th Grade Academic Vocabulary by sanmelody

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									7th Grade Academic
     Vocabulary
     Language Arts
   Compiled by Beth Price
  Spring City Middle School
         Spring 2009
        analogy
       An analogy is
  a comparison of similar
    objects. An analogy
  suggests that since the
 objects are alike in some
ways, they will probably be
    alike in other ways.
He looked down the street toward
his house and saw his mother
standing there, just like a
lighthouse. Always waiting for
him to arrive home safely. Always
there to guide him
home from his
wanderings.
         anecdote

       An anecdote is a
little story used to illustrate
        or make a point.
Anecdote from Roald Dahl’s
autobiography, Boy: Tales of
Childhood, which illustrates
differences in medical treatments
now and in 1924:

(You need to be aware that the
doctor has explained nothing to him
and has given him no medicine. He
only tells him to open his mouth.)
“The tiny blade flashed in the
bright light and disappeared
into my mouth. It went high up
into the roof of my mouth, and
the hand that held the blade
gave four or five very quick
little twists and the next
moment, out of my mouth into
the basin came tumbling a
whole mass of flesh and blood.
I was too shocked and
outraged to do anything but
yelp. I was horrified by the
huge red lumps that had fallen
out of my mouth into the white
basin and my first thought was
that the doctor had cut out the
whole of the middle
of my head. . .”
  assumption / assume

  In a syllogism (logic), an
   assumption is a minor
premise, a statement that is
assumed to be true and from
 which a conclusion can be
            drawn.
If I do not wake up, then I
   cannot go to work.
If I cannot go to work, then I
   will not get paid.
Therefore, if I do not wake
   up, then I will not get paid.
      autobiography

   An autobiography is a
biography of yourself written
by yourself—your history in
      your own words.
Autobiography is from the
 Greek roots:
       auto       self

       bio        life

       graph     to write
       to write self life
         clarify

   When you clarify, you
make your idea or statement
   easier and clearer to
 understand by removing,
 rewriting, or explaining a
      confusing part.
Confusing: The book was
about insects that we read.

(Confusion: Did you read the
insects?)

Clarified: The book that we
read was about insects.
          clause

You’re in the Seventh Grade

 and don’t know a clause?
Santa and the Missus
          clause

A clause is a group of words
   that contains a subject
      and a verb and is
 used as part of a sentence.
          kinds of clauses:
• Dependent          Does the clause
                    express a complete
• Independent            thought?

•   Adverb            How or where
•   Adjective          is the clause
                     being used in the
•   Noun
                        sentence?
•   Introductory
Independent (main) clause
An independent (main) clause
   is a group of words that
contains a subject and a verb,
and it can stand alone as a
sentence.    (It expresses a
    complete thought).
              subject
The capital city of the Aztec
       verb
empire was in central

Mexico.
  dependent (subordinate)
           clause
   A dependent clause is a
group of words that contains
    a subject and a verb,
  however it cannot stand
alone as a sentence because
     it doesn’t express a
      complete thought.
Adverb (subordinate) clause

     An adverb clause is a
 dependent (or subordinate)
   clause that is being used
to modify a verb, an adjective,
         or an adverb.
Adverb clauses tell:
      how
      when
      where
      why
      to what extent
      under what condition
      Adverb clauses are
introduced by a subordinating
   conjunction—a word that
    shows the relationship
  between the adverb clause
  and the word or words that
     the clause modifies.
   Common subordinating
     conjunctions are:
after   as though       since
as      although        because
as if   so that         whenever
when    before          where
how     though          unless
until   whenever        whether
while   in order that   as long as
than
 examples of adverb clauses
 You may sit wherever you wish.




(modifies
 the verb, sit)
Gabe can type faster than I
can.




 (modifies adverb, faster)
 Happy because he had made
 an A, Tony hurried home to
 show the grade card to his
 mom.



(modifies an
adjective, happy)
introductory adverb clause

When winter sets in, many
animals hibernate.

After you wash the dishes,
I’ll dry them and put them
away.
    adjective clause

 An adjective clause is a
dependent (or subordinate)
   clause that modifies
   a noun or pronoun.
Most adjective clauses begin
with a relative pronoun:

     that
     which
     who
     whom
     whose
1. The boy that won the
   contest is from my school.

2. That documentary, which
   will be broadcast in the
   fall, was filmed in several
   countries.
        noun clause
      A noun clause is a
  subordinate (dependent)
   clause that is used as a
     noun in a sentence.
It can be used as a subject,
   direct or indirect object,
   object of preposition, or
    predicate nominative.
          subject

How she won the race is an
amazing story!

   predicate nominative

Three dollars is what Daniel
offered for the notebook.
      direct object

David and Megan
remembered who he was.

      indirect object

The hostess gives whoever
enters a menu.
  object of a preposition

Eager to please the speaker,
we listened to whatever she
said.
       compile

 When you compile, you
gather materials and put
them together somehow.
For example, you could go
to the library and compile a
shelf of books that are about
Christmas.
If you are doing a research
paper, you could compile a
list of the Internet sites,
books, and magazine
articles you used to find
your information. (That list
would be called a
bibliography.)
       convention

     A convention is an
   established technique,
 practice, or device that is
    used, for example, in
literature or in the theatre.
  For example, read the
following poem, and then
discuss the conventions of
grammar that are being used
(or NOT being used) in the
poem. Additionally, you
could discuss the
conventions of poetry that
are being / not being used.
  i remember some weeks ago
  meeting a middle aged spider
  she was weeping
  what is the trouble i asked
  her it is these cursed
  fly swatters she replied
  they kill of all the flies
  and my family and i are starving
  to death it struck me as
  so pathetic that i made
  a little song about it
  as follows to wit
( from “pity the poor spiders” by Don Marquis)
         culture

 Culture is the customary
beliefs, social forms, and
 material traits of a racial,
religious, or social group.
For example, as you look
at the picture of the Indian
  on the next slide, what
  do you know about the
      Indian culture?
     documentary

A documentary is a film or
TV program that interprets
 actual events. It usually
   includes interviews
   or footage of actual
   events taking place.
A documentary’s primary
purpose may be to inform, to
persuade, to entertain, or to
make money. Sometimes a
documentary may have
more than one purpose.
For example, a documentary
 about endangered animals in
 the rain forest may have the
 purposes of:
   1) informing us of the problem
   2) persuading us to react by
        supporting laws to protect
        the animals
   3) raising money to protect
        the animals
 Can you think of a recent
documentary that has been
      on television?
    exposition (literary)

An exposition is an essay or
    writing that explains
         something.
Read the first few
paragraphs of the following
exposition. What is it
explaining?
   “The method of embalming, or
treating the dead body, that the
ancient Egyptians used is called
mummification. Using special
processes, the Egyptians removed
all moisture from the body, leaving
only a dried form that would not
easily decay. It was important in
their religion to preserve the dead
body in as lifelike a manner as
possible. . . .
  The first step in the process was
the removal of all internal parts
that might decay rapidly. The
brain was removed by carefully
inserting special hooked
instruments up through the
nostrils in order to pull out bits of
brain tissue.
   Next, the embalmers removed all
moisture from the body. They did
this by covering the body with
natron, a type of salt which has
great drying properties,
and by placing
additional natron
packets inside the body.”
   expository writing


  The word expository is
related to the word expose,
a verb that means “to allow
 to be seen, or to reveal.”
When writing an expository,
the writer tries to reveal
information about a subject.
He / she may include
      facts,
      show cause & effect,
      compare or contrast, or
      explain instructions.
“Some early American
 settlements were in poor
 locations. Roanoke, for
 example, was on an island that
 proved hard to reach. Rough
 ocean currents and storms
 made the voyage difficult for
 ships to bring much-needed
 supplies. The site for a later
 colony, Jamestown, also had
problems. Jamestown sat on a
marshy, disease-ridden piece
of land. Because of its
location, Jamestown’s settlers
had to endure increased
incidents of illness as well as a
salty water supply. However,
despite the negatives, Roanoke
and Jamestown shared one
important advantage:
The semi-hidden location of
both colonies aided against
surprise attacks.”
expression in oral language

 The expressive qualities of
  your voice can enhance
    communication with
   your audience. Verbal
     elements you may
    want to consider are:
         diction

 Enunciate, or pronounce
 words clearly, when you
speak to help your listeners
     understand you.
   emphasis or stress

    Your voice naturally
 stresses some words and
 phrases when you speak.
 Emphasize words that are
important in your message.
    mood or tone

  Your speech should
  make your listeners
feel certain emotions.
          pause

   Pauses are the small
 silences in your speech.
They can help to emphasize
  a point you are making.
They also can help listeners
catch up with your speech.
           pitch
 Your voice naturally changes
  pitch—or modulates—when
you speak. Saying some words
 higher and others lower gives
   listeners cues about your
  meaning. For example, you
    might raise your pitch to
   connect two related ideas.
           rate
    Your rate, or tempo, of
 speaking is normally faster
than the speed you will need
 to use when giving a formal
speech. Talking more slowly
    during a speech helps
      listeners hear and
   understand more easily.
          volume
  Although you may normally
   speak quietly, you need to
 speak fairly loudly when you
give a speech. Be loud enough
    to be heard by all of your
 listeners. Consider speaking
     more loudly or softly to
   emphasize certain points.
          fluency

 According to Tim Rasinski
  (an expert on the topic),
         fluency is the
ability to read with accuracy,
       with expression,
      and at a good pace.
      accuracy

Recognizing words and
reading words correctly
 without any hesitation
      rate or pace

  Reading at a natural,
conversational pace, or as
 appropriate for the text
  structural expression
      Reading smoothly.
  appropriate phrasing and
  pausing. Adjusting your
   pitch and volume to the
circumstances (according to
    the type of text or the
          audience).
 interpretive expression

Recognizing that there are
  different purposes for
 reading. Conveying the
  appropriate mood and
 emotion. Distinguishing
word meanings in context.
      generalization

A generalization is a general
  statement that gives an
   overall, general view,
    rather than focusing
     on specific details.
Generalization: Your room is a
mess.
Specific: Your
clothes are not
hung up and
are lying all
over your
room.
         imagery

   A good writer will use
imagery, or create images or
    pictures in writing,
    by providing vivid,
   detailed descriptions.
“Our home was one room,
about eighteen by twenty feet,
the size of a living room. There
was one small window in the
wall opposite the one door. It
was bare except for a
a small, tiny
wood-burning
stove that was
crouching in the center.
The flooring consisted of two-
by-fours laid directly on the
earth, and dandelions were
already pushing their
way up
through the
cracks.”
     inconsistency

If something is consistent,
 it is marked by harmony,
   regularity, and steady
 continuity. It is free from
   variation and free from
        contradiction.
If you have been inconsistent
        in your writing,
      you may have done
      one of the following:
changed verb tense in your essay

 At my grandparents house, I
 wake up before anyone else
 and quietly had grabbed the
 fishing pole and will be heading
 for the pond. “I was so
 excited,” I say to myself. “I was
 going to catch a fish.”
 changed your point of view

I have always felt that hang-
gliding was invented just for
me. You feel so free,
floating through the air, as I
watch the Lego farm houses
and people that are no larger
than ants.
have statements that contradict

The disappearance of Amelia
Earhart remains a mystery.
Earhart, who was the first
woman pilot to fly across the
Atlantic Ocean, crashed into
the Pacific Ocean while
attempting to fly around the
world. Everybody knows what
happened to her.
    changed your topic
  “Although living with a
disability can be difficult,
many disabled people lead
independent lives. Jenna is
one of those people. Left
legally blind and deaf at age
nine from an operation to
remove a brain tumor,
Jenna had to learn to overcome
her disabilities. With the help of
a cane, a hearing aid, and a
magnifying glass to help her
read, Jenna is able to be self-
sufficient.
   I wouldn’t want to be blind. It
would scare me to death. I
would be as scared as I saw
when I saw the horror movie,
The Texas Chain-Saw
Massacre. Let me tell you. I
was scared to death, and I
screamed and screamed and
screamed. I screamed so
much, I almost threw up all
over my little brother who was
as calm as a cucumber. I don’t
like cucumbers. I think they
taste gross in a salad. Don’t
you?”
          infinitive

 An infinitive is a verb form,
  usually preceded by “to,”
  that is used as a noun, an
   adjective, or an adverb.
Example-to go, to leave, to fly
   examples of infinitives
1. I want to go home with you.

2. I need someone to help me
   with my homework.

3. To be kind is sometimes
   very difficult.
     infinitive phrase

An infinitive phrase consists
   of an infinitive and its
modifiers and complements.
   infinitive phrase as adverb

1. The crowd grew quiet
     to hear the speaker.
       (modifies grew)


2. The camel knelt at
   at the pool to drink.
       (modifies knelt)
infinitive phrase as adjective
1. The best time to visit Florida
    is December through April.
         (modifies time)

2. If you want information about
   computers, that is the
   magazine to read.
       (modifies magazine)
   infinitive used as noun

subject:

 To install the ceiling fan took
 two hours.
predicate nominative
 Isabella’s ambition is to
 become a doctor.

Direct object
 After school, David and I like
 to walk home together.
        interpretation
     An interpretation is an
   explanation of something.

It can also be how you perform
a piece of literature (reading a
poem, acting a part in a play,
etc.)
For example, after reading A
Christmas Carol, your
teacher could ask you:
“What is your
interpretation of the
Spirits?”

What he/she is asking you
is: What is your explanation
(the purpose) of the Spirits?
OR. . .You could act the part of
Ebenezer Scrooge in a play.
When you get on stage and act
like Ebenezer, you are doing an
interpretation, or explanation,
of how your think he acted,
looked, and talked. People who
came to the play would critique
your interpretation of the
character of Ebenezer Scrooge.
OR. . . If you memorize a poem
and recite it to the class, they
could critique your interpretation.
In other words, they would watch
your facial expressions and body
language, and they would listen
to your voice, and then they
would tell you how well your
expressed the meaning of the
poem when your read it.
          irony

Irony is a contrast between
  expectation and reality.
  There are three common
   types of irony: verbal,
 situational, and dramatic.
        verbal irony

Verbal irony involves a
contrast between
     what is said or written

     and what is really meant.
For example, if a baseball
player just struck out,
and you called
him “slugger,”
you would be
using
verbal irony.
    situational irony

 Situational irony occurs
when what happens is very
  different from what we
 expected would happen.
For example, in “Casey at the
Bat,” when Casey
strikes out after
we’ve been led
to believe he will
save the day,
the poet is using
situational irony.
BEAN: The Movie, is a movie
that contains much situational
irony. You may
want to view the
first 10 minutes
or so of the film
and see how
many instances
you can find.
     dramatic irony

Dramatic irony occurs when
 the audience or the reader
    knows something a
  character does not know.
In “The Highwayman,” the reader
realizes that King George’s
soldiers have Bess tied up and
that there is a
trap set for the
highwayman;
however, the
highwayman is
not aware of
either of these situations.
          mood

Mood is the overall emotion
   created by a work of
 literature--its emotional
        atmosphere.
Some adjectives that
describe mood:

     sad      scary
     hopeful exiting
     negative optimistic
        suspenseful
         depressing
Think of several selections
  you have read this year.
What was the mood in each
         selection?
        flashback

      A flashback is an
interruption in the action of
 a plot in order to tell what
happened at an earlier time.
  The plot “flashes back”
           in time.
Not every
short story or
novel will have
flashbacks.
Can you think
of one that has
flashbacks?
      foreshadowing

Foreshadowing is the use of
clues to suggest events that
will happen later in the plot.
     “Three Skeleton Key”
In “Three Skeleton Key,” the story
of the three convicts
who perished on
the key
foreshadows the
danger the three
lighthouse keepers
will face.
           tone

  Tone is the attitude that a
   writer takes toward the
  audience, a subject, or a
character. Tone is conveyed
 through the writer’s choice
    of words and details.
For example. . .
 The poem “maggie and mily
 and molly and may” is light
 and playful in tone. By
 contrast, the poem “Annabel
 Lee” is serious in tone.

 You may think of other
 examples.
        symbolism

A symbol is a person, place,
thing, or event that has its
own meaning and stand for
something beyond itself as
well. Symbolism is the
condition or state of being a
symbol.
Common symbols:




              The dove is
              a symbol for
              peace.
The skull and
crossbones
is a symbol of
danger.

Think of other
symbols that you
know.
     parallel structure
    If a sentence has parallel
    structure, the compound
     elements match in form.
In other words, you will use the
  same kind of word or phrase
    in each of the compound
             elements.
           Example:

Not parallel: Julie likes
 fishing and to swim in a cool
 mountain stream.

Parallel: Julie likes fishing
 and swimming in a cool
 mountain stream.
      projection
   Projection means
 to control the volume,
clarity, and distinctness
    of a voice to gain
    greater audibility
    (to make people
    hear you better).
          prose

Prose is writing or speaking
in the usual sentence form.
   Prose becomes poetry
      when it takes on
     rhyme and rhythm.
        revision

Making changes in a piece
  of writing to improve its
completeness and clarity is
 called revision. Another
   word for revise is edit.
You revise your essay by:
 correcting grammar errors
 deleting ideas or words
 adding words or sentences
 re-arranging ideas or
   sentences
 re-writing a passage
 adding transitional words
 dividing it into paragraphs
    sentence structure

The structure of a sentence
refers to the kinds and the
number of clauses it
contains. The four kinds of
sentences are: simple,
compound, complex, and
compound-complex.
                   simple
        subject          subject           subject

My dad, my brother, and I
 verb               prepositional phrase

drove out to the nearby woods
        prepositional phrase

to gather pine cones.
          compound

 My brother picked up all the

little cones, and my dad and I

threw medium and big ones

into the trunk of the car.
        complex

When mom and Grandma
saw how many we had, they
laughed and said that we
had enough to decorate ten
houses.
             complex
     dependent clause

When Mom and Grandma

saw how many we had,
         independent clause
they laughed and said we had

enough to decorate ten houses.
   compound-complex

We had forgotten to ask
what size pine cones to get,
and since Dad had never
made decorations, he didn’t
know.
   compound-complex
We had forgotten to ask
what size pine cones to get,

and since Dad had never
made decorations,

he didn’t know.
       stereotype
 Stereotypes are beliefs
  about all the members
   of a particular group.
 Stereotypes are usually
    based on too little
   evidence or on false
or misleading information.
          “dumb blonde” jokes




all Black people can
sing and dance well
         strategy

A strategy is a detailed plan
 of action (scheme or plan)
        to accomplish
       a specific goal.
For example, if a student
has to sell 100 boxes of
candy, he could adopt the
strategy of selling at least 10
boxes per day, and in 10
days, he would have
reached his goal.
If you have trouble
memorizing definitions of
new vocabulary words, you
could use index cards. Put
the definition on one side;
put the word on the other.
Use the cards as flash cards
to practice learning the
meanings. (strategy at school)
           limerick
A limerick is a five-line
humorous poem. The rhyme
pattern is a a b b a. Lines 1, 2
and 5 contain 3 beats (7 to 10
syllables) and rhyme, and lines
3 and 4 have two beats (5 to 7
syllables) and rhyme.
There was an Old Person of
  Dover,
Who rushed through a field of blue
  clover;
But some very large bees,
Stung his nose and his knees,
So he very soon went back to
  Dover.
           lyric

 A lyric poem is a poem that
  expresses the feelings or
thoughts of a speaker rather
     than telling a story.
      “Dreams”
Hold fast to dreams
For if dreams die
Life is a broken-winged bird
That cannot fly.
Hold fast to dreams
For when dreams go
Life is a barren field
Frozen with snow.
Langston Hughes
          narrative

A narrative poem is a poem
that tells a story. It may have
any of the elements that a
short story has, including:
plot (intro, climax, etc.)
character
setting
foreshadowing
irony
point of view
flashback
mood
Think of a narrative poem that
you have studied this year—or
perhaps last year.

Can you find the elements of a
short story in it? They should
be there for you to find.
              haiku
Haiku is a Japanese style of
 poetry.
        It has three lines,
        17 syllables
        does not rhyme,
        is about nature, and
        has a specific number of
             syllables in each line:
             5, 7, 5
       The crow has flown away:
      swaying in the evening sun,
            a leafless tree.

Note: When
translated from
Japanese to
English,
often the haiku
syllables are
not “perfect.”
       viewpoint

Viewpoint is another word
    for point of view or
   standpoint. Another
synonym might be opinion.
For example, if a news
reporter walked up to you
and asked, “What is your
viewpoint of smoking in
public?” he would be
wanting to know your
opinion about public
smoking.
Do you agree with people
 smoking in public? Why?
Do you disagree? Why?
Does it bother you? Why or
 why not?
What are the good things
 about it?
What are the bad things
 about it?
           Bibliography
Most clip art is taken from Microsoft
Office Online.

Most definitions and some examples
are taken from Holt’s Elements of
Language, 2004 edition.

Some examples are my personal
writings; some pictures were snatched
from the Internet, various places.
Some definitions are taken from
Merriam Webster’s Collegiate
Dictionary, Tenth Edition.

Some definitions and examples were
taken from Holt’s Elements of
Literature, 2007 edition, both First
Course and Second Course.

								
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