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					               Equipe Simulation
                  Visualising Your Imagination




Achieving FAA / JAA Level D with
current, low cost digital projection
            technology

                        Contact:
                        sales@equipe-simulation.com
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               Objectives

                     •     To discuss the objectives of visual simulation
                     •     To explain the need for Raster Calligraphic replacement
                     •     To explain why this replacement is challenging
                     •     To provide a summary of the competing technologies
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               Visual Fidelity

                     • It ‘Feels’ inherently right that the higher the visual
                       fidelity (resolution etc), the higher the pilot training value
                     • Where do we draw the line in terms of cost / performance ?

                     • The FAA / JAA criteria provide the metric which must be
                       adhered to
                     • Exceeding these criteria is possible but expensive
                         • What is the Actual value of doing so ?
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               JAA / FAA Standards

                     • Specifically focus on the requirements for
                         • Visual Characteristics – ACJ STD 1A.030 2.3…

                     • Touch upon the requirements for
                         • Latency - ACJ STD 1A.030 2.1.r (2)
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                                 Visual Characteristics
                               • Specific requirements

                                  • Field of View:          1800 x 400 Collimated
                                  • Resolution:             2 Arc-minutes
                                  • Light point size:       5 Arc-minutes
                                  • Surface contrast:       5:1
                                  • Brightness:             6 foot-lamberts
                                  • Light point contrast:   10:1 (day)
                                                            25:1 (night)
                                  • Total light points:     6000 (day – 60Hz)
                                                            15000 (night – 40Hz)
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               Visual Characteristics

                   • In the vast majority of existing Level C / D simulators,
                     these criteria are met by Raster / Calligraphic CRT
                     projectors

                   • Operationally unique
                      • High intensity ‘Calligraphic’ light points
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               Calligraphic Light Points
                               What’s the big deal ? – Highly intense light points !!
                                              1 frame (16ms at 60Hz)




                                                  Raster complete,
                                                  before next scan
                                                  light points are
                                                  drawn.




       Scan is continuous, each pixel is illuminated             Since only 2000 light points are drawn (at 60hz),
    for an equal amount of time (10 ns at 1280 – 1024)         each point may be focused on for an extended period
                                                                       allowing for very high point intensity
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               Light Point Generation
                       Light point generation is problematic, due to fundamental
                       differences in the projection devices.

                       • Light points drawn calligraphically in CRT projection
                       • Competing technology is ‘Raster’ only

                        This clearly results in the need to draw light points within
                        the raster itself for non CRT based projectors.
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               Why Replace CRT’s ?
                       The desire to move away from Raster Calligraphic
                       CRT projectors is largely cost driven

                       • High initial cost
                       • CRT Tube lifespan
                       • Require highly skilled maintenance
                       • Require hundreds of hours PA on maintenance & alignment

                       But also..
                       • Obsolescence concerns
                       • Prone to expensive failure
                       • Very heavy – potential logistical problems
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               What’s Required ?
                         In order to match CRT in terms of level D criteria, the
                         projector must
                         • Have a high resolution
                         • Produce an ‘Artefact’ free image
                         • Have uniform colour between projectors
                         • Be able to produce light points within the raster
                             • Very high brightness
                             • Very high contrast
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               About Resolution
                         • The Level D Criteria specify 2 Arc Minutes per pixel
                         • Therefore 30 pixels per degree
                         • For a 180 x 40 display, 3 channels are an ideal
                         • 180 degrees ‚ 3 channels = 60 degrees per channel
                         • 30 pixels x 60 = 1800 pixels wide
                         • 30 pixels x 40 = 1200 pixels high

                         Therefore we can see that to achieve Level D in 3
                         projectors we need a resolution of at least 1800 x 1200
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               Alternative Technologies
                         Light Valve projectors
                         • LCD         -        Liquid Crystal Display
                         • LCoS        -        Liquid Crystal on Silicon
                         • DLP         -        Digital Light Processor

                        Others…
                        • Laser
                            • Emerging, developmental technology.
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               Laser
                         • Emerging technology
                         • Potential for extremely high resolution
                         • Potential for extremely high brightness and contrast
                         • More efficient use of power
                         • Very high cost
                         • Prone to ‘Speckling’ and other artefacts
                         • Unproven in the field
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               LCoS




            Image is produced by passing light through an LCD substrate, and
            reflecting it from an underlying mirror
            Typically utilise 3 LCoS panels to produce colour
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               LCoS
          A relatively young technology
          • Reflective technology
          • Very High Resolution – up to native QXGA (2048 x 1536)
          • High Brightness
          • Potentially High Contrast – in high end units
          • No Frame Delay
          • Requires analogue control over LCD substrate
          • Complex
          • High Cost
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               DLP (single chip)




            Image is produced by an array of ‘Micro Mirrors’, one for each
            pixel.
            Colour is created via a rotating colour wheel
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               DLP
          A highly mature technology
          • Reflective technology
          • High Resolution – up to native 1080p and beyond…..
          • High Brightness
          • High Contrast
          • Low Cost
          • Pure, digital technology
          • ‘Rainbow’ effect caused by colour wheel now countered
          • 1 frame delay (16ms at 60hz)
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               Latency
         ACJ STD 1A.030 2.1.r (2) specifies an over all latency of 150ms

         Specifically the time between a Pilot control input and the
         Simulator responding – both visual and motion

         Motion base must respond before the visual therefore some
         latency is desirable !!

         1 Frame delay introduced by DLP (16ms) is in no way problematic

         In fact is equivalent to Raster Calligraphic projectors, since these
         ‘Scan’ 1 pixel at a time giving a 1 frame ‘delay’ between pilot
         Input and display of a Complete frame…
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               DLP vs. LCoS
          LCoS offers
          • Very high resolution and potentially very high contrast

          DLP offers
          • Very high resolution and high contrast

          Both LCoS and DLP offer resolutions high enough to meet the
          Level D surface resolution requirement (2 arc minutes per
          pixel), and both offer contrast ratios that potentially enable the
          generation of compliant light points, directly within the raster.
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               Cost Benefits
          With Civil airlines under increasing economic pressure, the
          underpinning goal should be to provide compliant systems at
          the lowest price point.

          While both LCoS and DLP are able to meet the Level D
          criteria, DLP is a more mature technology that offers
          significant cost benefits
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination




                               Level D with DLP
          Equipe Simulation has successfully designed and
          installed a number of Collimated DLP systems,
          both military and civil, compliant with both JAA
          and FAA Level D criteria.

          In these systems the use of DLP has enabled a cost
          reduction of up to 50% compared to competing
          technologies.
Equipe Simulation
Visualising Your Imagination


                                              TM

                               Equipe TXGA     Patent Pending



       TXGA is a new resolution specifically designed to meet Level D
       requirements !!

       • Based on Proven DLP technology
           • Low Cost
           • Stable colour
           • Very high brightness
           • Very high contrast
       • 1920 x 1400 resolution

       Enables JAA / FAA Level D for fixed and rotary wing aircraft
       within a very low channel count
Equipe Simulation
 Visualising Your Imagination

          Thank You

				
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posted:3/28/2011
language:English
pages:23