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					     Kumpulan Abstrak Disertasi
      Semester Genap 2008/2009
Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris (ING)

The Use of English as a Medium of Instruction by Senior High School EFL Teachers in NTT

                                             Agustinus Semiun

          This study deals with the use of English as a medium of instruction, concentrating on the intensity of
using English by the teachers and comprehensibility on the part of the students. The sources of the data are
samples of EFL teachers and their students selected by proportionate stratified random sampling technique,
from the public and private senior high schools in one Kota i.e. Kupang, and four regencies i.e. Kupang,
Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS), Timor Tengah Utara (TTU), and Belu, in West Timor, the province of Nusa
Tenggara Timur (NTT).
          The data obtained by means of questionnaire deal with the opinions about the intensity of using
English by the teachers and comprehensibility of the students, while by means of observations and interviews
deal with respectively the way the teachers use English and the reasons behind the teachers use or not to use
English. The study therefore is to answer research questions dealing with: (1) the level of intensity of using
English by teachers and of comprehensibility on the part of the students; (2) the contribution of length of
teaching experience of the teachers towards the intensity of using English by the teachers and
comprehensibility on the part of the students; (3) the way the teachers use English during the classroom
instruction, and (4) the reasons of why the teachers use or do not use English during classroom instruction.
          The study uses multiple designs of quantitative approach, that is, the use of descriptive and
inferential design. The descriptive design deals with the average scores and category levels of intensity, while
the inferential statistics with two-way ANOVA to see the contribution of length of teaching experience to the
intensity of using English and comprehensibility, the differences according to the educational background
and length of teaching experience. The descriptive design is also used to obtain observation and interview
data. The inferential design uses a questionnaire as instrument containing 34 items dealing with intensity of
using English and 6 items with comprehensibility. In terms of observation and interview, the descriptive
design uses transcripts obtained by means of a 90-minute classroom meeting recording and interview
questions. Recording and interviewing are done with thirteen teacher subjects of different backgrounds and
schools where they are teaching, and therefore are purposively selected from the teacher samples.
          To analyze the questionnaire data, the study uses a descriptive statistical analysis to answer research
question (1) and two-way ANOVA to answer research questions (2). The two-way ANOVA analysis is
followed by T – test and One-way ANOVA to test again the equality in intensity of using English and
comprehensibility according to respectively the English educational background and the length of teaching
experience. To analyze the recorded and interview data to answer research questions (3) and (4), the
descriptive statistical analysis i.e. by categorizing is used.
          The results of the analyses are as follows. First, the intensity of using English and comprehensibility
are categorized as high or good level of intensity (according to the expected scales). Second, there is no
significant contribution of the length of teaching experience towards the intensity of using English by the
teachers and comprehensibility on the part of the students. The analysis also shows no significant difference
according to the English educational background and length of teaching experience in the intensity of using
English and comprehensibility. Third, on the average, the teachers use English (68%) more than Indonesian
(32%) by applying a number of ways of code switching or code mixing, and based on the analysis of
interview data, the challenges to use English are related with the students’ background, class size, complexity
of teaching topic, feeling confident, curriculum, teacher proficiency, and teaching experience. In addition to
these factors, the teachers find conveying information the most difficult for them so they limit their English if
they explain or describe something to their students.
          To close, using English in the way of code switching or code mixing is common or usual in teaching
English as a foreign language. However, it is unusual that the level of intensity of using English as well as the
level of comprehensibility of the students, as presented above, does not vary significantly according to both
English educational background and length of teaching experience of the teachers. In other words, higher
education and longer teaching experience do not always have effect on the intensity discussed. This
contradicts to the theory that higher education and longer teaching experience contributes to higher or better
use of English particularly the intensity of using English of the teachers and comprehensibility on the part of
the students. This may be very specific in teaching English in senior high schools in NTT in general and in
West Timor in particular. The finding may be true in the case that the factors of various conditions in the
schools where the teachers of various backgrounds teach can dominantly affect individual preference of the
teachers to use or not to use English as a medium of instruction, even by those teachers of the same oral
competence. In addition, some of the Non-S1 teachers are graduates of Philosophy and Theology institution

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where English is compulsory for them. However the finding can be still doubtful due to the sampling error,
i.e. the number of the Non-S1 teachers per cell according to the length of teaching experience does not
complete the criteria required by a sample size. In addition to np significant contribution of the length of
teaching experience, there is no significant difference according to the English educational background and
length of teaching experience. This study contributes to the program of national teacher certification and
suggests that the one-year teacher certification should promote the communicative competence concentrating
on the language functions used to teach in the classroom. If possible, the English language study program at
tertiary institutions is given autonomy to select fresh students who complete a certain standard of English

Key words: intensity of using english, comprehensibility, english educational background, length of teach-
           ing experience

The Implementation of Bilingual Education at Klabat University and Its Outcomes as Seen in
         Students’ English Proficiency and their Achievement in Subject-matter

                                    Micheline Adele Pattiradjawane

          An important change taking place in the educational system of Indonesia is the use of English as
medium of instruction for a number of content courses, while Bahasa Indonesia is still maintained as medium
of instruction. This phenomenon has aroused attention of educational authorities.
          The two foci of the study are the implementation of the bilingual program and its outcomes as seen
in students’ English proficiency and their achievement in subject-matter. With reference to the first focus, the
objective of this study is to describe the implementation of bilingual education at Klabat University (KU).
The second objective is to describe the outcomes of bilingual education in terms of students’ English
proficiency and their achievement in subject-matter. The investigation into the implementation of bilingual
education focused on practices that promoted and impeded the implementation, how English was cultivated
in the bilingual program and how bilingual courses were conducted. The investigation on students’ outcomes
focused on their English proficiency, their achievement in three bilingual courses, and the relationships
between English proficiency and achievement in subject-matter.
          In order to achieve the objectives above, the research methods were qualitative and quantitative.
Being dominantly a qualitative study the design adopted in this study was an emergent design. In order to
describe the implementation of the bilingual program, the qualitative method was used. In order to describe
the outcomes of bilingual education, the quantitative method was used. In order to describe the relationships
between students’ English proficiency and their achievement in subject-matter, the qualitative method was
          Three sampling procedures were used in the study: (1) snowballing sampling for respondents for the
interview on the policies in implementation of bilingual education, (2) purposive sampling for six
respondents to the questionnaire on policies and cultivation of English, and (3) proportional purposive
sampling for subjects on their English proficiency and achievement in subject-matter. The subjects were
students attending bilingual courses at KU. Each subject represented a level of proficiency. Their levels of
proficiency were based on their scores on the placement test administered by the KU when they were
accepted into the university. The four different levels of proficiencies were beginning English level, lower
elementary level, upper elementary level, and intermediate level.
          Three methods were used to obtain data on the implementation of bilingual education: (1)
interviewing respondents who were involved in the implementation of bilingual education, (2) distributing a
questionnaire on the implementation of bilingual education to six lecturers from the School of Economics,
and (3) observing the implementation of three bilingual courses: Intermediate Accounting II, Business
Finance II, and Controllership.
          Data collection on the outcomes of bilingual education used five methods: administering the English
Placement Test to the sample (N=44), administering the Test of English as a Foreign Language to the sample
(N=32), obtaining the list of test scores on achievement in subject-matter from the lecturers who conducted
the bilingual courses, distributing a questionnaire on students’ self perception of their achievement, and
interviewing lecturers on their perception of students’ achievement.

           Data on the implementation of bilingual education were analyzed by crafting a profile. The
quantitative data on students’ scores were analyzed by using descriptive statistics with using the t-test. The
perception questionnaire was analyzed by data reduction, coding and categorizing.
           The findings show that the implementation of bilingual education at KU followed a natural course
of events and was dominated by good practices such as complying with the procedures outlined in the
university’s constitution, taking creative actions with no dependency on government’s fundings, imposing no
pressure on students and teachers to use English thus allowing a comfortable sociolinguistic situation to
emerge in which three languages coexists. The cultivation of English was extensive: English was used in
academic and non-academic activities. However, the conducting of bilingual courses lacked in aspects of
           Findings on the outcomes of bilingual education show that, in terms of English proficiency there
was no significant difference between students’ scores on entry in the university and students’ second scores
on the placement test. However, on analyzes by each level of proficiency, beginning English and lower
elementary level students made significant gain in their English proficiency. Students at the upper elementary
level gained in proficiency but not significantly, but intermediate students showed no gain in proficiency. It is
concluded that students’ English proficiency is adequate for studies at KU.
           Findings on achievement in subject-matter are students’ achievement was satisfactory. Students’
achievement in subject-matter indicate students employ language knowledge and pragmatic strategies to
work on the test tasks in the TLU domain. Achievement in IA II showed that the class is heterogeneous with
σ 22.36 and variance of 499.99. Achievement in BF II showed that the class was homogenous with σ 4.42
and variance 19.5. Achievement in the CTR class showed a heterogeneous class with σ 9.37 and variance
87.97. It is concluded that students’ achievement is satisfactory due to an interplay of students’ computation
skills, students’ strategies, students’ reading proficiency and students’ academic performance as attributed to
having high GPA’s. In addition, there is no relationship between students’ English proficiency and their
           The conclusions drawn are that the implementation of bilingual education had practices that
promoted the program. This study recommends the continuation of the bilingual education program at KU
while working toward students’ graduating with dual certificates.

Key words: implementation, bilingual education, english proficiency, achievement in bilingual subject-

    Developing an English Textbook for the Students of the Diploma III Program in Hotel

                                                 Kun Aniroh

          The current study aims at developing a textbook to fill the gap existing in the scarcity of the English
textbook for students of the Diploma III Program in Hotel Management. The present study employs a
research and development design adopting Borg and Gall’s R@D framework with three main stages: a
preliminary study phase realized through needs assessment, the textbook development phase, and the
validation phase. The subjects involved two five-star hotel managers and ten hotel supervisors of several
domestic five-star hotels as well as five-star hotels abroad, five subject matter specialists who taught hotel
management courses, ten alumni, and ten students of the Diploma III Program, in Hotel Management,
Merdeka University Malang who had completed their on-the-job training in a variety of domestic five star-
hotels and those hotels abroad. Data were collected during field visits to several domestic five-star hotels as
well as five-star hotels abroad and Focused Group Discussion (FGD).
          The data of the needs assessment phase were the basis for developing both the contents and the
language aspects of the textbook on the principles of ESP in which both contents on hotel managerial matters
and English for hotel management become the main core of the textbook, also with the principles of the
contextual teaching and learning (CTL) approach and task-based, content-based, and problem-based learning
for the purpose of task development as well as principles of textbook development for the purpose of
organizing language aspects and task distribution in each unit.
          The draft of the textbook was evaluated by experts in the expert judgment phase utilizing a set of
questionnaire. In the validation phase, the textbook was tried out during the teaching learning process in
which nine English lecturers of five tourism colleges respectively in Denpasar, Malang, Samarinda, Jakarta,
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and Bogor were involved. Sixty four students in their classes were also involved as sources of data. A set of
questionnaires was used to collect the data on the strengths and weaknesses of the textbook. In addition, FGD
was performed as a triangulating measure with hotel supervisors. The data were utilized as a basis of
quantiative and qualitative feedback for making a final revision of the textbook. The textbook as the final
product of the present study is intended for those with a minimum of the English mastery from the
intermediate to the advanced level.Further steps still need to be taken for the improvement of the textbook if
the textbook is intended to be commercially available for use in the market.

Key words: textbook, development, English, hotel supervisors, ESP

  The Learning Experience in EFL Writing of an Indonesian Writer: A Case Study on Budi

                                          V. Luluk Prijambodo

         Learning to write well is a difficult and lengthy process, demanding the learners to fulfill some
writing properties in order that what they write are judged as a good writing for having satisfied the writing
convention. Despite its complexity, writing is very important to learn and master because it becomes the
important part of human’s academic, personal, community, and professional life. One of the sources of
learning how to write is a skilled writer’s learning experience in developing his EFL writing skill. Budi
Darma, one of Indonesia’s great authors, has passed over the laborious process of learning to write in EFL
and become a prolifically skilled writer. That is why Budi Darma’s learning experience in mastering EFL
writing skill is worth investigating.
         As reflected in its title, this in-depth study focuses on investigating Budi Darma’s learning
experience in developing his EFL writing skill. Relevantly, three research questions are formulated, namely
1) How did Budi Darma learn to master EFL writing skill successfully?; 2) What does he as a skilled writer
do to produce quality English writings?; and 3) How does he view his successful learning experience in
developing his EFL writing skill?
         To conduct this study, qualitative approach was used. Accordingly, in this qualitative case study the
researcher played a role as the human or key instrument. Then, to trace back the learning experience, life
history was chosen as the working frame. The primary data—the words (the opinions, statements, and/or the
information concerning Budi Darma’s learning experience in EFL writing), were collected through the
interview series. The secondary data to complete and confirm the primary data were gathered from the
available documents (Budi Darma’s written works, the other writers’ written works about Budi Darma, video
tapes about Budi Darma, and other information from the other sources).
         The interview series consists of three stages of interview. Interview one was intended to gather the
information to answer the first research question, interview two to answer the second research question, and
interview three to answer the third research question. To help the researcher focus on the interviews, the
interview guides were prepared and tried out before use. An additional interview was conducted to obtain the
additional data. Since the interviews were carried out in English, no translation was needed in the data
conversion. Translation into English was just carried out to convert the other found relevant data produced in
Indonesian. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed verbatim. The transcribed interviews were
then analyzed inductively based on the three concurrent flows of activity: data reduction, data display and
conclusion drawing/verification. To establish the credibility of the research findings, the data ferreted from
the interviews and the documents were related to each other. Besides, the related theories were reviewed to
support the data analysis.
         The research findings indicate that Budi Darma’s learning to successfully develop his EFL writing
skill was not an instant process. He was interested in writing since his junior high school education. His
hobby of reading, his critical thinking power, his inside motivation to write, his positive attitude towards
English, his personality (tough, flexible, and independent), his decision to select the language department at
the senior high school, his journalistic experience from working for a newspaper after school and joining the
campus journalism, his study at the Department of Western Literature and Culture of the Faculty of Letters of
Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, and his overseas life experience (his stay in Hawaii for a year to set up
a Basic Humanities curriculum and in Bloomington, Indiana to study at Indiana University for his Master and
doctoral degree in Creative Writing), were the blending factors that influenced his success in developing his
EFL writing skill. He is now able to skilfully write various genres of writing. His quality writings deserved

him to receive some prestigious awards from the governmental and private, domestic and overseas,
institutions. He is widely known not only as an academician, a campus bureaucrat, and an author but also as a
scientist, a literary critic, and a culturalist.
          Budi Darma’s composing process is unique. He never puts off writing whenever he gets an
inspiration to write and has the opportunity to write. He can write productively when his mood is good, the
situation is conducive, and no interruption breaks his composing process. He starts writing by thinking about
the theme. When writing non-fictions, sometimes he drafts his ideas first. When writing fictions, however, he
never drafts what he has to write. Reading a lot, observing the surroundings, taking a walk, and mingling
with the people surrounding are his strategy to gather the ideas and inspiration to write in order to keep on
writing prolifically and avoid the writer’s block. Straightforward, lively, flowing, short-but-effective
sentences, and broad-mindedness characterize his language or writing style.
          Reflecting his success in developing his EFL writing skill, Budi Darma thinks that a writer has to
read a lot to maintain the constant obsession to write and write freely based on his own concern. When
writing, s/he should not concentrate too much on the writing mechanism since it will only make the
composing process get stuck. Writing should be done for the sake of writing itself (writing as an art), not for
the sake of the writing benefits; the benefits of writing are the automatic effect of quality writing. ―Olenka‖,
which was written in an ideal situation of composing process (good mood, peaceful surroundings, enjoyable
momentum, and no interruption) and has become his masterpiece, received some prestigious writing awards.
          Based on the research findings, it is suggested that the teaching and learning of EFL writing pay a
greater attention to the individuals’ potentials contributing to their learning success; accordingly, a class of
writing course should contain no more than 20 learners. It is also recommended that the teaching of writing
give the learners enough freedom to write what they want to write, motivate them to independently learn in
order to keep developing their writing skill when they finish their study, and encourage them to read and
write more. Thus, ideally the teaching of writing and reading skill is handled by the same teacher/lecturer.
Then, to enable the comparison of the findings of the related studies, a further study investigating the
Indonesian who is skillful in EFL writing and is majoring in English but has no overseas learning experience,
or the Indonesian who is skillful in EFL writing and has overseas learning experience but s/he is not majoring
in English, is worth researching.

Key words: learning experience, writing skill, skilled writer, case study

     EFL Teacher Questions in Reading Comprehension Courses at the Language Center,
                  Muhammadiyah University of Malang: A Case Study


         The main purpose of the study is clarifying an issue on EFL teacher questions in Reading
Comprehension (RC) courses. More specifically, the study was done to investigate: 1) the types of questions
posed by EFL teacher in RC courses, and 2) the strategies employed by EFL teachers to make effective
questions in RC courses.
         In order to effectively describe those two aspects of teacher questions, the researcher analyzes them
by means of question classification. With respect to effective questioning, the obtained data were analyzed by
relying on the concepts/criteria for effective questions.
         The research project was executed by employing the qualitative study as a classroom research,
focusing on the observation of teacher question and the students’ responses as the interactive effects of the
questions. The data in the forms of teaches’ and students’ utterances (questions) were obtained through non-
participant observation. Two teachers teaching reading comprehension classes in the Language Center at
Muhammadiyah University of Malang were selected as the research subjects to be observed. As the research
also required the subjects’ opinion and understanding of certain phenomena, it needed the data that were
elicited using interview. This means that the data to handle were subjectively produced by the research
subjects and subjectively and qualitatively interpreted by the present researcher. Since the analysis resides
within the camp of qualitative type of research, in general, the present study can be labeled into qualitative.
         The analysis reveals the obvious types of questions posed by EFL teachers in reading
comprehension courses. The types include display and referential questions. Both display and referential
questions that occurred in the classes were in the closed and open form. With the closed forms, the teachers
required the students to provide only one correct answer. Meanwhile, with the open form, they wanted their
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students to give more than one right answer. The closed and open forms were found in interrogative with
yes/no questions and wh-questions, commands, and statements. The statements consisted of a complete
sentence and were added by raising intonation to show that the teacher asked a question. The forms of
referential question was also found closed and open. The closed referential was found in interrogative with
yes/no questions, wh-questions and statements. But, the teacher employed open referential questions in the
forms of wh-questions, statements, and commands. In classroom practices, the teacher used display questions
more frequently than referential questions.
          Then, as far as the strategies are concerned, three different strategies were used by the teachers in
posing questions in RC courses: translation, repetition, and pausing. The first questioning strategy employed
by teachers in EFL reading classes is translation. The translation is either from the target language (English)
to the student native language (Indonesian) or vice versa. The use of translation strategy indicated that the
teachers wanted to emphasize and to make clearer about things they explained and described. The interviews
with some student subjects touched an important issue on the use of translation to pose questions. The
students acknowledged that translation also turned out to be the students’ preference. This indicated that they
wanted the L1 (Indonesian) equivalents on their teachers’ English speech whenever they found it
incomprehensible. This might also indicate that the students (mostly freshmen) had low proficiency in
English. This finding supported the view that students’ preference for L1 and the language dominance in the
setting may influence teachers’ preference for the communication strategies and the language used in the
          The second strategy employed by teachers in EFL reading classes is repetition. The teacher repeated
the question to ask whether the student understand about the questions posed. The repetition strategy was
intended not only to increase comprehensibility but also to maximize the opportunities for students to answer.
The present study also documented a point worth highlighting pertaining to the repetition. That is, despite the
existing debate among scholars on the use of repetition, repetition strategy was capable of ensuring and
improving EFL students’ engagement in a learning process. In the observed classes, there was sufficient
evidence supporting this assertion. The findings attested some previous related studies which revealed that
teacher’s repetition strategy was effective for improving learners’ engagement to find the intended response.
          The third questioning strategy employed by the teacher is the employment of wait-time or pausing.
The present study reveals that teachers employed relatively moderate period of pause. The observed teachers
posed questions with the mean of wait-time of 3:69 seconds. With this in mind, in this research, many
students volunteered to answer each question. With regard to the wait-time, the study also reveals that the
wait-time pauses were very similar among question types.
          Regarding the ways to pose effective questions, a number of modifications in the strategy of
questioning were employed by the observed EFL teachers. For the purposes, the teachers employed probing
and rephrasing modifications. Each has its own pattern. For the probing there were two types of modification
employed by the teachers. Those are sequencing the questions by: 1) focusing on subordinate category, and
2) focusing on an exemplification. In addition to probing, the other modification of the question is
rephrasing. In the present study, rephrasing was found to have more than one modification, namely the
modification of rephrased questions by: 1) using a clue that describes the attribute of the expected answer, 2)
comparing or contrasting of the expected answer to something, and 3) rephrasing with alternative or choice
          Finally, as observed, there appears to be a direct relationship between the question modification
made by teachers with the quantity and quality of the student’s responses. With the question modifications,
the study found relatively ample evidence that the students could be helped to elicit the intended responses in
the process of comprehending a reading text. Thus, it is recommended that teachers achieve a high degree of
sensitivity and awareness to use questions in the most effective manner.

Key words: teacher questions, reading comprehension

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