33
                                ROLES and ACCOUNTABILITIES
                                       Regional Level
                          Roles                       Accountabilities
Provide technical guidance on DRR implementation for
                                                             Support horizontal, South-South cooperation.
field offices.
Organize and merge various divisions (education,
                                                             Incorporate risk vulnerability of CCA, UNDAF, CP, and
emergency, adolescent development, etc.) to deliver
                                                             MTR.
comprehensive and realistic DRR framework.

                                                             Predict and provide early warning alerts of issues for
Disseminate “best practices” and technical support to
                                                             education, e.g. economic downturns, political waves,
COs.
                                                             overlapping vulnerabilities (wars, disasters).

Introduce and integrate education as an entry point into
                                                             Enhance coordination and collaboration with UN and
EPR planning but also link to other sectors (health,
                                                             ISDR outreach offices.
program communication).

Facilitate evaluation and development of DRR
                                                             Promote DRR fast track initiatives and sector planning.
educational materials.

Collect and distribute compilation of Who/What/ Where
and accomplishments to HQ and COs.

Link with regional institutions for policy, research,
training, etc.
Incorporate vulnerability and risk indicators into DevInfo
and Emergency Info.

Cooperate with different global organizations working on
DRR to share best practices.


Bring together and support agendas of senior peer CPs.

Lead and support international education platform in
ISDR.

Include DRR in all the conferences that UNICEF
conducts.

          Evaluate, document, disseminate regional experiences and lessons learnt on DRR Education Unit.

                       Advocate for and include DRR concepts in EPRP processes and activities.

              Enhance inter-agency coordination at regional level, particularly with ISDR-BKK and IFRC.




                                                                                                             34
                                         ROLES and ACCOUNTABILITIES
                                                Country Level
                              Roles                                                    Accountabilities
Validate practical tools at community and school level                  Harmonize cluster coordination and approaches.
Develop and design family competency building structures
                                                                        Evaluate UNICEF country initiatives.
linked to CFS
Advocate for government enforcement of safe school
                                                                        Ensure Human Rights approach and include CCCs.
construction standards and CFS standards.
Facilitate and implement school structure assessment and
                                                                        Mainstream DRR in Programme cycle.
reinforcement activities.
                                                                        Evaluate impact and outcomes of DRR education
Develop DRR education materials for children and families.
                                                                        efforts.
Promote child/teacher/parent evaluation of DRR education                Promote Knowledge and Education Committee at
materials.                                                              National Level
                                                                        Enforce well documentation of good practices and
Initiate and advance DRR among education theme groups.
                                                                        programs
Facilitate training for education officials at all levels and for all   Coordinate the strategies from civil society and
age groups.                                                             government.
Develop strategies and advocate for inclusive approach to               Employ planning tools for sustainable development to
education taking into account emergencies impact most                   include elements of Education and DRR: CCA/UNDAF,
strongly on most vulnerable.                                            PRSPs, etc.
                                                                        Develop safe schools but also use schools as centers
                                                                        for community DRR.
Advocate and facilitate development of national DRR policy
                                                                        UNICEF must also carry out and advocate for others to
and action plan.
                                                                        provide non-formal education with DRR components
                                                                        for out of school children and early childhood.

                                                                        Arrange and coordinate among local partners that 3
                                                                        P’s are covered:
Facilitate children participation in DRR initiatives and project                   -Who can do what?
implementation and evaluation.                                                             *in schools
                                                                                           *in education system
                                                                                    -When? (Time frame)

Facilitate dialogue between stakeholders at national and local
level.
Campaign for coordination between government, NGOs, and
civil society.
Design and implement strategies to reach most excluded
populations (indigenous, children with disabilities, etc.)
Collaborate with national government on development policy
and implementation.
Customize DRR programs and projects relevant to country
context and needs.
Advocate for government to support teachers post-disasters
(i.e. provide incentives, housing supplies, psychosocial
support).
Implement and advocate for minimum standards of education
as part of holistic emergency response.
Integrate protective environment initiative in child protection with
CFS in education.
Generate policy debate and get DRR in country level sector plans
and policies.
Support innovative pilots.
Take qualitative vulnerability into quantitative risk assessment.
Support child participation.
Draw on innovation and help field experiments formulate policy
lessons.


                                                                                                                   35
Policy dialogue and mainstreaming.
Fill research gaps.
Use emergency response as opportunity for education and
transition.
Integrate disaster risk notions with chronic risk problems in curricula
at all levels.
Outline objectives in accordance with educational levels
(primary  university). Determine interrelations for What When
How.
          Maintain ongoing collaborations with National Platform and highlight accomplishments internationally.




                                                                                                             36
ANNEX V:
                          Group Work: PLANS OF ACTION

                                  Headquarter Level
First Level
 School and community level through CFS.

Second Level
 District level-collaborate with district administrators.

Provide DRR guidance through:
 Emergency cluster
 Roll out CFS                             Capacity building and advocacy communication
                                           with partners
 Revision of LSBE

   Support REAs to develop mainstream DRR strategy at regional level and link to
    other sectors.
   Strengthen specialized partnerships with UNGEI, FTI, IASC, and EFA.

   Advocate at the highest level (G8, Davos, Senior Management RMTs)

   Capacity development at country level.

   Mainstream awareness on DRR and programming in education throughout
    senior managerial level of the organization (Regional Directors, Divisional
    Directors, Country Representatives).
   Participate and support ISDR system (i.e. CCA/UNDAF) to allow sustainable
    development initiatives to benefit from existing tools.

   (verb)Material evaluation to generate knowledge and ensure quality assurance.

   Increase educational focus of DRR mapping.




                                                                                    37
                                              CEE/CIS
  Background Information

1.) Major seismic and natural disaster areas
       Turkey/Armenia
       Central Asia
       Balkans

  From 1990-2002
      Major catastrophes-earthquakes, seasonal avalanches, floods
      De-capacitated institutions vis. a vis standards, legislation etc.
      UNICEF responded to 16 crises 2005/2006

 2.) Mainstream DRR into existing policies or facilitate development of DRR
  policy/strategy --- depending on country context
        Resources
        How
        When
        Criteria
        Accountability/Communication

                                       PLAN OF ACTION

     Uzbekistan pilot project just started

     Formalize ISDR collaboration and focus on central Asia as starting point

     Establish / participate in regional DRR network

     Strengthen collaboration with IFRC in region
          -Requests already from Turkmenistan

     Identify and strengthen specific “UNICEF Niche” in DRR- use Uzbekistan pilot.

     Support youth groups in Belarus and 15 countries.

     Promote region-wide sensitization and integration concerning DRR (Regional Network
      Meetings, RMTs, CCA/UNDAF, MTR)

     Develop/disseminate vital information; best practices; technical experts/consultants etc.
      to support COs, government partners, ministries, etc.

     Integrate DRR concepts into regional sector focal point meetings, training, etc.
          -E.g. Regional health focal points, education focal points, etc.

     Map potential and existing partners.

     Find donors for three existing country proposals
           -Turkmenistan
           -Tajikistan
           -Macedonia

     Expand DEVinfo to include mapping of schools, youth centers, and seismic activity.

     Review and highlight what/which components in existing programs can be classified as
      “Risk Reduction”

                                                                                              38
                                    ESARO & WCARO
                                    PLAN OF ACTION

1.   Advocate for “safe school standards and construction” in government policy,
      private sector, and partners.
              Facilitate National Plan and Action plan development and
               dissemination.
              Support to National disaster organization (technical, financial, capacity)

2.   Develop/adopt messages, tools and trainings for capacity building.
           Government (national/district)
           NGOs
           CBOs
           UNICEF

3.   Promote DRR through inclusion in sector and cluster coordination. Develop
      analysis and tools such as strategy, gap analysis, and action plans.

4.    Support South-South Cooperation.

5.    Integrate DRR in CO Emergency Preparedness Plans.

6.    Develop of behavior change strategies and roll-out of DRR tools using AI
      communication strategy.

7.    Mainstream DRR in community based activities:
              Education: Child-friendly schools
                    -Curriculum (Learning content)
                  -Non-formal education
                  - Literacy and ECD programs
              Protection: preparedness-family separation
              WASH: Waterborne disease communication
                   -Source protection
                    -Community Preparedness plans
              Health: Link to AI behavior change communication

9. Develop and disseminate evaluations and lessons learnt in real-time and post-
    disasters.




                                                                                        39
                                       MENARO
                                    PLAN OF ACTION

1. Inclusion of Child Protection guidelines in ECD programs
   (ECD-Prevention)

2. Incorporate LS teaching and TTC curriculum into in-service and
   pre-service programs.
   (CB- Prevention)

3. Integrate LS in schools curriculum.
   (SC-Prevention)

4. Develop CFS standards.
   (CFS-Prevention)

5. Support development of (extra)-curricular materials for DRR.
   (CFS-Prevention)

6.    Advocate for inclusion of PVA in community-based education program.
     (CFS/Prevention) and (PA-Prevention)

7.    Assess school buildings and prepare reinforcement plans.
     (CFS-Prevention)

8.     Support development of EPRPs at all levels.
     (CFS-Early Warning and Preparedness)

9.    Roll out and localize IASC for psychosocial support guidelines.
     (CB- Early Warning and Preparedness)

10. Strengthen capacity development for psychosocial support in emergencies.
   (CB- Early Warning and Preparedness)

11. Support establishment of a system emergency drills at school level.
   (NFE- Early Warning and Preparedness)

12. Support training of school principles on EPRP.
   (CB- Early Warning and Preparedness)

13 .Compile and disseminate good practices.
  (RO)




                                                                               40
                                   EAPRO and ROSA
                                   PLAN OF ACTION

  Assumption
    Financial Resources

    Time-frame: 2008/2009

    Develop guidelines (how to mainstream, key concepts…) on DRR (education and
      other sectors with related outcomes
    -Review existing materials, clarifying our own needs
    -Global need yet regional particularities (social exclusion, particular to each country
      + region)

    Draft DRR policy for UNICEF (i.e. extension of CCCs and link with EPRP)

Ongoing
   Analyze threats for children and map future predictions of Who is doing What,
    Where (country level, regional).

    Analyze existing CPD’s.

    Request explicit directives from HQ on implication of infusing DRR within
     planning and programme process.

Challenge
    EAPRO and ROSA stripped of emergency expertise and therefore difficult to
      ensure quality oversight




                                                                                        41
                                 ROSA and EAPRO
                                 PLAN OF ACTION

1. Mainstream DRR in programme.

2. Introduce education as an entry point/channel for DRR within communities.

3. Encourage regional and country level players to consider DRR.

4. Support DRR programmes within schools systems at country level.

5. Disseminate existing materials and approaches to/between country offices.
 (RO)

6. Include a session on DRR at next RMT, SPO meetings/ Education project officer
   meeting

7. Infuse within sector programming.

8. Conduct an analysis of equity issues in relation to access and benefits of
   education and vulnerability to related risks.
(ROSA)

9. Include relevant indicators in DevInfo, EFAInfo, and other information systems.

10. Introduce DRR to UNDAF/UNDP
(India)

11. Campaign/Advocate for safe schools (develop policies and implementation
    strategies).
(Sri Lanka and India)

12. Integrate education component into CB preparedness projects and strengthen
    school engagement.
(India)

13. Document teacher behaviours which put children at risk.

14. Systematically incorporate within CFS strategies for reaching out to school
    children.

15. Include DRR in CFS.

16. Identify alternative school locations as part of preparedness

17. Clarify role and potential of LSBE in developing risk management skills through
    school systems.

18. Identify measures for DRR teachers.




                                                                                      42
                        TACRO
                    PLAN OF ACTION




                                     HQ




Strategies/Advocacy
                                Regional
                                 Level
Partnerships




Capacity building                SVP L?


Participation




                                Country
Research/KM                      Level


Scaling Up




                                           43
                                PLAN OF ACTION
                                 TACRO (cont.)

STRATEGIES
  - Advocacy (Global)
  - Advocacy and mobilization (Regional and political bodies)
  - Partnership
  - Capacity building
  - Participation
  - Knowledge management


                       Document and disseminate DRR experience evaluations to government
                       and UNICEF counterparts.

                       Provide training & training strategies/materials (materials,
                       methodology).

                       Promoting/advocating with governments on compliance with school
                       safety and security.

                       Promote and support south-south horizontal cooperation (technical
                       information) – within and between regions.

                       Strengthen/expand regional network.

                       Increase coordination and joint actions with other UNICEF sectors.
    REGIONAL           (child protection, child development, etc.), mainstream DRR in all
    Advocacy           stages of life-cycle programming.

                       Adapt strategies and materials for working with excluded populations –
                       indigenous, afro-descent, and organizations of persons with disabilities.

                       Provide technical and capacity-building to sub-regional entities/ bodies
                       (education, political, specialized, etc.)

                       Assist UNICEF NY in strategy & material development, based on
                       country experiences and innovations.

                       Bridge NY and country offices to facilitate exchange of information and
                       information and technical flow.

                       Review EPRP country plans to guarantee inclusion of DRR.

  SUB-REGIONAL

    Advocacy           Document and disseminate DRR experience evaluations to government
 and Mobilization      and UNICEF counterparts
   (Regional &
     Political)




                                                                                       44
          Document and disseminate DRR experience evaluations to government
          and UNICEF counterparts

          Provide technical and capacity-building to government & non-
          governmental entities/ bodies (education, political, specialized, etc.).

          Review country EPRPs to guarantee inclusion of DRR.

          Promote inclusion DRR in CCA, UNDAF, & CPD, and UNET (and within
          EFA –FTI, SWAP and “Mesa” sectors).

          Support decentralization of DRR actions (at municipal level).
COUNTRY
          Support a more integrated approach included within sector emergency
          preparedness.
          Develop social investment schemes and mechanisms to ensure safe
          schools and family support strategies (i.e. cash transfers).

          Support communication strategies that reinforce actions.

          Improve CFS and other educational models (all stages of the life-cycle)
          to include and link with DRR actions (including family support).
          Develop focused strategies for guaranteeing the right to education
          during emergencies.




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