PPT animal cloning - MGB HOMEPAGE

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					•   Animal Cloning: White-faced lamb
•   GM: GloFish
•   Dolly The Sheep
•   Prometea
•   Cloning of endangered species
       Current situation
       Specific case: Amur leopard & Polar bear
       Idea of the DNA library
       Cloning of the Gaurus
       Pro and contra arguments
       Cloning the mammoth
Black-faced sheep +
White-faced sheep =

White-faced lamb(clone)
Black-faced surrogate
               GM: GloFish
The GloFish is a trademarked brand of genetically
modified fluorescent zebrafish

First genetically modified animal to become
publicly available as a pet
                           GM: GloFish
   An ordinary zebrafish
                                                    • When? 1999
                                                    • Where? National
                                                      University of Singapore
                                                    • Who? Scientists from

• Why?
Goal create a fish that could detect pollution by glowing in the presence of
environmental toxins

GloFish: first step in this process
                  GM: GloFish
1) Scientists extracted the green fluorescent protein gene
   from a jellyfish that naturally produced bright green
2) inserted the gene into the zebrafish genome

After that they developed:
• a line of red fluorescent zebra fish  gene from a sea
• and yellow fluorescent zebra fish  variant of the
   jellyfish gene
• First cloned horse (Haflinger)
• Born: May 28, 2003 in Italy
• Weight: - at birth: 36kg,
           - after two months: 100kg
• Existence being published in August 6,
             Dolly the Sheep
• Birth: July 5, 1996 †
  February 14, 2003
• was cloned at the Roslin
  Institute in Edingburgh
• first mammal to be cloned
  from an adult somatic cell by
  using nuclear transfer
• was named after the famous
  country western singer Dolly
               Dolly the Sheep
• lived for her entire life at the Roslin Institute
• gave birth to six lambs
• at the age of 5, Dolly developed arthritis → began to
  walk stiffly
• euthanized because of a progressive lung disease
• → Roslin scientist think there was no connection with
  Dolly being a clone sheep
• such lung diseases are a particular danger for sheep
  kept indoors
• → had to sleep inside for security reasons
             Cloning process
• Took skin cell from an
  adult mare
• DNA donor is also
  surrogate mother
 gave birth to her own
  carbon copy
• 327 attempts failed
 only Prometea
             Cloning process
• Prometea has been
  fertilized by sperm of the
  Haflinger stallion
• Prometea gave birth to
  her foal Pegaso in March
• Normal birth
• Foal is in the best of
Cloning of endangered species
     Cloning of endangered species

•   Current situation
•   Specific case: Amur leopard & Polar bear
•   Idea of the DNA library
•   Cloning of the Gaurus
•   Pro and contra arguments
•   Cloning the mammoth
               Current situation

• Rate of extinction is accelerating
   habitat change
   pollution of environment
   global warming
   expansion of human society
• One in four animals on threatened list
• Massive decline in populations of animals
   loss of biodiversity
   reduction of the stability of ecosystems
             Current situation

• Hard judgements less investments, best return
• Concentration on big beautiful and charismatic ones
    emotional decision
• Invertebrates
    rational thinking
• Analytic and holistic view
• Involving local people
• Core problem: poverty surrounding the environment
    empower local communities
         Specific case: Amur leopard

• Rarest cat in the world (30)
   habitat loss, poaching

• Inbreeding  deformity, infertility

• Habitat: Russian Far East

• High-priority animal
             Specific case: Polar bear

• Very threatened animal
   Ice caps melt (brood, hunt)
• Have to change habitats
  1. Find ice
  2. Go to South onto farmland
• Estimates: loosing 35% within 50
• Deep trouble  hunt walruses
              Idea of DNA library

•    Preserve gene pool  living library for the future
1.   Take tissue samples
2.   Put them into culture
3.   Freeze cells in liquid nitrogen
•    DNA is alive and able to produce embryos
•    Cell: complete copy of DNA
•    Can reverse extinctions (if relative is available)
           Cloning of the Gaurus
• Gloven hoofed animal
• India and southeast Asia
• Hunted for sport, reduction of natural
• Select Gaurus
   same size, similar gestation periods
     like cow
   difficult to breed in zoos
• Fusion of somatic cell of Gaurus with
  enucleated oocytes from domestic cow
• Embryos are transferred into surrogate
• Many miscarried fetuses
                 Pro Arguments
• A way to remedy the problem of endangered species

• Only available tool we have

• Cloning allows to select the best and healthier donors
                  Contra arguments

• Clone = facsimile of wild animal  other behavioral
  attributes or physiology (domestication)
• Could hamper efforts to conserve biodiverse habitats
•     maybe negative consequences for other animals
• Playing God (hard judgements)
• Problem of extinction is not reduced
•     better: to engage anti-poaching patrols
• Extinct animals: establish a community that could
• Gives a false sense of security (no habitat preservation)
• Many miscarried fetuses
             Cloning the mammoth

 Inject mammoth
  DNA into an
  elephant egg

 Prehistoric Safary
  Park in Northern

 Became extinct
  4,000 years ago
•   Nora Schmitz
•   Laura Hintze
•   Sarah Winckelmann
•   Selma Al-Attar
•   Simone Holland

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