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Variability of Wood Within Species


									   Central South University of Forestry & Technology

Key National Discipline on Wood Science and Technology
         First-class Course in Hunan Province

   Wood Science
               Professor WU Yiqiang
           Chapter 8

Variability of Wood Within a Species
Chapter 8 Variability of Wood Within a Species(同种树

Wood produced by trees of the same species is often mistakenly
assumed to be identical in all structural and physical
characteristics .In fact ,different pieces of wood ,even from the same
teee are never identical and are similar only within broad limits.
All dimensional and physical characteristics of wood within trees are
varible;i.e.,they exhibit a range od values .The variations which are
present can be related to radical or axial position of the sample either
within an individual growth increment or over a series of growth
increments within the tree.
ⅠSummation of Principal Factors Affecting Variavility
of Wood Properties in Individaul Trees(影响单株树木
A.Variability in Cellular Characteristics (细胞特性的变异)
The curves representing variation in cell dimensions from pith to
bark show greater consistency than those for any other wood
characteristic within trees.
The general shape of these curves shows minimum values at or close
to the pith(髓心).The magnitude of the cell dimensions increases in
the early years near the pith during the period in which most of the
cambial maturation(形成层) occurs .As the cambium becomes
physiologically mature,the slopes of the curves relating cell
dimensions to the age of the cambium become less steep or may
show no change.In old age ths slopes of the curves may decline when
the cambium again produces cells with reduced dimensions.
This general type of pith-to –
bark(从髓心到树皮) variation
is particularly evident for those
axial elements which undergo
postcambial elongation .Where
postcambial elongation is
considerable,as in softwood
tracheids and hardwood
fibers ,the curves exhibit steep
slopes near the pith(Fig7-
5).Limited postcambial
elongation ,as in vessel
elements ,is reflected in the
relatively low slopes of the
curves near the pith.
Tracheid diameters(管
胞直径) and cell wall
thickness in the
softwoods increase from
pith to bark but with
much less change than
shown for tracheid
(Fig.7-8)In the
hardwoods the patterns
of change in fiber
diameters and wall
thickness are generally similar to those in softwoods but are less
Tracheid and fiber lengths within growth increments increases
from the group upward reaching a maximun below the
crown.Length of tracheids and fibers then decreases toward the
top of the tree to a minimunm typical of the newly formed
cambium in the crown region.The maxium tracheids or fiber
length in trunk occurs in the outermost layers of wood at a point
ranging from one-third to one-half the total tree height above the
ground,as is apparent in Fig.7-6 for softwoods and in Fig7-10 for
Within individual increments(年轮) the general pattern is
that of a regular change in the lengths of softwood
tracheids(管胞) ,hardwood fibers纤维) ,and vessel
elements(导管) in the radial direction from early to late
wood.The minimum lengths are found in the early wood,and
the maximum is reached in the late wood.
B Variability in Specific Gravity and Related

(1 )The radial direction (横向)
Average specific gravity in the majority of softwoods shows a
general increase from pith to bark.This is related to the increasing
percentage of dense latewood in successive increments from the
pith outward.
In the diffuse-porous(散孔材) hardwoods about two-thirds of the
species studied exhibit increasing specific gravity from the pith
outward,which appears to be related to fiber characteristics.In the
ring- (环孔材)and semi-ring –porous(半环孔材) hardwoods
decreasesing specific gravity from pith to bark can be related to
increasing early-wood percentage in the same direction in about
half of the species studied.
(2) The longitudinal direction (树轴方向)

Average specific gravity in the majority of the softwoods
decrease from the ground upward.
Variation of specific gravity with height within the tree in
hardwoods follows by one of the three patterns:it may decreases
upward;it may decrease in the lower trunk and increase in th
upper trunk;or it may increase from the ground upward.
C.Juvenile and Mature Wood(幼龄材与成熟材)
The stem of the tree may be devided into two regions on the basis
fundamenttal differences in the structure and properties of
wood.Juvenile wood (幼龄材)forms in a cylindrical column
acout the pith as the result of prolonged influence of the apical
meristems in the region of the active crown on wood formation
by cambium .As the tree crown moves father upward in a
growing tree,the influence of the apical meristems on a given
cambial region decreases and mature wood(成熟材) is formed.
Juvenile and Mature Wood must be considered as two distinct
populations in the same tree.The mature wood possesses
characteristics which are considered normal for the
speciec,whicle juvenile wood has structural characteristics and
physical properties inferior to those in the mature wood of the
same tree.This is evident for fiber and tracheid lengths in Figs7-5
and 7-10
It should be noted that the primary basis for defining juvenile is
the cell structure and properties of the wood .Juvenile wood in
plantation-grown (人工林) treescan be related to fast growth near
the pith,but wide rings are not necessarily associated with
juvenile wood in all trees.
ⅡVariabtlity in Wood Properties among Trees of
the Same Species(同树种木株间材性的变异)

Variability in properties of normal wood among trees of the same
species may be greater or smaller than that within individual trees
being compared .The normal-wood characteristics may be
moditied as the result of long-term growing conditions existing
on different sites ,even in rather small areas.The different
conditions on different sites ,even in rather small areas .The
differences may also arise from inherent characteristics
transmitted from parent trees.
Environmental and Geographical Influenced on Variability
among Trees(环境及地理因素引起株间变异)
Growing conditions such as competition within the stand or soil
fertility can cause major differences in the magnitude and
patterns of variability in wood properties in trees of the same
species growing in the same stand.For example ,trees are
domimant may show one pattern of variability in wood ,and
neighboring trees of the same species that are suppressed may
have quite different characteristics.The same is true for trees
which are open-grown or forest-grown.
Geographical location ,which is in reality a reflection of mean
temperature and rainfall differences ,may be a cause for variation
between trees in a species.Latitude and altitude ,in an unspecified
interaction of mearn temperature and available moisture ,have
also been shown to have major deeects on variability in wood
propertied within species.
Ⅲ    Variability of Wood Structuere Within Tree(单
A.Variation of Cell Dimensions Stem Cross Sections(树干横切
1.Cellular Variability Within Growth Increments(生长轮内细胞
a Length of Softwood Tracheids and Hardwood Fibers (针叶树
These are at a minimum within the early-wood zone .They
increase to a maximum length within the late wood,or near the
transition from early to late wood,and finally decrease at the end
of the year’s growth.
b.Vessel Element Lengths(导管分子的长度)
   These vary across the width of growth increments from early
   early to late wood in two characteristic patterns.
   In the ring-porous woods a plot of vessel element lengths shows
   an approximately parabolic curve of change in length across the
   growth ring.The diagram in Fig7-2 for Fraxinuz pennsylvanica
   Marsh(北美白蜡树) .indicates short vessel elements in the
   early-wood zone but minimum lengths near the middle of the
   growth increment.
   In the diffuse-porous woods available data indicate that there is
   only a slight increase in length of vessel elements across the
   width of the growth increment (Fig7-3).
3.Microfiberillar Angles in the Cell Walls (细胞壁的微纤丝)\
Microfiberillar Angles in the Cell Walls of softwood tracheids
and hardwood fibers are inversely related to the lengths of the
fibous cells.In consequence,microfibrillar angles vary across the
growth increment from a maxmiunm in the early wood to a
minimum in the late wood .Fi.g7-4
2.Variability in Wood Structure among Growth Increment (生长
a.Cell Length Variation in Stem Cross Sections(树干横切面上细
胞长度的变化)The basic curve forms across a radius from pith
tio bark for softwood tracheid lengths and hardwood fibers ,both
of which exhibit appreciable postcambial elongation ,are shown
in Fig7-5
b.Cell Diameter Variation from Pith toBark(从髓到树皮细胞直
 In softwoods the tracheid cross-section dimensions increase
 systematically from the pith outward .The rate of increase is
 considerably less than that for legtn increases in the
 B.Dimensional Changes in Cells along the Stem Length(沿树干
 1.Variation in Length of Cells(细胞长度的变异)The maximum
 length of fibers ,and the stem height at which they occur in a
 growth increment,increases regularly from the first up to the
 thirtieth growth increment in the hardwood trees shown in Fig7-
2Diameter Variations of Along the Stem (沿树干高度细胞直径
Tracheid diameters within growth increments of softwoods
increase in the lower trunk and then decrease toward the top in a
pattern resembling that for tracheids-length variation along the
stem axis.
ⅣVariations in Chemical Composition of Cell Walls 细胞壁化
A .Polysaccharides (多糖类)
1.Cellulose Content (纤维素含量)
Cellulose content of cell walls within growth increments has
received veryattention,and most of the studies have been made on
softwoods .The most complere report of intra-increment variation
is for Fseudotsuga menbziesii(Mirb)(北美黄杉)Franco(Fig7-12)
2.Hemicelluloses (半纤维素)
Within a growth increment of Pinus resinosa Ait.(北美赤
松)analysis of the simple sugars has shown that xylose in the
early wood appears to be 1 or 2 percent higher than in the late-
wood portion;the percentages are reserved for mannose.
B.Lignin (木质素)
1.Variation of Ligin content within Crowth Increments (年轮中
2.Lingin-content Variation within the
Tree (单株树木木质素含量的变异)
In softwoods the lignin content shows
a general decrease of 1.5 to 3 percent
from the pith to the bark.
C.Extractives (抽提物)
Variations in extractives within the stem are principally
associated with their presence in heartwood,except for
resins.Resin content in softwoods is reported tio the highest near
the pith at the butt of the tree ,decreasing outward and upward in
the stem.

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