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					TEXTO PARA EL ESTUDIANTE




                    Jolanta P
                             olk Reye
                                     s




                  EDICIÓN ESPECIAL PARA EL
                  MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN
               PROHIBIDA SU COMERCIALIZACIÓN
                          AÑO 2011
Name:




School:




Teacher:




Year:
Ediciones Cal y Canto ®
© English 2º Medio

2010
Original text                 Jolanta Polk
                              Teaching English as a Foreign Language,
                              Dublin, Irlanda.
                              Teacher training, translation and English Literature,
                              University of Silesia, Poland.

Original illustrations        © Ediciones Cal y Canto ®
Design                        © Ediciones Cal y Canto ®

Nº de Inscripción: 180.758
ISBN: 978-956-8623-65-4

General Publisher             Jorge Muñoz Rau.
Publisher                     Alicia Manonellas Balladares.
Assistant Publisher           Gloria Caro Opazo.
                              Ly-Sen Lam Díaz.
Designed by                   María Jesús Moreno Guldman.
Cover designed by             María Jesús Moreno Guldman.
Layout by                     Rodolfo Acosta Castillo.
                              Juvenal SepúlvedaAravena.
Proofreading                  Thomas Connelly.
Illustrations                 Venus Astudillo.
General Production            Cecilia Muñoz Rau.
Production Assistant          Lorena Briceño González.
Recording Producer            Rodrigo González Díaz.
Photos                        Banco de Fotos Ediciones Cal y Canto ® .

All rights reserved; no part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system,
transmitted in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher.

La materialidad y fabricación de este texto está certificado por el IDIEM - Universidad de Chile.

Impreso RR Donnelley

Se terminó de imprimir 255.124 ejemplares en el mes de enero de 2010.
                                           TEXTO PARA EL ESTUDIANTE




Jolanta Polk Reyes
Teaching English as a Foreign Language, Dublin, Ireland.
Teacher training, translation and English Literature, University of Silesia, Poland.
                  SET UP
                  Some interesting pictures to provide a setting and some simple exercises to activate your previous
                  knowledge. You can also examine the objectives of the unit here.




READING
The tasks will help you to develop strategies to improve
your understanding of written texts.
                                                             LISTENING
                                                             The tasks will help you to develop strategies to improve
                                                             your understanding of spoken messages.



4
                                                                                       TAKE A CLOSER LOOK
                                                                                       Section designed to help you revise
                                                                                       or discover a particular grammar
                                                                                       structure. The activities are meant to
                                                                                       promote independent learning.


                                                                                       PLAY IT

                                                                                       Section designed to motivate you
                                                                                       with various entertaining games.


                                                                                       FAST CHECK
APPLY YOUR KNOWLEDGE
These attractive and entertaining activities will motivate you to study and put into   These short evaluation activities
practice what you are learning.                                                        allow you to analyse your
                                                                                       performance. You complete the
                                                                                       tasks within a time limit and check
                                                                                       your points.


                                                                                                      Bear it
                                                                                                      in mind
                                                                                           Interesting bits of information
                                                                                           on the topics of the lesson.


                                                                                           Mi d                 a
                                                                                             n               T e se r

                                                                                           In this section you will find
CHECK AND CORRECT                                                                          interesting stories and funny
A formal test at the end of the unit to evaluate your progress and help you to             illustrations, connected with
discover what you need to revise.                                                          the topic of the unit.


                                                                                                      Danger

                                                                                           This section will help you to
                                                                                           be aware of the most
                                                                                           common grammar errors.


                                                                                           You can find additional
                                                                                           information at the web
FINAL CHECK                                                                                site(s) suggested.
Guided analysis of your strengths and
weaknesses, to help you to check your
progress and find ways to improve.


                                                                                                                                5
                             1                                                    2                                                   3


    NAME COMMUNICATION AND                                    NAME  HOW STRANGE!                               NAME  WE ARE WHAT
                   UNDERSTANDING                                    HOW WONDERFUL!                                   WE EAT
    PAGES 8 - 39                                              PAGES 40 - 71                                    PAGES 72 - 103

    Reading                                                   Reading                                          Reading
    We Are Happy To Announce . . 10                           Welcome To New Zealand . . . 42                  Staying Healthy -
    Decoding Writing . . . . . . . . . . 22                   Twister, Twister. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54   Keeping Fit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
    Two Announcements . . . . . . . 36                        San Pedro De Atacama . . . . . . 68              Eating Out . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
                                                                                                               Eating Out The
    Listening                                                 Listening                                        Japanese Way . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
    Am I Getting Through To You?. . 16                        The Strange Things We Do . . 48
    Visible Body. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28          Eyewitness Reports . . . . . . . . . 60          Listening
    The Morse Code . . . . . . . . . . . . 37                 The Weather Report . . . . . . . . 69            Edible Art . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
                                                                                                               Let's Do It All Together . . . . . . 92
    Speaking                                                  Speaking                                         What A Chef Has To Say . . . 101
    To participate in a guided oral                           To talk about celebrating
    text imitating a model . . . . . . 14                     an anniversary.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46    Speaking
    To consolidate key                                        To express possibility. . . . . . . . 51         To talk about food
    expressions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19          To complete a conversation                       preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
    To talk about topics expressing                           and talk about it . . . . . . . . . . . . 59     To participate in a dialogue
    their own ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26              To complete a conversation                       with a food artist. . . . . . . . . . . . 83
    To imitate a model                                        and talk about it . . . . . . . . . . . . 64     To talk about a restaurant . . . 90
    conversation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32           To express opinions                              To complete a conversation
    To imitate a model                                        about some pictures . . . . . . . . 71           using visual clues . . . . . . . . . . . 96
    conversation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38                                                            To complete and role-play a
                                                              Writing                                          conversation about food . . . 103
    Writing                                                   To write suggestions
    To rewrite a passage using                                to organise a party . . . . . . . . . . 47       Writing
    linking words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15            To write a short paragraph                       To complete a recipe . . . . . . . 78
    To write a short text                                     to express opinions. . . . . . . . . . 51        To write a description
    consolidating language                                    To write about a natural                         of a picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
    learnt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21   phenomenon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58      To write a short restaurant
    To write a short report . . . . . . 27                    To write sentences about                         review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
    To write a short paragraph . . 33                         measure instruments. . . . . . . . 65            To write sentences using
    To rewrite a passage                                      To write a short                                 visual clues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
    using linking words . . . . . . . . . 39                  weather report. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70     To write a set of questions
                                                                                                               about a recipe . . . . . . . . . . . . 102




6
                        4                                                                   5                                                    6


NAME  WHATEVER YOU DO                                               NAME  LIFE AS WE                                      NAME  TRADITIONS,
      OR MAKE - DO IT                                                     KNOW IT                                               TRADITIONS
      AND MAKE IT WELL!                                             PAGES 136 - 167                                       PAGES 168 - 199
PAGES 104 - 135
                                                                    Reading                                               Reading
Reading                                                             Alternative Lifestyles. . . . . . . 138               Let's Celebrate . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Do It Well! Make It Big! . . . . . 106                              Life As We Knew It . . . . . . . . . 150              Living With Traditions . . . . . 182
Holding The World On                                                Up For A Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . 164            On The First Day Of
Your Shoulders . . . . . . . . . . . . 118                                                                                Christmas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Making Curanto . . . . . . . . . . . 132                            Listening
                                                                    I Would Like To Dedicate                              Listening
Listening                                                           This Song. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144      Proud To Be . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176
Follow The Instructions . . . . 112                                 Life As It Will Be . . . . . . . . . . . 156          Changing Language . . . . . . . 188
I'd Like To Apply!. . . . . . . . . . . 124                         Clouds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165    The Right Clothes. . . . . . . . . . 197
How To Use It . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
                                                                    Speaking                                              Speaking
Speaking                                                            To participate in a conversation                      To talk about duration
To express plans for the future. 110                                expressing opinions . . . . . . . 142                 of events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
To express plans for the future. 116                                To participate in a conversation                      To talk about life
To talk about wishes                                                using visual clues . . . . . . . . . . 147            experiences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
and regrets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122                       To express what people need,                          To express feelings . . . . . . . . 185
To talk about wishes . . . . . . . 127                              wish or want to . . . . . . . . . . . 155             To talk about predictions
To express distances                                                To express ideas about                                for the future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
and duration of events. . . . . 135                                 protecting the planet . . . . . . 161                 To express surprise,
                                                                    To participate in dialogues                           sympathy or joy . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Writing                                                             according to visual clues . . . 166
To write the end of a story                                                                                               Writing
using visual clues . . . . . . . . . . 111                          Writing                                               To write a paragraph about
To write a set of instructions                                      To write a paragraph about                            a familiar celebration . . . . . . 175
for using a gadget . . . . . . . . . 117                            someone's lifestyle . . . . . . . . 143               To write a short paragraph
To write sentences expressing                                       To write a note of apology . . 149                    about a tradition. . . . . . . . . . . 181
wishes and desires. . . . . . . . . 123                             To write a set of suggestions                         To rewrite questions
To write a letter requesting                                        to visit a place . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155        in direct speech. . . . . . . . . . . . 187
information for a job . . . . . . . 129                             To write a list of everyday                           To write a list of predictions
To write a paragraph expressing                                     activities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161   for Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
hopes and desires . . . . . . . . . 135                             To write a paragraph expressing                       To write descriptions
                                                                    needs and obligations . . . . . 167                   of pictures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200



                                                                                                                                                                           7
    IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL LEARN TO:                                   YOU WILL USE THE FOLLOWING TEXT TYPES:
    Reading: Find specific information through scanning /             Reading: Announcements / Reports
    Discriminate between correct and incorrect information            Listening: A rap / A poem / A radio programme
    Listening: Identify types of text / Find specific information /   YOU WILL ALSO LEARN:
    Identify speaker                                                  Grammar: The Present Continuous tense / Linking words
    Production: Express emotions such as interest, surprise,          Vocabulary: Words related to communication and understanding
    sympathy and pleasure / Say why things happen                     YOU WILL PAY SPECIAL ATTENTION TO THESE VALUES:
    Functions: Express interest, surprise, sympathy and pleasure /    The importance of communication and respect for other people's
    Express feelings / Give reasons                                   opinions and reasons


8
SET UP


1 A communication channel is the means we use to send information from one
   person to another. What are the communication channels in the pictures?




   1                          2                           3                         4


2 Look at the illustration below with your partner and answer these questions.
   a. Why can they not understand each other?
   b. What languages are they speaking?
                                                                                 Mi d                a
   c. What can they do to communicate?                                             n              T e se r

                      ?                                 What’s your name?        Why do we communicate?
                                                                                 People communicate with
                                                                                 each other for many reasons.
                                                                                 These are some of them.
                                                                                 - They want to spread news.
                                                                                 - They want to warn of
                                                                                   dangers.
                                                                                 - They want to pass on
                                                                                   information.
                                                                                 - They want to ask for help.
                                                                                 - They want to express
                                                                                   feelings.

3 What do these symbols mean? When do we use symbols to communicate?
   a. @        b. &         c. $         d. €         e. %        f. ®


       You can find more signs and symbols at http://www.guide-to-symbols.com

                                                                                                            9
                WE ARE HAPPY TO ANNOUNCE…
                READING
                                                                                                                     Lesson 1


                                      THINK AHEAD

          Danger               1 What is the purpose of each of the texts below?
                                    a. The purpose of text ___________ is to announce a change of address.
Why - Because
                                    b. The purpose of text ___________ is to announce a job opening.
Pay attention to these
examples:
                                    c. The purpose of text ___________ is to offer a service.
Why do people need to
eat? Because they need
                                                                        saves 9
energy for their bodies.                               1 Stitch in time
Why are you reading this                                         Clothes repairs
book? Because it is                                             24 hour service
interesting.
                                                                                          Dear customer
Notice that we always use
why to ask for the reason /                                                              On 13 March,
                                                                                                       s
purpose of an action and            Katie Price                                          the company




                                                                                                                  rough
                                                                                                        N
                                                              o.uk                       moved from 13
because to give the reason /                   1stitch@yahoo.c                                        ,
                                                                                         Gainsborough




                                                                                                           Gainsbo
purpose of an action.                                                                   Road to 245
                                                                                                                          245
Why is the equivalent of        1
                                                                                        Trafalgar
Spanish por qué and                                                                     Street.         Trafalga
                                                                                                                r
because is the equivalent of
                                                  NEEDED                               We hope to
Spanish porque.
                                                                                       see you there.
                                              SHORT ORDER CHEF
                                              FOR A BUSY MID-TOWN
                                              CHINESE RESTAURANT                                Management
                                                                                                ITCI Centre
                                                CALL MR. WONG AT

                                              0756 6789678                         3
                                               FOR MORE DETAILS

                                          2


                               2 Which of these actions do you need to take to contact the person or
                                    company making the announcements above?
                                    a. I need to send an e-mail.
                                    b. I need to go to the place.
                                    c. I need to phone.


                               3 Which of the words in the box would you expect to find in a text
                                    announcing the winner of a competition?

                                       · award               · contestant   · introduce     · judges
                                · meet   · place              · present   · prize    · result    · runner up




10
           UNIT 1
     GO AHEAD
                                                                                           Danger
4 Have a quick look at the text. Why are some parts of it highlighted in bold
   or written in a different colour?                                            Cognates help you
                                                                                understand a text. But watch
   a. They are announcing the winners of the competition.
                                                                                out for false cognates or
   b. They are the only important parts.                                        false friends. They can make
   c. They are more important than other parts.                                 a text more confusing
                                                                                because they are pairs of
5 Scan the text. What symbols can you find? List them in your notebook.         words in two languages that
   What do they mean?                                                           look and / or sound similar,
                                                                                but have different meanings.
6 Copy this diagram in your notebook. Scan the text again and complete          Examples:
                                                                                Spanish arena = sand (not
   the diagram with the corresponding information.                              arena, which is a sort of
                                                                                stadium).
                            Title of Competition                                English balloon = globo (not
                                                                                balón)
      Runner up 1                                         Runner up 2           English introduce = presentar
                                       Winner                                   a alguien (not present a
                 Judge 1                              Judge 2                   paper or a report).
                                                                                English competition =
                                                                                competencia (not
7 Read the announcement more in detail and write the corresponding              competence = skills/abilities).
   name, Roland, Imelda or Jo.
   a. ___________ is a bus driver.
   b. ___________ wrote The Wire Road.
   c. ___________ is a housewife.
   d. ___________ receives a laptop.
   e. ___________ likes jazz.

8 Choose the best option to complete each statement.
   a. When the text says that Roland is on call day or night it means that
      i. he can expect to be called to the hospital at any time.
      ii. he keeps calling the hospital all the time, day or night.
   b. Runner up prizes in this text are
      i. consolation prizes.
      ii. second and third prizes.
   c. The Last Dance was short-listed for an award, which means it was
      i. the winner of the award.
      ii. one of the best books.

9 Find sentences in the text that mean the same as the following.
   a. He lives in Edinburgh.
   b. Roland isn't interested in becoming a professional writer.
   c. The William Trevor is a competition organised every year.
   d. Roland is a doctor who looks after children.
      Find more false friends at:
      http://www.saberingles.com.ar/curious/falsefriends.html

                                                                        TANDING
                                                COMMUNICATION AND UNDERS                                    11
                         ANNOUNCEMENT                                                     king
                                       2008          thinks that writing is a way of loo
     The organising committee of the                                                   sonality.
                 Trevor     Short     Story          after the creative side of his per
     William
                                      ce the
     Competition is pleased to announ                                                ners
                                 test. And           Introducing Runner up Prize Win
     result of this year's con                                                         €50
                                       1,000         Runner up prizes of €150 each and
     although we received more than                                                 to the
                                 ee as the           book vouchers are awarded
     entries we chose just thr
                                                     following contestants:
     winning stories.
                                                     Jo Campbell, London.
     Introducing The Winner                                                                 ool
                                       s the         Although by profession Jo is a sch
     The winner, Roland Brand, beside                                                    lude
                                       vices         bus driver, her other interests inc
     County Council Library & Arts Ser                                               reading
                                   computer          painting, walking her dog and
     prize of €1,000 gets a laptop                                                         like
                                           of         romantic fiction. She doesn't
      contributed by PC Factory. The title                                             thinks
                                 re Road.             watching television because she
      the winning entry is The Wi                                                       s she
                                                      it is a waste of time. What doe
                                                                                          time
                                                      prefer? She prefers to spend her
      About the Author
                                             ting,    writing!
      When not occupied with his wri
      Roland Brand is busy wo       rking in a
                                            is a      Imelda Carroll, Bridgetown
      children's hospital. Roland                                                       ides
                                     be on call       Imelda is a housewife who, bes
      paediatrician and needs to                                                          ter
                                            rking     short stories and poetry, loves win
      day and night. Roland‘s wo                                                       ntries
                                       is intense     sports, learning about exotic cou
      hours are long and the work
                                            to his     and jazz.
      but he still likes to dedicate time
      passion: writing.                                                                         is a
                                                       The William Trevor Competition
                                                       contest which attracts more tha     n 1,000
                                           e a
       Roland doesn't want to becom                                                              yne
                                          with         entries each year. Judges Debby Ma
       professional writer - he is happy                                                     ct the
                                     write? He         and J.A. Konrad helped to sele
       his career. But why does he                                                           lished
                                                       best stories. Ms Mayne is a pub
                                                       author of five works of fiction inc  luding
       The organising committee is also                                                        d for
       pleased to announce the next                    The Last Dance - a book short-liste
                                                                                              . She
       International Short Story Competitio
                                              n         the National Children's Award
                                                                                              band.
       to take place in 2012. If you need mo
                                              re        lives in Cambridge with her hus
                                                        Mr Konrad is the editor of the ma    gazine
       details access our new website                                                          s in
        www.mitchelstownshortstoryprize.co
                                               m        True Stories and he reside
                                                                                                 of a
        from 1st May 2009. Send you   r entries to       Edinburgh. He is also the author
                                                                                              ht.
        shortstory@mitchelstown.com                      poetry collection entitled First Lig

                                                                                      and from the original
                                                Source: Adapted from Reader's Digest
                                                                                  ion announcement, 2007.
                                               William Trevor Short Story Competit




12
         UNIT 1
      MAKE CONNECTIONS

 TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

 Linking words
 1. Read these sentences from the text and notice how we link sentences
    in English.
    a. Roland is a paediatrician and needs to be on call day and night.
    b. Although by profession Jo is a school bus driver, her other interests
       include painting, walking her dog and reading romantic fiction.
    c. She doesn't like watching television because she thinks it is a waste of time.
    d. Roland Brand, besides the County Council Library & Arts Services
       prize of €1,000 gets a laptop computer contributed by PC Factory.
    e. Roland's working hours are long and the work is intense, but he still
       likes to dedicate time to his passion: writing.

 2. We usually use shorter sentences when speaking and longer sentences
    in writing. Linking words provide a text with cohesion and illustrate how
    the parts of the text relate to each other
    We use and to add extra information, but to contrast ideas, because to
    explain the reason, besides to say that there is something additional
    included and although to indicate a contradiction.

 3. Go back to the text and copy all the sentences that contain these linking
    words into your notebook. Can you understand them better now?


10 Join the sentences using and, but, because, besides or although.
   a. Ronald's life is very busy. He finds time to write fiction.
   b. Brand gets €1,000. He also gets a laptop computer.
   c. Imelda is a housewife. She writes short stories and poetry.
   d. Roland doesn't want to become a professional writer. He is happy with
      his career.
   e. Jo Campbell is from London. She is a school bus driver.
   f. She drives a school bus. She also dedicates her time to other hobbies.

11 Study these additional linking words and their function. Which sentences from
   Exercise 10 can you rewrite using these options? In some cases you can / must
   switch the order of the sentences around (first sentence goes second).

                                                             At the beginning
         Function              Middle of sentence
                                                            to a new sentence

 To add a point               and …                        In addition…, also…

 To contrast two points       but …                        However, although …

 To note consequences         because …                    So ...

                                                                             TANDING
                                                     COMMUNICATION AND UNDERS           13
              HAVE A CHAT

              12       Complete this dialogue about the text with a partner. Practise with
                   the recording and then role play it in front of the class.
                   A:     Now that you have some information about the competition, can you
                          tell me why Roland Brand gets €1,000 and a laptop computer?
                   B:     _________________________________________________________.
                   A:     And why does he not want to become a professional writer?
                   B:     _________________________________________________________.
                   A:     So, if he doesn't want to be a professional writer, why does he write?
                   B:     _________________________________________________________.
                   A:     And do you know why Jo Campbell doesn't like watching TV?
                   B:     _________________________________________________________.

              13 Answer the questions and match your answers with the pictures.




                   1                           2                         3



                   a. Why do you need to put a stamp on the envelope?
                   b. Why do you need to stop your car?
                   c. Why do you need to use coins?




               FAST CHECK

               14 Choose the best linking word.                                   (10 points)
                    a. In order to communicate effectively, humans developed languages,
                       signs and / but writing.
                    b. Although / but sometimes people speak the same language they
                       cannot communicate.
                    c. You need to learn English and / because the world is becoming more
                       and more globalised.
                    d. It is easy to say I love you because / but more difficult to prove it.
                    e. Although / besides a laptop the winner also gets a cash prize.

                         Your           0-5                6-8                 9 - 10
                        result:   Review the lesson     Quite good           Excellent



14
     UNIT 1
 WRITE IT DOWN

15 Rewrite the passage below joining some of the sentences. Use linking
   words such as but, and, because, although, besides and others you know.




 PLAY IT


      These are connectors tic-tac-toe.
      a. Play with a partner against another couple.
      b. Each pair must win three squares in a straight line to win the game, as in normal tic-tac-toe.
      c. Pairs win a square by saying a correct sentence with their chosen word, using a correct linking word.
         Example: I like watching documentaries and films on television.
        1                                              2
             watch         love      publish                 read        arrive      buy

             want        announce       arrive               call        drive      finish

              play        spend         catch                give        have       make

        3                                              4
             need          open         push                accept       bake        carry

              pull         study        touch                file         eat       dance

              take         visit        write                get          hate     identify


CHECK IT OVER!                                                           ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                     I need more work       I did OK       I did really well!

   Reading
   Speaking
   Writing


                                                                         TANDING
                                                 COMMUNICATION AND UNDERS                                   15
               AM I GETTING THROUGH TO YOU?
               LISTENING
                                                                                                     Lesson 2


                                       THINK AHEAD

Mi d                a
  n              T e se r      1 What do you think the expression get through in the title of the lesson means?
                                  a. Contact / communicate
     Hey, look over               b. Finish / terminate
      there. Smoke                c. Succeed / triumph
        signals!
                               2 Match the pictures below with these expressions.
                                  a. Ah, now I understand!               b. Oh dear, does it hurt?
                                  c. Hey, look at them!                  d. Wow, that's big!
                                  e. Congratulations! Well done          f. Oh, how interesting!




 What         Help! My ...
do they     blanket … is ...
 say?         on ... fire!



                                   1                         2                          3




                                   4                         5                          6

                               3 Two words in each line rhyme - which ones?
                                  a. destination     destitution      information
                                  b. call            hall             sell
                                  c. reach           rich             speech
                                  d. better          letter           matter
                                  e. code            mode             rod

                                       For more rhymes you can visit the Rhyme Zone dictionary at
                                       www.rhymezone.com


16
           UNIT 1
4 Answer the questions and write the words in the grids. Read each letter
                                                                                Mi d                 a
    marked in blue. The answer gives you the subject of the listening text.       n               T e se r
    a. What do you use to send an e-mail?
    b. What do you use to call your friend in another city?
    c. What's another word for talk?
    d. What do you put in an envelope?
    e. What's another word for tell?


    a.

    b.
                                                                                Why do we listen? We listen
                                                                                for different reasons: for
    c.
                                                                                pleasure (music, bird song),
                                                                                to understand explanations,
    d.                                                                          for instructions so that we
                                                                                know how to carry out a
                                                                                task, for information in the
    e.                                                                          case of the news or the
                                                                                weather forecast, and also to
                                                                                get the main idea of a story
                                                                                or a narration.
         GO AHEAD

5      Listen to the two recordings. Which one is a rap and which one is a
    poem?

6      Listen again. Which of the two mentions different ways of
    communicating?

7       Listen to the text you identified and in your notebook write at least
    four ways of communicating.

8       Which expressions from Exercise 2 are mentioned in the second
    recording? Write them down in your notebook. What feelings do they
    express?

9      Listen again and choose the best adjective to describe each piece of
    poetry.
    a. The first piece is
       i. sad               ii. cheerful        iii. critical

    b. The second piece is
       i. nostalgic       ii. controversial     iii. descriptive



                                                                         TANDING
                                                 COMMUNICATION AND UNDERS                                 17
                                  10      Listen again. Which of the two words is mentioned in each recording?
                                       Recording I                      Recording II
                                       a. i. rich    ii. reach          a. i. will         ii. wheel
                                       b. i. feel    ii. fill           b. i. need         ii. knit

                                  11      Listen once more and choose one of these titles for each piece.
                                       a. A Lesson in Communication        b. Dance and Rap
                                       c. How I Miss my Little Girl        d. When I Grow up




                                         MAKE CONNECTIONS

                                  TAKE A CLOSER LOOK
                                  Beside v/s besides
                                  1. Read these sentences from the listening text. Pay special attention to
                                     the preposition in bold.
                                     a. We can sign a sign or write a little rhyme besides making a call.
                                     b. We can type on our computer besides using a fax or sending a scooter.

           Bear it                2. Compare these sentences.
           in mind                   a. We can sign a sign or write a little rhyme besides making a call to a
                                        friend down the hall.
We use expressions such as
                                     b. We can make a call to a friend who lives beside us down the hall.
Well done! or Wow, what a
                                     c. We can type on our computer besides using a fax or sending a scooter.
surprise! to express feelings
of pleasure, surprise, interest      d. We can use the fax that is beside the computer on the desk.
etc. They are called              3. Besides is a preposition that means in addition to.
interjections. There are other
interjections such as Oh!,
                                     Besides Paula she also invited Kate.
Um or Ah! and we use them         4. Besides is also an adverb that means also.
quite often, usually more in
speaking than in writing.
                                     The film was too long. Besides, it was very boring.
People also use them when         5. Beside is a preposition that means next to.
they don't know what to say,
                                     Sit beside me, please!
or to indicate that they are
thinking about what to say.       6. Read the examples from the text again. How many actions can the
                                     speaker take in each case?
18
             UNIT 1
12 Beside or besides?
     a. You should sit beside / besides your brother.
     b. No one talked to her besides / beside her mother.
     c. The cinema is besides / beside the supermarket.
     d. She works all day. Besides / beside, she has to do the housework.
     e. When she is sad she doesn't like any company besides / beside her pet cat.

13 Form sentences putting these parts in the correct order. Change capitals
     to small letter where necessary.
     a. Is good at math - Although he - Before tests. - He likes to review
     b. Janis also likes - Cooking - Besides reading - And jogging.
     c. Much money - Because she doesn't have - An economy ticket -
        Grace is buying
     d. But she doesn't know - To speak French - Juliet knows how -
        Much German.

14 The teacher will give you the transcript of the first recording. Practise it
     with a partner. Then make a presentation to the whole class. The best
     presentation gets a good mark!


HAVE A CHAT

15       Complete these dialogues expressing surprise, interest, sympathy or
     pleasure. Use the expressions in Exercise 2. Check with the recording and then
     practise the dialogues with your partner. Role play one in front of the class.




     a. A: Look at this! My finger is        b. A: I scored 7 on my science test.
           bleeding.                            B: _______________________!
        B: _______________________!




     c. A: Jenny is going to London to       d. A: 12,790,000 live in Tokyo.
           study English.                       B: _______________________!
        B: _______________________!
                                                                           TANDING
                                                   COMMUNICATION AND UNDERS           19
              16 Fill in the gaps in this text about different ways of communicating with
                 the expressions in the box.


                 · computer      · gestures       · photos   · speaking        · telephone




                 We use various ways of communicating with each
                 other; the most effective are _________ and _________,
                 but these types of communication require people to be
                 present in front of each other. The problem arises when
                 two people are at a distance. The invention of the
                 _________ makes it possible to communicate even when
                 people are far away from each other. Unfortunately, this
                 channel only allows us to use our voice but not images.
                 However, the invention of the _________ helps
                 us share a huge amount of information
                 through other types of data such as
                 written messages, _________
                 and even videos.




              FAST CHECK

               17 Join the two parts of the dialogues.                          (10 points)

                                A                                       B

                Look mum, I can ride my bike.          Oh dear, what a pity.

                 Karen has a really small dog.         Congratulations! You are very
                                                       good at languages.

                Danny can't go to the park with us. Oh, now I understand.

                You divide the number by two and Wow, that's really great, Annie.
                subtract 10.

                I can speak Spanish and English!       Wow, how tiny it is!

                     Your           0-5                  6-8                9 - 10
                    result:   Review the lesson       Quite good          Excellent




20
     UNIT 1
WRITE IT DOWN                                                                       Mi d                 a
                                                                                      n               T e se r
18 Work in pairs. Your friend is telling you about the way people
   communicate. Write down what he / she tells you using sentences with
                                                                                       We always talk like this,
   linking words such as and, because, or, although, besides, and but.                using our home telephone
   Example:                                                                                   numbers.
   Jorge says that sometimes people speak the same language BUT they don't
   communicate. We need to communicate BECAUSE we live in society. To
   communicate we can use different channels, for example the telephone, e-
   mail OR letters.



                                                                                      Yes, but look at Standing
                                                                                      Bear. He bought a mobile
 PLAY IT                                                                               phone only yesterday!

      Play “Getting nervous” in groups of four.

      a. Prepare cards with these linking words: although, besides, but, and, because and or.
      b. Place them face up on the table.
      c. Player 1 reads the first sentence and all the players must try to tap the right linking word .
      d. The Player who first puts his / her hand on the linking word says the complete sentence. If the
         sentence is correct, he / she wins 10 points; if it isn't, Player 2 reads the first sentence again.
      e. The game continues until all the sentences have been correctly completed.
      f. The winner is the player who has the most points.

      Sentences
      1. There is bread ___ butter for breakfast.
      2. His mother won't be there, ___ his father might.
      3. They are tired ___ they worked all night.
      4. ___ the sun was shining it wasn't very warm.
      5. Is your sister older ___ younger than you.
      6. ___ working as a teacher, he also writes poems in his spare time.




 CHECK IT OVER!                                                         ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                  I need more work         I did OK       I did really well!

   Listening
   Speaking
   Writing


                                                                         TANDING
                                                 COMMUNICATION AND UNDERS                                         21
                   DECODING WRITING
                   READING
                                                                                                          Lesson 3


                                            THINK AHEAD

                                     1 Can you match the examples of alphabets (1 - 5) with their names (a. - e.)?


                                            1                                     2




                                                                3




            Bear it                         4                                     5
            in mind
                                          a. Arabic     b. Chinese      c. Cyrillic   d. Greek         e. Latin
When we give the reason
for our actions, we use the          2 Choose the best definition for the word alphabet.
word because.
I am watching this film                   a. Set of symbols or characters that represent the sounds of a language in
because I think it is interesting.           writing.
We can also use since and                 b. Letters such as A, B, C that permit us to write messages and to
as when the reason is known.                 communicate.
Since I'm already in the                  c. Different drawings made by hand that represent the sounds in a
cinema, I will watch the                     spoken language.
movie.
As you already know, I like
horror movies.                       3 Which culture do you think the pictures below represent? How do you
                                          know? Give reasons.
                                          a. Ancient Egyptian        b. Ancient Greek            c. Ancient Maya.




                                      1                                          2


                                     4 Considering the pictures above and the information you have discussed,
                                          what do you think the text you are going to read will be about?


22
              UNIT 1
   Ashmolean Museum
   Beaumont Street
   Oxford, UK
   OX1 2PH
   Tel: (01865) 278000
   Fax: (01865) 278018
   Report No. 23/ 2008
   From: Prof, Geoff Harding
   To: Dr. Karen Rasmussen

                                                                                      on the brochure we are
                                            report to inform you of the progress
As requested by you, I am writing this                                                    on the Mayan tablet
                                                 about the investigation on the writing
prep  aring for the visitors to our museum and
in the possession of our museum.
                                                                                     need to write it in simple
                                          all ages, including school children, we
Because the brochure is for tourists of                                                       We also need to
                                                     it and make the best use of our work.
languag   e. This way, all readers can understand                                                  at. We need
                                                          brochure user-friendly and nice to look
 include lots of  pictures because we want to make the                              our own museum exhibits.
                                         sible and we need to include pictures of
 to get as many original pictures as pos
                                                                                                        helping
                                                             ght because two graduate students are
 Our work is     going very well and faster than we thou                                the brochure under the
                                              the pictures. I think it is best to write
  me with the preparation of the text and
  following headings:                                                                                 ideograms
                                                            • Composition - phonetic symbols and
  • Origin of May   an writing
                                                            • Recent discoveries
  • Material used for writing
                                                                                       e my work?
                                           stions and requests so that I can continu
  Can you please also answer a few que
                                         help with the brochure?
 1. Are we getting any new students to                                                 ures?
                                         with all the equipment to take good pict
 2. Are you sending us a photographer,                                              I need to know because of
                                       copies of the brochure or only 3,000?
 3. Are we printing more than 5,000
     the costs.
                                                                                                                  e
                                                                   but I need your reply as soon as possibl
 I'm sure you are very   busy with the Roman Coin exhibition,
 because we are short of time.
                                                                                                  city of Palenque
                                                   origin of the tablet, I believe that it is the
  As to the second point of my report and the real                                                        ets found
                                                           we have looks very similar to other tabl
  (1) and not Hon  duras or Guatemala because the tablet                                  e soon because all the
                                             decode the message on the tablet quit
  at the location. And I think that we can
                                          s our theory.
  information we have so far corroborate
                                                                                                                   .
                                                                     er to discuss new plans for the museum
   Please remember we    are meeting on Tuesday evening for dinn

   Yours
   Prof. Geoff Harding
                                          ______________
    ________________________________
    (1) Near the Usumacinta River in the Mexican state of Chiapas.

                                                                                                t of Mesoamerican Studies,
                                                          Source: Foundation for the Advancemen
                                                                                                         eum, Oxford, UK
                                                                     on-line bulletin, and Ashmolean Mus
                                                                              TANDING
                                                      COMMUNICATION AND UNDERS                                         23
                                    GO AHEAD

                              5 Read the text on page 23 and check your predictions in Exercise 4.

                              6 As you can see, the report on page 23 is presented in four different
                                 colours. Can you match each part with the corresponding topic?
                                 a. Progress report on the brochure
                                 b. Progress report on the investigation
                                 c. Introduction
                                 d. Questions and requests

                              7 Why are some parts in the text on page 23 marked with bullet points (•)?
                                 a. Because the writer wants to make the text more interesting.
                                 b. Because the writer wants to enumerate several ideas in a short way.
Mi d                a
                 T e se r
                                 c. Because the writer wants to show that he knows how to write a report.
  n
                              8 What do we call the note indicated by the number (1) in the last paragraph
 Why was the police officer      of the text on page 23?
    under the blanket?
                                 a. Footnote.          b. Title.               c. Heading.

                              9 Read the text on page 23 again and choose the best option to complete
                                 the sentences.
                                 a. Prof. Harding is working on the brochure
                                    i. alone.                       ii. with some students.

                                 b. The brochure will include
                                    i. text and pictures.            ii. drawings and photos.

                                 c. Mayan writing is composed by
                                    i. hieroglyphics and letters. ii. phonetic and other symbols.
     Because he was an
      under cover cop!           d. Prof. Harding thinks the tablet he is investigating is from
                                    i. Mexico.                       ii. Honduras.

                              10 Read the text on page 23 again and find these reasons. Write sentences in
                                 your notebook using because.
                                 a. Reason(s) for writing the report.
                                 b. Reason(s) for using simple language in the brochure.
                                 c. Reason(s) for including lots of pictures in the brochure.
                                 d Reason(s) why Prof. Harding needs a fast reply.

                              11 Now match Prof. Harding's questions in the text on page 23 (1. - 3.) with
                                 Dr. Rasmussen's answers below (a. - c.).
                                 a. I think that we do not need too many copies of the brochure because it
                                    would be a waste of money.
                                 b. Gerald Standing is free to take photos next Thursday.
                                 c. I'm not sure if we can spare any extra people to help you any time soon.

24
           UNIT 1
      MAKE CONNECTIONS

 TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

 The Present Continuous
 1. Read these sentences from the report on page 23.
    a. As requested by you, I am writing this report to inform you of the
       progress on the brochure.
    b. Two graduate students are helping me with the preparation of the
       text and the pictures.
    c. Are we getting any new students to help with the brochure?
    d. Are we printing 5,000 copies of the brochure?

 2. What do the sentences above refer to?
    a. Activities happening right now.
    b. Activities happening in the present but not necessarily this very moment.
    c. Activities happening in the near future, especially planned future events.

 3. All three answers are correct. Sentence a. refers to an activity happening
    right now. Sentence b. refers to an activity happening in the present but
    not necessarily at this very moment and sentences c. and d. refer to
    activities happening (or not) in the near future, especially in planned
    future events.

 4. Go back to the text and find three more sentences in the Present
    Continous. What do they refer to?


12 Which of these sentences refer to planned activities in the future?
   a. I'm now investigating the real origin of the tablet.
   b. I am meeting some friends after work.
   c. They are watching Batman and Robin on TV at the moment.
   d. Polly is coming to dinner tomorrow.
   e. John, are you sleeping?
   f. What are you doing at the weekend?

13 Complete these short dialogues with an appropriate question referring to
   the underlined part.
   a. A: ___________________________________________________?
      B: We are going to Arica next month.
   b. A: ___________________________________________________?
      B: No, she is not going to the party with us on Tuesday.
   c. A: ___________________________________________________?
      B: He is visiting his grandparents at the weekend.
   d. A: ___________________________________________________?
      B: We are playing football after school today.



                                                                          TANDING
                                                  COMMUNICATION AND UNDERS          25
                            14 Choose one option to complete each sentence.
                                 a. I am going to the cinema because / since I like the actors.
                                 b. As / Because you already know, we are changing the test to Monday.
                                 c. He is preparing the brochure because / since the museum needs it.
                                 d. Because / Since we are already here we can stay and enjoy it.

                            HAVE A CHAT

                            15 Jenna and Robert are preparing a report on their history project on
Mi d               a
                T e se r
                                 Mayan writing. Prepare a short conversation saying what they need to do
  n
                                 and why.
                                 Here are some points to help you.
Here are some examples of
Mayan writing.                   • Reasons for writing the report.
                                 • Reasons for putting lots of pictures.
                                 • Reasons for using a computer and not write it by hand.
                                 • Use the library or the Internet?
                                 • When to present it.
                                 Jenna: Why __________________?
                                 Robert: Because _______________
                                 Jenna: Do you think ___________?
                                 Robert: Yes, because ___________
                                 Jenna: Is it better to ____________?
                                 Robert: I think __________________. Do we need to ______________?
                                 Jenna: ___________. When do we need ________________?
                                 Robert: ______________________

                            16      Now listen to the conversation. Check your answers, practise with
                                 your partner and role play the conversation in front of the class.

                            17 Fill in the gaps in the e-mail with the verb in the Present Continuous to
                                 refer to future plans.




26
           UNIT 1
 FAST CHECK

 18 Change the sentences in the negative form into the affirmative form
     and the ones in the affirmative form into questions.            (10 points)
     a. He is not going to the doctor's tomorrow.                           (+)
     b. Conrad is travelling to Miami with his friends.                     (?)
     c. Geraldine is not meeting us for dinner.                             (+)
     d. Jim's flight is at 6 p.m. so they are leaving him at the airport.   (?)
     e. They aren't planning to get married until next year.                (+)

       Your            0-5                   6-8                  9 - 10
      result:    Review the lesson        Quite good            Excellent


 WRITE IT DOWN

19 Write a short report on your progress in this lesson. Include an
   introduction, one or two sentences on the READING part, and one
   sentence on the MAKE CONNECTIONS part.

 PLAY IT

      Invent a code and write a message using it.

      a. Work in groups of four students and decide the message you would like to write.
      b. Write out what you would like to write and leave spaces in between the lines for creating your code.
      c. These are some examples of encoding, but you can invent your own code.
         i. Leave all consonants the same, but replace all vowels with the consonant that follows that
             vowel in the alphabet.
         ii. You can replace vowels using special symbols.
             Example:
             A = --        E = -.-       I = .-.         O = ..-- U = .-.-
             Wh--t .-.s th-.- m-.-ss- - g-.- s- - y.-.ng?
      d. Encode your message. If you want to make it easier, include the key to the code. If not, let the
         receivers work it out.
      e. Swap messages with another group and decode them.


CHECK IT OVER!                                                              ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                   I need more work          I did OK       I did really well!

   Reading
   Speaking
   Writing

                                                                           TANDING
                                                   COMMUNICATION AND UNDERS                                27
                VISIBLE BODY
                LISTENING
                                                                                                 Lesson 4


                                     THINK AHEAD

                                1 How would you express the following in body language or gestures?
                                  a. Stop!                         b. Come here!
                                  c. Yes.                          d. No.
                                  e. My stomach is hurting.        f. Be quiet!
                                  g. Hello.                        h. Let me think.

                                2 What part of the body do people most frequently use to express non-
                                  verbal communication? Rate from 1 (least common) to 5 (most common).
                                  Compare with a partner and discuss giving examples of non-verbal
                                  communication.




Mi d                 a
  n               T e se r

Some theories claim that
people can communicate
through the transfer of
thoughts or feelings by means                    face                                 fingers
other than the five classical
senses of sight, hearing,
taste, smell and touch. This
way of communication is
called telepathy.




                                                                   hands




                                                 legs                                 shoulder


28
            UNIT 1
3 Because body language is so important in communication we often use
    body parts in idiomatic expressions. Can you match the meanings?

     a. John has a really big mouth.       i. I love sweet things such as
                                              cakes and ice-cream.

     b. We don't see eye to eye on         ii. The things they sell there are
        almost anything.                       really expensive.

     c. My daughter Catalina is the        iii. We can't agree or
        apple of my eye.                        compromise on things.

     d. Everything in that new boutique iv. I love her more than anything
        costs an arm and a leg.             else in the world.

     e. Mmm, give me some more           v. He talks too much and
        chocolate. I have a sweet tooth.    cannot keep secrets.


4 How much of our communication does body language occupy? Choose a
    possible answer.
    a. 55%           b. 80%        c. 5%


       GO AHEAD

5       Listen and check your prediction in Exercise 4.

6       What kind of programme is it?
    a. A radio talk show.
    b. A television talk show.
    c. A radio interview.

7       Listen again and write who expressed the feelings (speaker), and the
    expressions they used (expression).

           Feeling                 Speaker                 Expression

Surprise

Pleasure / happiness

Worry

Interest




                                                                         TANDING
                                                 COMMUNICATION AND UNDERS          29
                                  8       Listen again. Are these statements true or false?
                                      a. Andrew Remington is a well-known actor.
                                      b. Gina Radcliff is preparing a new play.
                                      c. Only 7% of our communication is in words.
                                      d. More than half of our communication takes place through body
                                         language.

                                  9       Listen once more and choose the correct word.
                                      a. I'm a little worried about the word export / expert.
                                      b. I also find / found it surprising.
                                      c. We're preparing a new play / plan.



                                        MAKE CONNECTIONS

                                  TAKE A CLOSER LOOK
           Bear it
           in mind                The Present Continuous (Continued)
Try to learn and use these        1. Read these sentences from the listening text. Pay special attention to the
expressions to express               verb form in bold.
feelings, which are important         a. On Wednesday all actors are meeting to discuss how to express anger.
in everyday language.
                                      b. For example, we're interviewing people about their gestures and
It worries me a little.                  facial expressions.
It's really interesting.              c. Others are meeting with psychologists to discuss communication
What a surprise!                         through body language.
It's such a pleasure.
Let me tell you how happy I
am.
                                  2. The Present Continuous is used to talk about arrangements for events at
I'm also glad to be here.            a time later than now. There is a suggestion that more than one person
It's a pleasure.                     knows about the event, and that there is some preparation for the event.
I'm a little worried about her.       a. Jim is going to Miami tomorrow so I am taking him to the airport - both
I also find it surprising.               Jim and I know about it and we have made the arrangements.
How interesting!                      b. I am leaving town next Monday - I already have my ticket.
                                      c. We are staying with friends when we get to Boston - both they and I
                                         agree to that.

                                  3. Listen to the last two exchanges of the conversation. Find and write two
                                     more example with the Present Continuous. Do they refer to future
                                     arrangements?

                                  BE CAREFUL! The Simple Present is used when a future event is part of a
                                  programme or time-table. Notice the difference between:
                                  a. We're having a staff meeting next Monday.
                                  b. We have a staff meeting next Monday as we always do.(It's on the time-table.)




30
             UNIT 1
10 Complete these dialogues with the question corresponding to the
   information in bold.
   a. A: ____________________________________________?
      B: All actors are meeting on Wednesday.
   b. A: ____________________________________________?
      B: Some actors are interviewing people next week.
   c. A: ____________________________________________?
      B: Other actors are meeting with psychologists to discuss ways of
         communicating.

11 What arrangements have they made for the future? Write the complete
   sentences in your notebook.




   a. Juliet: meet Peter / train station   b. Karin: go to concert / tomorrow




   c. Ken and Lucy: get married / June     d. Mr and Mrs Livingston: buy a new
                                              house / next year



12 Connect these sentences using and, or, but, because, although, besides.
   a. He knows about body language. He is a drama teacher.
   b. They use different costumes in the play. They use make-up.
   c. Lisa likes playing the guitar. She doesn't have time to practise.
   d. You can use the telephone. You can use the fax machine if you prefer.
   e. They are doing interviews. They are also meeting with psychologists.



                                                                        TANDING
                                                COMMUNICATION AND UNDERS          31
              HAVE A CHAT

              13       Copy and complete this conversation in your notebook, using the
                   expressions in the box. Check with the recording.

                                · How interesting!      · I'm glad   · It's so nice
                                  · It worries me a little    · What a surprise!

                   Tricia:      Hi, Nicola! ____________ to see you again.
                   Nicola:      Yes, ____________ to see you too.
                   Tricia:      Jennifer is here too.
                   Nicola:      ____________ Isn't she going to France in three day's time?
                   Tricia:      Yes, she is; but she's here today because her boyfriend has a little
                                role in a new film.
                   Nicola:      ____________.
                   Tricia:      Yes, and she thinks he can get her into a film too.
                   Nicola:      ____________. She has really high hopes and may get disappointed.

              14 Practise the conversation with a partner and then role play it in front of
                   the class.

              15 Put the words in order and write the correct sentences in your notebook.
                   a. going / They /are / to / after / school / the / cinema.
                   b. My / meeting / boss / is / some / people / important / tomorrow.
                   c. She / is / month / taking / her / exams / English / next.
                   d. The / is / on / visiting / a / salesman / client / Monday / new.


               FAST CHECK

               16 Match the questions with the answers.                               (10 points)

                   a. What is Becky doing on Monday? i. Yes, in June or July I think.

                   b. Is he flying to New York or           ii. My friends - Karen and
                      Washington?                               Sharon.

                   c. Are they getting married soon? iii. I'm not sure. I think she is
                                                          going to a party.

                   d. Why is Dell meeting Tom at the iv. Because he doesn't want to
                      station?                           take a taxi.

                   e. Who are you meeting after             v. Neither - he's going to San
                      school?                                  Francisco.

                       Your             0-3                  4-6                  7 - 10
                      result:     Review the lesson       Quite good            Excellent




32
     UNIT 1
 WRITE IT DOWN

17 Observe your classmates and make notes of the body language they use.
   Write a short paragraph listing the gestures and expressions they use and
   what they communicate with them.
   Example: Camila uses her hands a lot when she talks. She often says “ how
            interesting!” when she listens to people.




18 This proverb about communication is “glued together”. Write it correctly
   in your notebook and discuss its meaning.
                       onol og
                Tw o m         ue s d                       l o g u e.
                                        o not ma kea d ia




CHECK IT OVER!                                                                   ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                  I need more work             I did OK            I did really well!

   Listening
   Speaking
   Writing

                                                                             TANDING
                                                     COMMUNICATION AND UNDERS           33
 1 Look at the picture carefully. It is Mr. Brook Winston's living room. What does the picture tell you about
     him? Use the correct linking words (and, or, but, although, besides, because, since, as) to connect the
     parts of the sentences.
     a. Mr. Winston lives in London ___________________ he works in Essex ___________________ usually
        travels to work by car.
     b. ________________ he is a well-known pizza chef, he doesn't like cooking at home ________________
        he likes doing other things after work.
     c. Mr. Winston is married ___________________ he has two children.
     d. ___________________ playing the piano he also plays the violin, ___________________ he doesn't
        know how to play the trumpet.
     e. Mr. Winston paints beautiful pictures. He usually uses oil paints ___________________ water colours.
     f. ___________________ he speaks German very well he doesn't speak French ___________________
        he is taking lessons ___________________ he has some friends in France.
     g. He plays tennis ___________________ he is not playing right now.
     h. Mr. Winston uses the computer to chat to his friends in France ___________________ Spain.
     i. ___________________ he is a chef ___________________ knows about nutrition, he likes to eat
        healthy food. He is eating a salad now ___________________ drinking a glass of milk.


34
            UNIT 1
2 Read the letter below. With your partner fill in the gaps with the correct linking words and ask and
   answer questions about Ciara and her plans for the future.


         12, Clondalkin Road
        Walkinstown
        Dublin 12
        Ireland

        Dear Salvador,
        My name is Ciara ____ I'm from Irel
                                           and.
       Originally, I'm from Galway ____ I
                                          am
       moving to Dublin next month ____
       I got a job there as a nurse.

       ____ speaking English I also speak
                                             Gaelic - that's the original language
       Ireland. When I get to Dublin I am plan                                     of
                                              ning to take Spanish lessons. ____
       the language very much I would like                                          I like
                                             to have a pen pal from South America
       ____ practise my Spanish.

       ____ I can play the tin whistle I can
                                               't play the Bodhrán, which is a typica
       Irish drum. Apart from Spanish I am plan                                      l
                                                ning to take Bodhrán lessons when I
      a little more time - probably when I am                                       have
                                                already in Dublin.
      Next week, I am taking my final nursing
                                                exams ____ I am a little worried
      ____ the exams are so important.
                                            I and other students are getting tog
      this weekend to prepare for the exa                                         ether
                                            ms.
      Can you tell me something about you?
                                           Do you play the guitar ____ any oth
     instrument? What other languages do                                      er
                                           you speak apart from English ____
                                                                             Spanish?
     I hope you will write to me soon.
                                              Love,
                                             Ciara.



                                                                       TANDING
                                               COMMUNICATION AND UNDERS                                  35
READING - TWO ANNOUNCEMENTS



 I.       Zak and Theresa Jacob, from here on known as the proud parents, are
          delighted to announce the birth of their twins, Sahara and Aisha. We can
          hardly express our joy at the arrival of our baby girls - Sahara with 49 cm and
          3.5 kilos and her sister Aisha with 48 cm and 3.2 kilos who are now happily at
          home and waiting for your visit. You can bring gifts but if you can't, just bring
          lots of joy and smiles.
              Blessed with two babies sweet as can be
              We love this addition to our family!
              Four more little hands
              Four more little feet
              now we can say
              Our family is complete!

                                                                       Source: wwwhappygreetings.net




II. "Ladies and gentlemen, this is Jenny O'Connell, your Flight - Service Manager
    speaking. Please put away all your hand baggage in the overhead
    compartments or under your seats. The seat belt sign is on so you need to take
    your seat and fasten your seat belt. Also make sure the back of your seat is
    straight and trays are in their full upright position.
      If you are sitting next to an emergency exit, please read the special instructions
      card located by your seat. You can also ask the flight attendant to help you.
      You need to turn off all cellular phones, pagers, radios and remote controlled
      toys for the full duration of the flight because these items can interfere with
      the navigational and communication equipment on this aircraft.
      We remind you that this is a non-smoking flight. Smoking is prohibited on the
      entire aircraft, including the lavatories.
      If you have any questions about our flight today, please don't hesitate to ask
      one of our flight attendants. Thank you."

                                                                         Source: www.airodyssey.net



36
           UNIT 1
1 Read the two announcements and identify which one (I or II) shows these characteristics.   6 pts.
    a. Formal language           b. Informal language          c. Joyful
    d. Serious                   e. Spoken                     f. Written

2 Read the announcements again and choose the best option to complete the sentences.         5 pts.
    a. The twins were born with
       i. the same size and weight.
       ii. different size and weight.

    b. Visitors
       i. do not need to bring gifts.
       ii. need to bring gifts.

    c. The person speaking in the second announcement is
       i. the pilot.
       ii. The Flight Service Manager.

    d. The flight
       i. permits smoking.
       ii. does not permit smoking.

    e. Travellers
       i. can use their mobile phones.
       ii. can't use their mobile phones.

LISTENING - THE MORSE CODE
3    Listen to the recording. What kind of programme is it?                                  1 pts.
    a. A TV programme
    b. A radio programme

4       Listen again and write down the following codes.                                     4 pts.
    a. Letter A: _______                b. Letter B: _______
    c. Number 1: _______                d. SOS:      _______

5       Listen once more and answer these questions.                                         4 pts.
    a. Is John a pilot or a naval officer?
    b. What forms of communication can be used in modern times?
    c. When was the Morse Code invented?
    d. How fast can good Morse code operators write?


                                                                            TANDING
                                                    COMMUNICATION AND UNDERS                    37
LANGUAGE
6 Choose the best linking word in each sentence.                                                5 pts.
     a. Lisa is not going to the picnic and / because she is ill.
     b. Wilson can't play basketball because / but he is very good at tennis.
     c. I like orange juice because / but I don't like apple juice.
     d. Although / besides I like watching football I don't know how to play it.
     e. Although / Since we are here, let's have an ice-cream.

 7 Match the sentences (a. - d.) with the corresponding pictures (1 - 4).                       4 pts.
     a. Jenna and Gloria are going to an ice-cream parlour after school.
     b. So what time are you meeting John at the train station?
     c. Are you coming to the party on Thursday?
     d. I am playing football with some friends in the evening.




 1                          2                           3                          4


SPEAKING
8 Complete the questions in these dialogues using the clues provided. Role play the completed   10 pts.
     dialogues with a partner.
     a. A: What colour / Marion / bedroom?
        B: She is painting it blue and red!



     b. A: Where / Jordan and her friends / handball?
        B: They are playing in the school gym.




     c. A: Why / Kate / eat only a small salad?
        B: Because she isn't hungry at the moment.



     d. A: When / you and Lynn / plan to meet?
        B: We are planning to meet after school today.




38
            UNIT 1
WRITING
9 Join the sentences in this text about communicating using linking words.                                           10 pts.

   Communication is a process between at least two people. When you communicate
   you understand what other people want to tell you. You offer your own feelings and
   reactions. You are not born with communication skills. You learn communications skills.
   We learn communication skills observing other people. We use words and sounds to
   communicate. We also use other means such as gestures and facial expressions.
   Communication is important. It helps us understand each other.




                                    Your          1 - 14            15 - 34                35 - 49                    Total
                                   result:    Not too good        Acceptable               Great!                    49 pts.




 FINAL CHECK                                                                                                 ✔✔

                                                                        Nearly Always
Choose one alternative according to your performance.                   Sometimes
                                                                        Always



                                                                        Never
Speaking
· I use English structures correctly.                                                   Use this clue to work out your score
                                                                                        Never = 0
· I use varied and correct vocabulary.                                                  Sometimes = 1
· Others can understand me.                                                             Nearly Always = 2
Writing                                                                                 Always = 3
· My writing is coherent and follows the central idea.
                                                                                        If you get:
· I use the correct sentence formation and sentence structure.                          0 - 10 = Watch out! You must look back
· I use the correct spelling, punctuation, capitalisation and format.                   and review the whole unit. Ask your
Reading                                                                                 teacher and / or a classmate for
· I am aware of the differences in tenses, gender and number.                           additional help and remedial work.
                                                                                        11 - 22 = Not too bad, but there are
· I identify the main idea and understand the text as a whole.                          areas you still have problems with.
· I can locate details and look for specific information.                               Identify those areas and ask your
Listening                                                                               teacher and / or a classmate for
· I can get the general idea.                                                           additional help and remedial work.
                                                                                        23 - 34 = You are doing fine, but you
· I understand the details and identify speakers.                                       can certainly do better. Get together
· I identify the source of listening texts and recognise the format.                    with a classmate and review your
Group work                                                                              weak points.
                                                                                        35 - 45 = Congratulations! Great
· I share my ideas with the group.
                                                                                        progress - you may look ahead to the
· I listen to and respect my partners' points of view.                                  new unit and help your classmates who
· I help solve problems and contribute with relevant information.                       need to review.

                                                                          TANDING
                                                  COMMUNICATION AND UNDERS                                                 39
     IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL LEARN TO:                                 YOU WILL USE THE FOLLOWING TEXT TYPES:
     Reading: Find specific information / Identify the origin of     Reading: A brochure / A film script
     texts                                                           Listening: An extract from a book / A report
     Listening: Match information / Find specific information /      YOU WILL ALSO LEARN:
     Discriminate between correct and incorrect information          Grammar: Modal verbs may /might / The Past Continuous tense
     Production: Express personal opinions and ideas / Refer to      Vocabulary: Related to strange and wonderful events and
     personal experiences                                            phenomena
     Functions: Express opinions / Talk about duration of events /   YOU WILL PAY SPECIAL ATTENTION TO THESE VALUES:
     Refer to personal experience                                    Respect for different opinions and experiences



40
SET UP


1 Where near your house do you need to go if you want to do the following?
   Talk about your personal experiences.
   a. Get to a boat.                             b. Find a place to sleep.
   c. Put up your tent.                          d. Ask for information.
   e. Have a picnic.                             f. Get some food.


2 Match the actions in exercise 1 with these symbols.




   1                  2                3                  4                  5             6

3 How good are you at spotting mistakes? Three of these headlines taken from newspapers have one
   mistake each, and one of them has no mistakes. Find the mistakes and correct them.
   a.     COSTA BRAVA - NEW PARADISE FOR TURISTS
   b.     HURICAN MOVING TOWARDS NEW ORLEANS


   c.     LOST CIVILISATION FOUND IN AMAZON FOREST

   d.     TOO MEN ARRESTED IN BANK ROBBERY

4 There are six pairs of antonyms in the box. Can you form the pairs?

                    · clever    · correct    · familiar    · heavy       · light  · ordinary
              · persistent   · sporadic     · strange     · stupid      · wonderful    · wrong

        You can find the 10 most common typos (typing mistakes) at
        http://www.hongkiat.com/blog/10-most-common-typos-in-blogging/
                                                                                                   41
        WELCOME TO NEW ZEALAND
        READING
                                                                                            Lesson 1


                       THINK AHEAD

                  1 Classify the words in the box under the corresponding heading.
                                                         Tourism



                         Places                       Things we do                      People

                   · ballroom      · chef     · dance       · drive  · golf course      · guide
                   · highway       · hill   · hotel     · life-guard    · manager       · maid
                    · receptionist     · restaurant      · sheep farm      · skydive     · stay
                          · swimming pool        · travel     · use   · village    · visit

                  2 What films are these photos from?




                  3 Read the information in the chart. How long do the events last / take?
                    Say / Write sentences in your notebook.
                    Example:      A film lasts one and a half hours.
                                  A trip to Easter Island takes 5 hours. / It takes 5 hours to travel
                                  to Easter Island.
                                      Event                                Duration
                                       A film                         One and a half hours
                                      A class                             45 minutes
                             Our summer holiday                            2 months
                             A trip to Easter Island                        5 hours
                                  A pop concert                             2 hours
                                 Eating a pizza                           10 minutes

                  4 Which of these do you think you can find in a tourism brochure?
                    a. Attractions.                       b. Costs.
                    c. FAQs (frequently asked questions). d. Maps / directions.
                    e. Travel dates.                      f. How to get to the nearest hospital.

42
     UNIT 2
H O BB                            RM T O UR
       IT O N M O V IE SE T & FA R M
                             Lord       r is a real must-do for every
The Hobbiton Movie Set & Farm Tou
                                          ugh New Zealand. There are just
of the Rings (LOTR) fan travelling thro
                                           on our real-life sheep farm. Your
so many things to do in Hobbiton and
                                         ugh the ten-acre site full of hills
experienced tour guides take you thro
                                      The guides are happy to explain all
where the LOTR films were made.
                                      tell you stories about the filming
about the little people's village and
                                          full tour in a horse-drawn
process. Optionally, you may take the
                                        facility located 3 miles from
 carriage and visit the cheese making
                                      biton tour is one and a half hours.
 Hobbiton. The duration of the Hob
                                       additional 45 minutes to an hour.
 The cheese farm tour might take an
                                      you stay for at least a few days in
 After the tour, we recommend that
                                     ingual receptionists say hello to you
 our luxury hotel where our multi-l
                                         take a warm bath in a beautifully
 in four different languages. You may
                                         erienced staff who know how to
 decorated room prepared by our exp
                                          , we invite you to our gourmet
 make a guest welcome. After you rest
                                        native of Thailand, only 25
 restaurant where it takes our chef, a
                                          may choose from a menu from
  minutes to prepare any dish and you
                                      t to try our delicious “finger foods”
  five continents. Or, you might wan
                                      a variety of dips.
  such as chips, vegetable sticks and
                                                                                    room or they may take
                                             the playground facilities or the video
  And  how about children? Kids may use                                                rse. Adults may
                                                  life-guard) and enjoy a mini-golf cou
  a swim in the indoor swimming pool (with a                                 course.
                                        ballroom, or use the full-sized golf
  use the bar, dance in the 5 x 5 metre
                                  activities which include:
  Talk to our manager about other                                         • Paintball Shooting
  • Tandem Skydives             • Hot Air Ballooning

                                              S
   FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTION lities?
   Q.1: Does Hobbiton have con     ference faci
                                                                             tions.
                                         dings, seminars and other celebra
   A.1: Yes, it's a great venue for wed                    es and excursions?
                                           itional activiti
   Q.2: Is there an extra charge for add
   A.2: The costs depend     on the activity.
                                            Hobbiton?
   Q.3: How long does it take to get to                       might take up to four hours by coa
                                                                                                ch or three
   A.3: It takes two   hours by car from Auckland but it
         and a half hours by train.
                                          through a website?
    Q.4: Is it possible to book my visit
    A.4: Yes, bookings are on-line  , or by phone, fax or letter.

    Room types:                                                    up to 6 people)
    • Single    • Double         • Family can (might accommodate
                                                                                       Hills.
                                                     ay 27 and turn south after Bombay
    How to get her  e from Auckland: Take State Highw
    Bookings at
    Ph: +64 (0) 7 888 9913
    Fax: +64 (0) 7 888 7498
    Email: office@hobbitontours.co.nz
    Website www.hobbitontours.com
                                                                                                          ID=11970
                                                                      m/gallery/HobbitonFlashGallery.aspx?
                                  Source : http://www.hobbitontours.co


                                                                               FUL!
                                                        HOW STRANGE! HOW WONDER                                      43
                                    GO AHEAD
Mi d                a
  n              T e se r
                               5 Read the text and check your predictions in Exercise 4.
The word holiday is a
compound word made up of       6 Read the text again and find the answers to these questions.
two other words - holy,
                                  a. How long is the Hobbiton tour?
meaning saintly, and day.
So a holiday is originally a
                                  b. How long might the additional sheep farm tour take?
day on which people do not        c. How long does it take the chef to prepare any dish?
work to celebrate their           d. How long is the car journey from Auckland to Hobbiton?
religious beliefs.                e. Does it take more or less time to go to Hobitton by train than by car?
                                  f. How long is the trip from Auckland to Hobbiton by coach?

                               7 Read the text again and write the name of the person in charge.
                                        Person in charge                            Activities
                                                                     a. Cooking the food.
                                                                     b. Extra activities.
                                                                     c. Looking after children in the
                                                                        swimming pool.
                                                                     d. Preparing the hotel rooms.
                                                                     e. Telling tourists about the farm and
                                                                        the film making process.
                                                                     f. Welcoming the guests.

                               8 Are these statements true or false? Correct the false statements.
                                  a. The cheese making facility is located 45 miles from Hobbiton.
                                  b. The chef is from Thailand.
                                  c. It takes 25 minutes to prepare the finger foods on the menu.
                                  d. It is possible to celebrate weddings and seminars at Hobbiton.
                                  e. Children may use the ballroom and the full-sized golf course.
                                  f. People may only book in person.

                                    MAKE CONNECTIONS

                               9 Fill in the booking form for Hobbiton farm with your own personal details.
                                  You can use your imagination!



                                                                            ____________________
      First Name: ________________________________ Surname: ____________
      Full address: ___________________________________________   Telephone Number: ____________
                                                                           _____________________
      Language spoken: ___________________________ E-mail address: ______
      Form of payment (tick one): Credit card: ___ Cheque: ___ Cash: ___
                                                                         ___ Telephone: ___
      Booking form (tick one): Fax: ___ E-mail: ___ Website: ___ Letter:
      Type of room (tick one): Single: ___ Double: ___ Family room: ___
                                                                        ________________________
      Full tour or Hobbiton only? ____________________________________
                                                                            ____________________
      Extra attractions? ________________________________________________


44
           UNIT 2
10 Write at least three other questions you could ask the Hobbiton Manager
   before you book a holiday. Ask your partner to answer them.                                  Danger

11 Choose the correct word, say or tell.                                            Say and tell mean decir, but
                                                                                    they are used differently.
   a. I get really angry when you tell / say lies.                                  You say something but you
   b. When you see Sean, could you tell / say hello for me?                         tell someone something.
   c. Please, could you tell / say your sister that I can't meet her tonight?       I said goodbye / I said
   d. They tell / say Georgette is French, but she could also be Canadian.          goodbye to Mary, but I am
                                                                                    telling Mary a story.
 TAKE A CLOSER LOOK                                                                 Certain expressions are
                                                                                    always used with tell: tell
 May / might                                                                        jokes, tell the truth, tell a lie,
 1. Study these sentences from the text paying special attention to the             while others are always used
    words in bold.                                                                  with say: say prayers, say
                                                                                    good bye, say hello.
   a. You may take the full tour in a horse-drawn carriage.
   b. Kids may use the playground facilities or the video room.
   c. The cheese farm tour might take an additional 45 minutes.
   d. It might take up to four hours by coach or three and a half hours by train.
 2. What do the sentences express?
   a. Suggestion          b. Polite request.        c. Possibility.
 3. The answer is c - we are expressing that something is possible (we are
    making a prediction) now or for the future. The only difference is the
    degree of possibility.
   a. It may rain tomorrow - it is quite possible it will rain tomorrow(+).
   b. It might rain tomorrow -it is less possible it will rain tomorrow(–).
 4. Go back to the reading text. Find and copy all the sentences with may or
    might. Can you identify the degree of possibility?

12 Choose may or might.
   a. Where is he from?
      He ______ be from Cataluña because his name is Ignasi Barceló.
   b. What do you think you will do on your winter holiday?
      I'm not sure yet. We ______ go to Valdivia or Puerto Montt.
   c. Look at the clouds! They are heavy and black.
      Yes, it ______ rain really soon.
   d. Is she from Canada?
      She ______ be. Why do you ask?
      Because of her accent - she speaks French but with a different accent.

13 Make predictions using may / might and the prompts provided . Write the
   sentences in your notebook.
   a. class / organise / picnic or a party
   b. you / study / gastronomy or marketing
   c. your friend / go to Arica or Calama
   d. petrol prices / increase or decrease
   e. you / see the film "Benjamin Button" on Saturday or on Sunday
                                                                               FUL!
                                                        HOW STRANGE! HOW WONDER                                    45
                            HAVE A CHAT


                            14 In pairs, complete this conversation discussing different options to
                                celebrate your school anniversary. Use the expressions in the box.

                                                    · might also    · might go to
                                              · might have a picnic    · might organise

                           A:   We have different options. For example, we _____ the seaside on a big school trip.
                           B:   We might, but it depends on the weather.
                           A:   Or we _____
                           B:   Yes, but a picnic also depends on the weather.
                           A:   Or we _____ a music and dance show.
                           B:   Actually, that's a great idea.
                           A:   Alternatively, we _____ do a cooking competition.
                           B:   Not really, we need too many ingredients and they are expensive.
                           A:   So, what's the best option?
                           B:   The best idea is the music and dance show.

                            15 Match the expressions in the bubbles (a. - c.) with the pictures (1 - 3).
            a.                                                             c.
                  Oh dear, it may                                             If you take your
                                         b.                                 medicine you may feel
                 rain any moment            If he hurries up he
                       now.                                                  better tomorrow.
                                             may still catch it.




     1                                                                              3


                                        2


                            16 Use the information in the chart to answer the questions in the dialogue
                                on page 47.

                                                   Event                                    Duration
                                        Trip from home to airport                          50 minutes
                                      Flight Manchester - London                        1 hour 10 minutes
                                 Bus trip from airport to uncle's house                    45 minutes
                                                 Whole trip                                     ?



46
         UNIT 2
     Gordon: So, how long does it take to get to the airport from your house?
     Susan:  _____________________________________________________
     Gordon: And what's the duration of the flight from Manchester to London?
     Susan:  _____________________________________________________
     Gordon: And then how long is the bus ride from the airport to your uncle's
             house?
     Susan: _____________________________________________________
     Gordon: And how long does the whole trip take?
     Susan: _____________________________________________________
     Gordon: Wow! That's really long!

17       Listen to the recording, compare your answers and practise the
     dialogue in pairs.


 FAST CHECK

 18 Fill in the gaps in the sentences with may or might.
      (✔ = weak probability; (✔✔ = strong probability).             (10 points)
      a. (✔✔) If it's sunny tomorrow we _____________ go to the beach.
      b. (✔) I´m not sure yet but I _____ study engineering or computer sciences.
      c. (✔✔ ) The economic situation is not very good and unemployment
         _____ increase.
      d. (✔) I tried phoning him but he doesn't answer. He _____ be out or
         taking a shower.
      e. (✔) Don't worry! It's not too late. Your friend _____ still come to the
         party.
         Your           0-5                 6-8                 9 - 10
        result:   Review the lesson      Quite good           Excellent


WRITE IT DOWN

19 Your friend Oliver is organising an activity to celebrate your school
     anniversary. What events can you recommend? How long might each
     event take?


CHECK IT OVER!                                                            ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                   I need more work         I did OK       I did really well!

     Reading
     Speaking
     Writing

                                                                               FUL!
                                                        HOW STRANGE! HOW WONDER       47
                  THE STRANGE THINGS WE DO
                  LISTENING
                                                                                                        Lesson 2


                                         THINK AHEAD


           Bear it
                                    1 Choose the best definition of the word TYPO.
           in mind
                                      a. a grammar error
Why do we need to spell
                                      b. a punctuation error
correctly? We need to spell
correctly because:                    c. a typing error
• Poor spelling creates a
  bad impression.                   2 Can you detect one spelling mistake in each sentence?
• It is the first thing a reader
  notices.
• Examiners, teachers, and                a. It is absolutely necesary to pay attention to the recording.
  prospective employers pay
  attention to the way we
  write.
• Even in these days of word
  processors and spell                    b. One of the most comon typos is to omit a letter in a word.
  checks there are times
  when we need to
  handwrite something.
                                          c. What a surprising stori!



                                          d. If you want to get a good mark in the test you must spell corectly.


Mi d                   a            3 Which of the expressions below do you think we use to express opinions
  n                 T e se r
                                      and points of view? Complete them using your personal ideas and
                                      experiences.
                  Plis us the dor
                   at the bak -
                                      Example: I think that people should work less and rest more.
                    this won is
                      brouken!
                                         a.                      b.                         c.
                                                                        In my                    I believe
                                          I think that …
                                                                      opinion ….                  that ….

                                                      d.                        e.
                                                           What you                  It seems
                                                            want …                   to me …

                                              f.                      g.
                                               From my point               According
                                                 of view …                   to …


48
             UNIT 2
4 Read the words in the box. Look up those you do not know in a
    dictionary. Which ones would you expect to find in a listening text about
    strange things that we do?

    · amazing      · clever   · incredible       · ordinary   · peculiar
        · positive    · smart    · typical      · unusual   · weird


      GO AHEAD

5       Listen to the recording and check your predictions in Exercise 4.


6       Choose the best title for each item of news.
    a. Eradicating Typos and Errors by All Means
    b. The Incredible Adventures of the Typo Man
    c. Teaching a Parrot to Speak
    d. Talking Parrot Finds his Way Home

7       Which of these places were not mentioned in the news?



     · America             · Boston
                                                                        · China
                                                                                           · Japan

                                               · Santiago




       · Massachusetts                                                            · Washington
                                                          · Tokyo




8       Listen again and tick the correct column.

          Which news item mentions                     Item 1       Item 2
                 an organisation?
                   an address?
            the name of a policeman?
             one common mistake?


                                                                              FUL!
                                                       HOW STRANGE! HOW WONDER                       49
              9       Listen once more and complete these sentences from the news.
                  a. You might want to _______ some unusual but positive _______.
                  b. According to Mr. Deck it's _______ to speak and _______ correctly.
                  c. We, on our part, think it's _______ that Mr. Deck might be _______!
                  d. He recited his _______ and address to a man in the _______.
                  e. In my ______ it's ________.
                  f. It‘s possible smart _______ like Yosuke might help Mr. Deck in his typo
                     _______ campaign!


                    MAKE CONNECTIONS

              10 Which sentences from Exercise 9 express a point of view?

              11 The words highlighted in these sentences appeared in the items of news you
                  listened to, but they have been “scrambled”. Can you “unscramble” them?
                  a. They travel around gnsiera typos and errors.
                  b. The parrot followed the instructions of his msaert.
                  c. The pomanlice took the bird to the owner.
                  d. She is a very vepitios person.

               TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

               Expressing possibility
               1. We use may / might to express possible events in the present and the
                  future. However, we can use other expressions. Read these examples
                  from the recording paying special attention to the words in bold.
                  a. Maybe you want to hear = You might want to hear, some unusual
                     but positive news.
                  b. Language is an important part that possibly makes the difference =
                     language is an important part that might make the difference,
                     between humans and animals.
                  c. We think it's possible that Mr. Deck is right = Mr Deck might / may
                     be right.
               2. Look at other examples.
                  Maybe they will visit us next year = They may visit us next year.
                  The train is possibly late = The train might be late.
                  It is possible that he is lost = He might be lost.
               3. It is possible to use may / might in short answers.
                  A: Is Gina coming to the party?            B: She might.
                  A: Are they at home right now?             B: They may be.
               4. Listen to the second item of news again. Find three more sentences
                  that express possibility and write them twice in your notebook, once
                  using may / might, and once using maybe, possibly or it‘s possible that.


50
     UNIT 2
12 Re-write these sentences using might or may.
   a. Maybe Tina and Leo are getting married soon.
   b. It's possibly John's book.
   c. Maybe Laura will not come to school today.
   d. It's possible they will not like this kind of food.
   e. Someone is knocking on the door. It's possible that it is Stewart.

13 Now re-write the sentences using maybe, possibly or it is possible.
   a. Geraldine might be in the library.
   b. His telephone may be disconnected.
   c. My boss might be in another office.
   d. We may travel to Greece next year.
   e. I may get a haircut tomorrow.

14 Give short answers using may / might.
   a. A:   Is that your bag in the corner?
      B:   It _______________________________________________________
   b. A:   Are they coming tomorrow?
      B:   They _____________________________________________________
   c. A:   Do they have time to help us?
      B:   They ________________________________________________ have.
   d. A:   It's so cold! Do you think it's going to snow?
      B:   It _______________________________________________________
   e. A:   Are you going to see Jane tomorrow?
      B:   I _______________________________________________________

 WRITE IT DOWN

15 Choose one of the two stories you listened to and write a short paragraph
    expressing your personal opinion about the situation described. Use the
    expressions in Exercise 3.




                                                                             FUL!
                                                      HOW STRANGE! HOW WONDER       51
                               HAVE A CHAT

                               16 Take turns to say the statements below with your partner, expressing your
                                    opinion. You can use the openings in the bubbles.


                                                                  In my opinion ….               I believe
                                    I think that…                                                 that ….




                                                               It seems to me …             From my point
                                      According to …
                                                                                              of view …




a. This unit is really easy!          b. Ice-cream is better than chocolate.   c. Everybody loves Maroon Five.




d. English is the most important      e. People shouldn't smoke in             f. Everybody looks thin in black
   language in the world.                public places.                           clothes.

                               17      Listen to the recording and compare your sentences.
                                    Then practise with the recording, paying special attention to accentuation
                                    and intonation.


52
            UNIT 2
 FAST CHECK

 18 Choose the best option to complete the sentences.                          (10 points)
    a. A:   Are your friends coming to visit you next weekend?
       B:   I'm not sure. They might / It possibly is.
    b. A:   Is the Italian restaurant open on Sundays?
       B:   It's possible. / Might open.
    c. A:   Do we have any sugar?
       B:   We might have. / It is possibly.
    d. A:   Do you think the children are hungry?
       B:   Maybe not. / Might not.
    e. A:   Are these Susan's glasses?
       B:   May be. / They might be.

       Your           0-5                6-8                         9 - 10
      result:   Review the lesson     Quite good                   Excellent


PLAY IT

      Find letters on the computer screen to complete these words from the
      lesson. Each letter can be used only once.

      A ___ A ___ I ___ G
                                                     Y         E           U               A
      S M ___ ___ T                                                            M                   C
      U ___ ___ S ___ ___ L                                R           I                       N
                                                   A                           Y
      P ___ ___ U L ___ A R                              R         Z                       E     E
                                                   C           D           R           I        A
      W ___ I ___ D
      O R ___ I N ___ R ___                            U               A           L           E N




CHECK IT OVER!                                                                                 ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                  I need more work        I did OK           I did really well!

   Listening
   Speaking
   Writing


                                                                              FUL!
                                                       HOW STRANGE! HOW WONDER                         53
                   TWISTER, TWISTER
                   READING
                                                                                                        Lesson 3


                                           THINK AHEAD

                                    1 See if you can guess the jumbled weather words.
                                           eic          mcliate           mihud             nwid         ogf

                                    2 Match the descriptions (a. - d.) with the words below (i. - iv.) and the
Mi d                   a               pictures of the natural phenomena (1 - 4).
  n                 T e se r
                                       a. Visible and very fine water drops or ice particles suspended in the
                                          atmosphere at high altitudes.
                                       b. A visible flash of light happening when there is an abrupt natural
                                          electric discharge in the atmosphere.
                                       c. Frozen precipitation in the form of white hexagonal ice crystals falling
                                          down in soft, white flakes.
                                       d. Water condensed from atmospheric vapour and falling in drops.
                                           i. cloud       ii. lightning         iii. rain    iv. snow


     So it' s true. It
     IS raining cats
        and dogs.
                                           1                                2




            Danger
                                           3                                4
Not all plurals in English are
formed by adding -s or -es.         3 What do we use these instruments for?
One irregular plural is the
word phenomenon, whose
plural is phenomena.
Other words (mainly of Latin
origin) that form their plural in
the same way are:
                                       1                   2                     3                  4
bacterium - bacteria
criterion - criteria                    Anemometer           Barometer        Thermometer         Weather vane
curriculum - curricula                 a. We use it to measure air pressure.
medium - media                         b. We use it to measure the temperature of the air.
memorandum - memoranda                 c. We use it to measure wind speed.
symposium - symposia                   d. We use it to show which direction the wind is blowing from.

                                           You can find lots of words related to the weather, the climate and
                                           natural phenomena at www.weatherwizkids.com

54
              UNIT 2
4 Which of the words in the box would you expect to find in texts about
                                                                                      Mi d                 a
   natural phenomena?                                                                   n               T e se r
               · break     · cyclone        · disaster    · erosion
                                                                                      We measure the intensity of
        · instrument      · measure         · noise    · roar     · storm             tornadoes according to the
                                                                                      Fujita Scale. Tornados can
                                                                                      range from F0 - a mild
      GO AHEAD                                                                        tornado called the gale
                                                                                      tornado with little damage
                                                                                      to people and property
5 Read the texts quickly and check your predictions in Exercise 4.                    through to F5, known as
                                                                                      the incredible tornado,
                                                                                      which can destroy strong
6 Read the texts again and identify the origin of each.                               houses, move cars into the
   a. Text ___ is a part of a book.         b. Text ___ is a part of a film script.   air and uproot very big
   c. Text ___ is a part of a report.                                                 trees. There is also an F6
                                                                                      tornado called the
                                                                                      Inconceivable tornado - it
7 Read the texts again and match each text with a place.                              has not happened as yet in
                                                                                      the world.
          Text I                  Text II                Text III                     You can see the full Fujita
                                                                                      scale at
                                                                                      http://www.tornadoproject.com/
         Kansas                 Kentucky               Oklahoma


8 Read the texts again and tick where appropriate.


   In which of the texts can you find references to                 I   II    III

   a. a description of a family?

   b. a place where people can hide?

   c. a scared pet?

   d. the exact shape of the described natural phenomenon?

   e. the sound this natural phenomenon makes?


9 Read the text once more and find at least three words to replace the word
   twister.

                                    twister




                                                                                FUL!
                                                         HOW STRANGE! HOW WONDER                                 55
     I.




     II.




56
           UNIT 2
III.




                              FUL!
       HOW STRANGE! HOW WONDER       57
                    MAKE CONNECTIONS

              10 Look back at the texts and decide who might have said the following
                 sentences, Dorothy, Professor Jones or Jo's father.
                 a. ________: “If we hurry up we might make it to the cellar!”
 1               b. ________: “I wonder if I may ever get back home!”
                 c. ________: “I saw big pieces of debris under the twister.”


               TAKE A CLOSER LOOK
               The Past Continuous tense.
               1. Compare these sentences from the texts.
                  a. In the far North the wind was whistling.
 2
                  b. Uncle Harry stood up.
                  c. Dorothy was going up and up.
                  d. The house whirled around two or three times.

               2. All the sentences show actions in the past, but they use different tenses.
                  We use the Simple Past tense (sentences b. and d.) when the action
                  started and finished in the past. In sentences a. and c. we use the Past
                  Continuous tense to indicate that the action was continuous.
 3

               3. Here are more examples of the Past Continuous tense.
                  a. Uncle Henry was sitting on the doorstep.
                  b. She was looking at the sky too.
                  c. Prof. Jones and I were getting close to the National Weather Service.

               4. Go back to the texts and find all the sentences in the Past tense or the Past
                  Continuous tense. Which actions finished and which were continuous?

              11 Complete these sentences using the verb in brackets in the Past
                 Continuous tense.
                 a. Dorothy __________ Toto in her arms.                                (hold)
                 b. Aunt Em __________ the trap door.                                   (open)
                 c. The professors __________ to the National Weather Station.          (go)

              12 Use the prompts to write sentences in the Past Continuous tense.
                 a. Belinda / sit / armchair / watch / TV
                 b. Glenn / eat / sandwich / drink / milk
                 c. The scouts / packing /their backpacks


              WRITE IT DOWN

              13 Write about a natural phenomenon you witnessed - a snow storm, a
                 thunder storm, very heavy rain, a flood, etc. Use the weather vocabulary
                 from Exercise 1.

58
     UNIT 2
HAVE A CHAT
                                                                                     Mi d                a
                                                                                       n              T e se r
14       Complete the conversation about Prof. Jones's personal experience.
     Use words from the box and then check with the recording.                       Heve are some proverbs
                                                                                     and saying about the
            · funnel     · personally witnessed · some two minutes                   weather:
                         · roar and rumble     · terrified                           • If birds fly low wind is
                                                                                       going to blow.
     Reporter:      I understand it was your personal experience, Professor Jones.   • A sunshing shower won‘t
     Prof. Jones:   Yes, I _________ the tornado.                                      last half an hour.
     Reporter:      So, were you scared, Professor Jones?                            • The sharper the blast the
     Prof. Jones:   I was _________.                                                   sooner it‘s past.
     Reporter:      What did the tornado look like?                                  • When a cow tries to
     Prof. Jones:   It looked like a _________.                                        scratch her ear it means a
                                                                                       shower is very near.
     Reporter:      What was the noise like?
     Prof. Jones:   It sounded like a loud _________.
     Reporter:      How long did the twister last?
     Prof. Jones:   It lasted _________.

15       Practise and role play the conversation with a partner.

 FAST CHECK

 16 Choose the correct alternative.                                  (10 points)
      a. So what was she doing?
         i. She cooked dinner.        ii. She was cooking dinner
      b. Were they standing or sitting?
         i. They were sitting.        ii. They stood.
      c. Did she tell you about it?
         i. No, she didn't.           ii. No, she wasn't telling me about it.
      d. Where were you going?
         i. I was going to the shop. ii. I went to the shop.
      e. What was she painting the picture with?
         i. She was using oil paints. ii. She painted the kitchen.
         Your             0-5                6-8                  9 - 10
        result:     Review the lesson     Quite good            Excellent


CHECK IT OVER!                                                              ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                      I need more work        I did OK      I did really well!

     Reading
     Speaking
     Writing

                                                                                FUL!
                                                         HOW STRANGE! HOW WONDER                               59
       EYEWITNESS REPORTS
       LISTENING
                                                                                     Lesson 4


                        THINK AHEAD

                   1 Look at these pictures. Which creatures do you think are real and which
                     ones are not? Why?




                      1. Hairless guinea pig            2. Owl cat




                      3. Sasquatch                      4. Smiley fish

                   2 Look at the pictures below. Choose one and in pairs answer the questions
                     about the story they illustrate. As you are only guessing, express your
                     opinion using the beginnings in the box.
                     a. What time do you think it is?
                     b. What is the weather like?
                     c. Where are the people?
                     d. What is happening?
                     e. What is the end of the story?




                              · From my point of view …      · I believe that ….
                        · In my opinion ….    · I think that…     · It seems to me …


60
     UNIT 2
3 Find the words below in the Word Search Puzzle. Words can be placed
    horizontally, vertically or diagonally, up or down.


     aircraft                amazing               creature                 excited



                    frightened            scared                  shocked


       a       n      o     d       a     f    f      j       t      y      d    s
       d       b      x     i       t    m     v      f       m      y      f    h
       c       d      p     q       w    x     a     z        c      s      h    o
       r       g       l    s       ñ     r    w     z        f      g      o    c
       e       h      p     n       c    y     e     v        i      d      b    k
       a       a      v     r       s    b     t     e        u      n      c    e
       t       m       i    j       u     r    l     k        y      b      g    d
       u       a      s     x       e    x     c      i       t      e      d    q
       r        f      r    i       g    h     t     e        n      e      d    t
       e       h      k     p       z    s     c     a        r      e      d    l



4 You will hear two people talking about things they saw with their own eyes.
    a. What kind of things do you think they saw?
    b. How do you think they felt?

      i. Excited.               ii. Shocked.   iii. Scared.         iv. Happy.



       GO AHEAD


5          Listen to the two recordings and check your predictions in Exercise 4.

6       How do we know that the two people in the recordings were the eye-
    witnesses of the events? Choose two best options.
    a. Because their account is in the first person.
    b. Because the account is in the Past tense.
    c. Because they use expressions such as: "with my own eyes", "personally".
    d. Because they use questions and answers.



                                                                                         FUL!
                                                                  HOW STRANGE! HOW WONDER       61
                           7       Listen again and choose the best answer. Justify your choice.
                               Conversation I
                               a. Where does the conversation take place?
                                  i. In a school.
                                  ii. In someone's house.
                               b. Who are the protagonists?
                                  i. A husband and wife.
                                  ii. Two friends.
                               c. Where was the woman?
                                  i. In a park.
                                  ii. In the forest.
                               d. What did the woman see?
                                  i. A farmer's dog.
Mi d               a              ii. A strange creature.
  n             T e se r
                               Conversation II
                               a. Where does the conversation take place?
                                  i. In a Military Academy.
                                  ii. At a police station.
                               b. Who are the protagonists?
                                  i. A plane pilot and his boss.
                                  ii. Two police officers
                               c. Where was the man?
                                  i. In an office.
Why are black cats such
                                  ii. On a plane.
good singers?                  d. What did the man see?
Because they‘re very              i. A hot air balloon.
mewsical!                         ii. A UFO.

                           8       Listen to Conversation I again and choose the word you hear.
                               a. You saw a ghost / goat.
                               b. I was walking down the path / patch.
                               c. We had nothing for desert / dessert.
                               d. Let me guess / check.
                               e. The creature looked human / horrid.

                           9       Listen to Conversation II again. Which of these expressions does the
                               speaker use to state his personal opinion?
                               a. I believe I saw …
                               b. I think they were …
                               c. From my point of view …
                               d. But I personally think ….
                               e. If you ask me …
                               f. According to me….




62
          UNIT 2
      MAKE CONNECTIONS

 TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

 The Past Continuous (continued)
 1. Read these examples from the recording.
   a. It wasn't walking on all fours like a dog.
   b. What were you doing in a forest?
   c. It wasn't moving or advancing.

 2. Pay attention to the form. Like all verb tenses that use the verb to be we
    form the negative form adding not to the verb to be, and we form the
    interrogative form inverting the order.
     We        were not paying attention.
     Subject + to be + not + -ing

     Were     they     playing football or rugby?
     To be + subject + ing ?

 3. Listen to the recording again and find two more examples of negative
    Past Continuous.

 4. Check all the exercises you have done in the lesson and write two
    questions using the Past Continuous.

10 Complete this chart with examples of the different forms.


         Affirmative                 Negative              Interrogative
     I was walking down
         the street.
                                                         Was she speaking
                                                              to me?
                                  They were not
                                  having dinner.

11 Complete these short dialogues with a question referring to the part in bold.
   a. A: ______________________________________?
      B: I was walking down the path in the forest.

   b. A: ______________________________________?
      B: The strange creature was standing.

   c. A: ______________________________________?
      B: Clark was cooking lunch in the camp.


                                                                              FUL!
                                                       HOW STRANGE! HOW WONDER       63
              12 Match the words in A with their synonym in B.
              A
                           · aircraft   · creature     · huge       · observe     · scared

              B
                      · aeroplane       · beast      · frightened     · immense       · watch


              HAVE A CHAT

              13       Jill is telling her friend Anne about her strange experience in the
                   forest. Complete the conversation and then check with the recording.
                   Anne:     ____________________________________?
                   Jill:     I think it was more than two metres tall.
                   Anne:     ____________________________________?
                   Jill:     No, I believe it wasn't human.
                   Anne:     ____________________________________?
                   Jill:     In my opinion, it was the Sasquatch.

              14       Listen and practise the conversation with your partner, taking turns to
                   be Anne and Jill. Role play it in front of the class.


              15 Match the sentences that have the same or similar meanings.

                   a. I saw it with my own eyes                 i. Their technology is more
                                                                    modern than ours.
                   b. They are more technically                 ii. It sped up and left.
                      advanced than we are.
                   c. It accelerated and disappeared.           iii. Their mission was pacific.
                   d. Their intentions were peaceful.           iv. I was an eye-witness.


               FAST CHECK

               16 Put the words in the correct order to write sentences in your notebook.
                    The first word in the sentences is highlighted                   (10 points)
                    a. were to get They out of the trying plane.
                    b. author was The signing for autographs her fans.
                    c. was his Brendan brother with helping homework, his.
                    d. you talking moment on the Were phone a ago?
                    e. the parents were Sarah's getting for trip ready.

                         Your            0-3                  4-6                   7 - 10
                        result:    Review the lesson       Quite good             Excellent



64
     UNIT 2
 WRITE IT DOWN

17 Below there are four different instruments we use for measuring things.
   Write sentences to indicate what we measure with them.
   Example:    A thermometer is an instrument for measuring temperatures.




Scales                                 A calendar




A clock                                A ruler




 CHECK IT OVER!                                                      ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                  I need more work        I did OK     I did really well!

   Listening
   Speaking
   Writing

                                                                            FUL!
                                                     HOW STRANGE! HOW WONDER       65
 1 Luciana is preparing a programme for an important Australian visitor coming to Chile next month. She
     wants the programme to be a mixture of business and pleasure. Look at the list of possible activities
     and how long they might take. Write sentences about them in your notebook. Use may, might, maybe,
     it is possible, and possibly.
     Example: First, our guest might meet Chilean politicians in Valparaíso. The meeting might last 2 hours /
              The duration of the meeting might be 2 hours.

        Activity                                                                    Duration

        Meeting with members of congress in Valparaíso                              2 hours

        Seafood lunch in the port                                                   1 hour

        Go up the hills in a cable car                                              30 minutes

        Stay one night in Viña del Mar                                              1 night

        Short swim in the Pacific Ocean                                             20 minutes

        Meet Minister of Education at La Moneda Palace                              40 minutes

        Visit Mercado Central and have lunch there                                  1.5 hours

        Afternoon meeting at a municipal school                                     45 minutes

        Visit Bellavista area                                                       30 minutes


 2 Now match the sentences you wrote with the pictures below.




              1                                      2




              3                                      4



66
            UNIT 2
3 You are Luciana's boss and you are evaluating the programme she is proposing. Offer your personal
  point of view / opinion about it. Use the expressions in the box.

                   · From my point of view … · I believe that …. · In my opinion….
                                   · I think that… · According to ….

4 Read the final version of the guest's programme and answer the questions below.




           Day 1                                         Day 2
           10.00     Meeting with Chilean                9.00         Meeting with Minister of
                     politicians                                      Education

           13.00     Lunch at "Donde Pancho"             10.00        Visit Mercado Central
                     in Valparaíso
                                                         12.00        Lunch in Bellavista
           15.00     Cable car ride to Cerro
                     Placeres                            16.00        Talk to secondary school
                                                                      students about education
                                                                      in Chile




  a. What was the guest doing at 11 o'clock on the first day of the programme?
  b. Was he having lunch or swimming in the ocean at 13.00?
  c. What was he doing at 15.00 on the first day?
  d. What was he doing in the morning of the second day?
  e. Was he having lunch or talking to students at 12.30 on the second day?


5 Invent two more questions about the programme. Ask and answer them in your group.




                                                                            FUL!
                                                     HOW STRANGE! HOW WONDER                          67
READING - SAN PEDRO DE ATACAMA

     San Pedro de Atacama

     AN ABSOLUTE MUST



     Accommodation                                                              Comments from
     Whatever you might need - we have it! Maybe you want to stay in a
                                                                                previous
     hotel or you might prefer a hostel. Or maybe you'd love to get one of
                                                                                visitors
     the cabins.
                                                                                John, Washington
     Hotels                                                                     I stayed in San
     Right in the centre of San Pedro de Atacama. This is the best choice for   Pedro for two days.
     a tourist who visits alone or in small groups. The rooms are single,       I had a wonderful
     double and twin and besides, we also have triple rooms for small           time! The people
     families. All rooms have a private bath and we also include buffet         we met during our
     breakfast. Our staff who speak several languages can take you on a
                                                                                stay were friendly
     tour of the nearby geysers.
                                                                                and helpful.
     Hostels
                                                                                Stella, Marseille,
     Quite near the centre of the town. This is the best choice for group
                                                                                My mother stayed
     tourism and people on a budget. You may choose one of the several
                                                                                in one of the cabins
     options we have on offer, starting from single rooms to rooms that
     accommodate up to six people. Single rooms have a private bath but         for seven days.
     the multiple guest rooms share a bathroom located in the corridor.         According to her
                                                                                they were clean
     Cabins                                                                     and comfortable.
     Located 7 km from San Pedro de Atacama and 2 km from Tulor                 Besides, she loved
     Village, the cabins are in the beautiful Ayllu de Coyo oasis, surrounded   the people who
     by native trees. The owners, native to San Pedro, offer a selection of     worked there.
     cabins each with a double room, a private bath, a fully equipped
     kitchen and a barbecue.



                                                                                  Source. www.sanpedrochile.com


68
         UNIT 2
1 Read the brochure and choose the best icon for each type of accommodation.           3 pts.




   a. _____________                  b. _____________               c. _____________


2 Tick the correct column.                                                             6 pts.

                                                          Hotel     Hostel   Cabin

     a. Located outside San Pedro

     b. Best for small groups or individual tourists

     c. Breakfast service included

     d. With a barbecue

     e. Great for bigger groups

     f. Located right in the middle of town

3 Which tourist, John, Stella or both?                                                 4 pts.
   a. ________ is / are speaking about their personal experience.
   b. ________ is / are from France?
   c. ________ think / thinks the people of San Pedro are great.
   d. ________ had a wonderful time.

LISTENING - THE WEATHER REPORT
4    Listen to the recording and choose the best option.                               4 pts.
   a. The recording is a radio / TV programme
   b. The report is from the local government /
      National Weather Service.
   c. The people in the affected areas can go back to
      / need to leave their homes.
   d. The storm changed intensity from F0 to F2 / F2
      to F0.



                                                                               FUL!
                                                        HOW STRANGE! HOW WONDER           69
 5       Match the times in column A with the events in column B.                                4 pts.
          A                                            B
     5.30 to 6.00 p.m.                    Data on rainfall was collected.
     8.30 p.m.                            People can tune in to another programme.
     9 p.m.                               The broadcast is transmitted to the public.
     9.30 p.m.                            The storm changed direction.


LANGUAGE
 6 Say or tell? Watch out for the correct form of the verb.                                      3 pts.
     a. So, do you want to come or not? What do you ________?
     b. John, it's necessary to ________ the truth.
     c. They ________ me to wait.

 7 Complete these short dialogues with a question corresponding to the information in bold.      4 pts.
     a. A:   __________________________________?
        B:   Miss Jefferson was correcting our English tests.
     b. A:   __________________________________?
        B:   Dennis was sitting in the living room.
     c. A:   __________________________________?
        B:   The boy was carrying a heavy bag.
     d. A:   __________________________________?
        B:   She was crying because she felt lonely.

 8 Complete the following sentences using the Past Continuous tense of the verb in brackets.     4 pts.
     a. She looked up at the sky to see if a storm _____________________.               (come)
     b. I tried to phone you all day yesterday. What _____________________?             (do)
     c. The twister _____________________ in the direction of Claire County.            (move)
     d. Amy________a nice dress when we saw her.                                        (wear)

 9 Re-write the sentences using might or may.                                                    4 pts.
     a. Maybe they will come to our party.
     b. It's possible the twister will change direction.
     c. Maybe it is Peter - at least he looks very similar.
     d. It‘s possible that you will pass the exam.

WRITING
10 Write a short weather report for your area. Use words such as wind, temperature, rain,        6 pts.
     humidity, etc.




70
              UNIT 2
SPEAKING
11 Look at the pictures and express your opinion / point of view.                                                     6 pts.




    1                               2                               3




                                    Your          0 - 15            16 - 32                33 - 48                    Total
                                   result:    Not too good        Acceptable               Great!                    48 pts.


 FINAL CHECK                                                                                                 ✔✔

                                                                        Nearly Always
Choose one alternative according to your performance.                   Sometimes
                                                                        Always



                                                                        Never
Speaking
· I use English structures correctly.                                                   Use this clue to work out your score
                                                                                        Never = 0
· I use varied and correct vocabulary.                                                  Sometimes = 1
· Others can understand me.                                                             Nearly Always = 2
Writing                                                                                 Always = 3
· My writing is coherent and follows the central idea.
                                                                                        If you get:
· I use the correct sentence formation and sentence structure                           0 - 10 = Watch out! You must look back
· I use the correct spelling, punctuation, capitalisation and format.                   and review the whole unit. Ask your
Reading                                                                                 teacher and / or a classmate for
· I am aware of the differences in tenses, gender and number.                           additional help and remedial work.
                                                                                        11 - 22 = Not too bad, but there are
· I identify the main idea and understand the text as a whole.                          areas you still have problems with.
· I can locate details and look for specific information.                               Identify those areas and ask your
Listening                                                                               teacher and / or a classmate for
· I can get the general idea.                                                           additional help and remedial work.
                                                                                        23 - 34 = You are doing fine, but you
· I understand the details and identify speakers.                                       can certainly do better. Get together
· I identify the source of listening and recognise the format                           with a classmate and review your weak
Group work                                                                              points.
                                                                                        35 - 45 = Congratulations! Great
· I share my ideas with the group
                                                                                        progress - you may look ahead to the
· I listen to and respect my partners' points of view                                   new unit and help your classmates who
· I help solve problems and contribute with relevant information                        need to review.

                                                                              FUL!
                                                       HOW STRANGE! HOW WONDER                                             71
     IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL LEARN TO:                               YOU WILL USE THE FOLLOWING TEXT TYPES:
     Reading: Match written and visual clues / Summarise texts     Reading: A brochure / An interview
     / Find specific information                                   Listening: Restaurant reviews / A tale
     Listening: Match visual and spoken information / Find         YOU WILL ALSO LEARN:
     specific information / Discriminate between similar sounds    Grammar: The Past Continuous tense / some / any / much /many /
     Production: Talk about food preferences / Express opinions    a little / a few / Relative pronouns that, which, who, where, when
     and ideas about eating out / Talk about actions in the past   Vocabulary: Words related to healthy eating habits, ingredients
     using the Past Continuous tense                               and eating out
     Functions: Expressing quantities / Expressing preferences /   YOU WILL PAY SPECIAL ATTENTION TO THESE VALUES:
     Expressing thanks and complaints                              The importance of a healthy diet
72
SET UP


1 Can you guess the fruit and vegetables? Which ones do you like/prefer?




1                          2                         3                         4




5                          6                         7                         8

2 Copy the pyramid into your notebook and place the foods we should eat little of at the top and the
    foods we should eat a lot of at the bottom. Compare your answers with the food pyramid on page 97.




  · apples · bread · butter · cake
       · carrots · cereal · cheese
    · cherries · chicken · chocolate
  · crisps · eggs · fish · ice-cream
     · lettuce · milk · oil · pasta
     · peppers · plums · potatoes
· red meat · rice · sweets · yoghurt




                                                                                                       73
                STAYING HEALTHY - KEEPING FIT
                READING
                                                                                              Lesson 1


                                     THINK AHEAD

                            The Fruit Federation                                        And? Who was
                         organised a competition for                                     the winner?
                             the most romantic
                                 fruit ever.




                                      The Passion
                                         fruit!

                                1 Put the words in the box under these headings. Which words sound or
                                   look similar in Spanish?

                                  Fruit          Vegetable        Meat, fish and seafood        Others



Mi d                 a
  n               T e se r

Vitamins and minerals are
substances that are found in
foods we eat. Our bodies          · protein · vitamin · banana · lettuce · garlic · sweets
need them to work properly,          · chicken · salmon · cereal · celery · peanut butter
so that we grow and               · biscuits · chips · meat · carbohydrates · sugar · salt
develop just like we should.
When it comes to vitamins,               · melon · prawn · strawberry · iron · raisin
each one has a special role
to play. For example:           2 Answer the questions and compare your answers with another student.
• Vitamin D in milk helps our
                                  a. Do you prefer bananas or strawberries?
   bones.
• Vitamin A in carrots helps      b. Would you rather have chicken or meat?
   us see at night.               c. Which do you like better: cookies or candy?
• Vitamin C in oranges helps      d. Which is your favourite vegetable?
   our body heal if we get a      e. Would you rather eat something sweet or salty?
   cut.
• B vitamins in leafy green     3 Which words from Exercise 1 would you expect to find in a brochure
   vegetables help our body
   make protein and energy.       about healthy eating?


74
            UNIT 3
HOW TO GROW HEALTHY
Do you want to stay healthy? I'm sure you do.
This brochure offers you tips on how                   Tip 4
to stay healthy and keep fit.
                                                       Do you prefer exercising or
                                                       sitting in front of a TV? Would
                                                       you rather go for a bike ride or
Tip 1                                                  read a book? Vigorous work-out
First of all, you should get                           is good for you because when
enough sleep for a young                               you breathe hard your heart works better, you have
person who needs lots of                               more energy and you look and feel your best. Start
energy in the morning.                                 with warm-up exercises that stretch your muscles
Next, get some good                                    and include 20 minutes of aerobic activity, such as
breakfast. Breakfast is a meal that fills your         running or dancing. Do it in a gym or in the park,
"empty tank" after a long night without food and       where you can also meet your friends.
it can help you do better in school. You can eat
                                                       Tip 5
easy-to prepare breakfasts that include cold cereal
                                                       You don't have to give up foods
with fruit and low-fat milk, whole-wheat toast,
                                                       like hamburgers, and ice cream
yoghurt with fruit, or an egg sandwich.
                                                       to eat healthy. But choose the
Tip 2                                                  ones you like the best and be
Would you rather take a bus                            smart about how often and how
or ask your parents to drive                           much you healthily. Your body needs nutrients,
you to school? But if your                             which are products such as protein, carbohydrates,
school is not too far why                              fat and many different vitamins and minerals such
don't you invite a group of                            as vitamins C and A, iron and calcium from a
friends who can all walk with you when you go to       variety of foods. You can talk to a nutritionist who
school? It can be fun talking along the way.           can tell you about different types of food.

Tip 3                                                  Tip 6
What's your favourite snack:                           Your dad is probably sitting
chocolate or cookies? If you snack                     in front of the TV and maybe
all the time on salty crisps or                        your mum is reading a paper.
sugary cookies it's not the right                      Come on, mum and dad!
kind of food in the middle of the                      Let's get going because being
morning. Choose snacks that                            active is much more fun with friends or family.
come from different food groups                        People who are active live longer and happier lives.
which may be a glass of low-fat
milk, an apple or celery sticks with peanut butter     Tip 7
and raisins, or some dry cereal. If you eat smart at   A healthy eating style is like a
most meals then cookies, chips and candy are OK        puzzle with many parts. Each
for occasional snacking.                               part is different. There are foods
                                                       that have more fat, sugar or salt
                                                       while others have more vitamins
                                                       or fibre. Eat a little of all these foods because what
Source: The Internacional Food Information
                                                       makes a diet good or bad is how the foods fit
Council                                                together. Balancing your choices is important.
Washington D.C., U.S.A.


                                                                      WE ARE WHAT WE EAT                        75
                    GO AHEAD

              4 Read the brochure and check your predictions in Exercise 3.

              5 Read the brochure again and give each tip a title.
                  a. Get Moving!                    b. Start your day with breakfast.
                  c. Balance your food choices.     d. Get fit with friends or family.
                  e. Snack Smart.                   f. Work up a sweat.
                  g. Foods aren't good or bad.

              6 Match the pictures with the tips.




                         1                   2                    3




              4                    5                    6                    7

              7 Read the brochure again and summarise each tip in one or two sentences.
                  Example:     Tip 1 tells us about the importance of breakfast and how it helps
                               us prepare for the day.

              8 Answer the questions.
                  a. Why is it important to eat breakfast?
                  b. Who can you invite to walk to school with you?
                  c. What kind of nutrients does your body need?

                     MAKE CONNECTIONS

              HAVE A CHAT

              9       Your friend Gloria is asking you about your food preferences. Answer
                  her questions.
                  Gloria: Which do you prefer, fish or chicken?
                  You:    ______________________________________________________
                  Gloria: So do I. But do you like fried or roast chicken more?
                  You:    ______________________________________________________
                  Gloria: And would you rather eat pizza or a salad?
                  You:    ______________________________________________________
                  Gloria: Me too but it's not very healthy. And which do you like better: fizzy
                          drinks or juice?
                  You:    ______________________________________________________
76
     UNIT 3
10       Listen to the recording and practise the dialogue with a partner. Role
     play the dialogue in front of the class.

TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

Relative pronouns which / that / who / when / where
1. Read the sentences from the text:
   a. People who are active live longer and happier lives.
   b. Invite a group of friends who can all walk with you when you go to
      school.
   c. There are foods that have more fat, sugar or salt while others have
      more vitamins or fibre.
   d. Do it in a gym or in the park, where you can also meet your friends.
   e. Your body needs nutrients which are products such as protein,
      carbohydrates, fat and many different vitamins.

2. What do you notice about the sentences above? When referring to a
   place, thing, animal or idea mentioned before as a subject of a
   sentence, we use relative pronouns that or which.

3. When referring to people mentioned before as a subject of a sentence,
   we use the relative pronouns that or who.
   We CANNOT use which when referring to people in similar sentences.

4. When referring to time we use when and when referring to a place we
   use where.

5. Go back to the text and copy all the sentences that contain relative
   pronouns. Can you understand them better now?


11 Look at the advice a nutritionist gave a teenager and complete using that,
     which, who, when, where.
     You're a typical teenager with parents _____________ always talk to you
     about what you eat, how you eat and when you eat. Try to understand
     them - they are worried about your diet, _____________ may not be too
     healthy. Your body is growing and it needs certain nutrients ____________
     can be found in some foods. One of the most important ingredients in your
     diet is protein, _____________ is a primary component of our muscles,
     hair, skin, eyes, and internal organs, especially the heart and brain. You
     need to feed your brain _____________ helps you think and solve
     problems so try to include some protein in what you eat. Then come the
     carbohydrates _____________ are our main source of energy. The people
     _____________ can tell you what and how much to eat are your doctor
     and maybe your school nurse. They can also tell you _____________ you
     can find more information.


                                                                       WE ARE WHAT WE EAT   77
                            12 Look at the pictures and finish the captions under each one.




     A bakery is a place where A chef is a person who Sushi is a type of food I prefer snacks that
     ____________________ ____________________ which _______________ ____________________


                             FAST CHECK

                              13 Read the information on the left and match it with that on the right. (10 points)
                                    A doctor is a person                can be found in certain foods.
                                       you see when
                                Your body needs nutrients that           you are not feeling very well
                                 Francisca is a school bus               gives you energy for the day.
                                        driver who
                                   Catalina is a computer                   drives a big yellow bus.
                                       engineer who
                                  Breakfast is a meal that                     is preparing a new
                                                                              software for schools.

                                    Your            0-5                    6-8                  9 - 10
                                   result:    Review the lesson         Quite good            Excellent



                             WRITE IT DOWN

                            14 Today Chef Paolo Bolognese is preparing a special pasta dish. Complete
                                this paragraph using the words and expressions in the box.

                                  · be boiling · drain · hot water · in olive oil · metal pot
                                     · mushrooms · Parmesan cheese · pasta · sauce
                                First, you need a ___________ which you fill with ___________. Put the
                                ___________ into the water, which must ___________. Prepare the
                                ___________: slice some fresh ___________, fry them for two minutes
                                in ___________ and add cream. When the pasta is 'al dente' __________
                                it and mix it with the sauce. Sprinkle ___________ on top.




78
           UNIT 3
 PLAY IT

     Five teens are shopping and each one is choosing one product. Use the clues to guess
     which person is buying which product. Copy the chart into your notebook, write the name
     of the product and tick the right column. Who can do this the fastest in your group?
     a. Jenny is a strict vegetarian and she does not eat any meat, fish or poultry. Additionally,
        her favourite colour is red so she's getting this vegetable which is an intense red and is
        often used in salads.
     b. Jeremy has a sweet tooth and although his mum says he should eat more fruit, Jeremy
        ignores her advice and is buying a product made of flour, sugar, cream and jam.
     c. Charlene is an athlete and she has just come back from a cross-country race. She is very
        thirsty. She doesn't like soft drinks so she's buying this product that is generally made
        from fruit.
     d. Gemma's mother is organising a barbecue for Gemma's dad. Lots of guests are coming
        and they will eat salads and this grilled product.
     e. Mike is going for a picnic tomorrow and he wants to take something that he can pack
        easily and eat without using a plate. He is planning to put some cheese and ham on it.




        Jenny

        Jeremy

        Charlene

        Gemma

        Mike




CHECK IT OVER!                                                        ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                  I need more work        I did OK      I did really well!

   Reading
   Speaking
   Writing


                                                                      WE ARE WHAT WE EAT             79
                   EDIBLE ART
                   LISTENING
                                                                                                             Lesson 2


                                                 THINK AHEAD

                                           1 Look at the food art pictures. What types of food can you identify in each?
                                               Check with another student.




                                           1                           2                            3


                                           2 Read the list of ingredients to prepare Greek salad and answer the
                                               questions.

           Bear it
           in mind                                                         Ingredients
We use many food words in
everyday expressions. Here                      •   Green pepper (1)                • Lemon juice (1/4 cup)
are a few. Can you guess                        •   Red onion (1)                   • Virgin olive oil (1 tbs.)
their meaning from the                          •   Tomatoes (2)                    • Fresh oregano, salt and
context?
a. This baby is so sweet and                    •   Olives (60 grs.)                  pepper (to taste)
   beautiful. She's such a                      •   Feta cheese (200 grs.)
   cutie pie!
b. If I can't solve this maths
   problem I think I will go                   a. How much lemon juice do you need?
   bananas!
                                               b. How many tomatoes are necessary?
c. I will tell you a secret but
   you must promise not to                     c. How much olive oil is required?
   spill the beans.                            d. How many peppers do you need?
d. Do you think that kayaking                  e. What quantity of fresh oregano is necessary?
   is hard? On the contrary, I
   think it's a piece of cake.
e. Do you like salsa? No, it's
                                           3 You will hear an interview with Carl Brown, a food artist. Why do you
   not really my cup of tea.                   think he only works with food? Choose one alternative.
                I do not like it.    e.        a. Because he likes to eat his creations.
                It is vary easy.     d.        b. Because his parents are chefs.
                Not to tell anyone.  c.
                I think I will go crazy.
                                     b.        c. Because food is an important part of our lives.
                sweet.                         d. Because food is more versatile than paints.
             a. The baby is nice and




80
             UNIT 3
      GO AHEAD

4       Listen and check your prediction in exercise 3.

5       Listen again and tick the foods mentioned by Carl.




________________      ________________ ________________             ________________ ________________




________________      ________________ ________________             ________________ ________________


           · broccoli · butter · fish · lettuce · mushrooms                                   Bear it
           · olives · pasta · pizza · spaghetti · tomatoes                                    in mind
                                                                                  Artists use many different art
6       Listen again and check which art forms listed below Carl has used         forms including:
    during his career.                                                            A portrait - A likeness of a
                                                                                  person that shows the face.
    a. collage                     b.   graffiti                                  A landscape - A picture that
    c. landscape                   d.   mosaic                                    shows a place such as
    e. portrait                    f.   sculpture                                 mountains, a city or fields.
    g. seascape                    h.   still life                                A collage - a composition of
                                                                                  materials and objects that
                                                                                  include paper, fabric, wood,
7       Listen once more and choose the best option.                              glass, etc. pasted over a
    a. When Carl was a child his father                                           surface.
       i. had an Italian restaurant.       ii. worked in an Italian restaurant.   A still life - a painting or a
                                                                                  photograph of inanimate
                                                                                  objects such as fruit or flowers.
    b. Food is as important as                                                    A mosaic - a picture or
       i. air and water.                   ii. work and water.                    decorative design made by
                                                                                  placing small coloured
    c. When creating his food art Carl can take                                   pieces such as stone or tile,
       i. a few days.                     ii. seven to ten days.                  onto a surface.
                                                                                  Graffiti - Drawings or words
    d. Carl started working with food because he got                              written or sprayed on walls.
       i. food art as a Christmas present. ii. a commission from a supermarket.   A seascape - A picture that
                                                                                  shows the sea or the ocean.

                                                                        WE ARE WHAT WE EAT                      81
                   MAKE CONNECTIONS

              TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

              Countable / uncountable nouns + quantifiers
              1. Pay attention to the following sentences from the recording.
                 a. Use a little cheese.
                 b. We eat so much food during our lives.
                 c. A lot of images that I make can take many days to complete.
                 d. I have a few plans.
              2. What kind of word follows the words in bold? Can you count the items?

              3. Nouns are divided into countable - which you can count - and
                 uncountable - which you cannot count.
                 Countable nouns are things you can count, for example tomatoes, pizzas,
                 olives, days, etc. They can be used in plural and singular.
                 Uncountable nouns cannot be counted as units. They are used only in
                 singular, for example pasta, butter, bread, spaghetti, cheese.
                 (Careful with the word fish. It is usually used in singular. For example: I
                 bought some fish for dinner. But when we refer to different species of fish
                 we can say: The fishes in the lake were salmon, eel, trout and carp.)
              4. To indicate quantities related to these items we use many and a few with
                 countable nouns.
                 I don't need many tomatoes.
                 How many olives did you eat?
                 Give me a few ideas.
                 We use much and a little with uncountable nouns.
                 How much food did you buy?
                 The pizza didn't have much cheese.
                 I need to drink a little water.
              5. We use a lot of for both countable and uncountable nouns.
                 Add a lot of cheese.                Use a lot of tomatoes.
              6. Classify all the food you can find on pages 80 and 81 into countable and

              8 Countable or
                uncountable? Identify
                the foods in the fridge
                as countable or
                uncountable.




82
     UNIT 3
9 Complete these sentences using much, many, a few, a little and a lot of.
     a. Holland is a country with only __________ mountains.
     b. I don't like __________ salt in my soup.
     c. It's very sad but in Africa children have __________ food to eat.
     d. How much sugar do you want in your tea? Only __________, please

10 Ask questions about the parts in bold using how much or how many.
     The big day is finally here. We are going on a trip to the lake. We are going for
     5 days. The tickets cost 2,500 pesos each. Two of our classmates are not
     going because they have the flu. We are not taking a lot of luggage - just one
     backpack each - because the weather is nice so we don't need many clothes.
     People say that the level of water in the lake is very low because it is so hot.
     We must protect ourselves from the sun and use a lot of sun block.

11 Re-write these sentences in your notebook using a little / a few
     Example:     I don't need much money = I need a little money.
     a. I don't have many friends.
     b. This exercise doesn't take much time.
     c. There wasn't much rain in Chile last year.
     d. You don't need to use much meat for the recipe.



HAVE A CHAT

12 Complete the second part of the conversation between the reporter and
     food artist Carl Brown. Choose expressions and words from the box.
     Check with the recording.
                  · a few · a lot of · how much · landscape
                · many · picture · portrait · spill the beans
     Reporter:    So, what kind of _________ is the Mona Lisa?
     Carl:        It's a _________ because it shows the face of a person.
     Reporter:    _________ pasta do you need to make it?
     Carl:        It's big so I need _________ pasta shapes.
     Reporter:    Do you have any other plans apart from the Mona Lisa?
     Carl:        It's still a secret. If I tell you, you can't _________.
     Reporter:    I promise.
     Carl:        I am planning to make a huge _________ of New York with
                  lentils, peas, nuts and _________ other seeds for a very
                  important client.
     Reporter:    Will you be working alone?
     Carl:        No, I will need _________ helpers to complete it.

13       Listen to the completed conversation. Practise it with a partner and
     then role play it in front of the class.

                                                                             WE ARE WHAT WE EAT   83
               FAST CHECK

               14 Look at the ingredients for a lasagne and ask questions about the
                   quantities.                                               (10 points)
                                        • 200 grams of dry lasagne
                                         • 1 tablespoon of olive oil
                                      • 250 grams mozzarella cheese
                                          • 1/2 cup chopped onion
                                          • 2 cloves garlic, minced
                                              • 1/2 kilo of meat
                                             • 2 large tomatoes
                                                 • 1 basil leaf
                                          • 1 cup of tomato sauce
                                             • 1/2 cup of cream
                   a. _____________ dry lasagne do you need?
                   b. _____________ spoonfuls of oil do you need?
                   c. _____________ cheese is needed?
                   d. _____________ cups of chopped onion will you use?
                   e. _____________ garlic cloves are needed?
                   f. _____________ meat do you need?
                   g. _____________ tomatoes will you put in the lasagne?
                   h. _____________ basil leaves are required?
                   i. _____________ tomato sauce is needed?
                   j. _____________ cups of cream will you use?

                     Your              0-5              6-8                9 - 10
                    result:      Review the lesson   Quite good          Excellent



              WRITE IT DOWN

              15 Here is another picture by food artist Carl Brown. Describe it and name all
                 the types of food he used.




84
     UNIT 3
 PLAY IT


      Find the names of these foods in the Word Search Puzzle. The words
      may go in any direction.




                              A   F   B   R   E   V   B    N   M   A   F    U   L
                              P   U   S   N   P   E   S    T   V   S   E    S   L
                              E   C   I   R   A   G   G    B   R   E   A    D   S
                              S   R   R   N   S   E   R    S   R   E   R    M   E
                              E   L   S   A   T   T   L    N   P   I   A    I   E
                              E   E   I   M   A   A   I    O   U   L   F    L   S
                              V   C   E   O   E   B   U    U   R   T   S    K   E
                              G   A   H   R   L   L   G    T   R   E   S    R   S
                              H   T   E   E   T   E   M    R   U   F   Y    T   S
                              S   C   T   R   E   S   T    U   H   I   A    M   S
                              I   E   Y   T   E   S   E    G   I   F   E    U   E
                              F   T   E   G   G   S   E    O   E   A   T    F   S
                              S   T   E   E   W   S   A    Y   T   L   F    I   R




CHECK IT OVER!                                                          ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                  I need more work        I did OK        I did really well!

   Reading
   Speaking
   Writing


                                                                       WE ARE WHAT WE EAT   85
       EATING OUT
       READING
                                                                                        Lesson 3


                          THINK AHEAD

                     1 Match the titles (a. - d.) with the cookery books (1 - 4).
                        a. “Fast Food - Good Food”
                        b. “Healthy Food for your Dog”
                        c. “Making Faces …Edible”
                        d. “One Hundred and Fifty Ways to Cook Fish”




 1               2                             3                           4




                     2 Where can you find restaurant reviews?
                        a. In cookery books.                b. In newspapers.
                        c. In magazines.                    d. In television programmes.

                     3 Read this conversation and guess what the two people are planning.
                        Colleen:   So, is 8 p.m. OK?
                        Larry:     Let's make it 8.30.
                        Colleen:   How about the booking?
                        Larry:     I'll phone and check if they have any tables.
                        Colleen:   How far is it? Shall we take a taxi?
                        Larry:     It's near my house; we can walk.
                        Colleen:   Do you think they have any food I'm going to like?
                        Larry:     Relax! They have local and international cuisine.

                     4 You are going to read a review of three new restaurants in Toronto,
                        Canada. Which of these points do you think are included?
                        Atmosphere - Is the restaurant clean and well-decorated?
                        Food - Does the writer like the food?
                        Guests - What's the writer's opinion of other guests?
                        Menu Selection - Is the menu varied?
                        Price - How much is the meal?
                        Service - Are the waiters and waitresses attentive and fast?




86
     UNIT 3
                                      THREE NEW RESTAURANTS

S    ome people say that being a restaurant reviewer is the best
     job in the world but sometimes it's not. Visiting The Crazy
Cows was a disappointing experience. And the decoration was
                                                                         The
                                                                         Crazy Cows
crazy too - metal seats in repulsive black and white leather and
pictures of cows on the walls. Although I had a booking for a
table for two it took the staff 20 minutes to accommodate me and my partner. "We have too many
guests and not enough waiters," the manager explained. The appetiser arrived half an hour later -
a cold tomato soup with some old bread. When the steak came (well- done, please, I asked) it was
still red and looked uncooked. I asked for some garlic sauce for the meat but they didn't have any!
The experience was too bad to wait for dessert. "Do you have any fresh coffee?" I asked. And guess
what? They didn't have any. But I was really shocked when I received the bill. It was too
expensive. I didn't leave tip and left the restaurant very angry. It was a wasted evening. Take my
suggestion and don't visit The Crazy Cows!



T    he second restaurant was El Mariscal. It has some potential
     because of its great location and an exceptional selection of
ingredients. The food is excellent and the service impeccable,
the staff are friendly, well-presented and very polite. The
decoration is cheerful with lovely photos of the ocean and some
green transparent fish on the wall; the place has a great atmosphere. In general, it was the best
meal I've had for a long time. It was well-cooked and it came very quickly. First of all, I had
mussels with some parmesan cheese. They were delicious and really fresh. And, for the second
course, I chose salmon which came with butter and pepper sauce and some spicy potato purée and
asparagus. Last, I had some lovely dessert - passion fruit mousse and, to top it off, I drank a cup of
strong black coffee. Only one thing was not quite right - they didn't have any artificial sweetener
for coffee - just sugar. The meal was not too expensive either. I would definitely recommend El
Mariscal for a delicious meal.



C    afé Dolce Vita is a lively and authentic Italian restaurant
     with a typical decoration of simple tables covered with
cheerful red tablecloths and pictures of Italian landmarks such
as Rome and Venice. The best thing about the restaurant is the
price! If you order before 7 p.m. you get two dishes for the
price of one - a really good offer if you consider their size. I had
some Pasta Alfredo and my partner had cannelloni with spinach and a little cheese. We had some
tiramisu for dessert - really delicious. The restaurant didn't get full marks because the service was
not very good - the waiter was too slow. But overall, I would recommend the place mainly
because when we finished the food I felt really good and I thought that this is what restaurants
are all about - a good meal.
                                              Sources: adapted from the New Yorker, The Guardian and Time Out



                                                                    WE ARE WHAT WE EAT                      87
                                       GO AHEAD

                                 5 Read the restaurant reviews and check your predictions in Exercise 4. List
           Bear it                   all the elements mentioned. Which ones were not mentioned?
           in mind
Too and enough are               6 Read the reviews again and complete this chart.
adverbs used to modify
adjectives and indicate
degree. Too means more                            The
than necessary and it                             Crazy Cows
precedes the adjective.
Enough means sufficient and
it usually follows the               Appetiser
adjective.
                                 Main course
He is too old to play this
children's game.                     Dessert
He is old enough to buy a
car.                                  Other
Enough can also be used
with nouns. In such cases,
enough usually precedes the      7 Read the text again and identify which restaurant each pictures illustrates.
word.
I have enough money for the
CD player.
There aren't enough people
for the football team.
In some cases, enough can
stand alone.
I have had enough of this
nonsense



           Danger                1                         2                          3


Too is also an adverb that       8 Read the reviews again and write the name of the restaurant(s).
means also. It is used in
                                     a. The writer would recommend _________________________________.
positive sentences to indicate
a coincidence. We place it           b. He would not recommend ____________________________________.
at the end of a sentence.            c. He loved the decoration in ____________________________________.
• Jane speaks French. Sam            d. He hated the decoration in ____________________________________.
  speaks French too.                 e. The food was too expensive in _________________________________.
• I love chocolate and I love        f. The food was good value in ___________________________________.
  pizza too.                         g. The service was excellent in ___________________________________.
                                     h. The service was not too good in ________________________________.

                                 9 Overall, which was the best restaurant in the writer's opinion?




88
            UNIT 3
      MAKE CONNECTIONS

10 Would you take the writer's recommendations? Which restaurant would
   you visit?

TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

some / any
1. Read the examples from the texts.
   a. I asked for some garlic sauce for the meat but they didn't have any!
   b. Do you have any fresh coffee?
   c. I had mussels with some parmesan cheese.
   d. They didn't have any artificial sweetener.

2. What do you notice about the sentences above and the words in bold?
   When do we use some? When do we use any?
   We use some in affirmative sentences and any in interrogative and
   negative sentences to express a certain amount / an unspecified
   quantity of something.

3. Here are more examples:
   I have some friends but not many.
   You don't need any sugar to make pancakes.
   Do you have any ideas for your project?

4. Go back to the text and find four more examples with some and any.
   How do they illustrate the explanation in Point 2. above?

11 Look at the picture and answer the questions.
   a. Is there any cheese on the table?
   b. Are there any lemons?
   c. Can you see any bread?
   d. Are there any biscuits or sweets?
   e. Is there any sugar on the table?
   f. Can you see any juice?




12 Complete the sentences using some or any.
   a. We have _______ coffee but we don't have _______ milk.
   b. You can have _______ chocolate or _______ biscuits but not both.
   c. A: Do we have _______ lemon juice or vinegar?
      B: Yes, we have _______ vinegar but we don't have _______ lemon juice.


                                                                    WE ARE WHAT WE EAT   89
              HAVE A CHAT

              13      Michael is telling Sandra about his visit to a Chinese restaurant.
                   Complete the conversation using the sentences provided (a. - e.).
                   Check with the recording.




                   a. How many dishes did you have?
                   b. How long does it take to get there?
                   c. How about dessert? Did you have any?
                   d. Did you get any fortune cookies?
                   e. How much was the bill?

                   Sandra:      ____________________________________________________
                   Michael:     It depends, it takes about ten minutes by car or underground and
                                around 25 minutes if you walk.
                   Sandra:      ____________________________________________________
                   Michael:     We had a starter and the main course.
                   Sandra:      ____________________________________________________
                   Michael:     Yes, and mine said: good luck in your professional life.
                   Sandra:      ____________________________________________________
                   Michael:     No, the meal was so big that we didn't want any dessert.
                   Sandra:      ____________________________________________________
                   Michael:     Not really expensive. We paid ten pounds each, including the tip.

              14       Listen to the recording and practise the conversation with a partner.
                   Role play it in front of the class.

              FAST CHECK

               15 Complete this conversation with some or any.                    (10 points)
                    a. A: Do we have _____________ lemons?
                       B: No, we don't have _____________. What do you need them for?
                    b. A: I want to make _____________ lemon pie.
                       B: There are _____________ bananas. How about making
                          _____________ banana pie instead?

                       Your            0-5                 6-8                 9 - 10
                      result:    Review the lesson      Quite good           Excellent



90
     UNIT 3
WRITE IT DOWN

16 Have you ever been to a restaurant? Write a short real or imaginary
   restaurant review using the points suggested in Exercise 3.
   • Atmosphere                      • Food
   • Guests                          • Menu selection
   • Price                           • Service


 PLAY IT


      Some or any?

      a. Read all the sentences and decide whether you would use some or
         any to fill in the blanks.
      b. Play with your partner and take turns to make a bet (10, 20 or 50
         points) and say a sentence. If your sentence is correct, you win the
         points (+); if it isn't, you lose the points (-)
      c. Keep a record of your score as you play.
      d. The winner is the player who collects the most points



             10                       20                      50
      1. Have you got_____posters on your bedroom walls?
      2. There are ______ interesting new books in the library.
      3. There aren't _____ oranges in the fruit bowl.
      4. There is ______ fresh fruit in the fridge.
      5. I have _____ new CDs of my favourite band.
      6. My brothers and I don't drink ____ alcohol.
      7. My best friend doesn't eat ____ meat.
      8. There are ____ people at the front door.




CHECK IT OVER!                                                        ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                  I need more work        I did OK      I did really well!

   Reading
   Speaking
   Writing


                                                                      WE ARE WHAT WE EAT   91
                 LET'S DO IT ALL TOGETHER
                 LISTENING
                                                                                                      Lesson 4


                                        THINK AHEAD

                                  1 Look at the pictures and say what can be divided into slices, pieces,
           Danger                     spoonfuls, grains, a pinch, a handful. Ask your teacher to help out with
                                      the vocabulary or use a dictionary.
Countable versus
uncountable
Remember that uncountable
nouns (such as some foods)
are always in singular. To use
them in plural you must use
words such as slice, piece,
bit, spoonful,etc.                1                   2                    3                   4
For example a slice of
bread, a piece of meat, a
spoonful of vinegar.




                                  5                   6                    7                   8

                                  2 Put the sentences in order to create a dialogue with two end results
                                      following the diagram provided.
                                      a. Yes, why not. We could ask people for some money.
Mi d                  a               b. Then why don't we make a collection and ask everyone to contribute?
  n                T e se r           c. OK, then you invent something interesting.
                                      d. How about organising a picnic for the whole class?
Read these expressions                e. A collection? That's another silly idea.
related to food.
                                      f. Thanks - you are a good sport. Let's start working then.
a. Just a spoonful of sugar
   makes the medicine go
                                      g. You always try to impose your ideas on me! And besides we don't have
   down. - song from the film            any money to buy the ingredients.
   “Mary Poppins”.
                                                                 X asks Z
b. Take it with a pinch of salt
   - an idiom meaning “it
   might not be quite true”                                  Z refuses giving
c. There is a grain of truth in                                  a reason
   it - an idiom meaning
   “part of it might be true”.
                                                                 X tries to
d. This child is quite a
                                                                persuade Z
   handful - meaning that the
   child is difficult to
   manage.                                     Z agrees                         Z doesn't agree
e. The best thing since sliced
   bread - meaning a very
   good thing.
                                             X thanks Z                            X gives up

92
             UNIT 3
3 Role play the dialogue with the two different endings.

4 Which words from the box would you expect to find in a text about
     cooking a soup?

    · carrot · delicious · fire · hot · hungry              · meat     · money
    · nutritious · onion · pot · stone · taste               · tasty   · village


        GO AHEAD

5        Listen and check your predictions in Exercise 4.

6        What is the moral of the story?
     a. When people are really hungry they will eat anything.
     b. When we work together we can accomplish many things.
     c. When someone is smart he or she can cheat people.

7        How do people express their thanks in the story? List at least three
     expressions.

8        Put the pictures in the order the events happened in the story.




1                                     2                                      3




4                                     5                                      6




                                                                         WE ARE WHAT WE EAT   93
                                 9       Listen again and choose the correct option.
                                     a. Can you give me something to eat / some meat?
                                     b. I'm poor / I've poured it myself.
                                     c. Why is there a spoon / a stone in the pot?
                                     d. I'm preparing a delicious stone soup which I'll be happy to show to you
                                        / to share with you.
                                     e. There is / isn't enough for everybody.


                                        MAKE CONNECTIONS

                                 TAKE A CLOSER LOOK
          Bear it
          in mind                The Past Continuous
Clauses are groups of words      1. Read these sentences from the text.
which have meaning, but are          a. While she was walking through the centre of the village she saw an
often not complete sentences.           even bigger house.
Some clauses begin with the
                                     b. While she was doing this the villagers came out of their houses.
word when.
Examples: when she was a
girl / when I saw him.           2. Can you notice that one action was interrupted by another action in the
Other clauses begin with            past?
while.
Examples: while I was            3. We use the Past Continuous to indicate that a longer action in the past was
walking / while she was
                                    interrupted. The interruption is usually a shorter action in the Simple Past.
sleeping.
When we talk about things
                                    Remember this can be a real interruption or just an interruption in time.
that happened in the past, we
usually use the Simple Past
                                                  X
tense after when; while, which        Past                   Present                    Future
expresses the idea of "during
that time" is usually followed
                                 4. Read some other examples.
by the Past Continuous.
I was cooking when she               a. I was not doing anything when you phoned.
came in.                             b. What were you doing when the postman came?
She came in while I was              c. It started to rain while we were walking on the beach.
cooking.
                                 5. We can also express parallel actions happening in the past.


                                      Past                   Present                    Future
                                     a. I was studying while he was making dinner.
                                     b. Were you listening while he was talking?

                                 6. Look at the pictures illustrating the story on page 93 again. Can you write
                                    two more sentences about them using the Past Continuous? Can you
                                    identify the two actions in each?




94
            UNIT 3
10 Match the two parts of the sentences.

    While he was lighting the fire         the villagers were closing doors
           under the pot,                            and windows.

                                           the old man was telling them a
  When he walked into the village,
                                                       story.

                                            the villagers brought different
    While the soup was cooking,
                                                      vegetables.

                                       they were all standing in line with
        While he was talking,
                                              plates and bowls.

     When he finished cooking,         they were all listening attentively.


11 Complete these sentences using the Past Continuous tense.
   a. A: What _____________________ when the cars crashed?                (do)
      B: I ____________________________ out of the window.              (look)

   b. A: ___________________ the doctor ________________
         when the lights went out?                            (operate)
      B: No, he __________________________ the instruments. (put away)

   c. A: Did she find her glasses?
      B: No, she________________still___________when I left.            (look)

   d. A: What happened to the Titanic?
      B: It struck an iceberg when it ____________ the Atlantic.        (cross)

12 Choose one word to complete the sentences.
   a. For the recipe you need some flour, milk, eggs and a ____________
      of salt.
      i. piece           ii. slice         iii. pinch

   b. How do you take your tea? One ____________ of sugar, please.
      i. piece         ii. spoonful      iii. pinch

   c. The farmer took a bag of rice and pulled out a few ____________.
      i. grains          ii. pieces         iii. bits

   d. There is a ____________ of cheese and a ____________ of ham in the
      sandwich.
      i. handful        ii. slice         iii. grain




                                                                      WE ARE WHAT WE EAT   95
                        HAVE A CHAT

                       13       Use the visual clues to complete the conversation. Check with the
                            recording.



      So what were you
       doing yesterday
        when I called?




       But I called later
       on and you were
          still not in.




       Were you buying
        stuff for your
       birthday party?




       Oh, I see. And why
         was your little
      brother crying when
            I arrived?




                       14       Listen to the recording and practise the dialogue with a partner. Role
                            play it in front of the class.


96
     UNIT 3
 FAST CHECK

 15 Complete the sentences using when or while.                   (10 points)
     a. She was living in Barcelona __________ her younger sister was born.
     b. I was having a shower __________ the phone rang.
     c. __________ I was travelling in China I learned a few words in Chinese.
     d. I fell asleep __________ I was watching the film.
     e. Jonathan was parking his car __________ he heard a crash at the back.
          Your           0-3                 4-6                 7 - 10
         result:   Review the lesson      Quite good           Excellent


WRITE IT DOWN

16 Copy and answer these questions in your notebook.




     a                                     b
    What were you doing when Barack        What were you doing when Madonna
    Obama became the 44th US President?    came to Chile to give some concerts?




     c                                     d
    What were you doing when the           What were you doing when the
    latest Chilean Telethon announced      clock struck 12 on New Year's Eve
    they had reached their goal?           last year?

17 Ask two more questions like those in Exercise 16 in your group.

CHECK IT OVER!                                                          ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                   I need more work        I did OK      I did really well!

   Reading
   Speaking
   Writing


                                                                        WE ARE WHAT WE EAT   97
 1 There were ten people at this party. Look at the picture and identify the guests. What were they doing
     when Tony took the photo? Follow the example and write sentences in your notebook.
     Stella was eating a sandwich while George was holding a drink .




     a. Stella was eating a sandwich.
     b. George was holding a drink in his left hand.
     c. Edna and Robert were dancing.
     d. Jimmy was sitting in an armchair.
     e. Deborah was standing next to the window.
     f. Greg and Isabel were talking.
     g. Duncan was opening presents.

 2 Answer these questions about the picture with your partner.
     a. What was Stella wearing?
     b. What do you think George was drinking?
     c. Who do you think was enjoying the party?
     d. Who do you think was getting bored?
     e. Whose birthday was it? How do you know?


98
            UNIT 3
                                                                                            Ingredients:
3 Complete the instructions in this recipe using a few, a little, a lot of, any,          • 2 cups sifted flour
   some.                                                                                • 2 tsp. baking powder
                                                                                        • 4 tablespoons butter
                                                                                             • 1/2 tsp. salt
                                                                                            • 3/4 cup milk
                                                                                               (approx.)
                                                                                        • Jam and / or cream
                                                                                                to serve


   Mix flour, __________ baking powder and __________ salt. Add the butter (this is where I use my hands by
   rubbing the butter into the flour). Add milk gradually, stirring until soft dough is formed. Turn out on slightly
   floured board and lightly "knead" for __________ seconds, enough to shape. Roll 1/2 inch thick and cut with
   a biscuit cutter. Bake on ungreased sheet in a hot oven for 12-15 minutes. Makes 12 big biscuits or
   __________ tiny tea biscuits. Notice that we do not put __________ sugar into the dough, but we add
   __________ jam and / or cream at the table. These are great served with tea.

4 Inspector Dell is investigating a robbery at Mr. Rich's house. A diamond ring worth 30,000 Euros was
   stolen! Look at the pictures, and ask and answer the questions. Can you guess what happened to the ring?
   Example:
   Inspector Dell: Miss Rich, what were you doing at eight o'clock last night when the ring was stolen?
   Miss Rich:      I was listening to music.




    1                                     2                                        3
   Miss Ruby Rich                        Mr. Rich                               Mrs. Rich




    1                                     2                                        2
   Johnny Rich                           Judy Hill                              Greg Jones

                                                                          WE ARE WHAT WE EAT                      99
 READING - EATING OUT THE JAPANESE WAY


      I. ______________________
      Tomoe Sushi is one of New York's high quality sushi
      restaurants, if you don't mind waiting in a line for a seat. I
      really enjoyed my visit there - the sushi served is delicious
      and a great value. We had some great rolls with salmon -
      you could really feel they were fresh! Then we ordered a
      portion of Trout Roses - 6 pieces. They were fantastic and
      the rice was great - it was the right texture and not too
      soft. I'm not a great expert at eating with chopsticks so it
      took me a while to get the hang of it but once I tried it was
      not too difficult. Finally, we had some Japanese green tea
      and a few sweet rice cookies.

       II. ______________________                                            III. _____________________
       Sushi has a very interesting origin and it continues to be a          Tomoe is the kind of place
       popular food today. It is made with a combination of                  where decoration doesn't
       shellfish, cooked or raw fish, vegetables, and rice. Although         really matter. It is simple
       sushi is most commonly linked to Japan, it actually began             enough, with a few Japanese
       in China during the 7th Century. When people caught fish              prints; the waiters are
       they had to preserve it and the only method was by                    Japanese - all really quick
       fermentation. People cleaned, filleted, and pressed raw fish          and polite. And the price was
       between some sea salt and usually put a very heavy stone              also right, considering that
       on top of it. The fish                                                the meal was good and
       stayed this way for                                                   abundant enough.
       weeks until the cook
       removed the stone
       and then put on
       some type of light
       cover. The fish
       remained in the salt
       layers for a couple of
       months until the
       fermentation
       process was
       complete.
                                Adapted from http://www.asianartmall.com/originsofsushi.htm and www.menupages.com



100
             UNIT 3
1 Read the text and give one of these headings to each paragraph.                        1 pt.
    a. The origin of sushi
    b. General impressions of decoration and price
    c. Arriving at the restaurant

2 Are these statements true or false? Correct two of the false statements.               8 pts.
    a. Tomoe Sushi is in Tokyo, Japan.
    b. The reviewer ate six pieces of Trout Roses.
    c. The reviewer is an expert at eating with chopsticks.
    d. Sushi is originally from Japan.
    e. At first, people made sushi to preserve fresh fish.
    f. The waiters at Tomoe were slow and rude.


LISTENING - WHAT A CHEF HAS TO SAY
3    Listen to the recording once. What type of text is it?
                                                                                         1 pts.
    a. A telephone conversation.
    b. An interview.
    c. A monologue.




4       Listen again and complete these sentences.                                       5 pts.
    a. ________________________________________ when you were growing up?
    b. _____________________________________________, my parents always told
       me I should be passionate about making a living.
    c. While she was upstairs, _____________________________________________
    d. When you feed people, _____________________________________________

5       Listen again and number these sentences in the order you hear them.              5 pts.
    a. Cooking was natural for me.
    b. Can you tell us a funny kitchen incident?
    c. The most important thing you give them is love.
    d. Finally, after giving me some bread with a little ham
       and cheese she told about the dog!
    e. A few simple points.



                                                                    WE ARE WHAT WE EAT           101
 LANGUAGE
 6 Complete the sentences using a relative pronoun.                                                  3 pts.




      a. A baker is a professional____________________________________________________
      b. An umbrella is an object ___________________________________________________
      c. I loved the sandwich ______________________________________________________

 7 Ask questions about the sentences using the words in the box.                                     4 pts.

                   · How much · How many · How long · How far

      a. The village where Zajac grew up is 150 kilometres from the capital.
      b. It takes 4 hours to get from my town to Santiago.
      c. We need 2 litres of milk to make this big cake.
      d. We only have a little time to do this exercise.

 8 Match the two parts of the sentences. Several options are possible.                               2 pts.

      While she was driving the car                   her husband was sleeping in his seat.
      When she stopped the car                        her husband was looking at the map
                                                      and giving her directions.
      While they were looking for the place           a policeman came to ask her for her
                                                      documents.
      When she finally found the place                it started to rain.

 9 Fill in the spaces with some, any, a few, a little, much or many.                                 3 pts.
      So, how _______ tomatoes do you need to make this salad? The number is not specified but
      use _______ red tomatoes and _______ green tomatoes. Then cut _______ onions into pieces
      and add _______ to the tomatoes. Keep the rest of the onions for the onion soup we are going
      to make later. Finally, add a _______ olive oil and a pinch of salt and the salad is ready.


 WRITING
 10 Write 4 questions you would ask a professional chef about your favourite recipe.                 8 pts.



102
             UNIT 3
SPEAKING
11 Complete the conversation between two chefs using the questions provided. Then role                           8 pts.
    play it with a partner.
    a. How much time do we have to cook?
    b. How far is the hotel from here?
    c. How long is the party going to last?
    d. How many people are coming?
    Chef A: ___________________________________________________________________
    Chef B: About two hours. The guests are coming at around 9 p.m.
    Chef A: ___________________________________________________________________
    Chef B: Ten, five men and five women.
    Chef A: ___________________________________________________________________
    Chef B: I'm not sure but I think until midnight.
    Chef A: So we will need to book a cab to take us back to the hotel.
    Chef B: ___________________________________________________________________
    Chef A: Only about 20 blocks.

                                    Your          0 - 16            17 - 33                34 - 48                    Total
                                   result:    Not too good        Acceptable               Great!                    48 pts.


 FINAL CHECK                                                                                                 ✔✔
                                                                        Nearly Always
Choose one alternative according to your performance.                   Sometimes
                                                                        Always



                                                                        Never
Speaking
· I use English structures correctly.                                                   Use this clue to work out your
                                                                                        score
· I use varied and correct vocabulary.                                                  Never = 0
· Others can understand me.                                                             Sometimes = 1
Writing                                                                                 Nearly Always = 2
· My writing is coherent and follows the central idea.                                  Always = 3

· I use the correct sentence formation and sentence structure                           If you get:
· I use the correct spelling, punctuation, capitalisation and format.                   0 - 10 = Watch out! You must look
Reading                                                                                 back and review the whole unit. Ask
· I am aware of the differences in tenses, gender and number.                           your teacher and / or a classmate for
                                                                                        additional help and remedial work.
· I identify the main idea and understand the text as a whole.                          11 - 22 = Not too bad, but there are
· I can locate details and look for specific information.                               areas you still have problems with.
Listening                                                                               Identify those areas and ask your
· I can get the general idea.                                                           teacher and / or a classmate for
                                                                                        additional help and remedial work.
· I understand the details and identify speakers.                                       23 - 34 = You are doing fine, but you
· I identify the source of listening texts and recognise the format                     can certainly do better. Get together
Group work                                                                              with a classmate and review your weak
· I share my ideas with the group                                                       points.
                                                                                        35 - 45 = Congratulations! Great
· I listen to and respect my partners' points of view                                   progress - you may look ahead to the
· I help solve problems and contribute with relevant information                        new unit and help your classmates

                                                                          WE ARE WHAT WE EAT                                103
      IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL LEARN TO:                                   YOU WILL USE THE FOLLOWING TEXT TYPES:
      Reading: Summarise a text using questions and / or                Reading: News-based anecdotes / Instructions
      headings / Identify type and source of text / Find specific       Listening: A myth / An interview / An advertisement
      information through scanning                                      YOU WILL ALSO LEARN:
      Listening: Identify the order of events / Match oral and          Grammar: Going to to express the future / Wish to express hopes
      visual information / Identify specific information                and desires / The use of would like to
      Production: Make and respond to suggestions / Express plans       Vocabulary: Make vs. do /Vocabulary related to professions and work /
      for the future /Talk about wishes and regrets / Make complaints   Words related to giving and following instructions for different machines
      Functions: Refer to personal experiences / Express hopes          YOU WILL PAY SPECIAL ATTENTION TO THESE VALUES:
      and disillusion / Express wishes and regrets                      The importance of doing a job well
104
SET UP

1 Match the professionals (1 - 5) with the situations (6 - 10).




1                     2                      3                    4                  5




6                     7                      8                    9                  10

2 In pairs, complete the chart following the example.

                          Baker                             A person who bakes cakes and bread
                          Driver
                     Electrician
                       Farmer
                    Hairdresser
                     Reporter
                     Translator




                                                                                                 105
                    DO IT WELL! MAKE IT BIG!
                    READING
                                                                                                              Lesson 1


                                            THINK AHEAD
 Mi d                    a
   n                  T e se r
                                     1 Read the adjectives in the box. Can you place them along the line according
 Guinness World Records is               to size, starting with the smallest on the left to the biggest on the right?
 an annual reference book                               · big · diminutive · huge · small
 which contains an
 international collection of                             · substantial · tiny · microscopic
 world records, including
 human successes and the
 extremes of the natural world.
                                     Smallest                                                                    Biggest
             Danger
                                     2 Which sentences below indicate personal experiences? How do you know?
 We use the verb do                      a. I want to thank all our friends and neighbours who helped us create
 a. when someone performs an                this scone.
    action, activity or task: do a       b. All their neighbours and friends were grateful for the experience.
    crossword; do the washing.           c. I've calculated that if I shoot some 50 balloons I can land on the field
 b. when referring to work of
                                            quite safely.
    any kind: do your work;
    do homework.                         d. Scientists have calculated that if he shoots some 50 balloons he can
 c. when speaking about                     land on the field quite calculated safely.
    things in general. I am not
    doing anything today.            3 You are going to read two texts related to these pictures. What do you
 We use the verb make for
                                         think they are going to be about?
 constructing, building or
 creating: make a dress; make
 food, make breakfast. These
 activities usually create
 something that you can touch.




                                     1                                          2

                                     4 Make or do? Put the verb in the correct form.
                                         a. So, what are you going to _________, a cake or pancakes?
                                         b. Do you know what Sheila is _________ right now?
                                         c. Have you _________ your homework?
                                         d. While Greg is _________ the dishes Susan can _________ breakfast.

                                            You can find all kinds of records online accessing the home page of the book
                                            http://www.guinnessworldrecords.com


106
              UNIT 4
    GO AHEAD




I. RECORD BREAKING SCONE
A family of bakers is today the     grandmother who was a farmer        organising a Food Festival so
holder of a new record,             and which I've always wanted        we're going to donate this
creating a colossal scone which     to make. One day, as I was          gigantic scone to the event.
is 700 times bigger than a          talking to my family they said:     This is an unforgettable
typical scone you can buy in        You've got to make something        experience for all of us”
any bakery.                         really big and unusual. So I said   Mrs. Hallet also said: “I want
The Hallet family's creation is     - I'm going to make a really        to thank all our friends and
going to become the most            enormous scone. And this year,      neighbours who helped us
important part of the world's       our town of Torquay is              create this scone.”
largest tea party organised for
the Torquay Food Festival.

                                     II. AN UNUSUAL JOURNEY
Mrs. Hallet, a baker by
profession and, together with
her family, the creator of the
huge scone, told us today:           This is a report from our USA      Something that everybody is
“If you want to make a giant         correspondent, Jenny Rush,         asking about and which seems
scone you start by collecting        who in two days’ time is going     to be the most difficult part of
the ingredients; you'll need a       to witness an unusual and          the journey is the landing.
lot! To make a scone similar to      spectacular event.                 Ken explains: “Yes, it's
ours you need 13kg of flour,         Ken Crouch, a garage owner,        complicated but someone said:
2.5kg of butter, 9kg of milk,        will make his childhood dream      why don't you take your air
2kg of sugar, 600g of baking         come true. Ever since Ken read     gun with you? So I'm going to
powder, 120g of salt, 12.5           “The Wizard of Oz” he has          shoot the balloons to let the
litres of cream and 20kg of          wanted to fly. And this            air out. I've calculated that if I
strawberry jam.”                     Monday, he is going to fly         shoot 50 balloons I can land on
This is the first time Mrs.          across the blue Oregon sky …       the field quite safely. I have to
Hallet is making a scone this        in a chair tied to 150 huge        shoot them one by one to get
size but she says she is going to    multi-coloured party balloons.     a soft landing.”
keep making enormous scones          The chair is going to fly over     The whole trip across Oregon
in the future.                       the mountains on its 318-km        is going to take 9 hours to
“As a baker I usually make           journey across the desert. If      complete. Ken's wife and his
bread and cakes. But they are        the weather conditions are         two teenage sons are going to
normal bread and cakes that          stable Ken will land on a field    follow his adventures overland
you can buy from my shop in          where reporters from various       in a jeep.
Torquay every day. Our               national and international         We are not sure how safe
massive scone is made                media are going to interview       Ken's adventure is but we have
according to a 100-year-old          him about his personal             to say it looks like one
recipe I inherited from my           experience.                        colourful journey.


                                                                        Source: Daily Mail, various editions 2008




                                                - DO IT AND MAKE IT WELL!                                    107
                        WHATEVER YOU DO OR MAKE
                                 5 Read the two texts and check your predictions in Exercise 3.
           Bear it
           in mind
                                 6 What is the source of the two stories?
 Compare these sentences.
 You've got to do it right. ~        a. An encyclopaedia.             b. A newspaper.
 You have to do it right.            c. A scientific magazine.        d. A website.
 Both sentences express an
 obligation, something that is
 needed or necessary. They
                                 7 Why did the protagonists of the two stories decide to do something big?
 can be used interchangeably.        a. They want to help other people.
 Here are some more                  b. They are following their dreams.
 examples.                           c. It is a family tradition.
 We've got to hurry up. ~
                                     d. They want to break a world record.
 We have to hurry up.
 She's got to study more. ~
 She has to study more.          8 Read the text again and write down what the numbers in this chart refer to.

                                                   9
                                                  13
                                                 100
                                                 150
                                                 318
                                                 700


                                 9 Which of the ingredients in the pictures are not needed for the giant scone?




                                 1                     2                3                   4




                                 5                     6                7                   8
                                 10 Read the stories again. Use the question words below as clues to
                                     summarise them.
                                                                   Story I                   Story II
                                           Who?
                                          When?
                                           What?
                                          Where?
                                           Why?


108
             UNIT 4
       MAKE CONNECTIONS


 TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

 Going to + infinitive
 1. Read these sentences from the text.
    a. We are going to donate this gigantic scone to the event.
    b. I'm going to make a really enormous scone.
    c. In two days’ time Jenny Rush is going to witness an unusual and
       spectacular event.

 2. What kind of actions do they refer to?
    a. Planned actions for the future
    b. Unplanned actions in the future.
    Going to + infinitive is used to refer to planned actions in the future.

 3. Go back to the text. Find and copy all the sentences that refer to
    planned actions in the future.

11 Put the verbs in brackets in the correct form to indicate planned future
   actions.                                                                                      Bear it
   a. It _______________ a sunny day tomorrow.                                 (be)              in mind
   b. They _______________ lunch quite soon.                                  (eat)   One of the most common
   c. Sue says she _______________ her snack with me.                       (share)   suffixes (particles we add to
   d. The school _______________ in the competition this year.          (take part)   the end of words to make
                                                                                      new words) is the suffix -er.
                                                                                      It means the doer or maker of
12 Answer these questions about yourself and your personal experiences.               something and is frequently
   a. What are you going to do after you finish school?                               used with professions: baker,
   b. Are you going to see your friends this weekend?                                 farmer, teacher, waiter, writer.
   c. When are you going to have your birthday party?                                 Other common suffixes to
   d. Where are you going to go on holiday next year?                                 indicate professions are -or,
                                                                                      -ist, -ant, and -man/woman:
                                                                                      creator, director, supervisor;
13 Go back to the text and find all the words denoting professions or                 dentist, journalist, scientist;
   people‘s activities. Copy them into your notebook using have got and               accountant, assistant,
   have to.                                                                           attendant; barman, fireman,
                                                                                      policewoman.

14 Re-write the sentences in your notebook using have got to and have to.
   Example: It's necessary to use some butter and milk.
            You've got to use some butter and milk.
            You have to use some butter and milk.

   a. Our car is so dirty. It's necessary to wash it.
   b. We are late. It's necessary to hurry up.
   c. Don't lie. It's necessary to tell the truth.
   d. Ken wants to land safely. It's necessary to shoot 50 balloons one by one.

                                                   - DO IT AND MAKE IT WELL!                                      109
                           WHATEVER YOU DO OR MAKE
                FAST CHECK

                15       Complete this conversation about plans for the future using the
                     verbs in brackets.                                        (10 points)
                     Jack:    Have you made up your mind yet?
                     Bella:   Yes, we _________ a picnic.                                     (organise)
                     Jack:    Good idea. How about the food?
                     Bella:   We _________ some simple finger food: sandwiches,
                              veggie sticks and soft drinks.                                        (buy)
                     Jack:    And the guest list?
                     Bella:   We _________ the whole class and a few teachers.                   (invite)
                     Jack:    The only problem is transport.
                     Bella:   Greg's mother has a minibus and she _________ us all.                (take)
                     Jack:    Well, everything's solved then!
                     Bella:   Oh, no! Look at the clouds, Jack! It looks as if it _________ !      (rain)

                        Your            0-5                    6-8                    9 - 10
                       result:    Review the lesson         Quite good              Excellent



               HAVE A CHAT

               16      Listen to the conversation in Exercise 15 and check your answers.
                    Then listen, practise and role play the dialogue in front of the class.


               17 Complete these summaries of the two stories. Notice that they are in the
                    first person singular.
                    Mrs Hallet: I'm a ____________ and I have a little bakery in ____________.
                                I usually make normal ______________ and ______________,
                                but this year I want to make a giant ______________
                                which ______________ going to donate to the Torquay Food
                                Festival. This ______________ going to be the _____________
                                scone in the world and I'm ______________ to be in the
                                Guinness ______________ of Records.

                    Ken Crouch: I'm a garage ______________, but I've always wanted to
                                _____________. So I'm going to fly across the _____________
                                in a chair tied up to lots of huge party ______________. I'm
                                going to ______________ softly on a field by ______________
                                the balloons one by one. My ______________ and son
                                are ______________ to follow my journey overland in
                                a ______________. After I land I'm going to be interviewed by
                                national and ______________ journalists.




110
      UNIT 4
WRITE IT DOWN


18 Use the pictures below to write the ending to Story II you read in this lesson.




1                                         2




 PLAY IT


       a. The table has 10 words related to making the biggest scone in the world.
       b. Hop from space to space but only to spaces immediately adjacent to each other to discover
          all the words.
       c. List them in your notebook.

                  oven                travel                fly                 desert
                  chair               baker               scone                  milk
                  butter             balloon              dream                 sugar
                  bake                 jam                cream                  air
                   flour           mountains               child                shoot




 CHECK IT OVER!                                                           ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                   I need more work            I did OK    I did really well!

    Reading
    Speaking
    Writing


                                                   - DO IT AND MAKE IT WELL!                          111
                           WHATEVER YOU DO OR MAKE
        FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS
        LISTENING
                                                                                       Lesson 2


                         THINK AHEAD

                    1 Put the instructions in the correct order. Use the pictures to help you.




                       a. i. Insert the pendrive into the USB drive.
                         ii. Get your pendrive ready for use.
                         iii. Locate the USB drive on the computer or laptop.




                       b. i. Open the microwave.
                         ii. Prepare the plate with food.
                         iii. Programme the microwave and close the door.
                         iv. Do not use any metal objects.

                    2 A cause is something that makes something else happen. An effect is
                       what happens as a result of a cause. Match the cause and the effect
                       sentences in the table.

                                   Cause                                   Effect
                        She presses a button on the
                                                               John answers the telephone.
                                 microwave.
                              I dial a number.                       Water comes out.
                          Susie turns the taps on.                  Money comes out.
                          I put a card into the slot.             The room gets brighter.
                         George turns the light on.            The machine starts working.




112
      UNIT 4
3 Read the mini-dialogues below. Which ones, in your opinion, express
    expectations and which ones regret?
    a. A:   The man says the bus should be here soon.
       B:   I hope so.
    b. A:   They don't have any more tickets for the Coldplay concert.
       B:   Oh, what a pity!
    c. A:   Hopefully, we can get home before it starts raining.
       B:   I'm sure we can.
    d. A:   I'm afraid the plane to Madrid is delayed 5 hours.
       B:   Oh dear, that's terrible.

4 Considering the exercises on page 112 and the title of the lesson, what do
    you think the listening text will be about?
    a. How to use a microwave.
    b. How to follow instructions.
    c. How to make a phone call.

      GO AHEAD

5       Listen and check your predictions in Exercise 4.

6       Put the pictures in the order you hear the instructions.




1                                        2                               3




4                                        5                               6




                                                     - DO IT AND MAKE IT WELL!   113
                             WHATEVER YOU DO OR MAKE
               7       Listen again and put the instructions (a. - f.) in order; then match
                    them with the pictures in Exercise 6 (1 - 6).
                    a. Fold the top and bottom of the head away from you.
                    b. Put the coloured side face down on the table.
                    c. Fold the corners together and unfold.
                    d. Draw eyes, a nose and a mouth.
                    e. Fold the dog's ears down.
                    f. Fold the paper along the diagonal line.

               8        Listen again. Which of the words in the box does the instructor use to
                    indicate a sequence of events? Write them in your notebook.

                         · after that · finally · first · last · next            · now
                                    · second · then · to begin with

               9        What's the effect? Listen again and complete this chart.

                              Cause                                     Effect
                If you put the coloured side face
                        down on the table
               We're going to fold the paper along
                         the diagonal line
                  Fold the corners together and
                              unfold
                You can draw eyes, a nose and a
                            mouth.

               10       Listen again and complete these sentences.
                    a. I hope that you are all ________________________________________.
                    b. Can you tell us about ________________________________________?
                    c. I'm going to show ___________________________________________.


               11       Listen again and answer the questions.
                    a. What is the name of the art of paper folding?
                    b. Where is it originally from?
                    c. Who took this art to Japan?
                    d. What is the plan for the first class?

               12      Listen once more and check which expressions from Exercise 3 were
                    used in the listening text.



                       You can find thousands of How-to instructions on
                       http://www.ehow.com


114
      UNIT 4
       MAKE CONNECTIONS


 TAKE A CLOSER LOOK
                                                                                                 Danger
 Going to + infinitive (continued)
 1. Read these sentences that express plans or intentions.
                                                                                      You have probably heard the
    We're going to travel to Europe. We're going to see lots of old buildings         expression: I'm gonna …..
    and museums. (a plan for the future).                                             I'm gonna do it. Or I'm
    I'm going to be a famous scientist when I finish school. (this is my              gonna come.
    intention for the future).                                                        It means: I am going to ….
                                                                                      This is a slang expression
 2. Read these sentences that express certainty for the future.                       some English speakers use.
                                                                                      You should be aware that it
    Watch out! That tree is going to fall!
                                                                                      exists but try not to use it,
    Don't worry. I know you are going to pass the exam.                               especially in formal situations.
    The sky is very dark; it's going to rain tonight.

 3. Read these sentences from the recording. Which one expresses a plan
    or intention and which one certainty for the future?
    a. We are not going to do anything complicated.
    b. Careful with the scissors! They are going to fall from the desk!

13 Complete these sentences expressing plans, intentions or certainty. Use
    the correct form of the verbs in brackets.
    a. A: So, what's the plan for today's lesson?
       B: We __________ a landscape using water colours.                  (paint)
    b. Look! The car on your right __________ an accident.                 (have)
    c. A: What __________ in that empty lot?                                  (do)
       B: They __________ a big shopping centre.                           (build)
    d. Look at the clouds. I'm sure it __________.                          (rain)
    e. A: __________ your friends at the weekend?                           (visit)
       B: I think I __________ at home.                                     (stay)
    f. A: Where __________ Kelly __________?                              (study)
       B: She __________ for a scholarship at a British university        (apply)

14 Fill in the blanks in this story with last, first, next, second.
    Susan's going to make a peanut butter and jelly sandwich. __________, she's
    going to put peanut butter on one slice of bread. __________, she's going to
    spread jelly on another slice of bread. __________, she's going to put the two
    slices of bread together. __________, she's going to eat her sandwich. I'm
    sure it is going to be delicious.




                                                     - DO IT AND MAKE IT WELL!                                    115
                             WHATEVER YOU DO OR MAKE
                   HAVE A CHAT

                   15       Billy and Joel are talking about Billy's plans for next Saturday.
                        a. Put the pictures in the order the actions are mentioned in the
                           conversation.

 1             2                               3                            4




 5             6                               7                            8




                        b. Complete Billy and Joel‘s conversation and then check with the
                           recording.
                           Joel: ______________________________________________?
                           Billy: Well, first of all I'm going to sleep a lot.
                           Joel: ______________________________________________?
                           Billy: Second, I'm going to have a big breakfast!
                           Joel: ______________________________________________?
                           Billy: After that, I'm going to watch some TV, read the morning papers, go
                                  for a long walk and then I'm going to have a nice lunch.
                           Joel: ______________________________________________?
                           Billy: Next, I'm going to get together with some friends to play cards and
                                  video games.
                           Joel: ______________________________________________?
                           Billy: Finally, I'm going to go to a party or a disco and I'm going to dance
                                  all night long.
                           Joel: I see that your weekend is going to be very busy.
                           Billy: I hope so!



116
      UNIT 4
16       Listen to the recording and practise the conversation with a partner.
     Take turns to be Billy and Joel. Role play the conversation in front of the
     class, including as much true information about yourself as possible.


 FAST CHECK

 17 Complete these dialogues with an appropriate question for the
      underlined part .                                            (10 points)
      a. A: Where _________________________________________________?
         B: She is going to travel to Spain.
      b. A: What _________________________________________________?
         B: She is going to buy a new apartment.
      c. A: When _________________________________________________?
         B: It's going to snow on Monday.
      d. A: Who _________________________________________________?
         B: The students are going to ask the teacher to postpone the test.
      e. A: Why _________________________________________________?
         B: I'm going to organise a party to celebrate my birthday.

           Your           0-5                  6-8                9 - 10
          result:   Review the lesson       Quite good          Excellent



 WRITE IT DOWN

18 Choose one of the following objects and write the instructions to use it.




a. A DVD.                    b. A webcam.                c. A food mixer.          d. A video recorder.



 CHECK IT OVER!                                                          ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                    I need more work         I did OK      I did really well!

     Listening
     Speaking
     Writing


                                                    - DO IT AND MAKE IT WELL!                             117
                            WHATEVER YOU DO OR MAKE
                 HOLDING THE WORLD ON YOUR SHOULDERS
                 READING
                                                                                                     Lesson 3


                                       THINK AHEAD

                                 1 Match the pictures (1 - 3) with the titles (a. - c.). Do you know any other
                                     Greek myths? Which ones? Tell your classmates.


 Mi d                 a
   n               T e se r

 Greek is an Indo-European
 language spoken in Greece,
 Cyprus and the Middle East.
 English has borrowed a
 large number of words from
 Greek. They can be grouped
 into several categories:
 Educational and sporting:
 gymnasium, mathematics.
 Mythology: amazon,              1                          2                          3
 Pegasus.
 Social and political:               a. "Part-human and part-horse"
 democracy, demographic.             b. "Zeus and the gods of Mount Olympus"
 Terms from Christianity:            c. "The Trojan Horse"
 Eucharist, catholic.
 Theatrical: drama, chorus.
 Animals: buffalo, crocodile.    2 Which Chilean myths do you know? Describe one in your group.
 Place names: Egypt, Ethiopia.
 The vast majority of Greek      3 Read the words in the box. Which ones do you think have a positive
 borrowings are scientific
 terms: astronomy,                   connotation, which ones a negative and which ones a neutral
 geography, biology,                 connotation? Use a dictionary if necessary.
 anthropology, and many,
 many others. Can you add                  · apple · basket · chief · favour · fine                 · lie
 more words to this list?
                                       · naive · quiet · smart · terrible · vengeful                · weight

                                                Positive
                                               Negative
                                                Neutral


                                 4 Which words from Exercise 3 would you expect to find in a myth about a
                                     Greek giant?


                                       You can check the origin of a word (its etymology, also Greek origin!) at
                                       the following site: http://www.etymonline.com


118
             UNIT 4
                          ATLAS AND HERCULES
I. _________________________          Hesperides golden apples. (2)            “But will you take it back from
Atlas, a Greek giant, and one of      _____________.”                          me after you scratch your nose?”
the firstborn sons of Earth, did      The Hesperides were                      “Of course I will. You have my
not like the way Zeus and his         spectacular nymphs who lived             word of honour,” lied Hercules.
friends ruled the world. So one       in an orchard guarded by the             Atlas put down the basket with
day he decided to lead a revolt       terrible hundred-headed                  apples and took the earth from
against the Mount Olympus             dragon Ladon.                            Hercules's shoulders.
gods and take the throne by           “And?” Atlas asked.                      “In a moment I'm going to be
force for himself. Zeus, who was      “Well, if you get the apples I'll        free like the wind. All the things
quite vengeful, got very angry        hold the earth for you. It's that        I'm going to do! And stupid
with him. ______. (1) “I wish I       simple. So - what do you say?            Hercules will stay here for
knew what kind of punishment          Do we have a deal?”                      ever,” Atlas thought to himself.
to give you,” he thought. “I          Atlas, who was rather naïve,             But Hercules picked up the
know! As of now, you're going         thought for a while about                basket with the apples and
to hold the weight of the world       making an excuse.                        started to walk away.
upon your shoulders.” And             “Hmm, he'll hold the earth for           “Hey, what do you think you're
from that day on Atlas had to         me if I get him the apples. Fine         doing? Aren't you coming
stand in the middle of the            and good - but I'm not going to          back?” Atlas yelled.
universe, all alone, holding the      take the earth back from him!            “I wish I could, but I'm terribly
earth on his shoulders.               (3) _____________!”                      busy right now,” Hercules
                                                                               answered and kept walking.
II. _________________________         III. ________________________            “Cheerio!” he shouted and
One day, the hero Hercules            So Atlas passed the Earth to             quietly kept walking
approached him with an                Hercules and set off to get the          and never
unusual request.                      golden apples.                           looked back.
“Good morning. How are you            (4) _____________ “Got the
doing today?”                         apples but I'm not going to take
Atlas's nose started to itch very     back the earth,” he laughed.
badly. “I wish I could scratch        ”You think I'm stupid? All the
my nose,” he thought but he           time I stood here wishing I
couldn't drop the weight.             could be somewhere else and
“The same as every day. I wish        now is my only chance.”
I were somewhere else but I'm         Hercules, who was much smarter
here. What can I do for you?”         than Atlas, said: “That's OK; I'll
he said aloud to Hercules.            do my best and keep holding this
“Can you do me a favour?”             weight. But why don't we do
Hercules asked.                       something before I'm stuck here
“And what would it be? I wish         till the end of times? Could you
I could move, but as you can          hold it for a while so that I can
see I'm stuck here for ever and       scratch my nose?”
ever,” Atlas answered.                Atlas remembered how he
“I have some very urgent work         often wished he could scratch
to do as I've got to get the          his nose and couldn't.

            Source: The Complete World of Greek Mythology by Richard Buxton
                 (Hardcover - Jun 28, 2004), published by Thames and Hudson.

                                                   - DO IT AND MAKE IT WELL!                                  119
                           WHATEVER YOU DO OR MAKE
                                        GO AHEAD
            Bear it
            in mind
                                   5 Read the text and check your predictions in Exercise 4.
 Do you know what a
 heading is and what role it
 has in a text? How is it          6 Read the text again and choose one heading (a. - d.) for each paragraph
 different from a title? While a
 title is an identifying name
                                      (I - III). There is an extra heading you do not need to use.
 given to a book, play, film,         a. How Atlas defeated the dragon.
 musical composition, or other        b. Smart Hercules - silly Atlas.
 work or part of work (for            c. Hercules asks for a favour.
 example a chapter) a                 d. Atlas's crime and punishment.
 heading is usually a line of
 text serving to indicate what
 the passage below is about.       7 Some sentences (a. - d.) have been removed from the paragraphs. Can
 A title can be a longer line of      you put them back into the corresponding spaces (1) - (4)?
 text or just one word, for
 example "Jaws" or "The
                                      a. In two days he returned with a full basket.
 Wonderful Adventures of              b. It‘s an ideal job for a giant like you.
 Alice in Wonderland", but a          c. For a long time he was not sure how to punish Atlas.
 heading is a summary of              d. Let him hold it for ever.
 what a given text or a piece
 of text is about.                 8 Look at the expressions in bold in the text. Who do they refer to?
                                      Paragraph I
                                      a. with him
                                         i. Atlas                         ii. Zeus
                                      Paragraph II
                                      b. who lived
                                         i. the nymphs                    ii. the dragon
                                      c. from him
                                         i. Atlas                         ii. Hercules
                                      Paragraph III
                                      d. his nose
                                         i. Atlas’s                       ii. Hercules

                                   9 What is the author's opinion of the following protagonists?
                                      a. Zeus is
                                         i. unforgiving.                  ii. kind.
                                      b. Atlas is
                                         i. not very clever.              ii. very strong.
                                      c. Hercules is
                                         i. smart.                        ii. lazy.
                                      d. Hesperides are
                                         i. ugly.                         ii. pretty.




120
              UNIT 4
      MAKE CONNECTIONS


TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

wish
1. Read these sentences from the text.
   a. I wish I knew what kind of punishment to give you.
   b. I wish I were somewhere else, but I'm here.
   c. I wish I could scratch my nose.

2. What do the sentences express?
   We use this structure when we would like things to be different from what
   they actually are. We use the verb wish to refer to how we'd like things to be
   in the present or to talk about how we would like things to be in the future.

3. The general concept is sometimes known as 'wishful thinking' and
   often coincides with the use of ojalá in Spanish.
   Here are more examples:
   I wish you were here.
   It's so hot today. I wish we had a cold drink.

4. Notice that we use the Past Tense after the verb wish.

10 Read these extracts from the text and write how Atlas would express
   his wishes.
   a. So one day he decided to lead a revolt against the Mount Olympus
      gods and take the throne by force for himself.
      “_________________________________________________________”.

   b. And from that day on Atlas had to stand in the middle of the universe,
      all alone.
      “_________________________________________________________”.

   c. He couldn't drop the weight.
      “_________________________________________________________”.

11 According to the text, who do you think could ask these questions: Zeus,
   Hercules or Atlas?
   a. _____________: What are you going to do with the apples?
   b. _____________: How am I going to punish you?
   c. _____________: So, are you going to help me?




                                                   - DO IT AND MAKE IT WELL!        121
                           WHATEVER YOU DO OR MAKE
                                       12 Complete these sentences expressing “wishful thinking”.
                                            a. It's so cold! I __________ a coat and gloves.                       (have)
                                            b. This town is so boring. I __________ in Paris.                        (live)
                                            c. English is difficult for me. I __________ it better.          (understand)
                                            d. I can't reach the top shelf. I __________ taller.                      (be)
                                            e. I can't help you. I __________ the answer myself.                  (know)

                                       13 Read the myth quickly again and find all the expressions with do or make.
               Danger                       List them in your notebook.

 Examine more expressions              14 Fill in the blanks in this conversation with make or do.
 with make and do.
                                            Juliet:   I have to ________ a telephone call.
 •   do one's best • make plans
 •   do good       • make an
                                            Steve:    Who are you going to call?
 •   do harm         exception              Juliet:   Sarah, she has not ________ a decision about the party yet.
 •   do a favour • make                     Steve:    Don't worry. You know that whatever she ________ she always
 •   do business     arrangements                     ________ her best.
                   • make a                 Juliet:   Yes, but time's running out and I can't ________ exceptions for
                     telephone call                   anybody. She has to ________ up her mind.
                   • make a decision        Steve:    It's going to be OK. You ________ the plans for the party a long time
                   • make a mistake                   ago and everything else is going fine.
                   • make noise
                                            Juliet:   I'm sure you're right. Hey, can you ________ me a favour?
                   • make money
                                            Steve:    Sure.
                   • make an excuse
                   • make an effort
                                            Steve:    Can you ________ the arrangements for the party balloons and the
                                                      flowers?
                                            Steve:    Don't worry. I will do all the work!

                                       15       Complete this interview with young athlete, Jenna. What are her
                                            wishes / regrets? Use the verbs in the box. Check with the recording.

                                                             · can     · have    · know      · speak
                                            Reporter:     So Jenna, do you speak any foreign languages?
                                            Jenna:        Only English, but I _____________ French and Spanish.
                                            Reporter:     Why Spanish?
                                            Jenna:        Because I _____________ travel around South America, but in
                                                          fact I can't.
                                            Reporter:     What's stopping you?
                                            Jenna:        As an athlete I spend most of my time practising.
                                                          I _____________ more time for a few hobbies.
                                            Reporter:     When do you think you'll have more time?
                                            Jenna:        I _____________ ! I'm really busy now with the London
                                                          Olympics coming.

                                       HAVE A CHAT

                                       16        Listen to the recording and practise the interview. Role play it in front
                                            of the class.


122
                 UNIT 4
 FAST CHECK

 17 What are Stephen's wishes?                                 (10 points)
     a. I don't have a dog, but I _____________________________________.
     b. Today is Thursday, but I ______________________________________.
     c. I can't speak German but I ___________________________________.
     d. It is cold and rainy outside; I __________________________________.
     e. I'm really hungry! I _________________________________________.
       Your             0-5               6-8                9 - 10
      result:     Review the lesson    Quite good          Excellent



WRITE IT DOWN

18 Write five of your own wishes. Remember to include an introductory
   sentence.


PLAY IT


      Play this noughts and crosses game with a partner.
      a. Choose a third student as a referee.
      b. Copy the table in your notebook and then choose either noughts ( O ) or crosses ( X ).
      c. You get the field if you make a correct sentence using the words provided.
      d. The person who gets three noughts or three crosses in a line wins the game.


                  Do homework          Make money              Make a cake


                Make an exception       Do a favour             Do my best



                 Make a decision          Do harm               Make a bed



CHECK IT OVER!                                                         ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                    I need more work      I did OK     I did really well!

   Reading
   Speaking
   Writing


                                                   - DO IT AND MAKE IT WELL!                      123
                           WHATEVER YOU DO OR MAKE
        IʻD LIKE TO APPLY!
        LISTENING
                                                                                         Lesson 4


                          THINK AHEAD

                    1 Match the words in the box with the definitions (a. - d.)

                              · applicant       · apply for   · interview     · interviewer

                        a. To request or look for assistance, employment, or admission.
                        b. A formal meeting in person, especially one arranged to asses the
                           professional competences of a person.
                        c. A person who wants to get a job and asks for it.
                        d. A person conducting an interview.

                    2 What do these people want? Match the pictures (1 - 4) with what the
                        people say (a. - d.).




                    1                                          2




                    3                                          4


                a.                        b.                  c.                  d.
                                                                   I wish you a
                    I don't want to         I want to see                          I'd like to apply
                                                                      Merry
                     see you again!         the manager!                             for the job.
                                                                    Christmas.


124
      UNIT 4
3 Read the list of duties below. Which ones do you think are the duties of a
    receptionist?
    a. Answering calls and taking messages.
    b. Cooking the boss's lunch and dinner.
    c. Dealing with phone enquiries.
    d. Driving the company car.
    e. Greeting visitors and directing them to the correct person or department.
    f. Issuing security passes.
    g. Keeping the reception area tidy.
    h. Keeping the visitors' book.
    i. Providing information to visitors.

       GO AHEAD

4       Listen to the two interviews and check your predictions in Exercise 3.

5       Listen again and fill in this file for each person interviewed.


                                   Interview I               Interview II
          Name
        Surname
           Age
    Current workplace
       Languages
      Skills / Duties


6       Listen to the interviews again. One person uses quite informal
    language. Which one? Make a list of the informal terms he / she uses.

7       Listen again. Which word is being used? Choose the best alternative.
    a. I wish to apply for the job I saw in the art / ad.
    b. I have been a receptionist for a law / lawn firm
    c. How are your computer skills / skips?
    d. I'm quite useless / useful at languages.


       MAKE CONNECTIONS

8 In pairs discuss both interviews. Who do you think should get the job?
    Give reasons. Compare with other pairs.




                                                    - DO IT AND MAKE IT WELL!      125
                            WHATEVER YOU DO OR MAKE
                TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

                Expressing what we want
                1. We can express what we want using two expressions: want to and would
                   like to.
                   Examples: I want to be a fire fighter when I grow up.
                             I would like to be a pop singer when I'm older.

                2. The only difference between the two is that would like to is more polite
                   or tentative than want to.

                3. We sometimes use wish + infinitive as a formal alternative to want to or
                   would like to with reference to present and future wish situations.
                   Examples: I wish to make a complaint and I would like to see the manager.
                               I do not wish to renew my subscription; I want to cancel it
                               right now.
                               I wish to remove my name from your database. I want a
                               solution now.
                               I don't ever wish to see you again!

                4. We can also use wish to express good wishes.
                   Examples: We wish you a merry Christmas.
                              We wish you a speedy recovery.
                              I wish you all the best on your birthday.

                5. Read these examples from the recording. Which of them can you re-
                   write using would like to and want?
                   I wish to apply for the job.
                   We wish you lots of luck.
                   Why do you wish to change jobs?


               9 Complete these sentences using wish, would like to or want to.
                  a. I ____________________________________________ a glass of water.
                  b. She _____________________________________ meet us after school.
                  c. I __________________________________________ make a complaint.
                  d. When __________________ you __________________ your breakfast?
                  e. A: How can I help you?
                     B: I _________________________________________ cash this cheque.
                  f. What _________________ you ________________ drink: coffee or tea?
                  g. A: _______________________ you _________________ some dessert?
                     B: Yes, I ___________________________________________ some cake.




126
      UNIT 4
10 Ask and answer these questions with your partner, providing true
     information about yourself.
     a. What would you like to drink?
     b. Where do you want to go after school?
     c. What do you wish to change about yourself?
     d. What would you like to study?
     e. Where do you wish to live in the future?
     f. Why do people want to be popular?


HAVE A CHAT

11        Listen to the recording and practise the dialogues with your partner.
     Replace the parts underlined with your own ideas. Role play one in front
     of the class.

     I
                                           Glen: Do you ever wish you were
                                                 someone else?
                                           Ross: Yes, sometimes.
                                           Glen: Who would you like to be?
                                           Ross: Sometimes I want to be a
                                                 football player and sometimes
                                                 I want to be a rock star.
                                           Glen: Yeah, I wish I could be a
                                                 famous guitar player or a
                                                 drummer in Cold Play.
                                           Ross: There is a Cold Play concert
                                                 next week. I would like to go.
                                           Glen: If you want we can try to get
                                                 tickets.

     II
                                       Mr. Drake: I would like to see the shop
                                                  manager.
                                       Assistant: What is it about, Sir?
                                       Mr. Drake: I wish to make a complaint
                                                  about the refrigerator I bought
                                                  from the shop.
                                       Assistant: What seems to be the
                                                  problem?
                                       Mr. Drake: I want to change it because it
                                                  isn‘t working properly.
                                       Assistant: Would you like to take a seat,
                                                  please? The manager will see
                                                  you in a moment.



                                                   - DO IT AND MAKE IT WELL!        127
                           WHATEVER YOU DO OR MAKE
                                            12 Work with a partner and choose one of the jobs advertised here. Follow
                                                 the prompts to role play the interview. Take turns to be the interviewer
                                                 and the candidate.
                                                 Interviewer: Greet and invite candidate to sit.
                                                 You:         Respond.
                                                 Interviewer: Ask candidate which position he / she is applying for.
                                                 You:         Reply
                                                 Interviewer: Ask candidate's name and age.
                                                 You:         Reply
                                                 Interviewer: Ask candidate about his / her experience.
                                                 You:         Mention your past and present jobs and the languages you speak.
                                                 Interviewer: Ask candidate about his / her duties
                                                 You:         Answer.
                                                 Interviewer: Ask candidate about his / her computer skills.
                                                 You:         Answer.
                                                 Interviewer: Ask candidate any other relevant question(s).
                                                 You:         Answer.
                                                 Interviewer: End the interview.


               Date posted: Monday 16th February | Location: London
         We are seeking new faces for catalogue, magazine shoots, TV
         adverts, movies, Billboards, and posters.. You could earn £100 to
         £600 per day working as a fashion model...Urgently seeking extras
         for movies and commercials.                                                 Date posted: Monday 16th February |
         For an appointment pls call 0207 736 9768 and 0207 736 1661 or              Location: West London (Kensington)
         email us with your picture (doesn‘t have to be professional)                Please reply to this add ONLY
                                                                                     if you comply with all requirements:
         You can email us as well (due to high volume of applicants only
                                                                                     We are looking for a responsible
         successful candidate will be contacted)
                                                                                     and confident nanny to look after
          Age 16+ no height or race restriction, all nationalities welcome, no       our 9-month old baby on a
          experience necessary.                                                      PART-TIME basis.
          Thanks                                                                      We are located in
                                                                                      Kensington (W8).
          We are the first building on your left called HURLINGHAM STUDIOS
                                                                                 1    MUST HAVE:
                                                                                      • British Nationality (English as
                                                                                        a native language)
                                                                                      • Non-smoker
  3                                                                                   • Excellent references
       Location: Kensington, West London (W10) Map - Salary: £9.80p/h -               • Previous experience with babies
      Company: Brampton Training & Consultancy Ltd - Job type: Contract -             Look forward to hearing from you.
 Description:
 To work closely with library/information managers in the day-to-day running          2
 of a library or information service.This involves assisting service users to
 locate information and resources, often requesting items held in other
 libraries; there is considerable contact with people in other departments,
 as well as the public.
 Hours as follows: Tuesdays 1-3; Thursdays 1-3 Fridays 9-2;
 Saturdays 9-1=13 hours per week.
 Applicants to have library and customer service experience



128
                UNIT 4
 FAST CHECK

 13 Complete these sentences with the correct structure after wish (past
     simple or infinitive)                                                       (10 points)
     a. Winter is beautiful in this city, but I wish we _________
        some snow!                                                     (have)
     b. If you wish _________ to the director send him a letter first.  (talk)
     c. I'm quite short; I wish I _________ taller.                       (be)
     d. On their next trip to Asia they wish _________ the Great Wall
        in China.                                                       (visit)
     e. I can't understand Françoise! I wish _________ some French. (know)

           Your             0-5                       6-8                      9 - 10
          result:     Review the lesson            Quite good                Excellent




WRITE IT DOWN

14 Read this advertisement for the position of waiter / waitress. Write a list of
   questions you would ask a candidate for the job. Compare with another
   student.

                Waiter/waitress needed
                       Your duties will be:
             • Provide excellent customer service.
            • Assist customers with special needs.
      • Inform customers of daily specials and prices.
          • Suggest menu selections to customers.
                   • Operate a cash register.
  • Promptly remove dishes and glasses from the tables.           Pizza e pasta - Restaurant

                  Must be over 18 as alcoholic drinks are served on the premises.
 Our restaurant, which opens between 5 p.m. and 2 a.m., has a large number of Italian customers.


CHECK IT OVER!                                                                          ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                      I need more work               I did OK         I did really well!

   Listening
   Speaking
   Writing


                                                        - DO IT AND MAKE IT WELL!                  129
                                WHATEVER YOU DO OR MAKE
 1 Carol and Greg are planning their wedding party. They are preparing a list of things they are or are not
      going to do. Use their notes to write full sentences. Use going to + infinitive to write the sentences.



          Yes
          ✔ Make a guest list
          ✔ Rent a salon for the
               wedding
          ✔ Get a music band
           ✔ Buy flowers
           ✔ Order food and drink
           ✔ Buy dress for Carole
           ✔ Buy suit for Greg
           ✔ Buy wedding rings
           ✔ Write invitations


           No
           ✘ Rent a limousine
           ✘ Go on a honeymoon
           ✘ Invite people we don't like
            ✘ Worry about problems!




130
             UNIT 4
2 Carol and her friend Gina are discussing the wedding. Using the list in Exercise 1 and your sentences
   prepare a conversation between the two friends with Gina asking questions and Carol answering them.
   Example: Gina: Are you going to rent a limousine?
            Carol: No, we aren't. We are going to use my car.

3 Match the two parts and write the complete sentences in your notebook.

   If you are going to do something                  I am definitely not coming; I can't stand him!
   If you are going to drive                         I will just leave the room.
   If you are going to travel abroad                 she should watch foreign films.
   If he is going to keep shouting at me             make sure that you do it well!
   If John is going to come to the party             make sure you don't drink any alcohol.
   If she is going to study languages                don't forget to take your passport.

4 What is Davina's life like and what would she like it to be? Fill in the blanks in her story.



                             My name is Davina but I really don't
                             like my name. I wish _________.
                             I am really very tall and I wish
                             ____________________
                             ____________________.
                             My parents and I live on a farm in the
                             country, but I wish __________.
                             On the farm I spend a lot of time
                             looking after the animals; I wish
                             ____________________.
                             All my best friends live very far away
                             and I wish ______________.
                             Next week there is a rock concert in
                             Colchester but I can't go. I wish
                             ____________.




                                                   - DO IT AND MAKE IT WELL!                              131
                           WHATEVER YOU DO OR MAKE
 READING - MAKING CURANTO

 During our journey in Chile we saw and                    made big holes in the ground and put lots
 experienced many interesting sights and                   of different food inside: food they collected
 adventures. We visited Santiago with its                  from the ocean, some food from the animals
 beautiful Plaza de Armas and we ate fish in               they caught and all kinds of vegetables they
 the Central Market. We went to Valparaíso                 planted. In their language, curanto means
 where (1) ____________ and we bathed in                   hot stones.
 the Pacific Ocean in Viña del Mar. We also                Calbuco, located some 56 kilometres from
 went to a beautiful skiing resort - Valle                 Puerto Montt became famous when it
 Nevado - (2) ____________ and where the                   entered the Guinness Book of Records for
 view is really spectacular. But one of the                the world's largest curanto. Roberto says:
 most interesting experiences was our visit to             "We expected 2,000 people for dinner, but
 Calbuco, in the south, where we learned the               5,000 showed up!" (5) ____________ was 160
 tradition of curanto.                                     metres long and used 5 tons of shellfish.
 “The dish comes from the nearby island of
 Chiloe, where I was born,” explains                                            National press and other sources
 Roberto, our tourist guide who
 (3) ____________. “It's still cooked the
 original way, in underground ovens, heated
 with hot stones and covered with leaves. It
 is really delicious and especially good on a
 cold day - we get lots of cold days in the
 south of Chile!"
 Many cultures of the world used to cook
 their food by burying it all in the earth and
 the Araucanians, native from Chile, also
 followed this tradition. With the arrival of
 spring, and thankful for the end of winter,
 they organised (4) ____________. They



 1 Read the text and these sentences that were removed from it. Put them back in their               5 pts.
      corresponding places (1) - (5).
      a. is taking us around Calbuco
      b. parties to thank mother nature for good weather
      c. The biggest curanto in the world
      d. we took a boat tour
      e. where people do winter sports


132
             UNIT 4
2 Read the text again and tick the correct picture.                            5 pts.
   a. In Santiago, the tourists visited




      Santa Lucía hill.                   The Plaza de Armas.
   b. They ate fish at




     San Cristóbal hill.                  The Central Market.
   c. In Valparaíso they took a




      boat tour.                          city tour.
   d. They went swimming in




      Concón.                          Viña del Mar.
   e. They saw the spectacular view from




     Farellones.                          Valle Nevado.



                                                   - DO IT AND MAKE IT WELL!        133
                           WHATEVER YOU DO OR MAKE
 3 Read the text once more and answer these questions.                                                         4 pts.
      a. How far is Calbuco from from Puerto Montt?
      b. How big was the biggest curanto?
      c. How many people came to eat it?
      d. How much shellfish was used?


 LISTENING - HOW TO USE IT
 4    Listen to the recording and choose the best option.                                                      4 pts.
      a. The first recording provides instruction for the use of a cash machine / video recorder.
      b. The second recording provides the instructions for the use of a microwave oven / a
         payphone.
      c. The first set of instructions is recorded by a restaurant / a bank.
      d. The second set of instructions is recorded by a shop customer service / phone company.

 5        Listen to the second set of instructions again and complete them.                                    6 pts.
      a. First, you __________________________________________________________________.
      b. Then, you _________________________________________________________________.
      c. After that you ______________________________________________________________.
      d. Later, you __________________________________________________________________.
      e. Then, you _________________________________________________________________.
      f. Finally, you ________________________________________________________________.


 LANGUAGE
 6 Write questions for the underlined parts using the question words in brackets.                              6 pts.
      a. Jackie is going to visit her grandparents in Torquay (who).
      b. Torquay is a nice little town on the coast. (where).
      c. She is going to drive (how).
      d. Before she goes, she is going to buy them a box of chocolates (what).
      e. She is going to buy the present because it is her grandmother's birthday. (why).
      f. She and her grandparents are going to have lunch at a restaurant by the sea (where).

 7 Choose the correct verb, make or do.                                                                        4 pts.
      a. If you want to do / make business you need some money first.
      b. Do / make me a favour and open the window, please.
      c. After doing / making the beds she did / made lunch.
      d. The vacuum cleaner is doing / making a funny noise.

 8 Complete the sentences with wish + Simple past tense or wish + infinitive.                                  4 pts.
      a. She wishes __________ the first woman to stand on the Moon.                                    (be)
      b. I'm so busy. I wish I __________ more time to myself.                                       (have)
      c. She is a good athlete but she wishes she __________ much better.                              (be).
      d. Dear sir, the reason I'm writing this letter is because I wish __________ a reservation.   (make)


134
              UNIT 4
SPEAKING
9 Complete this conversation with the corresponding questions. Then role play it with a partner.                  10 pts.
    A:   ________________________________________________________________________?
    B:   I think the hotel is 3 kilometres from the city centre.
    A:   ________________________________________________________________________?
    B:   It takes 10 minutes by car and 45 minutes walking.
    A:   ________________________________________________________________________?
    B:   The taxi fare is around 2,000 pesos.
    A:   ________________________________________________________________________?
    B:   We are going to stay in the city for 5 days.


WRITING
10 Imagine that you have found a magic lamp and you can ask the genie for five wishes. What                       10 pts.
    would they be? Write them down using wish + Simple Past tense.


                                    Your           1 - 19              20 - 39            40 - 58                  Total
                                   result:     Not too good          Acceptable           Great!                  58 pts.

 FINAL CHECK                                                                                                   ✔✔

                                                                          Nearly Always
Choose one alternative according to your performance.                     Sometimes
                                                                          Always



                                                                          Never
Speaking
· I use English structures correctly.                                                     Use this clue to work out your score
                                                                                          Never = 0
· I use varied and correct vocabulary.                                                    Sometimes = 1
· Others can understand me.                                                               Nearly Always = 2
Writing                                                                                   Always = 3
· My writing is coherent and follows the central idea.
                                                                                          If you get:
· I use the correct sentence formation and sentence structure.                            0 - 10 = Watch out! You must look back
· I use correct spelling, punctuation, capitalisation and format.                         and review the whole unit. Ask your
Reading                                                                                   teacher and / or a classmate for
· I am aware of the differences in tenses, gender and number.                             additional help and remedial work.
                                                                                          11 - 22 = Not too bad, but there are
· I identify the main idea and understand the text as a whole.                            areas you still have problems with.
· I can locate details and look for specific information.                                 Identify those areas and ask your
Listening                                                                                 teacher and / or a classmate for
· I can get the general idea.                                                             additional help and remedial work.
                                                                                          23 - 34 = You are doing fine, but you
· I understand the details and identify speakers.                                         can certainly do better. Get together
· I identify the source of the listening text and recognise the format.                   with a classmate and review your weak
Group work                                                                                points.
                                                                                          35 - 45 = Congratulations! Great
· I share my ideas with the group.
                                                                                          progress - you may look ahead to the
· I listen to and respect my partners' points of view.                                    new unit and help your classmates who
· I help solve problems and contribute relevant information.                              need to review.

                                                     - DO IT AND MAKE IT WELL!                                             135
                             WHATEVER YOU DO OR MAKE
      IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL LEARN TO:                                  YOU WILL USE THE FOLLOWING TEXT TYPES:
      Reading: Identify and establish mood of a text / Differentiate   Reading: Anecdotes / A song
      between fact and opinion / Match written and visual clues /      Listening: A newsletter / An article with predictions
      Discriminate between correct and incorrect information           YOU WILL ALSO LEARN:
      Listening: Identify the tone of spoken messages / Identify       Grammar: The Passive Voice / Want to, need to, have to, would like to
      speakers / Find specific information                             / Modal verbs should, ought to, must / Similarities and differences
      Production: Express opinions and personal points of view /       between must and have to
      Talk about wishes and regrets / Tell people what you want and    Vocabulary: Words related to life styles and making a living / Words
      need / Talk about how to protect our planet                      related to life in the future
      Functions: Express opinions and personal points of view /        YOU WILL PAY SPECIAL ATTENTION TO THESE VALUES:
      Express necessity, needs and wishes / Express obligation         Different lifestyles and why we should respect them.
136
SET UP

1 Look at the pictures. Which of these are living organisms?




   1                                  2                                 3




   4                                  5                                 6

2 Match the words in the box with the definitions (a. – e.).
                             · life       · lifestyle   · live (adj.)   · living   · still-life
   a. a means of maintaining life, for example earning an income.
   b. a state that distinguishes organisms from non-living objects, such as non-living, and dead organisms.
      Organisms in this state are capable of growth and reproduction.
   c. a way of life or style of living that reflects the attitudes and values of a person or group.
   d. a work of art depicting mostly inanimate objects such as food, flowers, plants, etc .
   e. show, programme, news, etc. made or done at the time something is actually happening.

3 Fill in the blanks in these sentences with the words in Exercise 2.
   a. That artist never paints portraits or landscapes but he usually dedicates his time to painting
      _____________
   b. I don’t really care what you think. I like my _____________ even if people say it is alternative.
   c. What does she do for a _____________?
   d. _____________ can be easy or difficult but it is worth living.
   e. The singer’s new album was recorded _____________ at the concert.
                                                                                                          137
                  ALTERNATIVE LIFESTYLES
                  READING
                                                                                                               Lesson 1


                                          THINK AHEAD




                                    1 Which words in the bubbles are synonyms?

                    alternative                 typical              irregular              traditional

       out of the
                                   common                 unusual             extraordinary               different
        ordinary

                                    2 Which pictures below show an alternative lifestyle? Express your point of view.
                                        Use the expressions below:
            Bear it                     In my view / in my opinion/ from my point of view/ I feel /I believe
            in mind
 To narrate personal
 experiences we usually
 speak in the first person,
 singular (I) or plural (we). We
 also use possessive                1                            2                            3
 adjectives such as my or our,
 and possessive pronouns
 such as mine and ours.
 Some expressions we can
 use are: I know…We
 saw…. I experienced…, etc.
                                    4                            5                            6

                                    3 What kind of family is your family? Talk to the people in your group.

                                    4 Considering the pictures, the title of the lesson and the exercises above,
                                        what do you think the texts will be about?

138
              UNIT 5
                                                                                                                        y
                                                                                       his wife Sandra, lived a happ
                                      II. For a lon  g time my friend Jorge and                             and raising
                                                                             were busy doing their jobs
                                          life in Santiago, Chile. They                                             city
I.   I know this guy whose                                                           the blue, they decided that
                                          their da  ughter, but one day, out of                                 ir decision
     name is Gregory Pike. He                                                t they were not sure about the
                                          life was not for them. At firs                                         y made
     is famous because a video                                                ra got sick with asthma so the
                                           but then their daughter Isido                                     untains.
     about him and his pets -                                               ir bags and moved to the mo
                                           up their minds, packed the                                            nking
     Mousey, Kitty and Booger                                                  t is built of adobe and the dri
                                           They now live in a house tha                                      m a nearby
     - is posted on YouTube                                                  and washing is pumped fro
                                           water they use for cooking                                          f of the
     and it is visited by many                                               ted by solar panels on the roo
                                            stream. Electricity is genera                                     the rest for
     people every day. In the                                                 ables they eat and exchange
                                            house. They plant the veget                                      who is a
     video you can see the                                                    e. From time to time Jorge,
                                            things such as beans and ric                                           puters.
     animals standing one on                                                   to fix or programme a few com
                                            computer engineer, is asked                                        is a
     top of the other and they                                                   some money; Sandra, who
                                             He goes into town and earns                                       and so they
     all look happy and                                                          -made jams and preserves
                                             fantastic cook, sells her home                                              and
     friendly! You can see that                                                           ts were annoyed with Jorge
                                             can pay   the bills. At first, their paren                          Jorge and
     Greg loves his pets                                                          vinced it is a good lifestyle.
                                             Sandra, but now they are con                                     ole family.
     because they are well                                                     sitive experience for the wh
                                              Sandra say this is a very po                                       le helped
     looked after.                                                             healthy and stress-free lifesty
     Pike seems to be a strange               They also believe that their
                                                                                a.
     guy, but who cares? It                   cure their daughter’s asthm
     doesn’t matter if you or I
     approve of his lifestyle or
     not because as I see it, we
     are free to live our lives
                                      III. This girl I know, Tony
     the way we want to. In                                          a Kay is a professional da
                                             worked in film and theatr                             ncer and she has
     Santa Barbara where he                                               e since she was 15. She be
                                             are what we eat and she                                     lieves that we
     lives as a homeless person                                         says that she prefers to be
                                             not a steak! Tonya says tha                                an apple and
     he is treated with respect                                            t it was difficult for her be
                                             grew up on a farm and ha                                      cause she
     and admiration and                                                  d to watch the workers kil
                                            were then sold to local su                                    l animals that
     wherever he goes he is                                             permarkets. Her parents
                                            annoyed with her for her                                  were really
     greeted and offered small                                          radical views but when sh
                                            decided to become a vege                                    e was 8 she
     presents, and restaurants                                          tarian and for the last 11
                                            been a vegan - a strict vege                              years she has
     keep leftover food for                                               tarian who eats no animal
                                           products and does not us                                        food or dairy
     him. He keeps some of it                                          e products such as leathe
                                           important for her to follow                               r. It is very
     for himself, gives a little to                                       her ideals. She says that an
                                          killed by humans for foo                                          imals are
     the animals and offers the                                       d but in fact we could all
                                          vegetables and fruit and                                  just eat
     rest to other homeless                                           still live happy and healt
                                          that she is the best example                             hy lives. She says
     guys he knows from the                                               of a healthy person who
                                         animal products. She insist                                    never eats
     streets of Santa Barbara,                                          s that she hasn’t been sick
                                         becoming a vegan and, as                                       since
     which proves once again                                           an athlete, her body recov
                                         time it used to.                                              ers in half the
     that humanity is the
     message.                                                    Sources: YouTube, La Tercer
                                                                                            a, http://www.rawfoodplane
                                                                                                                      t.com



                                                                              LIFE AS WE KNOW IT                        139
                     GO AHEAD

               5 Read the text and check your predictions in Exercise 3.

               6 Match the pictures with the stories and choose a title for each.




               1                             2                              3
                   a. Friends for ever b. Living a simple life c. Staying healthy and athletic

               7 Read the text again and choose the best answer to these questions.
                   a. What is the general mood of the three articles?
                      i. pessimistic                          ii. critical
                      iii. positive                           iv.indifferent
                   b. Why did the people in the three articles decide on an alternative lifestyle?
                      i. They had the obligation to do it. ii. It was their choice.
                      iii. It was a family tradition.         iv.They were bored.

               8 Read the texts again and answer these questions.
                   a. Where can you see a video of Greg with his animal friends?
                   b. What does Greg do with the food he gets from restaurant owners?
                   c. What were the lives of Jorge and Sandra like before moving to the mountains?
                   d. Why was Tonya’s life difficult on the farm where she grew up?

               9 Read the text again and indicate which of these sentences express a fact
                   and which ones an opinion.
                   a. In Santa Barbara, where he lives as a homeless person, he is treated
                      with respect and admiration.
                   b. As I see it, we are free to live our lives as we want to.
                   c. They now live in a house that is built of adobe.
                   d. They also believe that their healthy and stress-free lifestyle helped cure
                      their daughter’s asthma.
                   e. She believes that we are what we eat.
                   f. Tonya Kay is a professional dancer.

               10 Which of these expressions from the text refer to personal experience?
                   How do you know?
                   a. This girl I know …
                   b. Her parents were really annoyed …
                   c. My friends Jorge and Sandra …
                   d. I know this guy ….
                   e. They eat the vegetables they plant …
                   f. My friend, who is a computer engineer ….
                   g. At first, their parents were annoyed ….
140
      UNIT 5
       MAKE CONNECTIONS

 TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

 The Passive Voice
 1. Read these sentences from the text paying special attention to the verb
    form in bold.
    a. The pets are well looked after.
    b. The drinking water they use for cooking and washing is pumped                              Danger
       from a nearby stream.
    c. A video about him and his pets is posted on YouTube.                           Compare the sentences in A
    d. It is visited by many people every day.                                        and B.
                                                                                      A
 2. Notice that in sentences a., b. and c. we do not know who carried out             The pets are abandoned.
    the actions, although in some cases we can guess.                                 The boy is punished.
    a. The pets are well looked after by their owner / by Gregory.                    The girls are invited to a party.
    b. Water is pumped from the stream by Jorge and Sandra.                           B
                                                                                      The pets are frightened.
 3. Notice that in sentence c. we know who carries out the action, but what           The boy is bored.
    is important is the action itself and not the people who do it.                   The girls are interested in
                                                                                      that film.
 4. Study the form of the Passive Voice.
                                                                                      The structures of the two
     The animals     are    abandoned        in the streets of Santa Barbara.         groups of sentences look
     Object +      is/are + past participle.                                          identical but they express
                                                                                      different ideas. The sentences
 5. Go back to the text and find three more sentences in the Passive Voice.           in A are in the Passive Voice,
    Is the performer of the action stated explicitly? If not, can you guess?          while the sentences in B use
    Copy the sentences in your notebook; underline the elements in Point 4.           the verb to be and an
    in different colours.                                                             adjective.


11 Which of these sentences are in the Passive Voice and which ones use adjectives?
   a. We are pleased to know that you can come.
   b. I am shocked by your action.
   c. Two million bikes are produced each year by that company.
   d. She is worried she cannot get there on time.
   e. Hundreds of people are offered new houses.
   f. Copper is exported from Chile to all parts of the world.

12 The following chart shows quantities of juice that are produced in a
   factory. Say / write how much is produced each month.
   Example: 10,000 litres of apple juice are produced in the factory in January.

                         January            February               March
Apple juice            10,000 litres       15,000 litres        12,000 litres
Apricot juice           6,000 litres       7,000 litres          8,000 litres
Orange juice            8,000 litres       10,000 litres        10,000 litres


                                                                             LIFE AS WE KNOW IT                    141
               13 These books are commonly read by people all over the word. Who are
                    they written by? Say / write the sentences.
                    Example: “Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone” is written by J.K. Rowling.




 1         2           3                  4                   5                     6

                    a. J.K. Rowling – “ Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone”
                    b. J. R.R. Tolkien – “The Fellowship of the Ring”
                    c. C.S Lewis - “The Chronicles of Narnia”
                    d. Isabel Allende “The House of the Spirits”
                    e. Gabriel García Márquez – “100 Years of Solitude”
                    f. Allegra Goodman - “Intuition”

               14 Rewrite these sentences in your notebook using the Passive Voice.
                    a. Tourists spend a lot of money in that city.
                       A lot of money _____________________________________________.
                    b. My father generally writes these text messages.
                       These text messages _________________________________________.
                    c. Archeologists often discover ancient tombs.
                       Ancient tombs ______________________________________________.
                    d. People eat millions of bars of chocolate every day.
                       Millions of bars of chocolate ___________________________________.

               HAVE A CHAT

                                                                    Brown Hill
               15       Read Lisa Buckley’s school             Comprehensi
                                                                          ve School
                    report card and prepare a
                    conversation about the teachers’          Student’s nam
                                                                             e: Lisa Buckley
                    opinions. Compare with the                     Class: 1st year C.
                    recording.                               Subject Teac
                                                                             her       Opinion
                    Example:                                   Art   Mrs. White Tale
                    A: What does Mrs. White think of                                nted, but a bit laz
                                                             English Ms. Jo                             y.
                                                                             nes   Quick to learn.
                       Lisa?                                History Mr. Spen
                                                                              cer   Enthusiastic.
                    B. Lisa is described by Mrs. White      Maths Mr. Step
                                                                             hens Good st
                       as talented but a bit lazy. Or       Music Miss Del                 udent.
                                                                            aney Excellent
                    B: In Mrs. White’s opinion Lisa is     Science Miss Ja                 student.
                       talented but a bit lazy.                           ckson    Satisfactory.
                                                           Spanish Ms. Ca
                                                                           stro   Must improve.
                                                           Sports Mr. Cros
                                                                           sing   Hard worker.




142
      UNIT 5
16       Listen and practise the dialogue with your partner. Role play it in
     front of the class.

 FAST CHECK

 17 Change these sentences into the Passive Voice.                (10 points)
      a. Every year, somebody makes a white and pink cake for my birthday.
      b. Somebody cuts the grass in our garden every month.
      c. The volunteers cook dinner for the whole group.
      d. People send lots of greeting cards for Christmas.
      e. That technician repairs at least five computers every day.
         Your           0-5                 6-8                 9 - 10
        result:   Review the lesson      Quite good           Excellent


WRITE IT DOWN


18 Choose someone who has chosen an alternative lifestyle (real or
     imaginary) and write a paragraph about their life. You can do research in
     the library or on the Internet. These ideas can help you.
1                            2                           3                        4




5                            6                           7                        8




CHECK IT OVER!                                                            ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                    I need more work         I did OK     I did really well!

     Reading
     Speaking
     Writing

                                                                           LIFE AS WE KNOW IT   143
                I WOULD LIKE TO DEDICATE THIS SONG...
                LISTENING
                                                                                                                 Lesson 2


                                        THINK AHEAD

                                1 If you had an argument/ problem with your friend / boyfriend / girlfriend
                                      what would you do to make up? Choose one or two alternatives.



                                                                                  Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry!
                                                                                  Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry!
                                                                                  Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry!
                                                                                  Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry!
                                                                                  Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry!
                                                                                  Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry!
                                                                                  Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry!
                                                                                  Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry!
                                                                                  Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry!
                                                                                  Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry! Sorry!
                                                                                  Sorry! Sorry! Sorry!
  1                                       2                                       3
 a. I would give her / him a box of      b. I would send her / him flowers.      c. I would write her / him a
    chocolates.                                                                     message of apology.




  4                                       5                                       6
 d. I would dedicate him / her a         e. I would call her / him on the        f. I would do nothing and wait for
    song on the radio.                      phone.                                  her / him to call me.



                                2 Read this list of song titles. Which one would you like to dedicate to a
                                      friend? Why?
                                      a. The Power of Love - Celine Dion
                                      b. Stand by Me – Ben. E. King
                                      c. All I Want is You – U2
                                      d. She will be Loved – Maroon Five
                                      e. I’ll be There for you – from the series “Friends”
                                      f. Other – (name the title and the singer)


144
            UNIT 5
3 You will hear a radio programme where a young man is dedicating a song
    to a girlfriend. Why do you think he is doing this? Choose one alternative.
    a. He needs to say he is sorry.
    b. He would like to see her again.
    c. He wants to tell her he loves her.
    d. He wishes she didn’t have to go away.


4 Which of these songs do you think he wants to dedicate to her?
    a. You and me
    b. In my life
    c. Always on my mind
    d. I will always love you


      GO AHEAD                                                                               Danger


5                                                                                 Learning English through
        Listen to the first part of the programme and check your prediction in
                                                                                  songs is a very good and fun
    Exercise 3.                                                                   idea. However, you should
                                                                                  be careful because often song
6       Listen again and find the answers to these questions.                     lyrics contain very colloquial,
                                                                                  abbreviated and sometimes
    a. What time is the programme on?                                             even incorrect expressions
    b. Who is the programme for?                                                  such as ‘cause, I ain’t, I
    c. How much time does the listener have to talk about his problem?            wanna, I’m gonna, etc.
    d. What would he tell his girlfriend if she was listening to the programme?

7       Listen again and complete these sentences.
    a. Others would like to say ______________________________________.
    b. I just need to tell someone ____________________________________.
    c. I have to get in touch with her _________________________________.
    d. I have to tell her to think of the things ___________________________.

8       Listen to the second part of the programme and check your
    prediction in Exercise 4.

9       Listen to the song again. What kind of song is it?
    a. Happy.                          b.   Nostalgic.
    c. Funny.                          d.   Tragic.
    e. Sad.                            f.   Nice.
    g. Bitter.                         h.   Warm.




       You can find a huge collection of lyrics at www.elyrics.net


                                                                         LIFE AS WE KNOW IT                  145
               10       Listen to the song once more and identify the word you hear.
                    a. In my life / time I loved them all.
                    b. There is no one compares with her / you
                    c. When I think of love as something new / true
                    d. And I know I’ll never lose affection / attention


                       MAKE CONNECTIONS


                TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

                Want to, need to, have to, would like to
                1. Study the sentences from the recording.
                   a. Some need to say I love you.
                   b. You want to say you’re sorry.
                   c. I have to get in touch with her.
                   d. I’d like to dedicate this song ….
                2. We use these verbs to express something we want, need or have an
                   obligation to do.

                3. Need to, want to, and have to are used in the same way as other verbs.
                   They form the negative form with don’t / doesn’t and the interrogative
                   form with do / does. Their past tense is needed, wanted, had.

                4. Pay attention to would like to.
                    I would not like to sing that song.
                    Would you like to play a musical instrument?
                5. Rewrite the sentences from the song in Exercise 7 using the different
                   verbs in this section. How does their meaning change?


               11 Complete these sentences with need, would like, want or have to.
                    a. What ________ you ________ to drink, orange juice or mineral water?
                    b. If you want to pass the test you ________ pay attention to what the
                       teacher is saying.
                    c. I ________ to be a pilot when I finish school.
                    d. You ________ to be more careful when you cross the street.
                    e. I don’t ________ your help, thank you. I can do it on my own.




146
      UNIT 5
12 Change these sentences into the negative form. Use the correct tense.
     a. She wanted to invite 50 guests to the party.
     b. I need to get ready for the trip.
     c. They would like to ask you for help.
     d. She had to pay for the holiday with her credit card.
     e. They need to revise for the test.
     f. We want to collect a lot of money for the class trip.


HAVE A CHAT

13       Use the visual clues to complete the conversations. Check with the
     recording.




     Diana: If you were a famous pop star, who would you like to be?
     You:   ______________________________________________________

     Diana: When you finish school, where would you like to live?
     You:   ______________________________________________________

     Diana: What do you want to eat, pizza or pasta?
     You:   ______________________________________________________

     Diana: Do you have to study chemistry or physics?
     You:   ______________________________________________________

     Diana: To make a brownie, do I need milk or water?
     You:   ______________________________________________________

14       Listen to the recording and practise the dialogues with a partner.
     Answer using your own ideas. Role play the conversations in front of the
     class.




                                                                        LIFE AS WE KNOW IT   147
               15 Match the pictures (1 – 3) with the expressions (a. - c.).




 1                                         2




                                         a. I'm sorry, sir, but I need to see your ticket.
                                         b. We need to buy some weed killer.
                                         c. Would you like to take a seat?




 3


                FAST CHECK

                16 Choose the best option to complete these sentences.              (10 points)
                    a. What we really ___________ do is get rid of the old car.
                       i. need to             ii. need

                    b. You ___________ eat that if you are not hungry.
                       i. need to             ii. don’t have to

                    c. How ___________ you ___________ your coffee: white or black?
                       i. would like         ii. would need

                    d. They ___________ come with us. They said they were too busy.
                       i. don’t want to      ii. didn’t want to

                    e. You ___________ to buy us a present, but thank you very much!
                       i. needn’t             ii. didn’t have
                        Your            0-5                  6-8                   9 - 10
                       result:    Review the lesson       Quite good             Excellent



148
      UNIT 5
WRITE IT DOWN

17 Write a note to a friend you have had a problem/argument with or to
   someone you miss very much and need to get in touch with. What would
   you like to tell her / him?

 PLAY IT


      Play this memory game in your group.




      a. Work in groups of 5 - 8 students and collect 10 – 15 small objects
         (keys, pens, pictures, rubbers, sweets, etc.).
      b. Put them on the desk in a specific order and then look at them very
         carefully, trying to memorise the positions.
      c. Ask one person to move away from the group and change the
         position of two of the objects.
      d. The person who has moved away has to discover which objects
         changed positions and where.
         Example: The key ring was next to the red pen; now it is next to the sweets.

CHECK IT OVER!                                                              ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                   I need more work          I did OK       I did really well!

   Reading
   Speaking
   Writing


                                                                              LIFE AS WE KNOW IT   149
         LIFE AS WE KNEW IT
         READING
                                                                                  Lesson 3


                        THINK AHEAD

                   1 Do you know these famous places? What are their names? Where are they?




 1             2                3                    4                      5

                   2 Copy this word map into your notebook. Classify the words in the box
                     into the corresponding categories.

                                                   Structures



                             Man - made                                 Natural




                     Modern              Ancient                Water             Solid



                          · Buckingham Palace · Easter Island · Mount Everest
                         · Mount Rushmore · Niteroi bridge · San Cristóbal hill
                   · The Alhambra · The Antarctic Peninsula · The Atacama Desert
                     · The Bío Bío river · The Central Valley · The Channel Tunnel
                    · The Colosseum · The Eiffel Tower · The Empire State Building
                     · The Entel Tower · The Forbidden City · The Maipo Canyon
                             · The Moon · The National Stadium · The Nile
                        · The Pacific Ocean · The Sphinx · The Statue of Liberty
                             · The Tinguiririca Bridge · The Yangtze River dam

                        You will find hundreds of famous man-made structures at
                        http://www.teachnet.ie/roleary/index.html with the corresponding
                        descriptions and pictures.

150
      UNIT 5
3 Which words from Exercise 2 would you expect to find in a text about life
    on earth without human population?                                                     Bear it
                                                                                           in mind
                                                                                Have you noticed that some
       GO AHEAD                                                                 of the words in exercise 2
                                                                                use the definite article the
                                                                                and some don't?
4 Read the text and check your predictions in Exercise 3.                       We use the before:
                                                                                • names of rivers, oceans
                                                                                  and seas (the Nile, the
5 Four important landmarks in the pictures below were mentioned in the            Pacific)
    text. Which ones? Which ones are not mentioned?                             • points on the globe (the
                                                                                  Equator, the North Pole)
                                                                                • geographical areas (the
                                                                                  west)
                                                                                • deserts, forests, gulfs, and
                                                                                  peninsulas (the Sahara, the
                                                                                  Black Forest, the Persian
                                                                                  Gulf, the Iberian Peninsula)
1                              2                        3                       • buildings (The Empire State
                                                                                  Building)

                                                                                We do not use the before:
                                                                                • names of countries (Italy,
                                                                                  Mexico) except the
                                                                                  Netherlands and the USA.
4                              5                        6                       • names of cities, towns, or
                                                                                  states (Seoul, Manitoba,
                                                                                  Miami)
6 Read the text again. Notice that parts of it have been taken out (a. – f.).   • names of streets (Main
    Choose the replacement from the options provided (i. or ii.).                 Street, Cedar Street)
                                                                                • names of lakes (Lake
    a. i. our staff reporter              ii. Prof. David Gellibrand              Titicaca, Lake Michigan)
                                                                                • names of mountains (Mount
                                                                                  Everest, Mount Aconcagua)
    b. i. everything intact               ii. almost nothing                      except with ranges of
                                                                                  mountains like the Andes,
    c. i. were ancient Egyptians          ii. 20th century American               the Alps
                                                                                • names of continents (Asia,
    d. i. no more gas                     ii. no more power                       America)
                                                                                • names of islands (Easter
    e. i. former domestic pets            ii. dolphins and sharks                 Island, Staten Island) except
                                                                                  with island chains such as
    f. i. only cities will be left        ii. nothing will be left                the Canary Islands




                                                                          LIFE AS WE KNOW IT               151
I. A warm welcome to all readers.                    II. Welcome to Planet Earth
                                                                                      : Population 0. When you loo
                                                            you can see is abandoned                                     k around all
   It’s been a few months since our                                                     buildings - now they are “v
                                                           ecosystems” complete with                                    ertical
   last newsletter. First of all, we                                                       birds, rodents and even pla
                                                           and foxes walking down the                                     nt life. Bears
   would like to greet and thank all                                                        streets in California where
                                                           Hollywood stars walked. Ou                                     once
   our contributors who support it                                                          r cars are turned into piles
                                                           house pets replaced by all                                     of dust, our
    with their kind donations. Please                                                   kinds of animals, the sky da
                                                          any lights on. This is what                                   rk without
    notice that from next month on                                                      it may look like without inh
                                                          meaning us – humans. The                                       abitants,
    you should send your donations                                                       images you can see in the bro
                                                          created to illustrate what wo                                    chure are
    to our new account in Barclays                                                        uld happen if human life sto
                                                         tomorrow, if, for whatever                                        pped
    Bank. You may also send checks                                                     reason (nuclear disaster, Wo
                                                         plague, or a super volcanic                                    rld War III, a
    but please do not send any cash                                                     eruption) mankind disappe
                                                         If we disappeared what wo                                      ared.
    in your letters.                                                                      uld happen to our cities?
                                                         would we leave behind?                                          How much
     This month, the main article for                                                What might an alien visito
                                                         us when landing on our pla                                    r learn about
     the newsletter is written by the                                                     net a century or more aft
                                                        vanish from it?                                                 er we
     well-known anthropologist
     Professor Gellibrand. If you                       The answer, astonishingly,
                                                                                        is: (b.) ____________. With
                                                        hundred years most traces                                       in a
     want to contact him you ought                                                      of our modern-day lives
                                                        be visible at all - destroyed                                 might not
      to send your mails to                                                             by weather, corrosion, ea
                                                       surviving animals, insect                                       rth tremors,
      dgellibrand@gmail.com. He’ll be                                               s and bacteria.
      happy to answer all your                         How do we know that? We
                                                                                      know it must be true becau
                                                       see it from previous experi                                    se we can
      questions about Earth when we                                                 ences, with Pompeii devoure
                                                      volcano and Machu Picchu,                                       d by a
       are gone.                                                                      which disappeared under
                                                      The 1986 nuclear power pla                                     jungle plants.
       Pictures are provided by the                                                     nt accident at Chernobyl
                                                      terrible consequences prov                                      and its
       National Geographic.                                                          ides an interesting case stu
                                                      happens to big cities after                                      dy of what
                                                                                    they are abandoned by hu
                                                     inhabitants. Based on thi                                        man
       Earth without us, by (a.)                                                   s experience, we think tha
                                                     visiting Earth might belie                                    t an alien
       _____________________________                                               ve that the last civilization
                                                     planet (c.) ___________.                                       on the



 III. So what might hap
                             pen if we stop existing? First of all, ligh
        almost immediately. There will be (d.)                           ts will start going out around the wor
                                                  ____________. Fire will consume imp                                ld
       and New York City might very well fall                                               ortant cities such as Rome
                                                     into pieces. After only six months, urb
       repopulated but not by humans but by                                                      an areas may become
                                                   wild animals, including (e.) _________
       vegetation will cover important landmar                                                 ______. Ten years later,
                                                     ks such as Buckingham Palace, the Kre
       State Building. Within 20 years wolves                                                     mlin or the Empire
                                                 , lions, foxes and bears will be the mas
       streets. Buildings made of wood will                                                  ter species, walking the
                                               be the first victims of humidity and plan
      first ones to fall. After 40 to 50 years met                                             t life - they will be the
                                                    al structures such as the Eiffel Tower
      Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro and the Stat                                                 in Paris, Christ the
                                                    ue of Liberty in New York will corrode
      with time, (f.) ______________.                                                             and fall down. And
      It must be a pretty sad vision - what onc
                                                   e was a wonderful man-made civilisa
     but an overgrown jungle where anim                                                        tion will become nothing
                                               als once again are kings. Maybe we oug
     about what the future holds for us. Ma                                                 ht to sit down and think
                                                ybe we should think how to prevent
                                                                                           such a disaster.
              Source: TV documentary, Life After Peop
                                                     le, by   Gordon Masterton, former president of the
                                                                                                        Royal Institution of Civil Engineers.


152
             UNIT 5
7 Some words in the text are in bold. Read again and find out what they
   refer to.
   a. Paragraph I
      it – refers to _______________
      him – refers to _______________
   b. Paragraph II
      it - refers to _______________
   c. Paragraph III
      they – refers to _______________

8 Read the text once more and decide if these statements are true or false.
   a. We have previous experience with disappearing civilisations.
   b. Weather, corrosion and earth tremors might destroy our cities within 5
      years.
   c. Nearly immediately there will be no lights.
   d. Within 20 years humans will still be the master species.
   e. What may finally remain will be an overgrown jungle.



     MAKE CONNECTIONS

9 Insert the definite article the where necessary.

    Dear John,
    How have you been? As for me
                                       I have finally arrived in ____
    landing at ____ JFK Airport on                                        USA
                                           a flight from ____ Vienna,
    ____ Austria. We flew over __
                                           __ Spain and the view of
   ____ Pyrenees was spectacula
                                          r! At the beginning of the journey
   there was a quick stop over in __
                                           __ Rio de Janeiro; I had really
   hoped to see ____ Amazon but
                                           unfortunately it is in another
   part of ____ Brazil.
   ____ New York is spectacula
                                      r. This afternoon we had a quick
   walk in ____ Central Park and
                                         tomorrow we are planning to visit
   ____ Statue of Liberty. If we
                                       have time we will also see ____
  Empire State Building.
  I am staying at a little hotel call
                                     ed ____ Madison which is
  located on the corner of ____ nd
                                          42 Street and ____ 5th
  Avenue.

  That’s’ all for now. Send my love
                                    to mum and dad.

                               Your brother
                                 Richard




                                                                         LIFE AS WE KNOW IT   153
                    TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

                    Modal Verbs
                    1. Study these examples from the text paying special attention to the
                       words in bold.
                       a. It must be true because we have previous experience.
                       b. New York City might very well fall into pieces.
                       c. You should send your donations to our new account in Barclays Bank.
                       d. We ought to sit down and think about what the future holds for us.
                    2. Which sentence expresses
                       a. possibility?
                       b. suggestion / recommendation?
                       c. certainty?
                    3. We use might to express that something is possible. We use must to
                       express that something is fairly certain. We use ought to / should to
                       express a suggestion / recommendation.

                    4. Notice that ought to, unlike other modal verb, is used with to, which is
                       an integral part of the verb.

                    5. Find more sentences with these modals in the text. Can you identify
                       what they express?


                   10 Match the sentences (a. - d.) with the pictures (1 - 4).
                      a. But Susie, you should wash your hands!
                      b. Look at those clouds. It might rain soon.
                      c. He must be out. We’ve been knocking for 5 minutes.
                      d. You ought to wash your car. It’s really dirty.




 1             2                              3                            4

                   11 Choose the best option, i. or ii.
                      a. I want to get a cold drink.
                         i. You should buy some juice.      ii. You want to buy some juice.
                      b. I need to go to Buzios.
                         i. You have to buy a ticket.       ii. You ought to go the market.
                      c. I wish to make a complaint.
                         i. You should talk to the manager. ii. You must not talk to the manager.


154
      UNIT 5
HAVE A CHAT

12      Look at the pictures (1 - 4) and complete the dialogues. What do the
     people want, need or wish for?
      a. A:    Well, we definitely have a problem.
         B:    ____________________________________________________             1
      b. A:    Isn’t this weather awful?
         B:    ____________________________________________________
      c. A:    Are we going to have some watermelon?
         B:    __________________________. _________________________
      d. A:    Which of the toys would you like to have?
         B:    ____________________________________________________
                                                                                    2

13       Listen to the recording and check your dialogues. Then practise them
     with a partner.

 FAST CHECK

 14 Fill in the blanks in these sentences with a suitable modal verb, must,
                                                                                3
      might, ought to, or should.                                (10 points)
        a. A: It’s five o’clock and he is still not here.
           B: He _______ be lost without a map.
        b. If you want to pass your test you _______ study more.
        c. A: Where are my glasses?
           B: I think they _______ be in your handbag.
        d. A: What do you suggest I do in London?                                   4
           B: You _______ visit Buckingham Palace and the Tower of London.
        e. A: Look at Denis. His face is red and he is coughing.
           B: He _______ have a bad cold.
         Your           0-5                6-8                 9 - 10
        result:   Review the lesson     Quite good           Excellent


WRITE IT DOWN

15 Choose a city you know well or do some Internet research. Describe the
     city and suggest things to do there. Use might, ought to and should).

CHECK IT OVER!                                                           ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.
                    I need more work        I did OK     I did really well!

     Reading
     Speaking
     Writing

                                                                         LIFE AS WE KNOW IT   155
        LIFE AS IT WILL BE
        LISTENING
                                                                                       Lesson 4


                          THINK AHEAD

                    1 Which of these images do you think reflect life in the future? Explain your
                        choice.




                    1                                        2




                    3                                        4

                    2 Read this poem aloud. What is it about?
                        The animals went in two by two, hurrah! hurrah!
                        The animals went in two by two, the elephant and the kangaroo
                        And they all went into the ark, just to get out of the rain.
                        The animals went in three by three, hurrah! hurrah!
                        The animals went in three by three, the wasp, the ant and the bumble bee
                        And they all went into the ark, just to get out of the rain.
                        The animals went in four by four, hurrah! hurrah!
                        The animals went in four by four, the great hippopotamus stuck in the door
                        And they all went into the ark, just to get out of the rain.
                        The animals went in five by five, hurrah! hurrah!
                        The animals went in five by five, they warmed each other to keep alive
                        And they all went into the ark, just to get out of the rain.



156
      UNIT 5
3 Humans must abandon the Earth because of a natural disaster and live in space.
    Look at the questions and answer them in your group. Use ought to / might.


Sleep                         Sickness                     Entertainment              Food
How can they sleep            What do they do              How do they                What do they
when they are                 if they get sick in          spend their                eat in space?
floating in space?            space?                       free
                                                           time?

                       1                             2                            3                   4



Clothes                       Bath                        Exercise                    Cleaning
Do they                       Do they                     Do they                     Do they
need special clothes          take baths while            not                         sweep
while living and              living and working          need to exercise            and clean up
working inside the            in the space                in space?                   the inside of the
space shuttle?                shuttle?                                                space shuttle?
                       5                             6                            7                   8



4 You will listen to a text about protecting the Earth from a possible future
    disaster. Which words from the box would you expect to hear?

         · accident     · catastrophe · nuclear war · problem
          · tragedy     · cataclysm · flood · global warming


       GO AHEAD

5        Listen to the recording and check your predictions in Exercise 4. List
    all the words from the box mentioned in the recording. Are they
    synonyms?

6       Which of these old proverbs is mentioned in the recording? What
    does it mean?
    a. Once bitten twice shy.
    b. One bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.
    c. Better to be safe than sorry.




                                                                           LIFE AS WE KNOW IT         157
               7       Identify five types of vegetables that are mentioned in the recording
                    and one that is not. Write the names in your notebook.




               1                            2                          3




               4                            5                          6

               8        Who said these sentences, the teacher or one of the students?
                    a. _____________: Noah was an old man who saved all the animals on
                                      earth from a flood.
                    b. _____________: Can we store enough food for everybody?
                    c. _____________: The cave is called the Doomsday Vault.
                    d. _____________: But what if the seeds go bad?
                    e. _____________: The seeds are stored at temperatures of -18ºC.

               9        Listen again and complete these sentences.
                    a. We have to prepare for __________, maybe for a __________ war.
                    b. Swedish __________ say that the best way to prepare for a __________
                       is to store __________.
                    c. They are preparing a very __________ chamber in a __________ in a
                       remote Arctic __________.
                    d. This chamber, wich looks like a long tunnel is very big and it can store
                       __________ seeds.

               10       Listen once more and answer these questions.
                    a. What nationality are the scientists developing the Doomsday Vault?
                    b. What does Doomsday mean in old English, Judgement day or Salvation
                       day?
                    c. How long may the seeds in the vault last?




158
      UNIT 5
      MAKE CONNECTIONS

11 Use the information you collected in the listening activities to label this
   illustration.




                                                                                  b. Types of vegetables
                                                                                     _____________
a. Name of the place
   _____________




c. Location                                                                        d. Capacity
   _____________                                                                      _____________




12 Ask and answer these questions in your group. Share and compare your
   conclusions with your classmates.
   a. What Chilean seeds would you store in the Doomsday Vault?
   b. If you were a modern Noah, what animals would / wouldn't you save?




                                                                          LIFE AS WE KNOW IT          159
                    TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

                    Modal verbs must / have to
                    1. Read these sentences from the text.
                       a. Do we have to prepare for a flood?
                       b. Do we have to build a boat?
                       c. We have to prepare for global warming.
                       d. We must do something to prevent the disaster.

                    2. What difference do you notice between must and have to?
                        The modal verb must does not use to, while the modal verb have to
                        does.
                      a. Obligation               b. Possibility           c. Suggestion
                        Both modals express obligation.
                        We use have to in the past, present and future tenses to express
                        responsibility, necessity or obligation made for us by somebody or
                        something else.
                        We use must to express something that is considered very necessary
                        or a strong obligation.

                    3. What do these modal verbs express?
                       Here are more examples:
                       I wish you were here.
                       It's so hot today. I wish we had a cold drink.

                    4. Revise the information you collected in the listening activities and write
                       two more sentences expressing our obligations in connection with a
                       possible future disaster.

                   13 Fill in the gaps in these sentences with must or have to in the correct form.
                      a. Look here, young lady, you ______________ be home before midnight.
                         Do you understand?
                      b. He __________________ take a bus today because his car broke down.
                      c. We _____________________________ be more careful with our planet.
                      d. I _____________________________________ go now. It is getting late.
                      e. ______________________________________ catch the 5 o’clock train?


                   14 Look at these traffic signs. What must you do in each case?




 1             2                    3                     4                     5



160
      UNIT 5
HAVE A CHAT

15       In your notebook, copy and complete this conversation about
     helping to protect the planet. Then check with the recording.
     Elizabeth:    So, what do you think we should do?
     Howard:       __________ less energy.
     Elizabeth:    And what could we do at school?
     Howard:       __________ recycle soft drink cans.
     Elizabeth:    How about planting trees in the school garden?
     Howard:       First __________ collect some money.
     Elizabeth:    Do you think we could prepare an ecological newsletter?
     Howard:       Good idea, but we __________ find someone to write it.

 FAST CHECK

 16 Deborah’s parents are going on a short holiday. They have left her a list
      of things she has to do while they are away. Write the complete
      sentences.                                                (10 points)

       a. Answer the phone and write down messages
       b. Buy food at the supermarket
       c. Check all doors before going out
       d. Clean and tidy up before we arrive.
       e. Feed the cat
       f. Phone grandparents
       g. Switch off lights before going to bed
       h. Take out the rubbish
       i. Take the dog out for a walk
       j. Water the plants

          Your              0-5                 6-8                9 - 10
         result:      Review the lesson      Quite good          Excellent


WRITE IT DOWN

17 Write a list of things you have to do every day. Compare with another student.

 CHECK IT OVER!                                                              ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                      I need more work        I did OK      I did really well!

     Reading
     Speaking
     Writing


                                                                             LIFE AS WE KNOW IT   161
 1 Tonga, the African country produces lots of fruits and vegetables. Look at the graph and say how many
      tons of each product were produced in the month of June.
      Example: Twenty tons of mango were produced in Tonga in June.




                                                                                Orange 15




 2 Each fruit was sent to a different country. Look at the table below and write sentences to indicate the
      destination of the fruit. Investigate the country the flag represents and how to say and write the plural
      of the fruit.
      Example: Cherries were sent to the United Kingdom




162
             UNIT 5
3 Digby Jones was ill – he had his appendix taken out. Read his doctor’s instructions and write sentences
    in your notebook.
    Example:
    Digby must rest for three days.
    He should get up on the 4th day.


                                                              Dr. Stanley Smith


                     Patient: Digby Jones
                     Post-operation instructions:




                     Must                           Should
                     Rest for 3 days                get up on day 4
                    Avoid too much effort          Do light exercise on day 4
                    Eat 3 small meals a day        drink lots of water
                    Avoid carbohydrates            eat fresh fruit and vegetables
                    Visit doctor in a week         go back to work in 2 weeks




4 Look at the pictures and say / write what each person would like to do / be.




1                              2                                 3                           4

        Camila                            Dennis                             Stella                Bruce


                                                                                      LIFE AS WE KNOW IT   163
 READING - UP FOR A DRIVE!

 I know it is hard to believe but      strange purring noise, just like      opened the bonnet of the car.
 it must be true because my            a cat. He turned on the radio         Can you imagine his surprise
 father told me this story, and        and drove happily for many            when he saw two scared
 my father never lies. When he         kilometres, ignoring the funny        yellow eyes looking up at
 was a child my father lived in        noise. Next day, when he got          him? It was Lottie, my dad’s
 the mining town of                    into the car, there was the           cat stuck between the engine
 Antofagasta, far in the north of      noise again! And this time the        and the water tank! It took
 our country. His parents had a        purring was even stronger.            Esteban nearly three hours to
 small house with a tiny garden        “I wish I had a new car”,             remove the water tank and
 and next door lived a young           Esteban thought. “I would             free the terrified kitty! And he
 man called Esteban who was a          like to have a shiny new Ford         was late to work, but my dad
 mining engineer. The mine             or a Jeep.”                           was really grateful for getting
 was quite far from the city of        After a while the noise got           his pet back safe and sound.
 Antofagasta and Esteban had           louder.
 to drive to work nearly 80            “It must be the engine. I have
 kilometres each day. His car          to take it to the garage and
 was very small and very old           get it checked”, he said to
 and it always made a lot of           himself.
 strange noises. So one day            The third day the car purred
 early in the morning, when            even more and this time
 Esteban left home to go to            Esteban got really curious.
 work he turned on the engine          Engines, even old ones, don’t
 and he was not surprised to           usually purr! He stopped at
 hear that it started making a         the side of the road and



                                                                             Source: adapted from: www.ananova.com




 1 Read the text and answer these questions.                                                            5 pts.
      a. Why does the narrator believe the story is true?
      b. Where did the narrator’s dad live when he / she was a child?
      c. How far did Esteban drive his car?
      d. What did the owner of the car have to do at the end of the story?
      e. Why?




164
             UNIT 5
2 Find words in the text that correspond to these descriptions.                                         4 pts.
    a. A part of a car or another machine that makes the car or machine move.
    b. The hood of a car.
    c. A noise a cat usually makes.
    d. Really scared.


LISTENING - CLOUDS
3    Listen to the class and answer these questions.                                                    4 pts.
    a. What are clouds made of?
    b. What is water as a gas called?
    c. What is condensation?
    d. How many types of clouds are mentioned?

4        Listen again and complete the sentences.
                                                                                                        5 pts.
    a. High clouds are called __________.
    b. Clouds that produce snow are called __________.
    c. Clouds named because of their appearance are __________ and __________.
    d. Middle clouds are called __________.


LANGUAGE
5 Re-write these sentences to form a paragraph about recycling paper using the Passive
    Voice. Use sequence words such as first, second, next, etc.                                         6 pts.

    •   The school collects all unwanted paper in big cardboard boxes.
    •   A charity truck collects the boxes and takes the paper to a recycling plant.
    •   In the plant, a machine mixes the paper with water and chemicals and converts it into a pulp.
    •   A press removes the water from the pulp.
    •   Chemicals remove colouring and hard parts from the pulp.
    •   Another machine converts the pulp into sheets of recycled paper.

6 Insert the definite article the where necessary.
                                                                                                        4 pts.
    a. ________ Mount Everest is the highest mountain on earth, and the highest mountain
       range in the world are ________ Himalayas.
    b. ________ Loch Ness is a famous lake in ________ Scotland.
    c. The longest river in ________ Chile is ________ Bío Bío.
    d. Easter Island is in ________ Pacific Ocean.
    e. The shoe shop is in ________ Elm Street.



                                                                             LIFE AS WE KNOW IT              165
 7 Three friends are celebrating their birthday on the same day. Read each friend’s                    3 pts.
      description and choose the most appropriate presents. Complete the sentences using
      ought to and might.
      Gabriella is sporty; she plays tennis or goes swimming every day.
      Diana likes to read detective novels and she is a good painter.
      Becky is interested in classical music and loves to see modern plays.




 1                      2                  3                  4                 5                 6
      a. We ______________ for Gabriella. She ______________.
      b. We ______________ for Diana. She ______________.
      c. We ______________ for Becky. She ______________.

 8 Provide instructions for the situations in the pictures using must / have to.                       3 pts.




      1                                2                                 3

      a. _______________ (put)          b. _____________ (hurry)          c. _______________ (call)

 SPEAKING                                                                                              8 pts.
 9 Look at the pictures and complete the conversations according to the situations. Role play
      the conversations with a partner.
                                                                                       I'm _____
                                                 Excuse me,
          Would you                                                                  _____! I didn't
                                                 could you
           _____?                                                                       see you.
                                                  _______?




      1                                2                                  3
                      Sorry, I don't                Sorry, there's            That's Ok.
                        ________                   no more space.

166
               UNIT 5
WRITING
10 Write a short paragraph about the things you want to do, must do, should do and need to
                                                                                                                       8 pts.
    do during the next few months.


   ___________________________________________________________________________
   ___________________________________________________________________________
   ___________________________________________________________________________
   ___________________________________________________________________________
   ___________________________________________________________________________
   ___________________________________________________________________________



                                   Your            1 - 12             13 - 24                 25 - 50                  Total
                                  result:      Not too good         Acceptable                Great!                  50 pts.

 FINAL CHECK                                                                                                       ✔✔

                                                                              Nearly Always
Choose one alternative according to your performance.                         Sometimes
                                                                              Always



                                                                              Never
Speaking
· I use English structures correctly.                                                         Use this clue to work out your score
                                                                                              Never = 0
· I use varied and correct vocabulary.                                                        Sometimes = 1
· Others can understand me.                                                                   Nearly Always = 2
Writing                                                                                       Always = 3
· My writing is coherent and follows the central idea.
                                                                                              If you get:
· I use the correct sentence formation and sentence structure                                 0 - 10 = Watch out! You must look back
· I use the correct spelling, punctuation, capitalisation and format.                         and review the whole unit. Ask your
Reading                                                                                       teacher and / or a classmate for
· I am aware of the differences in tenses, gender and number.                                 additional help and remedial work.
                                                                                              11 - 22 = Not too bad, but there are
· I can identify the main idea and understand the text as a whole.                            areas you still have problems with.
· I can locate details and look for specific information.                                     Identify those areas and ask your
Listening                                                                                     teacher and / or a classmate for
· I can get the general idea.                                                                 additional help and remedial work.
                                                                                              23 - 34 = You are doing fine, but you
· I understand the details and identify speakers.                                             can certainly do better. Get together
· I identify the source of the text and listening and recognise the format.                   with a classmate and review your weak
Group work                                                                                    points.
                                                                                              35 - 45 = Congratulations! Great
· I share my ideas with the group.
                                                                                              progress - you may look ahead to the
· I listen to and respect my partners’ points of view.                                        new unit and help your classmates who
· I help solve problems and contribute with relevant information.                             need to review.

                                                                                   LIFE AS WE KNOW IT                          167
      IN THIS UNIT YOU WILL LEARN TO:                                            YOU WILL USE THE FOLLOWING TEXT TYPES:
      Reading: Identify the general topic of different texts / Match             Reading: An email / A Christmas carol / An advertisement /
      visual and written information / Fill in a graphic organiser with          A website entry
      specific information / Follow directions to draw a picture                 Listening: An interview / A lecture
      Listening: Match oral instructions with visual clues / Identify            YOU WILL ALSO LEARN:
      expressions referring to the duration of events / Identify speakers /      Grammar: The Present Prefect Tense / The use of since, for, never,
      Complete a gap exercise with specific words                                ever, just now / Reported Speech / The Simple Future Tense
      Production: Express personal opinions and ideas about traditions           Vocabulary: Vocabulary related to holidays, festivals and
      and celebrations / Talk about cultural differences in your country /       celebrations / Vocabulary related to different cultures
      Express interest, surprise, happiness in different situation / Offer       YOU WILL PAY SPECIAL ATTENTION TO THESE VALUES:
      predictions for future events                                              Why we should respect and follow traditions
      Functions: Referring to the duration of events / Expressing obligation /
      Expressing interest, surprise, joy / Making predictions for the future
168
SET UP


1 Match the traditions (a. - h.) with the pictures (1 - 8)

                                                                         12:00




1                            2                               3                           4




5                            6                               7                           8

    a. A birthday party                                          e. Guy Fawkes
    b. A camel race                                              f. Halloween
    c. A wedding ceremony                                        g. La Tirana festival
    d. Easter                                                    h. New Year's celebrations

2 Which activities in the pictures are traditional in Chile? Do you celebrate / practise them in your family /
    region?


3 Why are traditions important? Exchange opinions about the following points in your group.
    a. The value of traditions comes from what they can give each person.
    b. Traditions keep memories alive.
    c. Traditions preserve national and family values.
    d. Traditions give us an identity as a group: family, nation, race, etc.
    e. Traditions provide a rest period in a stressful life.



                                                                                                           169
           LET'S CELEBRATE
           READING
                                                                                                     Lesson 1


                                  THINK AHEAD
 Mi d          a
   n        T e se r
                            1 Match the words (a. - c.) with their definition (i. - iii.).

          I hatched
                           a.      celebration       b.         festival        c.           party
           from an
         Easter Egg.            i. an occasion for celebrating, especially a day or time of religious
                                     significance that happens at regular intervals
                                ii. a social gathering of many people who meet for pleasure or amusement
                                iii. the act of showing joy and happiness at a special event

                            2 Which of the words in the box look or sound similar in Spanish? Check
                                the meaning of the other words in a dictionary.


                                       · celebrate · colloquial · comfort · decorate
                                       · evil · ignorance · remotely · scary · victory

                            3 Match the questions in A with the answers in B to form three short dialogues.
                                   A                                             B
                                a. Have you been waiting long?              i. We've been friends since
                                                                                 primary school.
                                b. How long have you known John?            ii. We stayed a week at the
                                                                                 seaside and five days doing
                                                                                 things at home.
                                c. So how long was your holiday?            iii. For about twenty minutes.

                           4 You will read four texts about different festivals and celebrations. Look at
                                the cards and guess what the festivals are about.




 1                     2                               3                             4




170
        UNIT 6
        GO AHEAD

5 Read the texts on pages 172 and 173 quickly and check your predictions
     in Exercise 4.

6 What type of texts are those? Choose one alternative for each text.
     a. An advertisement.                b. An article.
     c. A carol / christmas song.        d. An e-mail.

7 What is the general topic of all the texts?
     a. Festivals and celebrations in different parts of the world.
     b. Holidays and parties in English-speaking countries.
     c. Traditional activities common to all parts of the world.

8 Match the pictures (1 - 3) with the sentences taken from the texts (a. - c.).




1                              2                          3

a.                        b.                                          c.
     Join us this                Every household burns                    I'm a
   time and have          special Diwali clay lamps to light the       scary witch
 some fun with the        way for the goddess Houses, shops,
  Marching Band.           and public places are decorated
                                   with small oil lamps
                                      called diyas.
9 Read the texts again and tick the correct column or columns.
               Which text mentions                        I    II     III   IV
                                                                                                Danger
       the participation of a family member?
              the name of a goddess?
                                                                                     Costume versus custom
                the name of a saint?                                                 Watch out for the use of
           the reason for the celebration?                                           these two words. Study these
     the exact date and time of the celebration?                                     examples.
                                                                                     a. Ayelen, our model, is
                                                                                        wearing a typical
10 One of the texts uses very informal language. Which one? Can you give a              Mapuche costume which
     few examples from that text?                                                       includes a headband
                                                                                        called trarilonko and silver
11 Fill in the gaps in these sentences with words from the texts.                       earrings called chaway.
                                                                                     b. One of the most important
               · favourite · popular · tradition · costume                              Chilean customs is the
                                                                                        celebration of
     a. The festival has been a great ___________ with children.                        Independence Day on
     b. It has been one of the most __________ festivals in India.                      18th September.
     c. Each Halloween we make scary __________ to go trick and treating.
     d. They have celebrated this great Irish __________for many centuries.

                                                                      TRADITIONS, TRADITIONS                     171
                                                                                                              LET'S CELEBRATE
       I.




                          Diwali, the Hindu festival of lights, has been for centuries the most popular of all the festivals
                                                                                                                                im South Asia. It is a
                          five - day celebration which occurs on the fifteenth day of the Hindu month of Kartika (during
                                                                                                                               October / November
                          in our calendar). The fourth day of Diwali is the Hindu New Year. The word Diwali means “rows
                                                                                                                                of lighted lamps”
                          because people light hundreds of small oil lamps (called diyas) They place them around the home,
                                                                                                                                     in courtyards
                          and in gardens, as well as on roof-tops and outer walls. The festival of lights is held in honour of
                                                                                                                                  Lakshmi, the
                          Hindu goddess of wealth and prosperity. Hindus pray to Lakshmi to bring them good luck in the
                                                                                                                                  coming year.
                         Homes are cleaned to welcome the New Year and windows are opened so that Lakshmi can enter
                                                                                                                                    them. It is
                         believed that she cannot enter a house which is not lit up, so every household burns special Diwali
                                                                                                                                     clay lamps to
                         light the way for the goddess. For many years this festival has been very popular with children
                                                                                                                                 because they have
                         a holiday from school. Additionally, for many years now people have used colourful fireworks
                                                                                                                              so children are really
                         delighted with the noise and colours. And apart from that, kids get presents and adults cook deliciou
                                                                                                                                       s holiday
                         food. New clothes and jewellery are worn, many parties are organised and games are played. The
                                                                                                                                   last day of the
                         holiday is a special day for brothers and sisters. Brothers give special presents to their sisters, who
                                                                                                                                   cook for them
                         and look after them. But most importantly the festival celebrates the victory of good over evil,
                                                                                                                               light over darkness,
                         and knowledge over ignorance.

   II.
             I’ve seen mummy kissing Santa Claus                              Then I’ve seen my mummy tickle Santa Claus
             Underneath the mistletoe.                                        Underneath his beard so snowy white.
             She can’t see me go down the stairs to peek,                     What a laugh it would be
             I should be up in my bedroom,                                    If daddy could only see
             In my bed fast asleep                                            Mommy kissing Santa Claus tonight!


III.
                  Lisa

                   Great time at Halloween!


                                                                                                         Friday, 31 October, 2008 10: 17 PM
            Hi Lisa,
                                                                                        today? Have you dressed up and gone
            How are you? Finally it’s Halloween! Have you done anything spooky
                                                                                     I could burst like a bubble! To start with
            trick or treating? Because I’ve had a blast! In fact, it’s been so great
                                                                                        sister Jenna’s a fairy. And I have
            we’ve made some really awesome costumes! I’m a scary witch and my
                                                                                       and I’ve got so many yummy things
            eaten so many sweets that I think I am going to get sick. Both Jenna
            that we’d better leave some for next week.
                                                                                           kids walking around with their
            We have not visited all the houses in our street yet and I can see other
                                                                                                             Love and XXXXX
            goodie bags so I’d better run or all the sweeties will be gone.




       172
                         UNIT 6
IV.
                                    2009 New York City Saint Patrick's Day Parade
                     Tuesday, March 17th, 2009 11:00 a.m. Starting
                                                                         @ 44th Street and Fifth Avenue
       So far, the Traditional New York Parade has marc
                                                        hed 247 times - this year we are marching once again
       many times have you watched us on TV from the                                                           . How
                                                          comfort of your sitting room? How many times
       wanted to be part of us? So come and join us this                                                    have you
                                                          time and have some fun with the Marching Band
      Year after year we have celebrated this great Irish                                                   .
                                                           tradition right in the heart of New York. This time
      and celebrate with us. Be proud of your Irish roots                                                     , come
                                                           - be part of this great festival.
      For those of you who are not Irish, we should expla
                                                            in why we celebrate. Saint Patrick's Day, colloquial
      Paddy's Day or Paddy's Day, is an annual festivity                                                        ly St.
                                                            which has for centuries celebrated Saint Patrick,
      Ireland's patron saints.                                                                                one of
      Get up! Get out! Put on your leprechaun suit! Fly
                                                          your Irish flag!
      Come and join us in this wonderful festival of peac
                                                         e and joy.




           MAKE CONNECTIONS

      TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

      The Present Perfect
      1. Read these sentences from the texts.
         a. Diwali has been for centuries the most popular of all the festivals
            from South Asia.
         b. We have not visited all the houses in our street yet.
         c. How many times have you wanted to be part of us?
      2. Which time do the sentences express?
         a. The past          b. The present               c. Neither
      3. The sentences in Point 1 use the Present Perfect tense, which indicates
         that an action happened at an unspecified time before now; the exact
         time is not important.
      4. We CANNOT use the Present Perfect with specific time expressions such
         as: yesterday, one year ago, last week, when I was a child, when I lived in
         Japan, at that moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the Present
         Perfect with unspecific expressions such as: ever, never, once, many
         times, several times, before, so far, already, just, yet, etc.
      5. Examine the structure and the examples.
         Subject + has / have (not) + past participle
         We         haven't             seen                       that film yet.
         Tina       has                 made                       lovely costumes.
      6. Go back to the text and find more examples of the Present Perfect
         tense. Identify the elements and copy them into your notebook. Use
         color pencils to identify the components.

                                                                          TRADITIONS, TRADITIONS                   173
               12 Tom Warwick has travelled to a lot of countries. Look at his passport and
                  answer the questions.
                  a. Has Tom visited Poland?                      b. Has he been to Russia?
                  c. Has he visited the Czech Republic?           d. Has he been to Latin America?
                  e. Has he been to Switzerland?                  f. Has he visited the USA?
                  g. Has he been to Great Britain?                h. How many countries has Tom been to?

                                                      r epu bli
                                                  á




                                                              ka
                                              k
                                                                                 S




                                            Ces
                                                                            6 - 1 uisse
                                                       2005
                                                  1-10-                          2-2
                                                                                      007
                              Great B
                                     ritain
                          31 - 01
                                  -   2008




                                                                      07
                                                                8- a
                                                             - 0 lavij
                                                                    20
                                                                                      Poc chr




                                                           25 Jugos
                                     U SA

                              9-9                                                    9-9-2004
                                    - 20
                                        04



               13 Complete this paragraph with the correct form of the Present Perfect
                  tense (affirmative, negative or interrogative).
                  The Christmas tree today is a common custom to most of us, but
                  a. __________ (you ever wonder) about its origin? When did the tradition
                  start? How long b. __________ (it last)? We now know that c. __________
                  (it be) around as a tradition for many centuries. One of the most
                  important aspects of the Christmas tree is its colour. For years, having a
                  green tree full of lights inside your home d. __________ (symbolise) life
                  in the middle of a cold winter. Probably there is no one on the planet who
                  e. __________ (not hear) about the Christmas tree tradition.

               14 Work with a partner. Read the results table and ask each other questions.
                  Examples: How many games has Man United played in total? They have
                            played 6 games in total.
                            How many games have they won and lost? They have won 4
                            games and lost 2.
                                                      Total games
                           Team                                         Games won        Games lost
                                                        played
                    Manchester United                       6                4                  2
                       West Ham                             5                3                  2
                        Chelsea                             6                5                  1
                       Liverpool                            7                4                  3
                     Sheffield United                       5                2                  3


174
      UNIT 6
HAVE A CHAT

15      Listen to the recording and practise saying these questions. Then ask
     and answer them with a partner.
     a. How long is the Chilean National Day celebration?
     b. How long have you known your best friend?
     c. How many days a week do you go to school?
     d. How long does it take to go from your house to your school?
     e. How long have you studied English?
     f. How long have your parents lived in the same house?
     g. How many hours have you spent at school today?
     h. How long has it taken you to answer all the questions?

 FAST CHECK

 16 Today is Monday, December 8 and Mrs Carlow has planned many things to
      do. Look at a page from her diary and write sentences about the things she
      has already done (✔) and the things she has not done yet (✘). (10 points)
                         Monday, 8 December 2008
  ✔ Take children to school        ✔ Write e-mail to Lucy's teacher
  ✔ Buy Christmas decorations             ✘ Send Christmas cards
  ✔ Visit James in hospital               ✘ Make chocolate cake for tea
  ✘ Go jogging in park                    ✔ Read the papers
  ✔ Call Susan about party                ✘ Collect children from school

         Your           0-5                6-8                 9 - 10
        result:   Review the lesson     Quite good           Excellent


WRITE IT DOWN

17 Does your family celebrate some kind of tradition or festival? What is it?
     How long does it last? Since when have you celebrated it? Write a short
     paragraph about why you celebrate it and how.


 CHECK IT OVER!                                                          ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                    I need more work        I did OK      I did really well!

     Reading
     Speaking
     Writing


                                                                    TRADITIONS, TRADITIONS   175
        PROUD TO BE
        LISTENING
                                                                                         Lesson 2


                          THINK AHEAD

                    1 Who are these native inhabitants of Chile? What are the names of their
                        ethnic groups?




                    1                         2                           3


                    2 Locate each group in the corresponding part of Chile.




                    3 The following words are taken from the text you are going to listen to. All
                        the vowels (a, e, i ,o ,u) have been removed. Can you guess the words and
                        put the vowels back? Write the correct words in your notebook and check
                        their meaning in a dictionary.

                        a. r __ __ t s              b. __ r __ g __ n         c. t __ t t __ __

                        d. __ m __ g __ s           e. c __ l t __ r __       e. s p __ r __ t __ __ l




176
      UNIT 6
4 Three young people are talking to British anthropologist Jane Roberts
    about their customs and traditions. Can you guess which ethnic group each
    of them represents from these sentences taken from the conversation?
    a. That's why we have the Machi.
    b. We've always been known for our respect for Mother Earth.
    c. Polynesian symbols and figures from our legends.

      GO AHEAD

5       Listen to the conversation and check your predictions in Exercise 4.

6       Each speaker mentions three traditions. Listen again and identify the
    tradition from the pictures (i. or ii.)
    a. Ariki                 i.                                       ii.




    b. Millaray             i.                                          ii.




    c. Urichi               i.                                          ii.




                                                                  TRADITIONS, TRADITIONS   177
               7      Listen again and write the name of the speaker, Ariki, Millaray,
                   Urushi, or Jane.
                   a. _______:   I think it's important to know where you come from.
                   b. _______:   We ought to know our roots.
                   c. _______:   I've heard of the ancient cult to the Pachamama.
                   d. _______:   This month we are celebrating an important holiday
                   e. _______:   I've never been to the north but I know it's very dry.
                   f. _______:   It also brings our people together.
                   g. _______:   It's always been important to look after both the body and
                                 the soul

               8       Listen again and complete these sentences.
                   a. How do you feel about your __________________________________?
                   b. Millaray means ____________, Ariki means ____________ and Uruchi
                      means ____________.
                   c. ____________ make our skin sacred and help us __________________.
                   d. This cult has helped my people to ______________________________.
                   e. We are certain that the most common __________________________.

               9       Listen once more and find the answer to these questions.
                   a. What kind of pictures do Rapa Nui tattoo artists use?
                   b. What is the name of the Aymara holiday mentioned?
                   c. According to Millaray, what happens when your mind is not well?



                      MAKE CONNECTIONS


               TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

               The Present Perfect - continued
               1. Read these sentences from the text.
                  a. I've been a tattoo artist since I was sixteen.
                  b. For centuries we have believed that tattoos make our skin sacred.
               2. What do you notice about the use of for and since?
                  We use for with a period of time, for example: a few days, half an hour,
                  two years.
                  We use since with the time when the action started, for example: last
                  year, June 8, when I met you.
               3. Pay attention to the structure and examples.
               Subject     + has/ have + (not) + past participle
               Our people     have                   lived              here for thousands
                                                                        of years.
               They              have                  lived            here since
                                                                        prehistoric times.

178
      UNIT 6
10 Complete sentences a.- d. with for or since according to the clues (i. - ii.).
   a. I haven't phoned home (i.) __________ Christmas,
      (ii.) __________ three weeks now.
   b. She has been here (i.) __________ half and hour now,
      (ii.) __________ 9.15 a.m.
   c. George has lived in Madrid (i.) __________ a very long time,
      (ii.) __________ 1982.
   d. Amelia has been my best friend (i.) __________ kindergarten,
      (ii.) __________ almost twenty years.


11 Choose the best reply (i. - iii.) in these short dialogues.

   a. A: Have you ever been to Arica?
      B: i. Yes, of course I can.
         ii. No, I didn‘t.
         iii. Yes, I travel a lot.



   b. A: What have you made for dinner?
      B: i. I ate some spaghetti.
         ii. Meat? I don't like meat.
         iii. Glenn and I have prepared some pasta.



   c. A: He's been a tattoo artist for five years, hasn't he?
      B: i. No, he's been in this business for much longer.
         ii. Yes, he is an artist.
         iii. No, he doesn't do this.



   d. A: You've bought a computer! How great!
      B. i. Our old one is good.
         ii. And I've learned how to use it, too.
         iii. No, it's very small.



   e. A: How long have you been here?
      B: i. I came last month.
         ii. No, I've come just now.
         iii. Yes, five hours ago.




                                                                     TRADITIONS, TRADITIONS   179
               HAVE A CHAT

               12       Jane and Millaray are talking during the morning break. Use the
                    information you collected in the listening exercises and your imagination
                    to complete it.
                    Jane:        Have you ever been to see a Machi?
                    Millaray:    _____________________________________________________
                    Jane:        How long have you lived in Santiago?
                    Millaray:    _____________________________________________________
                    Jane:        Have you already seen most of Santiago?
                    Millaray:    _____________________________________________________
                    Jane:        Have you been back to see you relatives in the south?
                    Millaray:    _____________________________________________________
                    Jane:        How many hours does it take to get there?
                    Millaray:    _____________________________________________________
                    Jane:        Have you done anything interesting recently?
                    Millaray:    _____________________________________________________
                    Jane:        And what have you done just now?
                    Millaray:    _____________________________________________________

               13       Listen to the recording and check your answers. Practise the
                    conversation with a partner and then role play it in front of your
                    classmates.


               FAST CHECK

                14 Use the clues provided to write sentences using the Present Perfect
                     tense and for or since.                                      (10 points)
                     a. I - know Sebastian - we were in primary school.
                     b. We - discuss the plans for the party - five weeks.
                     c. This festival - be popular with school children - a long time.
                     d. We - look for the information - the teacher gave us the questions.
                     e. Frances - study Spanish - two years.
                     f. Peter - do karate - he was a little boy.
                     g. Harry and Kim - be on the island - three weeks.
                     h. Tammy - play chess - she was 12.
                     i. Rick - live in Japan - two months.
                     j. My parents - work in the same school - they finished university.

                        Your             0-5               6-8                 9 - 10
                       result:     Review the lesson    Quite good           Excellent




180
      UNIT 6
WRITE IT DOWN

15 Look at the picture below. What kind of tradition /
   custom is it? Do some internet research and write a
   paragraph about it. Present it to the class. Compare
   your presentations.




 PLAY IT

      Play the BLIP game (sometimes known as COFFEE POT).
      1. Play in groups of six students.
      2. Choose a verb from the box below that indicates something that you have done recently.
      3. The group must discover the verb through YES / NO questions using mainly the Present Perfect
         tense, but other tenses can be accepted.
      4. The nonsense word "BLIP" should replace your chosen verb until a player asks a question using
         the real verb. If this is correct, it is that player's turn to choose a verb.
      5. The aim of the game is not to guess the meaning of the word "Blip" straight away. When you
         think you know the meaning of the word "Blip", you could ask further questions which make the
         meaning of the word "Blip" clear to the rest of the group or which amuse the student who is
         answering the questions.

      Here are some sample questions.
      • Have you blipped in the living-room / dining room / garden / street / kitchen / in a restaurant?
      • Have you blipped with a friend / your teacher / your family / alone ?
      • Have you blipped since you arrived at school / in the last twenty-four hours / this month / this year?
      • Do you feel tired / happy / sad / angry / hungry / thirsty after you have blipped?
      • Do you like blipping?
      • Do you often blip?
      • Did you blip yesterday?
      • Are you blipping now?
        · cook · cry · dance · draw · dream · drink · drive · eat · fight · fly
          · iron · joke · jump · kiss · knit · move · paint · read · rest · run
       · scream · sew · shout · sing · sleep · smile · swim · talk · think · win


CHECK IT OVER!                                                          ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                  I need more work        I did OK        I did really well!

   Listening
   Speaking
   Writing


                                                                    TRADITIONS, TRADITIONS                 181
         LIVING WITH TRADITIONS
         READING
                                                                                          Lesson 3


                            THINK AHEAD

                       1 Where is Spunky, the monkey?

                                 · above · behind · between · far from · in
                              · in front of · in the middle · near · on · under




 1                 2                            3                           4




 5                                              6                           7




 8                                              9                          10


                       2 Now fill in the gaps with the correct preposition of place.
                          a. The Fiat was parked _____________ a Suzuki and a Honda.
                          b. Can you move please? I can‘t see! You are right _____________ of the TV.
                          c. Where is Puerto Varas? Is it _____________ from Antofagasta?
                          d. We were looking for the cat and found it _____________ the car.


182
      UNIT 6
3 Match the expressions in the bubbles (a. - c.) with the pictures (1 - 3).
a.          How            b.                            c.
                                      That's really               How funny!
     interesting! I have
                                   awful! Some people        The shirt looks as if
        never seen a
                                   have no respect for        it was made for a
         watermelon
          that big.                 their environment.              giant!




1                              2                         3

4 Which objects from the picture would you choose to decorate your room?




 5 Match the professionals in the box with the descriptions (a. - e.).

                  · architect · carpenter · house painter
                    · interior decorator · landscape artist

      a. person who specialises in designing interiors and furnishings
      b. someone who creates plans to be used in making something (such as
         buildings, houses, etc.)
      c. person who paints walls and ceilings
      d. skilled worker who makes, finishes, and repairs wooden objects
      e. person who specialises in designing gardens and outdoor spaces

 6 Which profession(s) do you think will be mentioned in a text about living
      in a traditional home?


                                                                       TRADITIONS, TRADITIONS   183
          GO AHEAD


  Sunday, 29 September 2008


      Decorators Weekly
                                    s
      Modernity mixed with tradition
      By Glenda Spurns
                                                       visit a traditional   for goodness knows how long.
      As readers already know every week we
                                                   found side by side.       Probably since my father put it
      home where history and modernity can be
                                                       home we visited       there 50 years ago! The design of the
      This week, however, is quite different as the                                                                       what people liked
                                                         dy, who has just     wallpaper is typical of the 50's – that’s
      belongs to a famous decorator, Lawrence Goo                                                                         traditions but this
                                                      lations, Lawrence!      at the time. I do have respect for
      been named Decorator of the Year. Congratu                                                                            to paint the walls
                                                       le including some      wallpaper must go down! We‘re going
      Lawrence has worked for many famous peop                                                                            to work on.
                                                         rs. For obvious      light green. It’s going to be our canvass
       television personalities, politicians and singe                                                       Can you tell us more?
                                                       but Lawrence told      Glenda: How interesting!
       reasons we cannot give you all the names,                                                                           ve the carpet and
                                                  British Prime Ministers      Lawrence: Then we're going to remo
        us he was the personal decorator for the                                                                               s in with a dark
                                                   ning Street. He said        the carpenter’s going to put wooden floor
        and that he decorated Number 10 Dow
                                                     Prime Minister had        green rug in the middle of the room.
        that it was really challenging as each new                                                                         and armchairs here?
                                                  more traditional while       Glenda: Are you going to leave the sofa
        a different taste. He said that some were                                                                               een two lamps
                                                       n.                       Lawrence: The sofa should stand betw
         others liked more modern types of decoratio                                                                            going to put the
                                                                                by the wall opposite the window and I'm
                                                                                                                           with the beautiful
                                                   family for nearly            armchairs in front of the window,
        This house has belonged to the Goody                                                                                 Can you picture it
                                                 it from his father,            sculpture next to the one near the door.
        two centuries and Lawrence inherited                                                                                 itional because of
                                                   rence told us that           in your mind? The room is still quite trad
        who was a painter. In our inter view Law                                                                                adding some of
                                                  his home but his               its size and the high ceilings but we are
        he loved the traditional decoration of                                                                           h.
                                               School of Design                  the modern touches that I like so muc
         modern education at the London                                                                                     with the piano?
                                                    invited us to see            Glenda: What are you going to do
         required some modern touches. So he                                                                                   - you see that I
                                                      house to suit his           Lawrence: The piano's an antique
         how he was changing some parts of the                                                                                 the middle of the
                                                that he wanted to                 respect traditions? I'm going to put it in
         modern taste. Lawrence also told us                                                                                     with roses on it.
                                                       dly. He is the             room and I'm going to put a crystal vase
          make his traditional home more user-frien
                                                     e friends, so he
          father of two teenagers who often invit                                                                            time and at the
                                                     people.                    The whole decoration process took a long
          wanted to adapt the house for younger                                                                          must tell you I was
                                                                                end of the day we were all very tired. I
                                                                                                                         s. For example, he
                                                      room?                     surprised at some of Lawrence’s decision
         Glenda: So, what can we see in this                                                                                 in the window
                                            family room. It’s a typical 5       told us he would not put any curtains
         Lawrence: Well, this is our                                                                                   garden much better
                                                        beige and white         because that way he could see the
         x 4 metre rectangular room with basic                                                                             e artist did a very
                                                       ed window that            from the room. He said that the landscap
         colours where there is one good-siz                                                                                   he told me that
                                                                                 good job with the plants in the garden and
         overlooks the garden.                                                                                            ing.
                                                     see today?                  he liked watching the sunset in the even
         Glenda: And what are we going to
                                                       l have a charming
          Lawrence: When we’ve finished we’l                                                                          rience. The room
                                                                             Altogether it was a very interesting expe
          place where the who       le family can relax and feel they                                                      what it was
                                                                             definitely looks completely different from
          want to spend quality time together.                                                                         Later we asked
                                                           ?                 when we arrived. we first saw it.
          Glenda: How nice! Do you have a plan                                                                       py with the change
                                                                             Lawrence if his teenage sons were hap
          Lawrence: First      of all, I’m going to ask Andy, the painter
                                                             on these walls   and he said that they both loved it.
           to remove all the old wallpaper that has been                                                                     ellyn-Bowen.
                                                                                       “Changing Rooms”, with Lawrence Llew

      22
                                                 Fuente: Based on the BBC programme:



184
                UNIT 6
7 Read the text and check your predictions in Exercise 6.

8 As you can see the text is written in two different colours. How are the
     two parts different? Why?

9 Read the text again and answer these questions.
     a. What do we learn about Lawrence from this text?
     b. Was there wallpaper or paint on the walls originally?
     c. Why is Glenda congratulating Lawrence?
     d. Why will Lawrence not put any curtains?

10 Copy this rectangle into your notebook but make it bigger. Read the text
     again to complete it.
     a. Colour the walls the correct colour.
     b. Place the furniture and objects in the places where Lawrence will put them.
     c. Compare your picture with the plan on page 187.
                                      window




                                                                                  door
       MAKE CONNECTIONS

HAVE A CHAT

11 Complete the conversation using the expressions in the bubbles (a. - e.).
a.          b.                    c.               d.               e.
                      How
 You should       interesting!     I’m so glad.     How awful!       What a pity!

     Donna: Last week I had nothing to do so I decided to visit the Design
            Museum to see the new interior decoration exhibition.
     Rose:  _____________________________________________________
     Donna: And I booked and paid for my tickets on-line. But when I got to the
            museum the tickets were not there!
     Rose   _____________________________________________________
     Donna: I spoke to the man in the ticket office and he told me to ask the
            manager. And fortunately the tickets were in his office.
     Rose   _____________________________________________________
     Donna: Yes, so I finally got to see the Victorian collection and it was great.
     Rose:  _____________ tell Emma about the museum. She is really into
            design.
     Donna: Emma is away on holiday now and the exhibition ends this week.
     Rose:  _____________________________________________________

12      Listen to the recording and check your answers. Practise the complete
     conversation with a partner and then role play it in front of your classmates.

                                                                       TRADITIONS, TRADITIONS   185
               TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

               Reported Speech
               1. Read these sentences from the text.
                  a. Lawrence told us he was the personal decorator for the British Prime
                     Ministers.
                  b. He told us he would not put any curtains in the window.
                  c. We asked Lawrence if his teenage sons were happy with the change.
               2. The sentences above are written in Reported Speech, which is used to
                  express what others have said.
                  a. Lawrence: ”I am the personal decorator for the British Prime Ministers.”
                  b. Lawrence: “I will not put any curtains in the window.”
                  c. Glenda: “Are your teenage sons happy with the change?”
               3. To introduce Reported Speech we use words such as asked, said, told,
                  answered, etc.

               4. When changing sentences from Direct to Reported Speech tense
                  changes take place. Some of these changes are:
                  Present                                Past
                  Present / Perfect / Past               Past Perfect
                  will                                   would
                  can                                    could
                  may                                    might
               5. Analyse what happens when we are reporting questions.


               13 Rewrite these sentences in your notebook using Reported Speech and
                  the reporting verbs in brackets.
                  a. Pat:             “Are you happy?”                              (asked)
                  b. Eddie:           “I am going on holiday soon.”                   (said)
                  c. Andy and Jill:   “We will visit Kim when we are in New York.” (told us)
                  d. Gabriel:         “Can you swim well?”                          (asked)
                  e. Tony:            “I always wash my hands before eating.”         (said)
                  f. Sue:             “My daughter sings beautifully.”            (told me)

               14 Now change these sentences into Direct Speech.
                  a. Rick told us he was working in the design industry.
                  b. Paula and Kate asked if they could use our computer.
                  c. Daniel said he would help us with our project.
                  d. Molly said she checked her e-mails every day.
                  e. Gregory said he was going to study computer sciences.
                  f. Tania said she could go shopping with us.




186
      UNIT 6
 FAST CHECK

 15 Rewrite this part of the interview on page 184 using Reported Speech.
     Use different reporting verbs and pay attention to the changes you will
     need to make.                                             (10 points)
     Glenda:   So, what can we see in this room?
     Lawrence: Well, this is our family room. It's a typical 5 x 4 metre
               rectangular room with basic beige and white colours where
               there is one good-sized window that overlooks the garden.
     Glenda:   And what are we going to see today?
     Lawrence: When we've finished we'll have a charming place where my
               whole family can feel relaxed and wanting to spend quality
               time together.
       Your           0-5                 6-8                9 - 10
      result:   Review the lesson      Quite good          Excellent



 PLAY IT

      Play Describe and Draw with your partner.
      a. Make a simple drawing of a room (it can
         be your bedroom).
      b. Ask your partner to take a piece of paper
         and turn around.
      c. Describe the positions of the furniture in
         the room for your partner to draw.
      d. After he or she finishes compare your
         picture with his or hers.
      e. Change roles.



WRITE IT DOWN

16 Go back to the text and choose parts of it written in Reported Speech to
   add them to the interview in Direct Speech.

CHECK IT OVER!                                                         ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                  I need more work        I did OK     I did really well!

   Reading
   Speaking
   Writing


                                                                 TRADITIONS, TRADITIONS   187
                   CHANGING LANGUAGE
                   LISTENING
                                                                                                          Lesson 4


                        a
                                           THINK AHEAD
 Mi d
   n                 T e se r

 Do animals and humans
                                     1 Match the words in the box with the definitions below (a. - c.).
 communicate? Yes, they do
 and we can see it every day                           · linguist   · native speaker      · polyglot
 in our interactions with our
 pets. When an owner gets                a. a person who speaks many languages.
 angry with her / his dog the            b. a person who studies a language or languages, mainly their form and
 pet does not necessarily                   behaviour.
 understand every word but               c. a speaker of a particular language who has spoken that language since
 is able to understand the                  he or she was a child.
 message by interpreting cues
 such as the owner's position,
 her / his tone of voice, and        2 What languages do these young people speak? Look at the pictures
 body language. In                       (1 - 4) and then complete the sentences (a. - d.).
 exchange, the owner knows
 that her / his dog is happy
 when it wags its tails or that it
 is hungry when it tries to
 open the bag where its food
 is kept.




                                     1                                          2
                                         a. Josette is from Paris; she speaks       b. Natalia is from Moscow; she
                                            _________________________.                 speaks ___________________.




                                     3                                          4
                                         a. Luigi is from Rome; he speaks           b. Ly-Sen is from Beijing; she
                                            _________________________.                 speaks ___________________.




188
              UNIT 6
3 Examine the words in the box.
    a. What do they have in common?
    b. Why are there two words in a different colour?
    c. Can you develop a definition of language from the words in this box?
       Write it in your notebook.                                                            Danger

     · acceptable · American · Australian · billion · Briton                       False cognates are pairs of
         · communicating · completely · consonant · different                      words in different languages
                                                                                   that are similar in form but
       · difficult · expect · express · human · information                        have a different meaning,
 · language · lecture · linguist · million · minority · native                     that is to say they appear to
      · personal · plural · present · pronounce · question                         be or are sometimes
                                                                                   considered cognates when in
        · respectively · sign · similar · singular · symbol                        fact they are not. One
                · system · traditional · verb · version                            example is the word lecture
                                                                                   which looks similar to the
                                                                                   word lectura in Spanish;
4 Considering the title of the lesson and the exercises you have done, what        however, a lecture is a
    do you think the listening text will be about?                                 presentation on a given
    a. How all languages change with time.                                         subject delivered before an
    b. What the changes in English will be like.                                   audience or a class, as for
                                                                                   the purpose of instruction.
    c. Why languages change with time.


       GO AHEAD

5       Listen to the recording and check your predictions in Exercises 3 and 4.

6       Copy this chart into your notebook. Listen again and complete it with
    the changes linguists think will take place in English.


              Now                                  In the future

           “th” in this

          “th” in think

          Information

            Furniture

            He runs

           She walks

             Friend

              Send



                                                                    TRADITIONS, TRADITIONS                  189
               7       Listen to the lecture again and answer these questions.
                   a. What are the two answers the audience give when the lecturer asks
                      “What is language”?
                   b. What will the name of the new language be?
                   c. What does the word pan mean in Greek?
                   d. Why will the changes in English take place?
                   e. Can the lecturer say when the changes will take place?
                   f. Can native speakers of English prevent the changes?

               8      Listen once more and fill in each blank in these sentences with one
                   word only.
                   a. Is language _________ or not?
                   b. We think that the language once used by great _________ such as
                      Shakespeare, Dickens and, more recently, J.K. Rowling will look
                      completely different.
                   c. By 2012 around two billion people will speak English as a _________
                      language.
                   d. Linguists say the new language will lose some of the English sounds
                      which non-native speakers find difficult to _________.

                     MAKE CONNECTIONS

               TAKE A CLOSER LOOK

               The Simple Future
               1. Read these sentences from the listening text.
                  a. The language will look completely different in a very short time.
                  b. Will it happen fast?
                  c. The change will not happen because of Britons.
               2. In the sentences above the Simple Future is expressing predictions.

               3. The Simple Future can also express that a speaker will do something
                  voluntarily.
                  I will bring some strawberry ice-cream.
               4. The Simple Future can also express a promise.
                  I will help you when I finish my work.
               5. Notice the structure of the Simple Future and the examples.
                  Affirmative/ Subject + will (not)         + infinitive
                  Negative:       I         + will (not)    + speak.
                  Interrogative: Will       + subject       + infinitive?
                                  Will      + the change + happen soon?
               6. Very often in spoken English the subject and the word will are contracted.
                  I'll talk to her tomorrow.       We'll send them some flowers.
                  That'll be all for now.          Henry'll be here soon.


190
      UNIT 6
9 You are asked to make predictions for the changes in Spanish in the future.
   Develop them using the Simple Future tense. Use these and your own ideas.
   a. favour short forms like in text messages
   b. incorporate more jargon
   c. incorporate words from English
   d. invent new words related to science and technology
   e. simplify orthography
   f. simplify verb tenses

10 Write five sentences about what you think will be true about yourself in
   10 years' time. The photos can give you some ideas.
   Example:    In 10 years' time I will be married.




11 Can you decipher this electronic message? Write it in your notebook and
   check in your group.

                    Sorry 4 not
                    answering b4. Yes, I’d
                    love to CU
                    face2face. IC that U
                    like chatting, too. B
                    back tonite.
                    CU soon

                                                                  TRADITIONS, TRADITIONS   191
                             12 Read the statements (a. - d.) and match them with the pictures (1 - 4).

      a.                       b.                             c.                           d.
           The human                                             In five years'                     We will
                                Many animals
             race will                                         time we will find                make our first
                                  will become
           establish a                                            a cure for                    contact with
                                    extinct.
           first space                                              cancer.                          other
              colony.                                                                            civilisations.




 1                       2                                3                           4



                             HAVE A CHAT

                             13       You are a fortune teller and a new client is asking you to make
                                  predictions about her / his future. Answer the questions using your
                                  imagination.
                                  Client:   What will I study after I finish school?
                                  You:      _____________________________________________________
                                  Client:   Will I travel a lot in the future?
                                  You:      _____________________________________________________
                                  Client:   Will I meet some important people there?
                                  You:      _____________________________________________________
                                  Client:   Will I meet someone who will love me very much?
                                  You:      _____________________________________________________
                                  Client:   And how about my future job?
                                  You:      _____________________________________________________
                                  Client:   Do you think I will be rich?
                                  You:      _____________________________________________________
                                  Client:   Just one more question, will people in the future be immortal?
                                  You:      _____________________________________________________


                             14       Listen to the recording and check your answers. Then listen and
                                  practice the conversation with a partner. Role play it in front of your
                                  classmates.




192
             UNIT 6
 FAST CHECK

 15 Look at the pictures and make five predictions for the future.(10 points)




  1                      2                      3                   4              5


         Your            0-5                  6-8               9 - 10
        result:    Review the lesson       Quite good         Excellent



WRITE IT DOWN

16 Write five predictions for Chile in 20 years' time.
   Example: Lots of people will move to the country.

 PLAY IT

       Play the What will be will be game in your group.
       a. Work in groups of six students.
       b. Prepare five cards each with possible future events in your lives.
          Example: have 10 children
                        be a famous rock star
                        work abroad
       c. Take turns to agree or disagree with what the card predicts.
          Example: Mm, yes, I think I will have 10 children.
                        Mm, no, I won't be a famous rock star.
       d. Keep your YES cards on your right and your NO cards on your left.
       e. At the end of the game, write complete sentences with your
          predictions.


CHECK IT OVER!                                                          ✔
Tick one box in each row according to your performance in this lesson.

                   I need more work         I did OK     I did really well!

   Listening
   Speaking
   Writing


                                                                   TRADITIONS, TRADITIONS   193
 1 Look at the official results of an international sports competition that is taking place this week. Ask and
      answer the questions in your notebook.

                 COUNTRY                  GOLD              SILVER            BRONZE     TOTAL




                            USA             36                 38                  36      110


                           China            51                 21                  28      100


                          Russia            23                 21                  28       72

                           Great
                                            18                 13                  15       47
                           Britain

                           Chile            15                 10                  20       45


      a. Which country has won the most gold medals?
      b. How many medals has Great Britain won in total?
      c. Which country has won more silver medals, than China?
      d. How many gold medals has Russia won?
      e. Has Chile won more or fewer bronze medals than Great Britain?
      f. Which country / countries have / has won 21 silver medals?

 2 Gregory and Peter, two office workers, have been stuck in a lift for the
      last 3 hours. Complete the conversation using the Simple Future tense.
      Gregory:    _____________________________________?
      Peter:      No, I don't think we will stay here the whole day.
      Gregory:    _____________________________________?
      Peter:      Yes, I think they will rescue us soon.
      Gregory:    _____________________________________?
      Peter:      I'm not sure they will call the fire brigade.
      Gregory:    _____________________________________?
      Peter:      No, I don't think our families will be waiting for us outside.
      Gregory:    _____________________________________?
      Peter:      Of course we will not be in the 9 o'clock news!


194
             UNIT 6
3 Look at the Fashion Museum program for the year 2010. What events will take place and when?


                       THE FASHION MUSEUM
                                       PROGRAM 2010
                      March Fashion in Ancient Egypt.
                      April - May What our grandmothers wore.
                      June Dresses from our history
                      August - December Fashion in the early 20's
                      September Not just a question of fashion
                      November Accessories in Ancient Greece
                      December Christmas Extravaganza




4 Read the quotations below and report what some famous people said.
   Example:
                                   “I often think that the night is more alive and more richly coloured than the
                                   day”.
                                   Vincent van Gogh
                                   Vincent van Gogh said that he often thought that the night was more richly
                                   coloured than the day.




The real question is not   Dance is the hidden          If help and salvation are to A man who is not afraid of
whether machines think     language of the soul.        come, they can only come the sea will soon be drowned.
but whether men do.        Martha Graham                from the children, for the J. M. Synge
B. F. Skinner                                           children are the makers of
                                                        men.
                                                        Maria Montessori

                                                                     TRADITIONS, TRADITIONS                        195
 READING - ON THE FIRST DAY OF CHRISTMAS

      On the first day of Christmas,    On the sixth day of Christmas,        On the ninth day of Christmas,
      My true love sent to me           my true love sent to me               my true love sent to me
      A partridge in a pear tree.       Six geese a-laying,                   Nine ladies dancing,
                                        Five golden rings,                    Eight maids a-milking,
      On the second day of Christmas,   Four calling birds,                   Seven swans a-swimming,
      My true love sent to me           Three French hens,                    Six geese a-laying,
      Two turtle doves,                 Two turtle doves,                     Five golden rings,
      And a partridge in a pear tree.   And a partridge in a pear tree.       Four calling birds,
                                                                              Three French hens,
      On the third day of Christmas,    On the seventh day of Christmas,      Two turtle doves,
      My true love sent to me           My true love sent to me               And a partridge in a pear tree.
      Three French hens,                Seven swans a-swimming,
      Two turtle doves,                 Six geese a-laying,                   On the tenth day of Christmas,
      And a partridge in a pear tree.   Five golden rings,                    my true love sent to me
                                        Four calling birds,                   Ten lords a-leaping,
      On the fourth day of Christmas,   Three French hens,                    Nine ladies dancing,
      My true love sent to me           Two turtle doves,                     Eight maids a-milking,
      Four calling birds,               And a partridge in a pear tree.       Seven swans a-swimming,
      Three French hens,                                                      Six geese a-laying,
      Two turtle doves,                 On the eighth day of Christmas,       Five golden rings,
      And a partridge in a pear tree.   my true love sent to me               Four calling birds,
                                        Eight maids a-milking,                Three French hens,
      On the fifth day of Christmas,    Seven swans a-swimming,               Two turtle doves,
      My true love sent to me           Six geese a-laying,                   And a partridge in a pear tree.
      Five golden rings,                Five golden rings,
      Four calling birds,               Four calling birds,
      Three French hens,                Three French hens,
      Two turtle doves,                 Two turtle doves,
      And a partridge in a pear tree.   And a partridge in a pear tree.


 1 Find the items in the pictures in the poem and write the correct number.                                4 pt.




 a. ___ lords a-leaping b. ___ ladies dancing c. ___ calling birds         d. ___ geese a-laying

196
               UNIT 6
2 Read the poem again and answer these questions.                                             6 pts.
    a. What did the singer receive on the first day of Christmas?
    b. How many French hens did she get?
    c. How many turtle doves did her true love send her?
    d. Did he send her five or six golden rings?
    e. Were the swans swimming or dancing?
    f. What were the maids doing?


LISTENING - THE RIGHT CLOTHES
3    Listen to the conversation and identify which clothes you would take to the south of     8 pts.
    Chile and which clothes you ought to take if you go to Easter Island.

                           · boots · shorts · sneakers · sweater
                     · swimming suit · trousers · T-shirt · umbrella

4       Tick the corresponding column.                                                        5 pts.

     Which ethnic group wears                                 Mapuche            Rapa Nui
     a type of belt called tralihue?
     beautiful headgear?
     clothes made of colourful and vibrant feathers?
     lots of silver jewellery?
     nice white and flowery blouses?




LANGUAGE
5 Write questions and answers in the Present Perfect tense using the clues provided and the   8 pts.
    words in the box.

                      · ever     · for    · just   · never   · recently     · since

    a. know Greta? Seven years.
    b. have this car? Brand new!
    c. see such a beautiful thing in your life? First time
    d. Work with Peter?2008




                                                                    TRADITIONS, TRADITIONS         197
 6 Make predictions for the future using the Simple Future.                                                     4 pts.
      a. people / travel by spaceship
      b. people / work fewer hours
      c. people / live on other planets
      d. cars / use solar energy


 7 Choose the best option
      a. What will you do next year?                                                                            4 pts.
        i.     i. I think I will work                ii. Nothing, I finished already.
      b. Where will you go on holiday?
        i.     I will not have any days off.         ii. I have been to Berlin.
      c. Will you call the police or shall I?
        i.     I have already called them.           ii. I am speaking to him.
      d. Will you go to the party tomorrow?
        i.     No, I won’t.                          ii. Yes, she will.

 9 Rewrite these sentences using Reported Speech.
      a. Pearl: “I can speak French and German”.                                                                4 pts.
      b. Jenny: “Do you want to go to the cinema with me?”
      c. Susan: “What is she saying?”
      d. The boys: “We will play in the park.”



 SPEAKING
 10 Express surprise, interest, sympathy or joy. Use one of the expressions in the bubbles.
                                                                                                                8 pts.
      a.                            b.                       c.                         d.
                                                                                             Wow, it’s really
             How wonderful!              How interesting!          What a pity!
                                                                                              surprising.

      i. I am feeling really bad. I think I’m getting a bad cold.
      ii. Mum, I have passed my final exam!
      iii. Did you know that the Pacific is the biggest ocean in the world?
      iv. It says here that there are two million words in the English language.




198
                UNIT 6
WRITING
11 Look at the pictures and describe the clothes the people are wearing.                                               8 pts.




                                     Your           0 - 22             23 - 44                   45 - 59                    Total
                                    result:     Not too good         Acceptable                  Great!                    59 pts.


 FINAL CHECK                                                                                                       ✔✔

                                                                           Most of the time
Choose one alternative according to your performance.                      Sometimes
                                                                           Always



                                                                           Never
Speaking
· I use English structures correctly.                                                         Use this clue to work out your score
                                                                                              Never = 0
· I use varied and correct vocabulary.                                                        Sometimes = 1
· Others can understand me.                                                                   Most of the time = 2
Writing                                                                                       Always = 3
· My writing is coherent and follows the central idea.
                                                                                              If you get:
· I use the correct sentence formation and sentence structure                                 0 - 10 = Watch out! You must look back
· I use the correct spelling, punctuation, capitalisation and format.                         and review the whole unit. Ask your
Reading                                                                                       teacher and / or a classmate for
· I am aware of the differences in tenses, gender and number.                                 additional help and remedial work.
                                                                                              11 - 22 = Not too bad, but there are
· I identify the main idea and understand the text as a whole.                                areas you still have problems with.
· I can locate details and look for specific information.                                     Identify those areas and ask your
Listening                                                                                     teacher and / or a classmate for
· I can get the general idea.                                                                 additional help and remedial work.
                                                                                              23 - 34 = You are doing fine, but you
· I can understand the details and identify speakers.                                         can certainly do better. Get together
· I can identify the source of a listening text and recognise the format                      with a classmate and review your weak
Group work                                                                                    points.
                                                                                              35 - 45 = Congratulations! Great
· I share my ideas with the group
                                                                                              progress - you may look ahead to the
· I listen to and respect my partners’ points of view                                         new unit and help your classmates who
· I help solve problems and contribute with relevant information                              need to review.

                                                                       TRADITIONS, TRADITIONS                                  199
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   Penguin Readers, BK/CD. England, Pearson             • BURKE. J.M;. et al.; 2003. READING REMINDERS:
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   Education Limited.                                     Pearson.
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   Education Limited.                                   • PENNY, U.R. et al; 1991. TEACHING LISTENING
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   Limited.                                             • RICHARDS, J.K. et al; 1997. DEVELOPING TACTICS
 • RABLEY. S.T.; 2008. THE PEARL GIRL. Penguin            FOR LISTENING; 1st Edition. England, Oxford
   Readers, Bk/CD. England, Pearson Education             University Press.
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 • SMITH, R.D.; 2008. TOM CRUISE. Penguin Readers,      SPEAKING
   Bk/CD. England, Pearson Education Limited.           • HADFIELD, J.L.; 1992. CLASSROOM DYNAMICS; 4th
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 • SMITH, R.D.; 2008. TOM CRUISE. Penguin Readers,      • REDMAN, S. et al; 1996 A WAY WITH WORDS; 1st
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                                                        • RINVOLUCRI, M. et al; 1995 MORE GRAMMAR
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   SPANISH COGNATE WORDS; 1st Edition. USA,
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                                                          1st Edition. España, Cambridge University Press.




200
EDICIÓN ESPECIAL PARA EL MINISTERIO DE EDUCACIÓN - PROHIBIDA SU COMERCIALIZACIÓN AÑO 2011

				
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