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th and th Grade s and Definitions

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									7th and 8th Grade words and Definitions               ac·cept
                                                      verb
                                                       to receive willingly <accept a gift> b: to be
ab·di·cate                                            able or designed to take or hold (something
verb                                                  applied or added) <a surface that will not accept
to relinquish (as sovereign power)                    ink>2: to give admittance or approval to
intransitive verb : to renounce a throne, high        <accept her as one of the group>
office, dignity, or function <the president was
forced to abdicate after the vote of no               ac·cep·tance
confidence>                                           noun
                                                      the quality or state of being accepted or
                                                      acceptable <the new student hoped to gain
ab·dom·i ·nal                                         acceptance at his new school>
adjective
 the part of the body between the thorax and the      ac·ces·si·ble
pelvis; also : the cavity of this part of the trunk   adjective
containing the chief viscera <Abdominal pain is       capable of being reached <accessible by rail>;
symptomatic of a ruptured appendix>                   also : being within reach <fashions at
                                                      accessible prices> b: easy to communicate or
abil·i·ty                                             deal with <accessible people>
noun
 the quality or state of being able <Farmers          ac·ci·dent
measure the ability of the soil to hold water>;       noun
especially : physical, mental, or legal power to      an unforeseen and unplanned event or
perform                                               circumstance b: lack of intention or necessity
                                                      : CHANCE <We met by accident rather than by
abu·sive                                              design>
adjective
 characterized by wrong or improper use or            ac·com·mo·date
action; especially : CORRUPT <abusive                 verb
financial practices>2 a: using harsh insulting         to make room for b: to hold without crowding
language <an angry and abusive crowd yelled           or inconvenience5: to give consideration to
insults during the speech>                            : allow for <The public facility must
                                                      accommodate the special interests of various
ac·a·dem·ic                                           groups>
noun
 member of an institution of learning: a person       ac·com·pa·ny·ing
                                                      verb
who is academic in background, outlook, or
                                                      to go with as an associate or companion <The
methods <The professor had long experience as
an academic at the university>                        girl was accompanying her sister to the movies>

ac·cede
intransitive verb                                     ac·com·plish
to express approval or give consent : give in to      transitive verb
a request or demand <I decided to accede to my         to bring about (a result) by effort <I have much
daughter‟s request to go shopping>                    to accomplish today>
ac·com·plish·ment                                   ac·cus·tomed
noun                                                adjective
 something that has been accomplished               adapted to existing conditions <My eyes
: ACHI EVEMENT <It is a major accomplishment        became accustomed to the dark>
to master the spelling words in this list>
                                                    ache
according                                           noun
preposition                                         a usually dull persistent pain <I have an ache in
in conformity with 2 : as stated or attested by     my tooth>
<according to the clock, it is time for your nap>
                                                    achieve
ac·cord·ing·ly                                      verb
adverb                                              to carry out successfully : ACCOMPLISH <the
in accordance : CORRESPONDI NGLY 2                  manager was able to achieve a gradual increase
: CONSEQUENTLY, SO <It is time for your nap         in production>
and I expect you to act accordingly>
                                                    achieve·ment
ac·cu·mu·la·tion                                    noun
noun                                                a result gained by effort b: a great or heroic
increase or growth by addition especially when      deed3: the quality and quantity of a student's
continuous or repeated <there was a large           work <Winning the spelling bee was a great
accumulation of snow this winter>                   achievement>

ac·cu·ra·cy                                         acid·i·ty
noun                                                noun
freedom from mistake or error <Jane did the         the quality, state, or degree of being acid <a
math problems with speed and accuracy>              small amount of acidity makes biscuits raise
                                                    better>
ac·cu·rate
adjective                                           ac·knowl·edge
free from error especially as the result of care    verb
<The doctor made an accurate diagnosis>             to express gratitude or obligation for
                                                    <acknowledge a gift> b: to take notice of <Jane
ac·cuse                                             failed to acknowledge my greeting> c: to make
verb                                                known the receipt of <acknowledge a letter>
 to charge with a fault or offense : BLAME <The
police proceeded to accuse the woman of             ac·quaint
robbing the bank>                                   verb
                                                    to make familiar : cause to know firsthand <I
ac·cus·tom                                          would like to acquaint you with your new
verb                                                classmates>
to make familiar with something through use or
experience <I would like to accustom you to         ac·rid
your new classroom>                                 adjective
                                                    deeply or violently bitter : ACRIMONIOUS <an
                                                    acrid denunciation
across                                                 ad·e·noids
adverb                                                 noun
in a position reaching from one side to the            either of two abnormally enlarged masses of
other<the bridge stretched across the river>           lymphoid tissue at the back of the pharynx that
                                                       usually obstruct the nasal and ear passages; also
ac·ti·vate                                             : such a mass when not abnormally enlarged —
verb                                                   usually used in plural <I had to have my
to set up or formally institute (as a military unit)   adenoids removed at the same time as my
with the necessary personnel and equipment <It         tonsils>
was decided to activate the 5 th regiment to fight
the war>                                               ad·ept
                                                       noun
ac·tiv·i·ties                                          a highly skilled or well-trained individual
noun                                                   : EXPERT <Fred was adept at chess>
an educational procedure designed to stimulate
learning by firsthand experience <the students         ad·e·quate
performed running activities to increase their         adjective
stamina>                                               sufficient for a specific requirement <adequate
                                                       taxation of goods>; also : barely sufficient or
ac·tu·al                                               satisfactory <her first performance was merely
adjective                                              adequate>
existing in fact or reality <actual and imagined
conditions> c: not false or apparent <actual           ad·he·sive
costs>3: existing or occurring at the time             noun
: CURRENT <caught in the actual commission             an adhesive substance (as glue or cement)<the
of a crime>                                            adhesive tape was sticky>

acute                                                  ad·ja·cent
adjective                                              adjective
characterized by sharpness or severity <acute          of two angles : having the vertex and one side
pain> (2): having a sudden onset, sharp rise,          in common <the degrees adjacent angles have a
and short course <acute disease>                       sum of 180)

                                                       ad·junct
adapt·able                                             noun
adjective                                              an associate or assistant of another<the adjunct
capable of being or becoming adapted<you will          faculty member at the college was a member of
find it easier to get along if you are adaptable>      the English department>
ad·dict                                                ad·ju·tant
noun                                                   noun
DEVOTEE <a    detective novel addict>                  a staff officer in the army, air force, or marine
                                                       corps who assists the commanding officer and
ad·dress                                               is responsible especially for correspondence
to direct the efforts or attention of (oneself)        <the battalion adjutant wrote to the draftees that
<will address himself to the problem>                  their service time was up>
ad·mi·ra·tion                                      ad·vise
noun                                               verb
delighted or astonished approbation<I have the     to give advice to : COUNSEL <I advise her to try
greatest admiration for the participants in the    a drier climate>
spelling bee>
                                                   afraid
adolescent                                         adjective
noun                                               filled with fear or apprehension <afraid of
a young adult <the adolescent was mostly           machines> <afraid for his job> 2 : filled with
concerned with having fun>                         concern or regret over an unwanted situation
                                                   <I'm afraid I won't be able to go>
ad·o·ra·tion
noun                                               ag·gres·sor
the act of adoring : the state of being adored     noun
<the actress accepted the adoration of her fans>   one that commits or practices aggression <the
                                                   bully was the aggressor in the fight>
ad·van·tage
noun                                               ag·o·ni ze
superiority of position or condition <higher       verb
ground gave the enemy the advantage>               to suffer agony, torture, or anguish <agonizes
                                                   over every decision> <the artist continued to
ad·van·ta·geous                                    agonize over every choice of color in the
adjective:                                         painting>
FAVORABLE <an advantageous opportunity>
                                                   ag·gra·vate
ad·ver·tise·ment                                   transitive verb
noun                                               to make worse, more serious, or more severe
 a public notice; especially : one published in    : intensify unpleasantly <Please don‟t continue
the press or broadcast over the air <the           to aggravate me by tapping your pencil>
advertisement about the final sale was on
television>                                        ag·gres·sive
                                                   adjective
ad·vice                                            strong or emphatic in effect or intent
                                                   <aggressive colors> <aggressive flavors>
noun
recommendation regarding a decision or course      ag·ri·cul·tur·al
of conduct : COUNSEL <he shall have power, by      adjective
and with the advice and consent of the Senate,     of, relating to, used in, or concerned with
to make treaties >                                 agriculture <the farmers were all members of
                                                   the agricultural community>
ad·vis·able
adjective
fit to be advised or done : PRUDENT <it is
advisable to get a good night‟s sleep before a
test>
al·le·giance                                        al·to·geth·er
noun                                                adverb
the fidelity owed by a subject or citizen to a      WHOLLY, COMPLETELY <an altogether
sovereign or government (2): the obligation of      different problem> <stopped raining
an alien to the government under which the          altogether> 2 : in all : ALL TOLD <spent a
alien resides2: devotion or loyalty to a person,    hundred dollars altogether> 3 : on the whole
group, or cause <I pledge allegiance to the         <altogether their efforts were successful>
flag>
                                                    al·ter
al·lot·ment                                         verb
noun                                                to make different without changing into
: APPORTIONMENT2: something that is                 something else <I wanted to alter the music by
allotted; <I spent my allotment of money on         playing it faster>
candy>
                                                    alu·mi·num
al·low·ance                                         noun
noun                                                a bluish silver-white malleable ductile light
a sum regularly provided for personal or            trivalent metallic element that has good
household expenses <each child has an               electrical and thermal conductivity, high
allowance>                                          reflectivity, and resistance to oxidation <I used
                                                    aluminum foil to wrap up the left-overs>
al·most
adverb                                              amass
very nearly but not exactly or entirely <we're      verb
almost there>                                       to collect for oneself : ACCUMULATE <I was
                                                    able to amass a great fortune by working hard
al·pha·bet                                          and saving my money>
noun
a set of letters or other characters with which     am·a·teur
one or more languages are written especially if     noun
arranged in a customary order<Most kids know        one who engages in a pursuit, study, science, or
the alphabet by the time they are in 1 st grade>    sport as a pastime rather than as a profession
                                                    <the amateur golfer dreamed of becoming a
al·ready                                            professional>
adverb
prior to a specified or implied past, present, or
future time : by this time : PREVIOUSLY <he         amaze
had already left when I called>                     verb
                                                    to fill with wonder : ASTOUND <the magician
al·though                                           was able to amaze his audience>
conjunction
in spite of the fact that : even though <although   am·bi·tious
my shoes hurt my feet, I love to wear them>         adjective
                                                    having or controlled by ambition <an
                                                    ambitious young executive sought a promotion>
                                                    b: having a desire to achieve a particular goal
                                                    : ASPIRING <The candidate was ambitious for
                                                    power>
am·bu·late                                           an·ni·ver·sa·ry
verb                                                 noun
to move from place to place : WALK <the nurse        the annual recurrence of a date marking a
was instructed to ambulate the patient after their   notable event; broadly : a date that follows such
surgery>                                             an event by a specified period of time measured
                                                     in units other than years <the 6-month
ame·lio·rate                                         anniversary of the accident>
verb
to make better or more tolerable <The cold           an·nounce·ment
compresses helped to ameliorate the pain of the      noun
sprained ankle>                                      a public notification or declaration<the wedding
                                                     announcement appeared in the newspaper>
am·mu·ni·tion
noun                                                 an·nu·al
the projectiles with their fuses, propelling         adjective
charges, or primers fired from guns <the             covering the period of a year <the annual
soldiers needed ammunition for their guns>           rainfall exceeded 12 inches>

among                                                an·te·ced·ent
preposition                                          noun
in or through the midst of : surrounded by <the      a preceding event, condition, or cause <the
bear was hidden among the trees>                     assassination of Kaiser Wilhelm was the
                                                     antecedent to WWI>
amount
intransitive verb                                    an·tic·i·pa·tion
to be equivalent <acts that amount to treason>       noun
b: to reach in kind or quality <Every mother         the act of looking forward; especially
wants her child to amount to something>              : pleasurable expectation <I awaited Christmas
                                                     with anticipation>
amuse·ment
noun                                                 an·ti ·dote
pleasurable diversion : ENTERTAI NMENT               noun
<Stanley plays the piano for amusement>              remedy to counteract the effects of poison
                                                     <anti-venom is the antidote for a snake bite>
anal·y·sis
noun                                                 an·tic·i·pate
the identification or separation of ingredients of   verb
a substance b: a statement of the constituents of    to give advance thought, discussion, or
a mixture <the chemical analysis indicated that      treatment to <To anticipate the test, you should
salt is made of sodium and chloride molecules>       study hard>

an·a·lyze                                            anx·i·ety
verb                                                 noun
to study or determine the nature and                 painful or apprehensive uneasiness of mind
relationship of the parts <I had to analyze your     usually over an impending or anticipated ill
argument to see if it was logical>                   b: fearful concern or interest c: a cause of
                                                     anxiety <the child reacted to going to the doctor
                                                     with anxiety>
apart·ment                                          ap·pend·age
noun                                                noun
a room or set of rooms fitted especially with       usually projecting part of an animal or plant
housekeeping facilities and usually leased as a     body that is typically smaller and of less
dwelling <instead of living in the dorm, the        functional importance than the main part to
students decided to rent an apartment>              which it is attached <the twig was an
                                                    appendage on the branch>
apol·o·gy
noun                                                ap·pen·di·ci·tis
an admission of error or discourtesy                noun
accompanied by an expression of regret <the         inflammation of the vermiform appendix <It
contrite politician issued a public apology>        turned out that the stomach pain that Jane
                                                    suffered was appendicitis>
apos·tle
noun                                                ap·plaud
an ardent supporter <The pope is an apostle of      verb
the Catholic church>                                to express approval especially by clapping the
                                                    hands <the audience continued to applaud for 5
apos·tro·phe                                        minutes after the performance>
a mark ' used to indicate the omission of letters
or figures, the possessive case, or the plural of   ap·pli·ca·tion
letters or figures <use an apostrophe to replace    noun
the letters „ha‟ in the contraction I‟ve>           an act of administering or superposing <The
                                                    application of paint to the house had to wait for
ap·par·ent                                          spring>
adjective
clear or manifest to the understanding <the         ap·plied
reasons for not touching the hot flame are          adjective
readily apparent>                                   applying general principles to solve definite
                                                    problems <applied sciences>
ap·par·ent·ly
adverb                                              ap·point·ment
it seems <the window had apparently been            noun
forced open> <apparently, we're supposed to         an arrangement for a meeting : ENGAGEMENT
wait here>                                          <The job applicant called to schedule an
                                                    appointment for an interview>
ap·pear·ance
noun                                                ap·pre·ci·a·tion
external show : SEMBLANCE <although hostile,        noun
he preserved an appearance of neutrality>           an expression of admiration, approval, or
b: outward aspect : LOOK <had a fierce              gratitude <A thank you note to expression your
appearance>                                         appreciation for a gift is mandatory>
ap·proach                                              ar·dent
verb                                                   adjective
to draw closer to : NEAR <To approach our              characterized by warmth of feeling typically
destination, we had to slow the car down and           expressed in eager zealous support or activity
drive over a bridge>                                   <ardent proponents of the bill lobbied for its
                                                       approval>
ap·pro·pri·ate
adjective                                              ar·gue
especially suitable or compatible : FI TTING <an       verb
appropriate response to the question is „yes‟>         to contend or disagree in words : DISPUTE <The
                                                       newly-weds continued to argue about money
ap·prove                                               throughout the evening>
verb
to accept as satisfactory <The committee hopes         ar·gu·ment
Jane will approve the date of the meeting>             noun
                                                       a reason given in proof or rebuttal <My
ap·prox·i ·mate·ly                                     argument against wearing the red shoes, is that
adverb                                                 they hurt my feet>
nearly correct or exact <there were
approximately 125 guests at the party>                 aris·to·crat
                                                       noun
ap·ti ·tude                                            a member of an aristocracy; a nobleman <The
noun                                                   aristocrat refused to eat food he considered
b: a natural ability : TALENT<Fred had an              common>
aptitude for hard work>
                                                       arith·me·tic
ar·cha·ic                                              noun
adjective                                              a branch of mathematics that deals usually with
having the characteristics of the language of the      the nonnegative real numbers including
past and surviving chiefly in specialized uses         sometimes the transfinite cardinals and with the
<The practice of animal sacrifice is archaic>          application of the operations of addition,
                                                       subtraction, multiplication, and division to them
ar·chi·tec·ture                                        <Arithmetic is often a difficult subject for
noun                                                   elementary school students>
the art or practice of designing and building
structures and especially habitable ones <I            aroused
decided to study architecture in university>           verb
                                                       to awaken from sleep<the bear was aroused
arc·tic                                                from hibernation by the spring sun>
adjective
of, or relating to, or suitable for use at the north   ar·range·ment
pole or the region near it <No one can survive         noun
in arctic waters for more than a few minutes>          the act of arranging <the arrangement of the
                                                       details was quickly accomplished>
ar·ti·cle                                          at·tach
noun                                               verb
a member of a class of things; especially : an     to make fast (as by tying or gluing) <attach the
item of goods <That article of jewelry is very     label to the package before taking it to the post
expensive>                                         office>

ar·til·lery                                        at·ten·dance
noun                                               noun
large bore crew-served mounted firearms (as        an account of persons attending <the teacher
guns, howitzers, and rockets)<The artillery        took attendance before starting class>
fired without cessation on the target>
                                                   at·ti·tude
as·per·sion                                        noun
noun                                               a mental position with regard to a fact or state
false or misleading charge meant to harm           <a helpful attitude is useful when working on a
someone's reputation <To cast an aspersion on      group project>
her integrity, Bill called Jane a liar>
                                                   at·trac·tion
as·pi ·rin                                         noun
noun                                                personal charm <The man felt the attraction of
a white crystalline derivative C9H8O4 of           the beautiful woman>
salicylic acid used for relief of pain and
fever<Jane felt a cold coming on and took two      at·trac·tive·ness
aspirin>                                           adjective
                                                   arousing interest or pleasure <Attractiveness
as·sis·tance                                       can take the form of beauty or kindness>
noun
the act of assisting or the help supplied <The     at·tri·bute
boy scout came to the elderly woman‟s              noun
assistance and helped her across the street>       an object closely associated with or belonging
                                                   to a specific person, thing, or office <a scepter
ath·let·ic                                         is the attribute of power>;
adjective
characteristic of an athlete; especially           at·tri·tion
: VIGOROUS, ACTIVE3: MESOMORPHIC <The              noun
swimmer had a muscular, athletic build>            the act of weakening or exhausting by constant
                                                   harassment, abuse, or attack <a war of attrition
at·mo·sphere                                       existed between Germany and the Allies during
noun                                               WWII>
the gaseous envelope of a celestial body (as a
planet) b: the whole mass of air surrounding the   au·di·ence
earth<We must be careful to keep our               noun
atmosphere clean>                                  a group of listeners or spectators <The audience
                                                   applauded wildly at the end of the concert>
au·ra                                              awe·some
noun                                               adjective
a distinctive atmosphere surrounding a given       inspiring awe <an awesome task> b: TERRIFIC,
source <the deserted mansion had an aura of        EXTRAORDI NARY <I had an awesome time at
mystery>                                           the party>

aus·tere                                           awk·ward
adjective                                          adjective
stern and cold in appearance or manner<the          lacking dexterity or skill (as in the use of
school marm‟s dress was austere and                hands) <The man was awkward with a needle
imposing>                                          and thread>

au·then·tic                                        bach·e·lor
adjective                                          noun
worthy of acceptance or belief as conforming to    2: a person who has received what is usually the
or based on fact <The author paints an authentic   lowest degree conferred by a 4-year college,
picture of our society>                            university, or professional school <the
                                                   graduating student received a bachelor of arts
au·to·bi·og·ra·phy                                 degree>; also : the degree itself <received a
noun                                               bachelor of arts>3 a: an unmarried man
the biography of a person narrated by himself or   <Because he had no wife, the bachelor often ate
herself <Benjamin Franklin wrote his               dinner out.>
autobiography before his death>
                                                   bal·loon
au·tumn                                            noun
noun                                               a nonporous bag of light material that can be
the season between summer and winter               inflated esp. with air or gas: as a: a bag that is
comprising in the northern hemisphere usually      filled with heated air or a gas lighter than air so
the months of September, October, and              as to rise and float in the atmosphere and that
November or as reckoned astronomically             usually carries a suspended load (The hot air
extending from the September equinox to the        balloon had a gondola filled with passengers)
December solstice —called also fall <students
return to school in autumn>                        ban·quet
                                                   noun
aux·il·ia·ry                                       a sumptuous feast; especially : an elaborate and
adjective                                          often ceremonious meal for numerous people
constituting a reserve <The auxiliary power        often in honor of a person <The President gave
plant took over when the main plant shut           a state banquet to honor the spelling bee
down>                                              winners>

avail·able                                         bar·gain
adjective                                          noun
present or ready for immediate use <All            an agreement between parties settling what each
available resources were used in the war effort>   gives or receives in a transaction between them
                                                   or what course of action or policy each pursues
                                                   in respect to the other <We made a bargain that
                                                   we would share the cost of dinner>
ba·si ·cal·ly                                       be·liev·ing
adverb                                              verb
in fundamental disposition or nature <The math      to accept as true, genuine, or real <Because the
answers on your quiz are basically correct>         kids were believing in ghosts, they became very
                                                    frightened in the haunted house>
ba·sis
noun                                                be·mused
the principal component of something <Carbon        transitive verb
is the basis for all living things>                 to make confused <The bird was bemused by
                                                    the shiny windows>
beau·ti·ful
adjective                                           ben·e·fit
exciting aesthetic pleasure <The beautiful day      noun
made us long to play outside>                       something that promotes well-being <Good
                                                    health is a benefit of good nutrition>
beau·ty
noun                                                ben·e·fi·cial
the quality or aggregate of qualities in a person   adjective
or thing that gives pleasure to the senses or       conducive to personal or social well-being
pleasurably exalts the mind or spirit <Not only     <Good nutrition is beneficial to good health>
is the child a beauty, she is nice as well>
                                                    be·nev·o·lent
be·com·ing                                          adjective
adjective                                           marked by or disposed to doing good <The
attractively suitable <That hat is very becoming    King was benevolent to his subjects>
on you>
                                                    book·keep·er
be·gin·ning                                         noun
noun                                                person who records the accounts or transactions
the first part <The beginning of a child‟s formal   of a business <The bookkeeper made sure that
education is usually kindergarten>                  the bills of the business were paid>

be·hav·ior                                          bot·a·ny
noun                                                noun
the manner of conducting oneself <The child‟s       a branch of biology dealing with plant life <The
behavior was shocking, they threw garbage out       study of botany is very interesting to gardeners>
of the car window!>
                                                    bounc·er
be·hest                                             noun
noun                                                one employed to restrain or eject disorderly
an urgent prompting <The doctor was called at       persons <When the fight started, the bouncer
the behest of my friends>                           threw the men out>

be·hold·en
adjective
being under obligation for a favor or gift
<I'm beholden to you for lending me the money
for lunch>
bound·ary                                          brev·i·ty
noun                                               noun
something that indicates or fixes a limit or       shortness of duration <Because time is so short,
extent <the boundary between the United States     brevity will be imposed on all of the speakers>
and Canada is called the border>
                                                   brit·tle
bow·er                                             adjective
noun                                               easily broken, cracked, or snapped <The brittle
a lady's private apartment in a medieval hall or   ice crackled underneath our feet>
castle <The princess‟ bower had a balcony
overlooking the garden>                            brow·beat
                                                   transitive verb
brace·let                                          to intimidate or disconcert by a stern manner or
noun                                               arrogant speech <The lawyer tried to browbeat
an ornamental band or chain worn around the        the witness into admitting they had lied>
wrist <The bracelet was made of gold and
diamonds>                                          bulk·head
                                                   noun
breach                                             an upright partition separating compartments <a
noun                                               rupture in the bulkhead allowed water to flood
a broken, ruptured, or torn condition or area      two compartments of the boat>
<The breach in the dam allowed water to flood
the field>                                         bu·reau
                                                   noun
breadth                                            specialized administrative unit; especially : a
noun                                               subdivision of an executive department of a
distance from side to side <The breadth of the     government <The Federal Bureau of
boat is too wide to fit between the docks>         Investigation is responsible for stopping
                                                   interstate crime>
break·age
noun                                               busi·ness
loss due to things broken <After the earthquake    noun
there was a lot of breakage at the china shop>     a particular field of endeavor <The tap dancer
                                                   was the best in the business>
breath
noun                                               ca·dence
the faculty of breathing <The runner recovered     noun
his breath after the race by walking around the    the beat, time, or measure of rhythmical motion
track>                                             or activity <The drum section played a cadence
                                                   so the band could march in time>
breathe
verb                                               caf·e·te·ria
to draw air into and expel it from the lungs       noun
<The air was so hot, we could hardly breathe>      restaurant in which the customers serve
                                                   themselves or are served at a counter and take
                                                   the food to tables to eat <The line for food at
                                                   the cafeteria gets very long at lunch time>
cal·en·dar                                          car·i ·bou
noun                                                noun
system for fixing the beginning, length, and        a large gregarious deer (Rangifer tarandus) of
divisions of the civil year and arranging days      Holarctic taiga and tundra that usually has
and longer divisions of time (as weeks and          palmate antlers in both sexes —used especially
months) in a definite order <January is the first   for one of the New World —called also
month of the calendar>                              reindeer <the caribou is used for food and
                                                    shelter among the northern tribes>
cam·paign
noun                                                car·ry·ing
a connected series of operations designed to        verb
bring about a particular result <The Presidential   to move while supporting <The girl was
campaign began last fall and will continue until    carrying a large basket of bread>
November of this year>
                                                    car·ton
can·di·date                                         noun
noun                                                a box or container usually made of cardboard
one that aspires to or is nominated or qualified    and often of corrugated cardboard <The carton
for an office, membership, or award <A              of books weighed over one hundred pounds
candidate for governor must be ready to visit all
of the counties in their state>                     car·tridge
                                                    noun
can·ny                                              a tube (as of metal) containing a complete
adjective                                           charge for a firearm and usually an initiating
CLEVER , SHREWD <a canny lawyer can tell if         device (as a primer) <The cartridge was placed
someone is lying>                                   in the gun and the shot was fired>

can·on·i ze                                         cat·e·go·ry
transitive verb                                     noun
to declare (a deceased person) an officially        any of several fundamental and distinct classes
recognized saint <The pope has the priviledge       to which entities or concepts belong <The dress
to canonize the saint>                              fell in the category of tacky>

ca·reer                                             ceil·ing
noun                                                noun
a field for or pursuit of consecutive progressive   the overhead inside lining of a room <The
achievement especially in public, professional,     ceiling is painted white, the walls blue>
or business life <The student went to medical
school to begin their career as a doctor>           cel·lo
                                                    noun
care·less                                           the bass member of the violin family tuned an
adjective                                           octave below the viola <The cello section
INDIFFERENT, UNCONCERNED <The         thief was     played the lowest notes during the symphony
careless of the consequences of stealing>           concert>
cen·ten·ni ·al                                      change·able
noun                                                adjective
a 100th anniversary or its celebration <The          able or apt to vary <changeable weather is a
centennial of the United States was July 4,         characteristic of spring>
1876>
                                                    cha·ot·ic
cen·tu·ry                                           adjective
noun                                                a state of utter confusion <The classroom was
a period of 100 years especially of the Christian   chaotic when there was a substitute teacher>
era or of the preceding period of human history
<The industrial revolution occurred in the 19 th    char·ac·ter·is·tic
century>                                            noun
                                                    a distinguishing trait, quality, or property <The
cer·tain                                            woman‟s most noticeable characteristic was her
adjective                                           red hair>
assured in mind or action <I am certain I left
my purse on that chair>                             chauf·feur
                                                    noun
cer·tif·i·cate                                      a person employed to drive a motor
noun                                                vehicle<The chauffeur wore a uniform when on
a document evidencing ownership or debt <The        duty>
stock certificate proves we own 100 shares of
IBM>                                                cheer·ful·ness
                                                    noun
ces·sa·tion                                         full of good spirits : MERRY <The cheerful host
noun                                                made the party a pleasure>
a temporary or final ceasing (as of action) <The
cessation of artillery fire caused an eerie         chief·ly
silence>                                            adverb
                                                    most importantly <Salt was chiefly responsible
cha·grin                                            for the rust on the car>
noun
disquietude or distress of mind caused by           chis·el
humiliation, disappointment, or failure <Much       noun
to my chagrin, I failed the math test>              a metal tool with a sharpened edge at one end
                                                    used to chip, carve, or cut into a solid material
chal·lenge                                          (as wood, stone, or metal) <The sculptor used a
verb                                                chisel to carve the granite into a beautiful
 to arouse or stimulate especially by presenting    statue>
with difficulties <she wants a job that will
challenge her>                                      choc·o·late
                                                    noun
chaise                                              a food prepared from ground roasted cacao
noun                                                beans <Chocolate cake is my favorite birthday
any of various light horse-drawn vehicles           treat>
<Only one horse was necessary to pull the
chaise>
chor·tle                                             clout
verb                                                 noun
 to laugh or chuckle especially in satisfaction or   a blow especially with the hand <The boxer
exultation <The joke caused the child to chortle     dealt his opponent a clout to the head>
with delight>
                                                     clus·ter
chose                                                 noun
verb, past tense                                     a number of similar things that occur together
to select something <The kids chose members          <The cluster of stars shone in the night sky>
of their team>
                                                     clutch
cho·sen                                              verb
noun                                                 to grasp or hold with or as if with the hand or
one who is the object of choice or of divine         claws usually strongly, tightly, or suddenly
favor : an elect person <The candidate was           <The cat continued to clutch the mouse, despite
chosen to be governor>                               being bitten on the nose>

chro·no·log·i·cal                                    coach
adjective                                            noun
reckoned in units of time <The chronological         one who instructs or trains <The basketball
age of the man was 97 years old>                     coach insisted on nightly practices>;

chrys·a·lis                                          co·a·li·tion
noun                                                 noun
a pupa of a butterfly <The newly hatched             a temporary alliance of distinct parties, persons,
monarch emerged from its chrysalis>                  or states for joint action <A coalition of
                                                     politicians joined together to pass the law>
cir·cuit
noun                                                 co·he·sion
the complete path of an electric current             noun
including usually the source of electric energy      the act or state of sticking together tightly
<When the switch was thrown, the circuit was         <Epoxy glue is known for its extreme
completed and the light came on>                     cohesion>

cir·cu·lar                                           co·in·ci·dence
adjective                                            noun
moving in or describing a circle or spiral <The      the occurrence of events that happen at the same
woman descended the circular staircase>              time by accident but seem to have some
                                                     connection <It was just a coincidence that the
cir·cum·stance                                       doorbell rang at the same time as the phone>
noun
a condition, fact, or event accompanying,            col·umn
conditioning, or determining another : an            noun
essential or inevitable concomitant <the weather     a vertical arrangement of items printed or
is a circumstance to be taken into                   written on a page <The words in the spelling list
consideration>                                       were arranged in one long column>
com·fort·ably                                        com·par·i ·son
adverb                                               noun
affording or enjoying physical <The sailor           an examination of two or more items to
rested comfortably in his berth>                     establish similarities and dissimilarities <his
                                                     faults seem minor by comparison>
com·mer·cial
noun                                                 com·pat·i ·ble
an advertisement broadcast on radio or               adjective
television <The commercial for cocoa puffs was       capable of existing together in harmony
intended for kids>                                   <compatible theories> <compatible people>

com·mis·sion                                         com·pel
noun                                                 transitive verb
a formal written warrant granting the power to       to cause to do or occur by overwhelming
perform various acts or duties <Christopher          pressure <The police have the power to compel
Columbus received his commission to explore          you to get out of your car>
the New World from Queen Isabella>
                                                     com·pe·tence
com·mu·ni·ca·tion                                    noun
noun                                                 a sufficiency of means for the necessities and
a process by which information is exchanged          conveniences of life <The singer sang the aria
between individuals through a common system          with competence>
of symbols, signs, or behavior <the function of
pheromones in insect communication is studied        com·pe·ti·tion
by entymologists>;                                   noun
                                                     a contest between rivals <The Olympics is a
com·mu·ni·ty                                         competition among the athletes of the world>
noun
an interacting population of various kinds of        complete·ly
individuals (as species) in a common location        adverb
<The Spokane community is bounded on the             having all necessary parts, elements, or steps
south by 57 th street >                              <The child finished her dinner completely, then
                                                     went to bed>
com·pa·nies
noun                                                 com·plex·ion
an association of persons for carrying on a          noun
commercial or industrial enterprise <There are       the hue or appearance of the skin and especially
three major car companies in the United States:      of the face <A person with fair complexion is
General Motors, Ford Motor Cars and Chrysler         especially likely to get sunburned>
Automotive>
                                                     com·po·si·tion
com·par·a·tive·ly                                    noun
adverb                                               general makeup <The composition of mud is
of, relating to, or constituting the degree of       earth and water>
comparison in a language that denotes increase
in the quality, quantity, or relation expressed by
an adjective or adverb <Comparatively
speaking, your grades are not up to standard!>
com·pre·hen·sion                                    con·fi·dence
noun                                                noun
the capacity for understanding fully <The           a feeling or consciousness of one's powers or of
universe contains mysteries that are beyond our     reliance on one's circumstances <Sheila had
comprehension>                                      perfect confidence in her ability to succeed>

con·cede                                            con·i ·cal
verb                                                adjective
to acknowledge grudgingly or hesitantly <I          resembling a cone especially in shape <the
concede that it might be a good idea to buy that    mountain had a conical shape>
car>
                                                    con·nois·seur
con·ceiv·able                                       noun
adjective                                           one who enjoys with discrimination and
IMAGINABLE <We    used every conceivable            appreciation of subtleties <Chef Colicchio is a
combination to open the lock>                       connoisseur of fine wines and foods>

con·ceive                                           con·science
verb                                                noun
to apprehend by reason or imagination               the sense or consciousness of the moral
: UNDERSTAND <I was unable to conceive his          goodness or blameworthiness of one's own
reasons for opening all the windows on a winter     conduct, intentions, or character together with a
night>                                              feeling of obligation to do right or be good
                                                    <Fred‟s conscience pained him when he
con·cen·trat·ed                                     cheated on the test>
verb
to focus one's powers, efforts, or attention <The   con·sci·en·tious
student concentrated on the math problem and        adjective
didn‟t hear the bell ring>                          governed by or conforming to the dictates of
                                                    conscience : SCRUPULOUS METICULOUS,
concern                                             CAREFUL <John is a conscientious listener>
noun
marked interest or regard usually arising           con·scious
through a personal tie or relationship <The         adjective
mother had great concern for the health of her      perceiving, apprehending, or noticing with a
baby>                                               degree of controlled thought or observation
                                                    <Henry was conscious that someone was
con·demn                                            watching him>
transitive verb
to pronounce guilty <The jury will condemn the      con·sen·sus
thief to prison>                                    noun
                                                    the judgment arrived at by most of those
con·fed·er·a·cy                                     concerned <the consensus of the committee was
noun                                                to go ahead and plan the event>
a league or compact for mutual support or
common action <The states formed a
confederacy to standardize laws of commerce>
con·se·quent·ly                                     con·tri·bu·tion
adverb                                              noun
as a result : in view of the foregoing <Bill        a payment (as a levy or tax) imposed by
didn‟t study, consequently he failed the math       military, civil, or ecclesiastical authorities
test>                                               usually for a special or extraordinary purpose
                                                    <The church asked its members for a
con·sid·er·able                                     contribution to pay for the new pews>
adjective
large in extent or degree <1,000,000 is a           con·trolled
considerable number>                                adjective
                                                    regulated by law with regard to possession and
con·sid·er·ation                                    use <controlled drugs are illegal unless you
noun                                                have a prescription>
continuous and careful thought <after long
consideration he agreed to their requests>          con·tro·ver·sy
                                                    noun
con·sis·tent                                        a discussion marked especially by the
adjective                                           expression of opposing views <The kids used
marked by harmony, regularity, or steady            “rock, paper,scissor” to settle their controversy
continuity : free from variation or contradiction   over who lined up first>
<Da Vinci demonstrated a consistent style in
painting>                                           con·ve·nience
                                                    noun
con·so·la·tion                                      fitness or suitability for performing an action or
noun                                                fulfilling a requirement <Find a time of your
a contest held for those who have lost early in a   convenience to have lunch>
tournament <the losers met in a consolation
game>                                               cor·re·spon·dence
                                                    noun
con·tem·po·rary                                     communication by letters <Jane‟s
adjective                                           correspondence with her mother was enough to
happening, existing, living, or coming into         fill two shoe boxes>
being during the same period of time <Mozart
was a contemporary of Salieri>                      coun·ter·feit
                                                    adjective
con·tin·u·al·ly                                     made in imitation of something else with intent
adverb                                              to deceive <The thieves used a printing press to
recurring in steady usually rapid succession        make the counterfeit money>
<Sam was continually tapping his pencil on the
desk>                                               countries
                                                    noun
con·tin·u·ous                                       the land of a person's birth, residence, or
adjective                                           citizenship b: a political state or nation or its
marked by uninterrupted extension in space,         territory <Many countries comprise the
time, or sequence <Mr. Jones provided               European Union>
continuous entertainment to the history class
with his stories>
cou·ra·geous                                        cur·ric·u·lum
adjective                                           noun
having or characterized by courage : BRAVE          the courses offered by an educational institution
<George Washington was a courageous                 <the math curriculum at Lewis and Clark High
soldier>                                            School is very challenging>

cour·te·sy                                          cus·tom·ary
noun                                                adjective
consideration, cooperation, and generosity in       commonly practiced, used, or observed <it is
providing something (as a gift or privilege);       customary to say „thank you‟ when you are
(Evelyn showed courtesy by thanking her             complimented>
Grandma for her birthday gift>
                                                    cus·tom·er
crepe                                               noun
a light crinkled fabric woven of any of various     one that purchases a commodity or service <the
fibers <The dress was made of crepe and quite       customer is always right>
cool to wear in the summer>
                                                    cyl·in·der
crit·i·cism                                         noun
 noun                                               the surface traced by a straight line moving
the art of evaluating or analyzing works of art     parallel to a fixed straight line and intersecting a
or literature; also : writings expressing such      fixed planar closed curve <Quaker Oats oat
evaluation or analysis <The author found the        meal comes in a cylinder-shaped box>
criticism of his novel annoying>
                                                    dan·ger·ous
cru·cial                                            adjective
adjective                                           exposing to or involving danger <Crab fishing
marked by final determination of a doubtful         is a dangerous job>
issue <The seventh, crucial game of the series
decided the winner of the Stanley Cup>              dap·ple
                                                    noun
crul·ler                                            any of numerous usually cloudy and rounded
noun                                                spots or patches of a color or shade different
a small sweet cake in the form of a twisted strip   from their background <the horse‟s coat was
fried in deep fat <The cruller was a wonderful      white and dapple grey>
treat>
                                                    daub
cup·board                                           verb
noun                                                to coat with a dirty substance <The hornets‟s
closet with shelves where dishes, utensils, or      had to daub the side of the house with mud to
food is kept; <Old Mother Hubbard went to her       build their nest>
cupboard to fetch her poor dog a bone>
                                                    daugh·ter
cu·ri·os·i·ty                                       noun
noun                                                a female offspring especially of human parents
inquisitive interest in others' concerns            b: a female adopted child c: a human female
<Curiosity killed the cat>                          descendant <My daughter has brown hair and
                                                    eyes like her father>
daunt·less                                           de·fense·less
adjective                                            adjective
FEARLESS     <Indiana Jones is a dauntless hero>     incapable of resisting attack <With the walls
                                                     breached, the fort was defenseless>
da·vit
noun                                                 de·fi ·cien·cy
a crane that projects over the side of a ship or a   noun
hatchway and is used especially for boats,           a shortage of substances necessary to health <A
anchors, or cargo <The deck hands used a davit       vitamin C deficiency leads to scurvy>
to load the wheat cargo on the boat>
                                                     de·fi ·cient
dealt                                                adjective
verb                                                 not up to a normal standard or complement
ADMINISTER , DELIVER <The       boxer dealt his      <The sailor was deficient in vitamin C and
opponent a blow>                                     developed scurvy>

de·ceive                                             def·i ·nite
verb                                                 adjective
to cause to accept as true or valid what is false    having distinct or certain limits <The WASL
or invalid <The criminal intended to deceive the     sets definite standards for pupils to meet>
police by lying about where he obtained the
money>                                               def·i ·ni·tion
                                                     noun
                                                     a statement of the meaning of a word or word
de·cid·ed·ly                                         group or a sign or symbol <The definition of the
adverb                                               word „scurvy‟ can be found in the Merriam-
free from doubt or wavering <The senator has         Webster dictionary>
decidedly conservative ideas on politics>
                                                     de·lin·quent
de·cid·u·ous                                         adjective
adjective                                            being overdue in payment <The man was
falling off or shed seasonally or at a certain       delinquent in paying his charge account>
stage of development in the life cycle
<deciduous trees loose their leaves in the fall>     de·moc·ra·cy
                                                     noun
de·ci·sion                                           the rule of the majority, a government in which
noun                                                 the supreme power is vested in the people and
a determination arrived at after consideration       exercised by them directly or indirectly through
: CONCLUSION <I couldn‟t make a decision             a system of representation usually involving
about whether to have chocolate or vanilla ice       periodically held free elections <The United
creme>                                               States government is based on democracy>

de·ci·sive                                           dem·on·strat·ed
adjective                                            verb
having the power or quality of deciding <a           to show clearly <The child demonstrated a
decisive battle was fought in Gettysburg>            willingness to cooperate with rules of the
                                                     game>
de·pen·dent                                         de·sign
adjective                                           verb
determined or conditioned by another                to create, fashion, execute, or construct
: CONTI NGENT <The plans for the picnic were        according to plan <The architect intended to
dependent on the weather>                           design the tallest building ever built>

der·vish                                            de·ter·mi·na·tion
noun                                                noun
a member of a Muslim religious order noted for      a judicial decision settling and ending a
devotional exercises (as bodily movements           controversy <It was the determination of the
leading to a trance) <The dervish whirled in a      jury that the thief was guilty>
circle accompanied by joyful music>
                                                    de·struc·tion
de·scribe                                           noun
transitive verb                                     the state or fact of being destroyed <The
to represent or give an account of in words <It     destruction of the earthquake was beyond
was difficult to describe the picture without an    imagination>
example>
                                                    det·ri·ment
des·o·late                                          noun
adjective                                           INJURY, DAMAGE <John did hard work without
joyless, disconsolate, and sorrowful through or     detriment to his health>
as if through separation from a loved one <the
desolate widow could not be comforted after         deuce
her loss>                                           noun
                                                    a throw of the dice yielding two points <The
de·spair                                            gambler rolled a deuce and lost his bet>
verb
to lose all hope or confidence <The child came      de·vi ·ate
to despair of ever having a pony>                   verb
                                                    to stray especially from a standard, principle, or
des·per·ate                                         topic <I will not deviate from my plan>
adjective
giving no ground for hope <the outlook was          de·vices
desperate for victims of the tornado>               noun
                                                    something fanciful, elaborate, or intricate in
des·per·a·tion                                      design <Inspector Gadget has amazing devices
noun                                                hidden in his coat>
a state of hopelessness leading to rashness <In
an act of desperation, the quarterback called for   di·a·bol·ic
the stature of liberty play>                        adjective
                                                    of, relating to, or characteristic of the devil
de·pres·sion                                        <The diabolic plot to overthrow the king failed
noun                                                miserably>
a period of low general economic activity
marked especially by rising levels of
unemployment, <In the late 1930s an economic
depression afflicted many people in the world>
dic·ta·tor                                        di·min·ish
noun                                              verb
one holding complete autocratic control <The      to make less or cause to appear less <The
dictator did not allow any freedoms to his        horrible weather served to diminish the army's
people>                                           ability to fight>

dic·tio·nary                                      dining room
noun                                              noun
a reference source in print or electronic form    a room used for eating meals <We always eat in
containing words usually alphabetically           the dining room, instead of the kitchen, on
arranged along with information about their       special occasions>
forms, pronunciations, functions, etymologies,
meanings, and syntactical and idiomatic uses      diph·the·ria
<The Merriam-Webster dictionary is the source     noun
of the words in this list>                        an acute febrile contagious disease typically
                                                  marked by the formation of a false membrane
dic·tum                                           especially in the throat and caused by a gram-
noun                                              positive bacterium (Corynebacterium
a formal pronouncement of a principle,            diphtheriae) that produces a toxin causing
proposition, or opinion <The king issued the      inflammation of the heart and nervous system
dictum that all people should bow when he         <Children are protected from the dread disease
walked by>                                        diphtheria by vaccinations>

dif·fer·ence                                      di·sas·trous
noun                                              adjective
the quality or state of being different <The      attended by or causing suffering or disaster
child did not know the difference between right   : CALAMI TOUS <a disastrous flood ruined all of
and wrong>                                        the crops>

dif·fi ·cul·ty                                    dis·ap·pear
noun                                              verb
the quality or state of being difficult <The      to pass from view <The magician caused the
difficulty of the game increases with each        dove to disappear>
round>
                                                  dis·ap·point
di·lem·ma                                         verb
noun                                              to fail to meet the expectation or hope of <The
an argument presenting two or more equally        man had to disappoint his child and not buy the
conclusive alternatives against an opponent       pony>
<The dilemma was: do I have vanilla or
chocolate ice crème??>                            dis·cern
                                                  verb
dil·i·gence                                       to detect with the eyes <I failed to discern a
noun                                              figure approaching through the fog>
persevering application <The spelling bee
contestants studying the word list with
diligence>
dis·ci·ple                                          dis·par·age
noun                                                transitive verb
one who accepts and assists in spreading the        speak slightingly about <The woman continued
doctrines of another <The mother was a disciple     to disparage the saleswoman, even after she
of the parenting principles of the Dr. Spock>       started to cry>

dis·ci·pline                                        dis·sat·is·fied
noun                                                adjective
orderly or prescribed conduct or pattern of         expressing or showing lack of satisfaction : not
behavior <The discipline in the 2 nd grade          pleased or satisfied <dissatisfied customers
classroom was not very good when the                often disparage the service in the restaurant>
substitute teacher was in charge>
                                                    dis·si·pate
dis·cov·er·ies                                      verb
noun                                                 to break up and drive off <The crowd was
something discovered or found <The                  made to dissipate by the police>
discoveries of Christopher Columbus brought
him fame in Europe>                                 dis·tin·guished
                                                    adjective
dis·crim·i·na·tion                                  marked by eminence, distinction, or excellence
noun                                                <The distinguished leadership of the general
prejudiced or prejudicial outlook, action, or       was honored by a medal>
treatment <racial discrimination is against the
law>                                                di·vide
                                                    verb
dis·crep·an·cy                                      to separate into two or more parts, areas, or
noun                                                groups <My mother used a knife to divide the
a variance <The discrepancy between the             cake into slices>
amount of money in the cash register and the
receipts indicated that someone miscounted          di·vin·i·ty
change>                                             noun
                                                    the quality or state of being divine <The
dis·cuss                                            Japanese Emperor is thought to have the
transitive verb                                     characteristic of divinity>
to talk about <Discuss among yourselves>
                                                    di·vulge
dis·ease                                            transitive verb
noun                                                to make known (as a confidence or secret) <It
a condition of the living animal or plant body or   was wrong to divulge the name of the secret
of one of its parts that impairs normal             witness>
functioning and is typically manifested by
distinguishing signs and symptoms <Disease is       dom·i·nant
prevalent when nutrition is poor>                   adjective
                                                    commanding, controlling, or prevailing over all
                                                    others <the dominant culture in the United
                                                    States is western European>
dor·mi·to·ries                                     ef·fi·cien·cy
noun                                               noun
a residence hall providing rooms for individuals   effective operation as measured by a
or for groups usually without private baths        comparison of production with cost (as in
<Students usually live in dormitories when they    energy, time, and money) <The project was
first go to college>                               completed with the greatest efficiency>

drunk·en·ness                                      el·e·gy
noun                                               noun
excessive use of alcohol <Public drunkenness is    a song or poem expressing sorrow or
illegal>                                           lamentation especially for one who is dead
                                                   b: something (as a speech) resembling such a
ebul·lience                                        song or poem <The son delivered the elegy for
noun                                               his father at the funeral>
the quality of lively or enthusiastic expression
of thoughts or feelings <The ebullience of the     el·e·men·ta·ry
cheerleading squad inspired the team to            adjective
victory>                                           of, relating to, or dealing with the simplest
                                                   elements or principles of something <an
ec·cen·tric·i·ty                                   elementary course in math deals only with
noun                                               counting and addition>
odd or whimsical behavior <The eccentricity of
the old man was evident when he wore a             el·i·gi·ble
lampshade as a hat>                                adjective
                                                   qualified to participate or be chosen : ENTI TLED
ec·sta·sy                                          <People are eligible to retire when they reach
noun                                               the age of 65>
state of overwhelming emotion; especially
: rapturous delight <The student was in ecstasy    elim·i·nate
when she won the spelling bee>                     verb
                                                   to put an end to or get rid of : REMOVE,
ech·e·lon                                          ERADICATE <I checked over my math test to
noun                                               eliminate errors>
one of a series of levels or grades in an
organization or field of activity <The project     el·o·quent·ly
involved employees at every echelon>               adverb
                                                   marked by forceful and fluent expression <The
edi·tion                                           eloquent preacher delivered a very moving
noun                                               sermon>
the form or version in which a text is published
<a paperback edition of the book costs less than   elu·ci·date
the hardcover>                                     to give a clarifying explanation<The teacher
                                                   proceeded to elucidate the text of the novel>
ef·fect
noun
power to bring about a result <The war will
effect the course of history>
em·bas·sy                                           en·cour·age·ment
noun                                                noun
the official residence and offices of an            courage, spirit, or hope <The student was given
ambassador <The ball was held at the American       lots of encouragement to do well on the math
Embassy in England to honor the President>          test>

em·broi·dery                                        en·e·mies
noun                                                noun
the art or process of forming decorative designs    one that is antagonistic to another; especially
with hand or machine needlework <Girls were         : one seeking to injure, overthrow, or confound
once taught embroidery as part of their             an opponent <The army sought to conquer their
educations >                                        enemies>

em·er·ald                                           en·nui
noun                                                noun
a rich green variety of beryl prized as a           a feeling of weariness and dissatisfaction
gemstone <The emerald ring cost many                : BOREDOM <The students were filled with
thousand dollars>                                   ennui as summer vacation approached>

emer·gen·cy                                         enough
noun                                                adjective
an urgent need for assistance or relief <the        occurring in such quantity, quality, or scope as
governor declared a state of emergency after the    to fully meet demands, needs, or expectations
flood>                                              <Don‟t worry, there is enough food for
                                                    everyone>
em·i ·grate
intransitive verb                                   enor·mous
to leave one's place of residence or country to     adjective
live elsewhere <The refugees decided to             marked by extraordinarily great size, number, or
emigrate from Canada to the United States>          degree <The word list for the spelling bee is
                                                    enormous>
em·per·or
noun                                                en·ter·prise
the sovereign or supreme male monarch of an         noun
empire <The emperor ruled his empire with           readiness to engage in daring or difficult action
justice>                                            : INITIATIVE <The community showed great
                                                    enterprise in dealing with the crisis>
em·pha·size
transitive verb                                     en·ter·tain·ment
to place emphasis on : STRESS <The newspaper        noun
continued to emphasize the need for reform>         amusement or diversion provided especially by
                                                    performers <The bride hired a band to provide
emp·ti·ness                                         entertainment at the wedding reception>
noun
having no purpose or result : USELESS <My
days were filled with emptiness after the loss of
my cat>
en·thuse                                           equa·tion
verb                                               noun
to show enthusiasm <The band played a              a usually formal statement of the equality or
splendid performance, and the audience             equivalence of mathematical or logical
continued to enthuse long after it was over>       expressions <The math student solved the
                                                   equation for the class>
en·thu·si·asm
noun                                               equip·ment
something inspiring zeal or fervor <The            noun
cheerleaders showed their enthusiasm by            the implements used in an operation or
leaping and shouting>                              activity<ski equipment consists of skis, boots,
                                                   bindings and poles>
en·tire·ly
adverb                                             equipped
to the full or entire extent : COMPLETELY <I       transitive verb
agree entirely> <you are entirely welcome>         to furnish for service or action by appropriate
                                                   provisioning <The army was properly equipped
en·trance                                          and a formidable force>
noun
the means or place of entry <The door served as    equiv·a·lent
the entrance to the house                          adjective
                                                   equal in force, amount, or value; also : equal in
en·vis·age                                         area or volume but not superposable <the
transitive verb                                    square is equivalent to the triangle, but does not
to have a mental picture of especially in          have the same shape>
advance of realization <The teachers met
together to envisage an entirely new system of     es·cape
education>                                         verb
                                                   flight from confinement <The prisoner managed
ep·i·lep·sy                                        to escape by digging a tunnel out of the jail>
noun
any of various disorders marked by abnormal        esoph·a·gus
electrical discharges in the brain and typically   noun
manifested by sudden brief episodes of altered     a muscular tube that in humans is about nine
or diminished consciousness, involuntary           inches (23 centimeters) long and passes from
movements, or convulsions <Epilepsy is a           the pharynx down the neck between the trachea
disease in which a person can suffer seizures>     and the spinal column and behind the left
                                                   bronchus where it pierces the diaphragm
ep·i·sode                                          slightly to the left of the middle line and joins
noun                                               the cardiac end of the stomach <The esophagus
a brief unit of action in a dramatic or literary   is the passageway through which food enters
work <That was my favorite episode of “Buffy       the stomach.>
the Vampire Slayer”>
                                                   es·pe·cial·ly
equal·ly                                           adverb
adverb                                             in particular (Jenny was a great student, but
in an equal or uniform manner : EVENLY <The        especially talented in spelling)
lottery winners shared the money equally>
es·sen·tial                                         ex·cept
adjective                                           preposition
of the utmost importance <Water is essential for    with the exclusion or exception of <The store is
human existence>                                    open daily except Sundays>

et·y·mol·o·gy                                       ex·cep·tion·al·ly
noun                                                adverb
the history of a linguistic form (as a word)        more than average or usual <Fred did an
shown by tracing its development since its          exceptionally difficult task with great skill>
earliest recorded occurrence in the language
<The etymology of the word „cat‟ begins in Late     ex·cess
Latin>                                              noun
                                                    the state or an instance of surpassing usual,
even·tu·al ·ly                                      proper, or specified limits <we gave our excess
adverb                                              food to the foodbank>
at an unspecified later time : in the end <I will
get to my chores eventually>                        ex·cit·able
                                                    adjective
ev·ery·body                                         capable of being readily roused into action or a
pronoun                                             state of excitement or irritability <Children can
EVERYONE <Everybody        cheered at the end of    be very excitable>
the game>
                                                    ex·em·pla·ry
ev·i·dent·ly                                        adjective
adverb                                              serving as a pattern b: deserving imitation
 in an evident manner : CLEARLY, OBVIOUSLY          : COMMENDABLE <his courage was
<Evidently the food was rotten, because my          exemplary>;
mother threw it all away>
                                                    ex·hausted
ex·ag·ger·at·ing                                    verb
verb                                                to consume entirely : USE UP <We exhausted
to enlarge beyond bounds or the truth <Jane         our funds in a week>
was exaggerating about the size of her CD
collection>                                         ex·is·tence
                                                    noun
ex·ceed                                             the state or fact of having being especially
verb                                                independently of human consciousness and as
to extend outside of <the river will exceed its     contrasted with nonexistence <Most scientists
banks>                                              believe in the existence of other worlds>

ex·cel·lent                                         ex·or·bi·tant
adjective                                           adjective
very good of its kind : eminently good <The         exceeding the customary or appropriate limits in
food was excellent at the French restaurant>        intensity, quality, amount, or size <Taxes in
                                                    Europe are exorbitant>
ex·pec·ta·tion                                       ex·trav·a·gant
noun                                                 adjective
 the act or state of expecting : ANTICIPATION        spending much more than necessary <Ellen has
<Jane was in expectation of what would happen        always been extravagant with her money>
at the party>
                                                     fa·cil·i·ties
ex·pense                                             noun
noun                                                 something (as a hospital) that is built, installed,
financial burden or outlay : COST <The               or established to serve a particular purpose
committee built the monument at their own            <The hospital facilities in our community are
expense>                                             very sophisticated>

ex·pe·ri·ence                                        faith·ful ·ness
noun                                                 adjective
direct observation of or participation in events     steadfast in affection or allegiance
as a basis of knowledge <Baseball players have       : LOYAL3: firm in adherence to promises or in
a lot of experience running bases>                   observance of duty <Faithfulness is a great
                                                     characteristic in a friend>
ex·per·i·ment
noun                                                 fal ·la·cy
 TEST, TRIAL <I will make another experiment         noun
to test the strength of this solution>               a false or mistaken idea <It is a popular fallacy
                                                     that one can loose weight without exercise>
ex·po·nen·tial
adjective                                            fam·i·lies
expressible or approximately expressible by an       noun
exponential function: characterized by or being      a group of individuals living under one roof and
an extremely rapid increase (as in size or extent)   usually under one head <Most families like to
<the bacteria grew at an exponential rate>           eat dinner together>

ex·qui·site                                          fan·ci·ful
adjective                                            adjective
marked by flawless craftsmanship or by               marked by fancy or unrestrained imagination
beautiful, ingenious, delicate, or elaborate         rather than by reason and experience <J.K.
execution <The exquisite vase had meticulous         Rowling is a fanciful person>
detail and beautiful color>
                                                     fan·ta·sy
ex·ten·sive                                          noun
adjective                                             the free play of creative imagination <Harry
having wide or considerable range <Bob had           Potter is a an example of fantasy>
extensive knowledge of kangaroos>
                                                     far–fetched
ex·traor·di·nary                                     adjective
adjective                                            not easily or naturally deduced or introduced
going beyond what is usual, regular, or              : IMPROBABLE <That story is pretty far–
customary <Iron Man has extraordinary powers         fetched and not very believable>
of strength and flight>
fascinating                                         fi·nan·cial·ly
adjective                                           adverb
extremely interesting or charming                   Of the system that includes the circulation of
: CAPTIVATI NG <the woman with the fur coat         money, the granting of credit, the making of
was fascinating>                                    investments, and the provision of banking
                                                    facilities <The bank was financially sound >
faulty
adjective                                           fi·nan·cier
marked by fault or defect : IMPERFECT <The          noun
computer was faulty and had to be repaired>         one who deals with finance and investment on
                                                    a large scale <The financier made millions of
fa·vor·ite                                          dollars by investing in the stock market>
adjective
markedly popular <Chocolate is a favorite           fi·nesse
flavor>                                             noun
                                                    skillful handling of a situation : adroit
fe·al ·ty                                           maneuvering <The referee handled the dispute
noun                                                with great finesse>
the fidelity of a vassal or feudal tenant to his
lord <The vassal proclaimed their fealty or         fin·ger
loyalty to the king>                                noun
                                                    any of the five terminating members of the
fea·si·ble                                          hand<The child pointed her finger at the
adjective                                           airplane>
capable of being done or carried out <The kids
had a feasible plan to earn money to buy ice        flag·on
creme>                                              noun
                                                    a large usually metal or pottery vessel (as for
fic·ti·tious                                        wine) with handle and spout and often a lid
adjective                                           <The peasant ordered a flagon of wine>
conventionally or hypothetically assumed or
accepted <The book was fictitious therefore not     flex·i·ble
based in fact>                                      adjective
                                                    characterized by a ready capability to adapt to
fi·del·i·ty                                         new, different, or changing requirements <My
noun                                                schedule is flexible >
the quality or state of being faithful <the
knights pledged their fidelity to the king>         fo·liage
                                                    the aggregate of leaves of one or more
fiend                                               plants<The fall foliage was spectacular>
noun
a person of great wickedness or maliciousness       for·eign
<The demon was a fiend>                             adjective
                                                    alien in character : not connected or pertinent
fi·nal                                              <the language is foreign and I don‟t understand
adjective                                           it>
not to be altered or undone <all sales are final>
fore·word                                            frost·i·ness
noun                                                 noun
prefatory comments (as for a book) especially        marked by coolness or extreme reserve in
when written by someone other than the author        manner <his smile had a frostiness that made
<The foreword to the book contained                  the woman uneasy>
interesting facts about the story>
                                                     frus·trate
foun·da·tion                                         transitive verb
noun                                                 to balk or defeat in an endeavor <I will frustrate
a basis (as a tenet, principle, or axiom) upon       my sister by taking her doll away>
which something stands or is supported <the
foundations of geometry are taught in middle         fu·gi ·tive
school>                                              adjective
                                                     running away or intending flight <The fugitive
found·ry                                             slave followed the underground railway to
noun                                                 freedom>
the act, process, or art of casting metals <The
horseshoes were made in the foundry>                 ful ·fill
                                                     transitive verb
                                                     to meet the requirements of <This will fulfill
fra·ter·ni·ty                                        your obligation>
noun
group of people associated or formally               fun·da·men·tal
organized for a common purpose, interest, or         adjective
pleasure <My brother joined a fraternity when        of central importance : PRI NCIPAL <the
he went to college>                                  fundamental purpose of school is to educate
                                                     students>
fre·net·ic
adjective                                            fu·ner·al
FRENZI ED, FRANTIC      <The pianist played the      noun
concerto at a frenetic tempo>                        the observances held for a dead person usually
                                                     before burial or cremation <The funeral for the
friend·li·ness                                       man was held in the rain>
noun
showing kindly interest and goodwill <Because        fur·ni·ture
of her friendliness, Jane was invited to many        noun
parties>                                             movable articles used in readying an area (as a
                                                     room or patio) for occupancy or use <We
front·age                                            bought new patio furniture just in time for the
noun                                                 July 4th party>
a piece of land that lies adjacent (as to a street
or the ocean)<The beach cottage had 500 feet of      fur·ther
lake frontage>                                       adverb
                                                     to a greater degree or extent <my ponies are
                                                     tired and I have further to go>
gauge                                               gog·gles
noun                                                noun plural
an instrument with a graduated scale or dialect     protective glasses set in a flexible frame (as of
for measuring or indicating quantity <The gas       rubber or plastic) that fits snugly against the
gauge says we are nearly out of gas>                face <Make sure you wear goggles when
                                                    conducting science experiments>
gaunt
adjective                                           gor·geous
excessively thin and angular <Dracula has a         adjective
long gaunt face>                                    splendidly or showily brilliant or magnificent
                                                    <The day ended with a gorgeous sunset>
gauze
noun                                                gos·pel
a loosely woven cotton surgical dressing <My        noun
mother put gauze over my scraped knee>              something accepted or promoted as infallible
                                                    truth or as a guiding principle or doctrine <Fred
ge·nius                                             took her words as gospel>
noun
a person endowed with transcendent mental           gour·met
superiority; especially : a person with a very      noun
high IQ<Albert Einstein was a genius>               a connoisseur of food and drink <The gourmet
                                                    refused to eat at Mc Donalds>
gen·tle·man
noun                                                gout
a man whose conduct conforms to a high              noun
standard of propriety or correct behavior <My       a metabolic disease marked by a painful
boyfriend is a gentleman, he always opens           inflammation of the joints, deposits of urates in
doors for me>                                       and around the joints, and usually an excessive
                                                    amount of uric acid in the blood <My uncle
gen·u·ine                                           suffers from gout>
adjective
actually having the reputed or apparent qualities   gov·ern·ment
or character <The restaurant served genuine         noun
vintage wines>                                      the complex of political institutions, laws, and
                                                    customs through which the function of
glad·i·a·tor                                        governing is carried out <the government of the
noun                                                United States is centered in Washington D.C.>
a person engaged in a fight to the death as
public entertainment for ancient Romans <The        gov·er·nor
gladiator fought in the Coliseum.                   noun
                                                    the managing director and usually the principal
glos·sa·ry                                          officer of an institution or organization <The
noun                                                governor of Washington is Christine Gregroire>
a collection of textual words or of specialized
terms with their meanings <There was a
glossary of terms in the chemistry book>
gram·mar                                             guile
noun                                                 noun
the study of the classes of words, their             deceitful cunning <The fox stalked the chickens
inflections, and their functions and relations in    with guile>
the sentence <During our grammar class we
learned to diagram sentences>                        handicapped
                                                     adjective
gran·deur                                            having a physical or mental disability; also : of
noun                                                 or reserved for handicapped persons <It is
the quality or state of being grand                  against the law to park in the handicapped
: MAGNIFICENCE <The grandeur of the Grand            parking spaces without a special permit>
Canyon makes it a prime tourist attraction>
                                                     hand·ker·chief
 gra·tu·itous                                        noun
adjective                                            a small usually square piece of cloth used for
given unearned or without recompense b: not          usually personal purposes (as blowing the nose)
involving a return benefit, compensation, or         or as a clothing accessory <I used my father‟s
consideration c: costing nothing : FREE <My          handkerchief to wipe my tears>
sister gives a lot of gratuitous advice>
                                                     happening
gre·gar·i·ous                                        noun
adjective                                            something (as an event) that is particularly
marked by or indicating a liking for                 interesting, entertaining, or important <The
companionship : SOCIABLE <My brother is              Library Foundation‟s Spelling Bee is quite a
very gregarious and has a lot of friends>            happening!>

griev·ous                                            ha·rass
adjective                                            transitive verb
causing or characterized by severe pain,             to annoy persistently <My little brother
suffering, or sorrow <The soldier suffered a         continued to harass me despite my mother‟s
grievous wound>                                      telling him to stop>

guar·an·tee                                          harsh
noun                                                 adjective
an assurance of the quality of or of the length of   strict in judgment, discipline, or government
use to be expected from a product offered for        <The film critic rendered a harsh review of the
sale often with a promise of reimbursement           film>
<The dishwasher didn‟t work, but since it was
still under guarantee it was replaced>               har·vest
                                                     noun
guid·ance                                            the season for gathering in agricultural
noun                                                 crops<Because of all the snow, we should have
advice on vocational or educational problems         a great wheat harvest this fall>
given to students <My guidance counselor
offered suggestions about colleges>                  hay·wire
                                                     adverb or adjective
                                                     being out of order or having gone wrong <the
                                                     radio went haywire>
haugh·ti ·ness                                       her·mit·age
noun                                                 noun
blatantly and disdainfully proud <No one liked       a secluded residence or private retreat
to talk to Gertrude because of her haughtiness>      : HIDEAWAY c: MONASTERY <Our mountain
                                                     cabin is our own hermitage>
healthy
adjective                                            her·o·ine
conducive to health <I walk three miles every        noun
day, a beastly bore, but healthy — G. S. Patton>     a woman admired and emulated for her
                                                     achievements and qualities<Susan B. Anthony
heart·i·ly                                           is a heroine of womens‟ sufferage>
adverb
WHOLLY, THOROUGHLY <I am heartily sick of            hi·er·ar·chy
all this talk>                                       noun
                                                     the classification of a group of people according
                                                     to ability or to economic, social, or professional
heavi·er                                             standing; also : the group so classified <in the
adjective                                            hierarchy of the Catholic church, the pope is the
having great weight, comparatively <A bowling        leader>
ball is heavier than a feather>
                                                     high·brow
height                                               adjective
noun                                                 person who possesses or has pretensions to
 the distance from the bottom to the top of          superior learning or culture<Because he went to
something standing upright <Most children            many plays, Reginald was thought himself to be
reach their full height by the end of their teens>   quite highbrow>
help·ful                                             hinge
adjective                                            noun
of service or assistance : USEFUL <My mother         a jointed or flexible device on which a door, lid,
gives a lot of helpful advice>                       or other swinging part turns <the hinge on the
                                                     door is very squeaky>
her·biv·o·rous
adjective                                            hitch·hike
feeding on plants <A deer is a herbivorous           verb
animal>                                              to travel by securing free rides from passing
                                                     vehicles<It is not safe to hitchhike>
heroes
noun                                                 hope·less·ness
mythological or legendary figure often of divine     noun
descent endowed with great strength or               the state of having no expectation of good or
ability<Hercules was among the heroes of             success <Jane experienced hopelessness over
Greek myth>                                          receiving an increase in her allowance>

                                                     hop·ing
                                                     verb
                                                     to cherish a desire with anticipation <Ed was
                                                     hoping for a promotion>
ho·siery                                            illegible
noun                                                adjective
knitwear fashioned to cover the feet and legs       INDECIPHERABLE <Your        messy writing is
<Jane purchased hosiery to match her new dress      illegible >
and shoes>
                                                    il·lus·tra·tion
hos·pi·tal·i·ty                                     noun
noun                                                a picture or diagram that helps make something
welcoming treatment, reception, or disposition      clear or attractive <the illustration in the story
<Grandma always shows amazing hospitality to        was almost better than the story itself>
her guests>
                                                    imag·i·nary
hu·mil·i·ate                                        adjective
transitive verb                                     lacking factual reality <Jane‟s imaginary friend
 to reduce to a lower position in one's own eyes    was named Elwin and had green hair>
or others' eyes : MORTIFY <The attention only
served to humiliate Frank even more>                imag·ine
                                                    verb
hu·mor·ous                                          to form a mental image of (something not
adjective                                           present) <Frank was a worrier and would
full of or characterized by something that is       imagine accidents at every turn>
comical or amusing <That TV show is very
humorous>                                           im·me·di·ate·ly
                                                    adverb
hun·gry                                             without interval of time : STRAIGHTWAY <I'll
adjective                                           make that call immediately>
characterized by or characteristic of hunger or
appetite <I am so hungry I could eat an             im·mense
elephant>                                           adjective
                                                     transcending ordinary means of measurement
hur·ried·ly                                         <the immense and boundless universe exceeds
adverb                                              our imagination>
going or working at speed <I did my homework
hurriedly, so my handwriting was a mess>            immigrant
                                                    noun
hy·giene                                            a person who comes to a country to take up
noun                                                permanent residence <The immigrant has long
conditions or practices (as of cleanliness)         been a building block of the American
conducive to health (Bob practiced good dental      population>
hygiene and brushed his teeth after every meal>
                                                    im·pass·able
hy·poc·ri·sy                                        adjective
noun                                                incapable of being passed, traveled, crossed, or
feigning to be what one is not or to believe what   surmounted <the flooding rivers were
one does not; especially : the false assumption     impassable>
of an appearance of virtue or religion <It is
hypocrisy to insist on truthfulness in others
when you yourself are a liar>
im·pu·dent                                        in·def·i·nite·ly
adjective                                          adverb
marked by contemptuous or cocky boldness or       having no exact limits <The conversation in the
disregard of others <the students behave in an    room went of indefinitely>
impudent fashion when the substitute teacher
was in charge of the classroom>                   in·de·pen·dence
                                                  noun
in·ac·ces·si·ble                                  the state of not being controlled by
adjective                                         others<Sheila celebrated her independence by
not able to be reached or attained <Spring        staying out past her curfew>
runoff made the island inaccessible due to high
water>                                            in·dict·ment
                                                  noun
in·ad·e·quate                                     a formal written statement framed by a
adjective                                         prosecuting authority and found by a jury (as a
not capable <No matter how hard she tried,        grand jury) charging a person with an offense
Eliza was inadequate as a leader>                 <The jury handed down the indictment accusing
                                                  the man of theft>
in·au·gu·ra·tion
noun                                              in·dis·pens·able
ceremonial induction into office <The             adjective
inauguration of the new President will occur in   absolutely necessary : ESSENTIAL <The nurses
January>                                          are indispensable members of the hospital
                                                  staff>
in·ci·den·tal ·ly
adverb                                            in·di ·vid·u·al
by way of interjection or digression : by the     adjective
way <Incidentally, do you know which way the      intended for one person <an individual serving
deli is? >                                        contains 300 calories>

in·com·pat·i ·ble                                 in·duce·ment
adjective                                         noun
incapable of association or harmonious            motive or consideration that leads one to action
coexistence <The incompatible colors on the       or to additional or more effective actions <Jane
walls made the room look frightful>               offered Bob $5 as an inducement to wash her
                                                  car>
in·crease
verb                                              in·dus·tri·al
to become progressively greater (as in size,      adjective
amount, number, or intensity) <To increase the    characterized by highly developed industries
numbers of tomatoes on your plants, simply add    <Britain became an industrial nation during the
fertilizer>                                       19th century>

in·cred·i·ble                                     in·fal·li·ble
adjective                                         adjective
too extraordinary and improbable to be believed   incapable of error : UNERRI NG <Marie had an
<Judy was making incredible claims about          infallible memory>
being able to fly>
in·fla·tion                                          in·sti·tute
noun                                                 transitive verb
continuing rise in the general price level usually   to originate and get established <Mary was on
attributed to an increase in the volume of money     to institute change in any organization>
and credit relative to available goods and
services <Due to inflation, milk now costs over      in·stru·ment
$3.50 per gallon>                                    noun
                                                     a device used to produce music; also : a singing
in·flu·ence                                          voice <A violin is a stringed instrument>
noun
the act or power of producing an effect without      in·sur·gent
apparent exertion of force or direct exercise of     noun
command <The mayor used all of her influence         a person who revolts against civil authority or
to encourage the city council to vote for the new    an established government; <Earl became an
swimming pool>                                       insurgent by refusing to pay his parking
                                                     tickets>
in·gre·di·ent
noun                                                 in·te·grate
something that enters into a compound or is a        verb
component part of any combination or mixture         to end the segregation of and bring into equal
<Flour is the main ingredient in cake>               membership in society or an organization
                                                     b: DESEGREGATE <The government passed
in·no·cence                                          laws to integrate school districts>
noun
freedom from guilt or sin through being              in·tel·lec·tu·al
unacquainted with evil <The man proclaimed           adjective
his innocence throughout his trial>                  given to study, reflection, and speculation
                                                     <Albert read many books as part of his
in·nu·en·do                                          intellectual pursuits>
noun
an oblique allusion<John‟s reputation was            in·ter·est
ruined by rumor and innuendo>                        noun
                                                     a feeling that accompanies or causes special
in·stal·la·tion                                      attention to an object or class of objects <I have
noun                                                 a great interest in cats>
a work of art that usually consists of multiple
components often in mixed media and that is          in·ter·fered
exhibited in a usually large space in an             intransitive verb
arrangement specified by the artist <The             to interpose in a way that hinders or impedes
installation at the museum required a full room      : come into collision or be in opposition <Fred
many weeks of work>                                  interfered with the kicker and he missed the
                                                     goal>
in·sti·gate
transitive verb
to goad or urge forward : PROVOKE <Jane
would instigate trouble by kicking her brother‟s
chair>
in·ter·pre·ta·tion                                  jeal ·ous·ly
noun                                               adverb
a particular adaptation or version of a work,      vigilant in guarding a possession <Barbara
method, or style <Mozart‟s interpretation of       jealously hoarded her Barbie dolls>
music was different than any that had come
before>                                            jeop·ar·di ze
                                                   transitive verb
in·tro·duc·to·ry                                   to expose to danger or risk <If you don‟t get a
adjective                                          good nights sleep, you‟ll jeopardize you
of, relating to, or being a first step that sets   chances of doing well on the test>
something going or in proper perspective
<Susan found the introductory course in            jew·el·ry
calculus very easy>                                noun
                                                   bjects of precious metal often set with gems and
in·vari·able                                       worn for personal adornment <The Queen wore
adjective                                          a lot of jewelry at the coronation>
not changing or capable of change : CONSTANT
<Coffee every morning is part of my invariable     jinx
routine>                                           noun
                                                   one that brings bad luck <Susan was a jinx;
involved                                           every time she attended the game the team lost>
adjective
 marked by extreme and often needless or           jit·ter·bug
excessive complexity <The plot in this novel is    noun
very involved>                                     jazz variation of the two-step in which couples
                                                   swing, balance, and twirl in standardized
ir·re·sist·ible                                    patterns and often with vigorous acrobatics
adjective                                          <My Grandparents danced the jitterbug when
impossible to resist <Betty found the cake         they were teenagers>
irresistible >
                                                   jock·ey
ir·ri·ta·ble                                       noun
adjective                                          a person who rides or drives a horse especially
easily exasperated or excited <Baby Elwin gets     as a professional in a race <the jockey was a
irritable when he tires>                           very small man atop a huge horse>

ir·ri·tate                                         joist
verb                                               noun
to provoke impatience, anger, or displeasure in    any of the small timbers or metal beams ranged
: ANNOY <Ben like to irritate his sister by        parallel from wall to wall in a structure to
tapping his pencil on her head>                    support a floor or ceiling <the joist broke under
                                                   the weight of the snow and the roof collapsed>

is·land
noun
a tract of land surrounded by water and smaller
than a continent <The tropical island was
surrounded by crystal blue water>
jowls                                                  knell
noun                                                   verb
usu. slack flesh (as a dewlap, wattle, or the          to ring especially for a death, funeral, or disaster
pendulous part of a double chin) associated with       <The bells tolled the funeral knell at the death
the cheeks, lower jaw, or throat <The old man          of the king>
had no hair and big jowls>
                                                       knelt
ju·nior                                                intransitive verb
adjective                                              to bend the knee : fall or rest on the knees <the
lower in standing or rank <Steve was very              knight knelt before the queen to receive her
happy to become a junior partner in the law            blessing>
firm>
                                                       knowl·edge
jus·tice                                               noun
noun                                                   the fact or condition of knowing something with
the quality of being just, impartial, or fair b        familiarity gained through experience or
(1): the principle or ideal of just dealing or right   association <After a lot of study, I‟ve gained a
action <With liberty and justice for all>              lot of knowledge about math>

ju·ve·nile                                             knuck·le
adjective                                              noun
physiologically immature or undeveloped <The           the rounded prominence formed by the ends of
juvenile birds could not fly fast enough to keep       the two adjacent bones at a joint —used
up with the flock>                                     especially of those at the joints of the fingers
                                                       <The bruised a knuckle when I closed the car
ki·lo·me·ter                                           door on my hand>
noun
a metric unit or length equal to 1000 meters           lab·o·ra·to·ry
<The gas station is one kilometer up the road>         noun
                                                       place equipped for experimental study in a
kiln                                                   science or for testing and analysis <the scientist
noun                                                   created the monster in his laboratory>
an oven, furnace, or heated enclosure used for
processing a substance by burning, firing, or          la·bo·ri·ous·ly
drying <The pots came out of the kiln and were          adverb
too hot to touch>                                      involving or characterized by hard or toilsome
                                                       effort <Michael studied laboriously and did
knap·sack                                              well on the chemistry test>
noun
a bag (as of canvas or nylon) strapped on the          lac·er·ate
back and used for carrying supplies or personal        transitive verb
belongings <the hiker kept his tent and camp           to tear or rend roughly : wound jaggedly <It is
gear in his knapsack>                                  easy to lacerate a finger with a freshly
                                                       sharpened knife>
knave
noun
a boy servant < The knight was accompanied by
his knave on the quest>
lan·guage                                         li·brar·i·an
noun                                              noun
the words, their pronunciation, and the methods   a specialist in the care or management of a
of combining them used and understood by a        library <A librarian is able locate the best
community <People in France speak a different     reference sources on the internet>
language than those in the United States>
                                                  lieu·ten·ant
lar·yn·gi·tis                                     noun
noun                                              a fire or police department officer ranking
inflammation of the larynx <Janice had            below a captain <The lieutenant took charge of
laryngitis and could not speak>                   the regiment when the captain was injured>

leak·age                                          like·li·hood
noun                                              noun
something or the amount that leaks <Leakage        PROBABILITY <There is a strong likelihood
from the tank ran all over the basement floor.    that Albert is correct >

leav·en                                           liq·uid
noun                                              adjective
a material (as baking powder) used to produce a   having the properties of a liquid : being neither
gas that lightens dough or batter < The baker     solid nor gaseous <Water is liquid above 32
used yeast to leaven the bread>                   degrees farenheit>

led·ger                                           lit·er·a·ture
 noun                                             noun
a book containing accounts to which debits and    the body of written works produced in a
credits are posted from books of original entry   particular language, country, or age <Plan on
<The accountant entered the figures into his      reading a lot of books if you choose to study
ledger>                                           literature>

le·gal·i·ty                                       live·ly
noun                                              adjective
attachment to or observance of law <Obeying       briskly alert and energetic : VIGOROUS ,
the speed limit is a legality that is often       ANI MATED <Mertle and Joe had a lively
ignored>                                          discussion>

lei·sure·ly                                       lone·li·ness
a dverb                                           noun
without haste : DELIBERATELY <Jane finished       a feeling of bleakness or desolation <Sarah sat
her dinner in a leisurely fashion>                in her apartment and cried from loneliness after
                                                  she lost her cat>
length·en·ing
verb                                              lose
to make longer <The tailor was lengthening the    verb
skirt when the phone rang>                        to miss from one's possession or from a
                                                  customary or supposed place <You will lose
                                                  that toy if you don‟t put it away>
lov·able                                              maim
adjective                                             transitive verb
having qualities that attract affection <the kitten   to mutilate, disfigure, or wound seriously <The
was cute, fuzzy and lovable>                          tiger was able to maim the boy when he reached
                                                      his hand through the bars of the cage>
loy·al·ty
noun                                                  main·te·nance
the quality or state or an instance of being loyal    noun
<the knight‟s loyalty to the king was                 the upkeep of property or equipment <The
unquestioned>                                         maintenance of your car includes changing the
                                                      oil and keeping it clean>
lux·u·ries
noun                                                  mal·con·tent
a condition of abundance or great ease and            noun
comfort <Gourmet food and expensive cars are          a discontented person <Freida was a real
luxuries>                                             malcontent, she complained all of the time>

mag·a·zines                                           mal·nu·tri·tion
noun                                                  noun
a periodical containing miscellaneous pieces (as      faulty nutrition due to inadequate or unbalanced
articles, stories, poems) and often illustrated;      intake of nutrients or their impaired assimilation
also : such a periodical published online <The        or utilization <Millions of children in Africa
bookstore had a whole section dedicated to            suffer from malnutrition>
fashion magazines>
                                                      man·age·ment
mag·is·te·ri·al                                       noun
adjective                                             the conducting or supervising of something (as
marked by an overbearingly dignified or               a business) <The management of the theater
assured manner or aspect <As the President            decided to raise ticket prices>
walked into the statehouse, his bearing was
magisterial>                                          man·ag·ing
                                                      verb
mag·is·trate                                          to direct or carry on business or affairs <the
noun                                                  managing editor of the newspaper decided to
an official entrusted with administration of the      fire the reporter>
laws <The local magistrate degreed that no one
should go into river when the water was so            ma·neu·vers
high>                                                 noun
                                                      an extended and large-scale training exercise
mag·nif·i·cent                                        involving military and naval units separately or
adjective                                             in combination <The army battalion was in the
marked by stately grandeur and lavishness <The        field for over two weeks conducting practice
billionaire led a magnificent way of life>            maneuvers>
manufactur·ing                                      med·i·cine
verb                                                noun
to make into a product suitable for use <General    a substance or preparation used in treating
Motors company is a leader in manufacturing         disease <the doctor prescribed medicine to cure
automobiles>                                        Bob‟s infection>

mar·riage                                           me·nag·er·ie
noun                                                noun
 the state of being united to a person as husband   a collection of wild or foreign animals kept
or wife in a consensual and contractual             especially for exhibition <Michael Jackson kept
relationship recognized by law <We gather           a menagerie at his home in California>
together to recognize the marriage of this man
and this woman>                                     men·tal·i·ty
                                                    noun
mar·riage·able                                      mode or way of thought : OUTLOOK <the
adjective                                           imperialist mentality of the nineteenth century
fit for or capable of marriage <At fourteen         led to the colonialization of many countries>
years old, the girl was not yet of marriageable
age>                                                mer·chan·dise
                                                    noun
ma·te·ri·al                                         the commodities or goods that are bought and
adjective                                           sold in business <The store stocked a lot of
relating to, derived from, or consisting of         merchandise that did not sell>
matter; especially : PHYSICAL <Iron is an
element in the material world>                      met·ro·pol·i·tan
                                                    adjective
math·e·mat·ics                                      of, relating to, or characteristic of a metropolis
noun                                                or city and sometimes including its suburbs
the science of numbers and their operations,        <Many millions of people live in the New York
interrelations, combinations, generalizations,      metropolitan area >
and abstractions and of space configurations
and their structure, measurement,                   met·ro·nome
transformations, and generalizations <The study     noun
of mathematics is mandatory for all students>       an instrument designed to mark exact time by a
                                                    regularly repeated tick <Music students should
may·on·naise                                        use a metronome when they practice their
noun                                                instruments>
a dressing made of egg yolks, vegetable oils,
and vinegar or lemon juice <I love tuna fish        mi·cro·scop·ic
with mayonnaise>                                    adjective
                                                    very small or fine or precise <The stitches in the
mean·ness                                           needlework were microscopic>
noun
characterized by petty selfishness or malice        mil·i·tate
<the meanness Lucy displayed in breaking the        intransitive verb
pencil made Jane cry>                               to have weight or effect <his boyish appearance
                                                    continued to militate against his getting an early
                                                    promotion>
min·i·mize                                          mo·not·o·nous
transitive verb                                     adjective
to underestimate intentionally : PLAY DOWN,         uttered or sounded in one unvarying tone
SOFT-PEDAL <To minimize our losses in the           : marked by a sameness of pitch and intensity
football season, the coach cited the inexperience   <My economics professor had a very
of his team>                                        monotonous voice, making it difficult to stay
                                                    awake in class>
min·i·a·ture
noun                                                mon·strous
something small of its kind <The miniature          adjective
poodle fit into a teacup>                           having extraordinary often overwhelming
                                                    size<The monstrous size of the fish sent
mis·cel·la·neous                                    everyone running for their camera.
adjective
consisting of diverse things or members <There      month
were a lot of books and other miscellaneous         noun
items on display in the garage sale>                measure of time corresponding nearly to the
                                                    period of the moon's revolution and amounting
mis·chief                                           to approximately 4 weeks or 30 days or 1⁄12 of a
noun                                                year <January is the first month of the year>
action that annoys or irritates b: the quality or
state of being mischievous                          mor·al
: MISCHIEVOUSNESS <The young boy had                adjective
mischief in his eyes>                               sanctioned by or operative on one's conscience
                                                    or ethical judgment <We have a moral
mis·spelled                                         obligation to help the poor>
transitive verb
to spell incorrectly <Winslow misspelled            mo·rale
almost every word on the test>                      noun
                                                    the mental and emotional condition (as of
mis·use                                             enthusiasm, confidence, or loyalty) of an
transitive verb                                     individual or group with regard to the function
to use incorrectly : MISAPPLY <Because of           or tasks at hand <The morale of the team
misuse of funds, the banker was sent to jail>       suffered after repeated losses>

mod·i·fied                                          mor·tar·board
verb                                                noun
to make basic or fundamental changes in often       an academic cap consisting of a closely fitting
to give a new orientation to or to serve a new      headpiece with a broad flat projecting square
end <the wing of a bird is an arm modified for      top<The graduate threw her mortarboard into
flying>                                             the air at the end of the ceremony>
mos·qui ·toes                                       na·tion·al·i·ties
noun                                                noun
any of a family (Culicidae) of dipteran flies       membership in a particular nation <Many
with females that have a set of slender organs in   nationalities gather at the Olympics>
the proboscis adapted to puncture the skin of
animals and to suck their blood and that are in     nat·u·ral·ly
some cases vectors of serious diseases <The         adverb
mosquitoes are especially heavy due to all of the   according to the usual course of things : as
rain>                                               might be expected < naturally, we dislike being
                                                    hurt>
mur·der
noun                                                nec·es·sar·i·ly
the crime of unlawfully killing a person            adverb
especially with malice aforethought < Murder is     of necessity : UNAVOIDABLY 2 : as a logical
against the law>                                    result or consequence <It ain‟t necessarily so>

mu·si·cian                                          nec·es·sary
noun                                                adjective
composer, conductor, or performer of music          absolutely needed <Oxygen is necessary to our
<The musician loved playing his violin more         existence>
than life itself>
                                                    neg·a·tive
mus·tang                                            adjective
noun                                                marked by denial, prohibition, or refusal <Sally
small hardy naturalized horse of United States      received a negative answer to her request for a
western plains directly descended from horses       cookie>;
brought in by the Spaniards<The mustang
bucked and kicked when it was roped by the          ne·go·tia·ble
cowboy>                                             adjective
                                                    capable of being traversed, dealt with, or
mu·ti·nous                                          accomplished <a difficult but negotiable road>
adjective
disposed to or being in a state of mutiny           neigh·bor
: REBELLIOUS <The mutinous crew refused to          noun
sail any further>                                   one living or located near another <My
                                                    neighbor brought a cake when we moved into
mys·te·ri·ous                                       my house>
adjective
exciting wonder, curiosity, or surprise while       nei·ther
baffling efforts to comprehend or identify          conjunction
: MYSTI FYING <Jane heard a mysterious noise>       not either <neither black nor white>

nar·ra·tive                                         nem·e·sis
noun                                                noun
the representation in art of an event or story;     a formidable and usually victorious rival or
also : an example of such a representation <My      opponent <The Joker is the nemesis of Batman>
narrative begins when I was three years old>
nick·el·ode·on                                      no·tic·ing
noun                                                transitive verb
an early movie theater to which admission           to attend to <I was noticing your beautiful pink
usually cost five cents <Put another nickel in      dress>
the nickelodeon>
                                                    nou·gat
nick·name                                           noun
noun                                                a confection of nuts or fruit pieces in a sugar
usually descriptive name given instead of or in     paste <I love the nougat in this candy bar>
addition to the one belonging to a person, place,
or thing <Elwin‟s nickname is “Skip”>               nul·li·fy
                                                    transitive verb
niece                                               to make of no value or consequence <The jury
noun                                                will nullify the verdict>
a daughter of one's brother, sister, brother-in-
law, or sister-in-law <My niece lives in Long       nu·mer·ous
Beach, CA>                                          adjective
                                                    consisting of great numbers of units or
nigh                                                individuals <Bob was born into a numerous
adverb                                              family>
near in place, time, or relationship —often used
with on, onto, or unto<Nigh onto midnight,          nur·ture
Santa came down the chimney>                        noun
                                                    TRAINI NG, UPBRI NGING     <the job of a good
nine·ties                                           parent is to nurture their child>
noun
the numbers 90 to 99; specifically : the years 90   nu·tri·ent
to 99 in a lifetime or century <Many people live    noun
well into their nineties>                           a beneficial substance or ingredient <Calcium is
                                                    a nutrient found in green, leafy vegetables>
ninth
noun                                                ob·sess
sequentially after the eighth <Judy was the         verb
ninth person in line>                               to haunt or excessively preoccupy the mind of
                                                    <Ella continued to obsess with the idea>
nos·tal·gia
noun                                                ob·sta·cle
wistful or excessively sentimental yearning for     noun
return to or of some past period or irrecoverable   something that impedes progress or
condition <There is a lot of nostalgia for the      achievement <The only obstacle between us
1950‟s>                                             and victory is lack of will>

no·tice·able                                        ob·sti·nate
adjective                                           adjective
attracting notice or attention <The stain on your   perversely adhering to an opinion, purpose, or
blouse is not noticeable>                           course in spite of reason, arguments, or
                                                    persuasion <obstinate resistance to change>
oc·ca·sion                                        omit
noun                                              transitive verb
a favorable opportunity or circumstance <Julie    to leave out or leave unmentioned <You may
did not have occasion to talk with her friends>   omit question four from the test>

                                                  omit·ted
oc·cult                                           transitive verb
adjective                                         to leave out or leave unmentioned <Jane
not revealed : SECRET <The occult door was        omitted one important detail>
behind the bookcase>
                                                  oner·ous
oc·cu·py·ing                                      adjective
transitive verb                                   involving, imposing, or constituting a burden
to take or hold possession or control of <The     : TROUBLESOME <Cleaning the stable is an
occupying army set up camp in the middle of       onerous task>
town>
                                                  opaque
oc·cur                                            adjective
intransitive verb                                 exhibiting opacity : blocking the passage of
to come to mind <It did not occur to me that      radiant energy and especially light <The
you would want that apple>                        curtains were opaque>

oc·cur·rence                                      operation
noun                                              noun
EVENT, INCIDENT <that is the second               an exertion of power or influence <the
occurrence of vandalism>                          operation of a drug is to cure a disease>

oc·cur·ring                                       opin·ion
intransitive verb                                 noun
 to come to mind <It was occurring to me that     a view, judgment, or appraisal formed in the
the car needed a wash>                            mind about a particular matter <keep your
                                                  opinion to yourself>
odd·i·ty
noun                                              opi·um
an odd person, thing, event, or trait<The         noun
chicken with three legs was a oddity>             a bitter brownish addictive narcotic drug that
                                                  consists of the dried latex obtained from
omis·sions                                        immature seed capsules of the opium
noun                                              poppy<Opium became a huge social problem in
something neglected or left undone <There         19th century China>
were omissions in the testimony>
                                                  op·po·nent
om·nip·o·tence                                    noun
noun                                              one that takes an opposite position (as in a
an agency or force of unlimited power<The         debate, contest, or conflict)<Lisa‟s opponent
omnipotence of the weapon was feared by all>      beat her easily in the 100 meter race>
op·por·tu·ni ·ties                                   paid
noun                                                 adjective
favorable juncture of circumstances <the halt        marked by the receipt of pay <John received
provided opportunities for rest and                  paid vacation time>
refreshment>
                                                     pam·phlet
op·pose                                              noun
transitive verb                                      an unbound printed publication with no cover or
to offer resistance to<I oppose your wish to         with a paper cover<According to the pamphlet,
build a fence between our yards>                     registration

op·ti·mism                                           pan·de·mo·ni·um
noun                                                 noun
an inclination to put the most favorable              a wild uproar : TUMULT<When the substitute
construction upon actions and events or to           teacher entered the room, pandemonium broke
anticipate the best possible outcome <Lisa‟s         out>
optimism made her a joy to work with>
                                                     par·al·lel
op·ti·mis·tic                                        adjective
adjective                                            extending in the same direction, everywhere
an inclination to put the most favorable             equidistant, and not meeting <The parallel rows
construction upon actions and events or to           of trees stretched out of sight>
anticipate the best possible outcome <I am
optimistic that you will all enjoy the spelling      par·a·lyze
bee>                                                 transitive verb
                                                     to make immoveable, powerless or
orig·i·nal·ly                                        ineffective<The snake venom had the power to
adverb                                               paralyze the rat>
in the beginning : in the first place : INI TIALLY
<although I bought this dress at a resale shop,      parch·ment
originally it came from Nordstrom‟s>                 noun
                                                     the skin of a sheep or goat prepared for writing
over·whelm·ing                                       on<The torah was made of parchment>
adjective
tending or serving to overwhelm                      par·fait
<overwhelming force>; also : EXTREME,                noun
GREAT <The candidate won an overwhelming             cold dessert made of layers of fruit, syrup, ice
majority in the election>                            cream, and whipped cream <Sally ordered a
                                                     parfait at Baskin-Robbins>
ox·i·da·tion
noun                                                 par·tic·i·pat·ed
the process whereby an element combines with         verb
oxygen< Rust is the product of the oxidation of      to take part <Laura always participated in class
iron>                                                discussions>
par·tic·u·lar·ly                                  peace
adverb                                            noun
to an unusual degree It was a particularly dry    freedom from civil disturbance<Peace
summer>                                           prevailed at the end of the war>

part·ner                                          peace·able
noun                                              adjective
one associated with another especially in an      disposed to peace : not contentious or
action <Ed was the partner of Sally in the        quarrelsome<Eva was a quiet and peaceable
science fair>                                     person>

pas·tel                                           pe·cu·liar·i·ties
noun                                              noun
any of various pale or light colors<the pastel    a distinguishing characteristic<One of the
colors of spring are a marvel after the grey of   peculiarities of the ostrich is it cannot fly>
winter>
                                                  pen·ni·less
pas·time                                          adjective
noun                                              destitute of money<Pat spent all of her money
something that amuses and serves to make time     and was penniless>
pass agreeably : DIVERSION <Steven‟s favorite
pastime is watching baseball on television>       per·ceive
                                                  transitive verb
pa·ter·ni·ty                                      to attain awareness or understanding<I fail to
noun                                              perceive what you are driving at>
the quality or state of being a father<The
paternity of the child was beyond a doubt>        per·co·la·tor
                                                  noun
pa·thos                                           a coffeepot in which boiling water rising
noun                                              through a tube is repeatedly deflected
an element in experience or in artistic           downward through a perforated basket
representation evoking pity or compassion<The     containing ground coffee beans to extract their
pathos of the story reduce Jane to tears>         essence<Put the coffee in the percolator so we
                                                  can have fresh coffee for breakfast>
pa·tio
noun                                              per·for·mance
a recreation area that adjoins a dwelling, is     noun
often paved, and is adapted especially to         public presentation or exhibition <the audience
outdoor dining<It is a pleasure to eat on the     rose to applaud at the end of the performance>
patio on a summer evening>
                                                  per·fume
pa·tri·arch                                       noun
noun                                              the scent of something sweet-smelling<The
the oldest member or representative of a          perfume of the flowers filled the air>
group<As the oldest male, Elwin was the
patriarch of his family>
pe·rim·e·ter                                         per·sis·tent
noun                                                 adjective
 the boundary of a closed plane figure<The           existing for a long or longer than usual time or
perimeter is the sum of the length of all sides of   continuously<Chuck was persistent in asking
the figure>                                          for a puppy and finally received one>

per·ju·ry                                            per·son·al
noun                                                 adjective
the voluntary violation of an oath or vow either     of, relating to, or constituting personal property
by swearing to what is untrue or by omission to      <A toothbrush is a personal item>
do what has been promised under oath : false
swearing<The liar was found guilty of perjury>       per·son·i ·fy
                                                     transitive verb
per·ma·nent                                          to be the embodiment or personification of
adjective                                            : INCARNATE <Hitler has come to personify
continuing or enduring without fundamental or        evil>
marked change<Your grades are a part of your
permanent record>                                    per·son·nel
                                                     noun
per·mis·si·ble                                       a body of persons usually employed (as in a
adjective                                            factory, office, or organization)<The personnel
that may be permitted : ALLOWABLE <Today             of the factory went on strike>
it is permissible to talk during class>
                                                     per·spi·ra·tion
per·mis·sive                                         noun
adjective                                            a saline fluid secreted by the sweat glands
granting or tending to grant permission              : SWEAT<Perspiration gathered on my forehead
: TOLERANT<The permissive parent allowed             in the hot summer sun>
her child to watch TV 5 hours a day>
                                                     per·suade
per·mit                                              transitive verb
noun                                                 to move by argument, entreaty, or expostulation
a written warrant or license granted by one          to a belief, position, or course of action<Sandy
having authority <Adolescents receive their          was able to persuade her mother to buy ice
drivers‟ permit at 16>                               cream for the party>

                                                     per·sua·sion
per·se·ver·ance                                      noun
noun                                                 the act or process or an instance of
the action or condition or an instance of            persuading<Jackie used persuasion to
persevering : STEADFASTNESS<Michael‟s                convince her teacher to raise her grade>
perseverance paid off when he won the spelling
bee>                                                 per·tain
                                                     intransitive verb
                                                     to belong as a part, member, accessory, or
                                                     product <This conversation does not pertain to
                                                     you>
phase                                              pis·ta·chio
noun                                               noun
a particular appearance or state in a regularly    a small Asian tree (Pistacia vera) of the cashew
recurring cycle of changes <It is the full phase   family whose drupaceous fruit contains a
of the moon>                                       greenish edible seed; also : its seed<My
                                                   favorite flavor of ice cream is pistachio>
phi·los·o·phy
noun                                               pla·ce·bo
the sciences and liberal arts exclusive of         noun
medicine, law, and theology <Theodore is a         a usually pharmacologically inert preparation
doctor of philosophy>                              prescribed more for the mental relief of the
                                                   patient than for its actual effect on a disorder<It
phlegm                                             was found that the placebo worked as well as
noun                                               the drug being investigated>
viscid mucus secreted in abnormal quantity in
the respiratory passages<Phlegm is a symptom       planned
of a respiratory infection>                        verb
                                                   to devise or project the realization or
pho·tog·ra·phy                                     achievement of <The prisoners planned their
noun                                               escape>
the art or process of producing images by the
action of radiant energy and especially light on   pla·teau
a sensitive surface (as film or a CCD chip)<I      noun
went to the photography studio to have my          a usually extensive land area having a relatively
picture taken>                                     level surface raised sharply above adjacent land
                                                   on at least one side<there was a magnificient
phy·si·cian                                        view of the countryside from the top of the
noun                                               plateau>
a person skilled in the art of healing;
specifically : one educated, clinically            play·wright
experienced, and licensed to practice medicine     noun
as usually distinguished from surgery<It takes     a person who writes plays<Shakespeare is the
many years of study to become a physician>         most famous playwright>

pic·nick·ing                                       pleas·ant
intransitive verb                                  adjective
to go on a picnic : eat in picnic fashion<We        having qualities that tend to give pleasure
were picnicking in the park when the storm         : AGREEABLE <Have a pleasant day>
began>
                                                   plun·der
pic·to·ri·al                                       verb
adjective                                          to take the goods of by force (as in war)<The
illustrated by pictures <The pictorial weekly      pirates‟ goal was to plunder gold from ships>
showed many photographs of the volcanic
eruption>
plywood                                            pre·ce·dent
noun                                               noun
a structural material consisting of sheets of      something done or said that may serve as an
wood glued or cemented together with the           example or rule to authorize or justify a
grains of adjacent layers arranged at right        subsequent act of the same or an analogous kind
angles or at a wide angle<The shed was made        <The verdict that had no precedent in case law>
of plywood and shingles>
                                                   pre·ced·ing
por·trayed                                         adjective
transitive verb                                    comes immediately before <On the preceding
to play the role of : ENACT<Susan portrayed        day, we went to the park>
“Ariel” in the The Little Mermaid.>
                                                   pre·dom·i ·nant
pos·ses·sions                                      adjective
noun                                               having superior strength, influence, or authority
 PROPERTY<Mabel put her prized possessions         : PREVAILI NG<The predominant characteristic
in a box>                                          of the skunk is its smell>

pos·si·bil·i·ty                                    pre·fer
noun                                               transitive verb
potential or prospective value —usually used in    to like better or best<Do you prefer chocolate
plural <the house had great possibilities>         or vanilla ice cream?>

pos·si·ble                                         pref·er·a·ble
adjective                                          adjective
being within the limits of ability, capacity, or    having greater value or desirability<It is
realization <a possible but difficult task>        preferable to sleep in your bed rather than on
                                                   the ground>
pov·er·ty
noun                                               pref·er·ence
the state of one who lacks a usual or socially     noun
acceptable amount of money or material             the power or opportunity of choosing<What is
possessions<The people in the tenement lived       your preference, chocolate or vanilla?>
in poverty>
                                                   pre·ferred
prac·ti·cal·ly                                     transitive verb
adverb                                             to like better or best <Steve preferred sports to
ALMOST, NEARLY <practically everyone like          reading>
ice cream>
                                                   prep·a·ra·tion
                                                   noun
prai·rie                                           the action or process of making something
noun                                               ready for use or service or of getting ready for
land in or predominantly in grass<The grass on     some occasion, test, or duty <Judy studied very
the prairie went on forever>                       hard in preparation for the chemistry exam>
pre·pare                                           priv·i·lege
verb                                               noun
to make ready beforehand for some purpose,         a right or immunity granted as a peculiar
use, or activity <Ella is going to prepare food    benefit, advantage, or favor <Parking is a
for dinner>                                        privilege not a right>

pre·scrip·tion                                     prob·a·bly
noun                                               adverb
a written direction for a therapeutic or           insofar as seems reasonably true, factual, or to
corrective agent; specifically : one for the       be expected : without much doubt <it will
preparation and use of a medicine <the doctor      probably rain today>
wrote out a prescription for an antibiotic>
                                                   pro·ce·dure
pres·ence                                          noun
noun                                               a particular way of accomplishing something or
the part of space within one's immediate           of acting <Let‟s all follow procedure and line
vicinity <Don‟t bring that dirty sock into my      up at the door>
presence!>
                                                   pro·ceed
previous                                           intransitive verb
adjective                                          to begin and carry on an action <Proceed with
going before in time or order<The previous         caution through the intersection>
teacher allowed the students to talk in class>
                                                   pro·cess
prim·i·tive                                        noun
adjective                                          a natural phenomenon marked by gradual
belonging to or characteristic of an early stage   changes that lead toward a particular result <the
of development : CRUDE, RUDIMENTARY <the           process of growth was recorded on the film>
campground was primitive and had no
facilities>                                        pro·di·gious
                                                   adjective
prism                                              extraordinary in bulk, quantity, or degree <the
noun                                               prodigious spelling bee word list was over 100
a polyhedron with two polygonal faces lying in     pages long>
parallel planes and with the other faces
parallelograms <The prism split the sun beam       pro·fess
into its component colors>                         verb
                                                   to declare or admit openly or freely <The
pris·on                                            subjects were forced to profess their loyalty to
noun                                               the King>
an institution (as one under state jurisdiction)
for confinement of persons convicted of serious    pro·fes·sor
crimes <The thief was sentenced to prison>         noun
                                                    a faculty member of the highest academic rank
                                                   at an institution of higher education <The
                                                   professor lectured the students on physics>
pro·file                                              pro·vi·sions
noun                                                  noun
a set of data often in graphic form portraying        a stock of needed materials or supplies;
the significant features of something <The            especially : a stock of food —usually used in
corporation's earnings profile was posted on the      plural <John sold provisions for camping in his
website>                                              store>

pro·found                                             pso·ri·a·sis
adjective                                             noun
having intellectual depth and insight b: difficult    a chronic skin disease characterized by
to fathom or understand <The poem was                 circumscribed red patches covered with white
profound and presented a mystery to the               scales <My mother suffers from psoriasis on
readers>                                              her elbows and knees>

pro·fuse                                              psy·chol·o·gy
adjective                                             noun
exhibiting great abundance : BOUNTIFUL <a             the science of mind and behavior <psychology
profuse harvest was the reward after a lot of         is a very popular class for college students>
hard work>
                                                      pul·ver·ize
prom·i·nent                                           verb
adjective                                             to reduce (as by crushing, beating, or grinding)
readily noticeable <An elephant has a                 to very small particles : ATOMIZE <The force of
prominent nose>                                       the earthquake was able to pulverize rock>

pro·nounce                                            punc·tu·a·tion
verb                                                  noun
to say correctly <I can't pronounce his name>         the act or practice of inserting standardized
                                                      marks or signs in written matter to clarify the
pro·nun·ci·a·tion                                     meaning and separate structural units <Most
noun                                                  students find learning the rules of punctuation
the act or manner of pronouncing something            tedious>
<There is more than one pronunciation for that
word>                                                 pu·ni·tive
                                                      adjective
pro·pa·gan·da                                         inflicting, involving, or aiming at punishment
noun                                                  <the substitute teacher took severe punitive
ideas, facts, or allegations spread deliberately to   measures when the class missbehaved>
further one's cause or to damage an opposing
cause; also : a public action having such an          pur·sued
effect <The communist party used propaganda           verb
to sway public opinion >                              to find or employ measures to obtain or
                                                      accomplish : SEEK <Sheila pursued a goal of
pro·pri·e·tor                                         learning French>
noun
a person who has the legal right or exclusive
title to something <John is the proprietor of that
store>
qual·i·ties                                        qui z
noun                                               noun
peculiar and essential character <Monica had       a short oral or written test <Tommorrow we
the qualities of loyalty and truthfulness>         will have a pop quiz>

quan·da·ry                                         quo·ta·tion
noun                                               noun
a state of perplexity or doubt <Jed was in a       a passage referred to, repeated, or adduced <My
quandary over the answer to the math problem>      I use that paragraph as a quotation in my
                                                   novel?>
quan·ti·ty
noun                                               ram·page
a determinate or estimated amount <There was       noun
a large quantity of dust in the air>               to rush wildly about <the bull went on a
                                                   rampage when it escaped from its pen>
quar·ter
noun                                               rap·port
a coin worth a quarter of a dollar b: the sum of   noun
25 cents <That gumball costs a quarter>            relation marked by harmony, conformity,
                                                   accord, or affinity <The coach had a great
quell                                              rapport with his team>
transitive verb
to thoroughly overwhelm and reduce to              re·al ·ize
submission or passivity <Force was necessary       transitive verb
to quell the riot>                                 to conceive vividly as real : be fully aware of
                                                   <Harold did not realize the risk he was taking>
ques·tion·naire
noun                                               re·al ·ly
a set of questions for obtaining statistically     adverb
useful or personal information from individuals    in reality : ACTUALLY <I like to paint things as
<Please fill out all of the questions in the       they really are>
questionnaire before you send it back to me>
                                                   re·ceipt
queue                                              noun
noun                                               writing acknowledging the receiving of goods
a braid of hair usually worn hanging at the back   or money <You must have the receipt to return
of the head <the Chinese man was made to cut       the shoes>
off his queue>
                                                   re·ceive
qui·es·cent                                        verb
adjective                                          to come into possession of : ACQUIRE
marked by inactivity or repose : tranquilly at     <Everyone loves to receive a gift>
rest <The lake was quiescent after the storm>
                                                   re·cep·tion
quips                                              noun
noun                                               a social gathering often for the purpose of
a clever usually taunting remark <Sharon was       extending a formal welcome <The reception
famous for her clever quips>                       will follow the wedding>
re·cess                                             re·gard
noun                                                noun
a suspension of business or procedure often for     : the worth or estimation in which something or
rest or relaxation <Recess is my favorite part of   someone is held <Patton was a man of great
the day>                                            regard>

re·ces·sion·al                                      re·gion·al
adjective                                           adjective
a hymn or musical piece at the conclusion of a      of, relating to, characteristic of, or serving a
service or program <the recessional most often      region <Spokane is a regional health center>
played at the end of a wedding is “The Wedding
March”                                              register
                                                    transitive verb
rec·og·ni·tion                                      to enroll formally especially as a voter or
noun                                                student <You must register for classes before
knowledge or feeling that someone or                the beginning of the term>
something present has been encountered before
<My recognition of that person is faulty>           re·gret·ta·ble
                                                    adjective
rec·og·nize                                         deserving regret, <that decision was
transitive verb                                     regrettable>
 to acknowledge with a show of appreciation
<To recognize the act of bravery, the soldier       reg·u·la·tion
was given a medal>                                  noun
                                                    a rule or order issued by an executive authority
rec·ol·lec·tion                                     or regulatory agency of a government and
noun                                                having the force of law <the FDA issued a
something recalled to the mind <I have no           regulation about food sweetners>
recollection of loosing that sock>
                                                    rel·a·tive
rec·om·mend                                         noun
transitive verb                                     a person connected with another by blood or
to present as worthy of acceptance or trial         affinity <My uncle is my closest relative>
<May I recommend the soup?>
                                                    re·li·gion
ref·er·ence                                         noun
noun                                                a personal set or institutionalized system of
person to whom inquiries as to character or         attitudes, beliefs, and practices <Islam is a
ability can be made <I used my teacher as a         religion practiced in many middle eastern
reference when applying for the job>                countries>

re·frig·er·a·tor                                    re·li·gious
noun                                                adjective
a room or appliance for keeping food or other       relating to or manifesting faithful devotion to an
items cool <Please close the door on the            acknowledged ultimate reality or deity <Mother
refrigerator>                                       Theresa was a religious person>
re·mem·ber                                         re·quire·ment
verb                                               noun
to bring to mind or think of again <Jason          something essential to the existence or
doesn‟t remember the old days>                     occurrence of something else : CONDI TION
                                                   <Graduating high school is a requirement for
re·mem·brance                                      college admission>
noun
something that serves to keep in or bring to       re·search
mind : REMI NDER <I‟ll keep this corsage as a      noun
remembrance of our date>                           investigation or experimentation aimed at the
                                                   discovery and interpretation of facts, revision of
rem·i·nisce                                        accepted theories or laws in the light of new
intransitive verb                                  facts, or practical application of such new or
REMEMBER, <We got together to reminisce            revised theories or laws <Careful research may
about the old days>                                yield a cure for cancer>

re·nowned                                          res·ig·na·tion
adjective                                          noun
having renown : CELEBRATED <Greg was               a formal notification of termination of
renowned for his generosity>                       employment <Jacob handed in his resignation>

re·pen·tance                                       res·o·nate
noun                                               verb
the action or process of being sorry and           to relate harmoniously : strike a chord <The
resolving to do better; especially for misdeeds    candidate delivers a message that resonates
or moral shortcomings <Repentance may follow       with voters>
punishment>
                                                   re·sources
rep·e·ti·tion                                      noun
noun                                               a source of supply or support : an available
: the act or an instance of repeating or being     means —usually used in plural <We must
repeated <It is only after repetition that a       conserve our resources>
musical piece is memorized>
                                                   re·sponse
re·plen·ish                                        noun
verb                                               something constituting a reply or a reaction <I
to fill or build up again <the rain came just in   sent Jane a thank you note as a response to her
time to replenish the reservoir>                   gift>

rep·re·sen·ta·tive                                 re·spon·si·bil·i·ty
adjective                                          noun
serving as a typical or characteristic example     something for which one is responsible
<The young man was a representative                : BURDEN <Fred honored his responsibility and
moviegoer>                                         took out the trash>
res·tau·rant                                        room·mate
noun                                                noun
a business establishment where meals or             one of two or more persons sharing the same
refreshments may be purchased<I want to go to       room or living quarters <I am still friends with
a restaurant for dinner>                            my roommate from college>

rev·er·end                                          ru·di·men·ta·ry
being a member of the clergy —used as a title       adjective
<the Reverend Mr. Doe conducted services            of a primitive kind <the equipment of the first
every Sunday morning >                              railway builders was rudimentary>

re·viewing                                          sab·o·tage
transitive verb                                     noun
to examine or study again <We are reviewing         destructive or obstructive action carried on by a
our notes to study for the test>                    civilian or enemy agent to hinder a nation's war
                                                    effort <The spies planned to sabotage the
rheu·ma·tism                                        bridge>
noun
any of various conditions characterized by          safe·ty
inflammation or pain in muscles, joints, or         noun
fibrous tissue <Grandpa‟s rheumatism always         the condition of being safe from undergoing or
acted up in rainy weather>                          causing hurt, injury, or loss <Safety first!>

rhythm                                              sand·wich
noun                                                noun
the aspect of music comprising all the elements     two or more slices of bread or a split roll having
(as accent, meter, and tempo) that relate to        a filling in between b: one slice of bread
forward movement <the drum section kept the         covered with food <I want a ham sandwich for
rhythm steady>                                      lunch>

rid·i·cule                                          sar·cas·tic
noun                                                adjective
DERISION, MOCKERY <Pauline         was subject to   having the character of sarcasm <Your
the ridicule of the class>                          sarcastic criticism is not welcome>

ri·dic·u·lous                                       sa·tir·i·cal
adjective                                           adjective
arousing or deserving ridicule : ABSURD ,           of, relating to, or constituting trenchant wit,
PREPOSTEROUS <Your idea to paint the house          irony, or sarcasm used to expose and discredit
orange is ridiculous>                               vice or folly <The satirical play exposed the
                                                    ignorance of the king>
ri·val·ry
noun                                                sat·is·fac·tion
the act of rivaling : the state of being a rival    noun
: COMPETI TION <There was a huge rivalry            the quality or state of being satisfied
between Tom and Jake over who would be              : CONTENTMENT <I had a feeling of
captain of the team>                                satisfaction after I ate my sandwich>
                                                    scheme
sat·is·fied                                         noun
verb                                                a plan or program of action; especially : a crafty
to gratify to the full : APPEASE <Judy was          or secret one <What crazy scheme are you up
satisfied by the outcome of the trial>              to?>
sau·cer
noun                                                schol·ar·ship
small shallow dish in which a cup is set at table   noun
<The cup and saucer were part of a set china>       a grant-in-aid to a student (as by a college or
                                                    foundation) <Many students cannot afford to
saun·ter                                            pay for college so they must receive a
intransitive verb                                   scholarship>
to walk about in an idle or leisurely manner
<Don‟t saunter in here with those dirty feet!>      sci·en·tif·ic
                                                    adjective
sau·sage                                            of, relating to, or exhibiting the methods or
noun                                                principles of science <Dr. Watson used
a highly seasoned minced meat (as pork)             scientific methods to organize his experiment>
usually stuffed in casings of prepared animal
intestine; also : a link or patty of s ausage <I    scrip·ture
would like sausage and eggs for breakfast>          noun
                                                    a body of writings considered sacred or
scape·goat                                          authoritative <according to scripture, you
noun                                                should not steal>
one that bears the blame for others <Marvin
was the scapegoat for the whole team>               scuf·fle
                                                    intransitive verb
scar·ci·ty                                          to struggle at close quarters with disorder and
noun                                                confusion <The boys started to scuffle, then
the quality or state of being scarce; especially    began to fight>
: want of provisions for the support of life <The
scarcity of food meant that many deer would         se·clu·sion
starve this winter>                                 noun
                                                    the act of secluding : the condition of being
scen·ery                                            secluded or isolated <The prisoner was placed
noun                                                in seclusion for punishment>
a picturesque view or landscape <I enjoyed the
beautiful scenery on our car ride>                  sec·re·tary
                                                    noun
sched·ule                                           one employed to handle correspondence and
noun                                                manage routine and detail work for a superior
a written or printed list, catalog, or inventory;   <I‟ll have my secretary make the appointment>
also : TIMETABLE <the work schedule is posted
next to the time clock>
seis·mo·graph                                         sev·er·al
noun                                                  adjective
apparatus to measure and record vibrations            more than two but fewer than many < several
within the earth and of the ground <The               students raised their hands when the teacher
seismograph recorded the strength of the              asked for volunteers.>
earthquake>
                                                      se·vere·ly
seize                                                 adverb
verb                                                  of a strict or stern bearing or manner : AUSTERE
to take possession of : CONFISCATE <The               <The man was severely hurt in the accident>
police broke down the door to seize the
documents>                                            shep·herd
                                                      noun
se·lec·tion                                           a person who tends sheep <The shepherd used a
noun                                                  dog to help him herd his sheep>
one that is selected : CHOICE <Put your money
in the machine, then make your selection>             shining
                                                      adjective
se·mes·ter                                            emitting or reflecting light <the shining stars
noun                                                  added to the beauty of the night>
either of the two usually 18-week periods of
instruction into which an academic year is often      shoul·der
divided <There is a final test at the end of each     noun
semester>                                             the laterally projecting part of the human body
                                                      formed of the bones and joints with their
sen·tence                                             covering tissue by which the arm is connected
noun                                                  with the trunk <I have a pain in my shoulder>
a word, clause, or phrase or a group of clauses
or phrases forming a syntactic unit which             shriek
expresses an assertion, a question, a command,        verb
a wish, an exclamation, or the performance of         to utter a sharp shrill sound <Jill began to shriek
an action, that in writing usually begins with a      during the scary movie>
capital letter and concludes with appropriate
end punctuation, and that in speaking is              sig·nif·i·cance
distinguished by characteristic patterns of stress,   noun
pitch, and pauses <That was a very long                the quality of being important <The agreement
sentence>                                             is of great significance to history>

sep·a·rate                                            sil·hou·ette
verb                                                  noun
to set or keep apart <Do I need to separate you       a likeness cut from dark material and mounted
two??>                                                on a light ground or one sketched in outline and
                                                      solidly colored in <the artist created my
se·ri·ous·ness                                        silhouette, then we put it in a picture frame>
 noun
of or relating to a matter of importance <The
seriousness of the allegations require careful
investigation>
sim·i·lar                                          source
adjective                                          noun
having characteristics in common : strictly        a point of origin or procurement : BEGI NNING
comparable <The orange and tangerine are           <I went to the source of the river, high in the
similar>                                           mountains>

sin·cere·ly                                        sov·er·eign·ty
adverb                                             noun
marked by genuineness : TRUE <I meant the          freedom from external control : AUTONOMY
compliment sincerely>                              <The sovereignty of the country was respected
                                                   by all of the diplomats>

sit·u·a·tion                                       spe·cial·i·za·tion
noun                                               noun
relative position or combination of                structural adaptation of a body part to a
circumstances at a certain moment <How did         particular function or of an organism for life in
we get into this situation?>                       a particular environment <The tiny arms of the
                                                   dinosaur underwent specialization to become
skin·ny                                            wings>
adjective
lacking sufficient flesh : very thin <The models   spe·cif·i·cal·ly
were very skinny>                                  adverb
                                                   sharing or being those properties of something
snap·drag·on                                       that allow it to be referred to a particular
noun                                               category <I was referring specifically to your
any of a genus (Antirrhinum of the family          red shoes>
Scrophulariaceae, the snapdragon family) of
herbs having showy bilabiate flowers;              spec·i·men
especially : a widely cultivated one ( A. majus)   noun
of Mediterranean origin having usually pink,       an individual, item, or part considered typical of
red, yellow, or white flowers <The child made      a group, class, or whole <The monarch is a
the blossom of the snapdragon open and close>      particularly beautiful specimen of butterfly>

                                                   spec·ta·cle
so·lu·tion
                                                   noun
noun
                                                   an object of curiosity or contempt <Luella made
an action or process of solving a problem
                                                   a spectacle of herself>
<Peter wrote the solution to the math problem
on the chalkboard>
                                                   speech
                                                   noun
sor·row·ful
                                                   a usually public discourse : ADDRESS <Jack was
adjective
                                                   very nervous before giving his speech in front
full of or marked by sorrow <Jane said a
                                                   of the whole school>
sorrowful good-bye to her boyfriend>
state·ment                                           sub·scrip·tion
noun                                                 noun
a single declaration or remark : ASSERTION           an arrangement for providing, receiving, or
<Fred made the statement that he was going           making use of something of a continuing or
home>                                                periodic nature on a prepayment plan <I have a
                                                     subscription to Teen Vogue>
ste·nog·ra·pher
noun                                                 sub·stan·ti·ates
a writer of shorthand 2 : a person employed          transitive verb
chiefly to take and transcribe dictation <the        to give substance or form to : EMBODY <That
stenographer has been largely replace by the         picture substantiates my feelings about the
dictophone>                                          Grand Canyon>

step·ping                                            sub·sti·tute
verb                                                 noun
to move by raising the foot and bringing it           a person or thing that takes the place or
down elsewhere or by moving each foot in             function of another <When our teacher became
succession <I was stepping off the curb when I       ill a substitute teacher took her place>
tripped and fell>
                                                     sub·tle
straighter                                           adjective
adjective                                            DELICATE, ELUSIVE <      Marie wore a subtle
free from curves, bends, angles, or irregularities   fragrance that smelled like lilacs>
<I have straighter hair than you>
                                                     suc·ceeding
strength                                             verb
noun                                                 to attain a desired object or end <Susan was
 the quality or state of being strong : capacity     succeeding in her goal to become student
for exertion or endurance < Iron Man has super-      president>
human strength>
                                                     suc·cess·ful
stren·u·ous                                          adjective
adjective                                            resulting or terminating in success <John made
vigorously active : ENERGETIC <Strenuous             a successful attempt to climb Mt. Everest>
exercise is good for your health>
                                                     suc·cu·lent
stud·ied                                             adjective
adjective                                            moist and tasty : TOOTHSOME <My mother
carefully considered or prepared <It is my           cooked a succulent meal for my birthday.>
studied opinion that that painting is ugly>
                                                     sud·den·ness
study·ing                                            noun
verb                                                 happening or coming unexpectedly <The
to undertake formal study of a subject <I was        earthquake struck with a suddenness that
studying for the math test when the phone rang>      shocked the world>
suf·fi·cient                                       sup·pose
adjective                                          verb
enough to meet the needs of a situation or a       to lay down tentatively as a hypothesis,
proposed end <The hikers packed sufficient         assumption, or proposal <suppose you bring the
provisions for a month>                            salad for the July 4 party ?>

sum·ma·ri ze                                       sup·press
verb                                               transitive verb
to tell in or reduce to a summary <please          to put down by authority or force : SUBDUE
summarize your remarks to save time>               <The police were summoned to suppress a riot>

sum·ma·ry                                          sur·face
adjective                                          noun
COMPREHENSIVE;      especially : covering the      the exterior or upper boundary of an object or
main points succinctly <June wrote a summary       body <The wind skipped on the surface of the
paragraph of her essay>                            water>

su·per·in·ten·dent                                 sur·rounded
noun                                               transitive verb
one who has executive oversight and charge          to enclose on all sides : ENVELOP <the crowd
<The school superintendent decided which text      surrounded her>
book to buy>
                                                   sus·cep·ti·ble
su·per·sede                                        adjective
transitive verb                                    capable of submitting to an action, process, or
to cause to be set aside <The candidate was able   operation <Einstein wrote a theory susceptible
to supersede the sitting president>                to proof>

su·per·sti·tious                                   sus·pense
adjective                                          noun
relating to a belief or practice resulting from    pleasant excitement as to a decision or outcome
ignorance, fear of the unknown, trust in magic     <”Signs” is a movie of suspense>
or chance, or a false conception of causation
<People often become more superstitious            sus·pi·cious
around Halloween>                                  adjective
                                                   tending to arouse suspicion : QUESTIONABLE
su·per·vi·sor                                      <I was suspicious that my mother hid my
noun                                               birthday present under her bed>
an administrative officer in charge of a
business, government, or school unit or            swim·ming
operation <I let my supervisor know that I         verb
would be leaving work early>                       to propel oneself in water by natural means (as
                                                   movements of the limbs, fins, or tail) <I love to
sup·pli·cate                                       go swimming on a hot summer day>
verb
to make a humble entreaty; especially : to pray
to God <I was asked to supplicate our mother to
make ice cream for the party>
sym·bol                                              tech·nique
noun                                                 noun
something that stands for or suggests something       the manner in which technical details are
else by reason of relationship, association,         treated (as by a writer) or basic physical
convention, or accidental resemblance;               movements are used (as by a dancer); also
especially : a visible sign of something invisible   : ability to treat such details or use such
<the lion is a symbol of courage>                    movements <The amateur displayed good piano
                                                     technique>
sym·met·ri·cal
adjective                                            tech·nol·o·gy
having corresponding points whose connecting         noun
lines are bisected by a given point or               a capability given by the practical application of
perpendicularly bisected by a given line or          knowledge < fuel-saving technology has greatly
plane <The symmetrical curves of the car>            reduced fuel consumption over the past 25
                                                     years>
syn·on·y·mous
adjective                                            tem·per·a·ment
having the same connotations, implications, or       noun
reference <to runners, Boston is synonymous          characteristic or habitual inclination or mode of
with marathon>                                       emotional response <Edwin had a nervous
                                                     temperament>
sys·tems
noun                                                 tem·per·a·ture
a regularly interacting or interdependent group      noun
of items forming a unified whole <Math is the         the degree of heat that is natural to the body of
study of number systems>:                            a living being c: abnormally high body heat
                                                     <Sara was running a temperature so she stayed
tact·ful·ness                                        home from school>
noun
having or showing mental or aesthetic                tem·po·ral
perception <Sherry showed tactfulness in not         adjective
mentioning that John had mispronounced the           of or relating to earthly life <In this temporal
word>                                                world, we are subject to the rules of nature>

taste·ful                                            tem·po·rar·i·ly
adjective                                            adverb
having, exhibiting, or conforming to good taste      during a limited time <the store is closed
<The tasteful display of flowers adorned the         temporarily>
table>
                                                     ten·ant
tav·ern                                              noun
noun                                                 one who rents or leases (as a house) from a
an establishment where alcoholic beverages are       landlord <Jack is a tenant in the apartment
sold to be drunk on the premises <the peasants       building>
gathered at the tavern to hear the news and tell
stories>
ten·den·cy                                            thought
noun                                                  past and past participle of THINK <I thought
a proneness to a particular kind of thought or        you were coming over at 5:00>
action <Mary has a tendency to fidget while
she studies>                                          thou·sand
                                                      noun
ten·e·ment                                            a very large number <A thousand ants invaded
noun                                                  our picnic>
any of various forms of corporeal property (as
land) or incorporeal property that is held by one     to·geth·er
person from another <the tenement did not have
working indoor plumbing>                              adverb
                                                      in or into one place, mass, collection, or group
ter·ri·to·ry                                          <the men get together every Thursday for
noun                                                  poker>
a geographic area belonging to or under the
jurisdiction of a governmental authority <Lewis       to·mor·row
and Clark explored the Northwest Territory in         adverb
the early 19 th century>                              on or for the day after today <I will mow the
                                                      lawn tomorrow>
tex·tu·al
adjective                                             trag·e·dy
of, relating to, or based on a text <My               noun
knowledge of the subject is completely textual>       a disastrous event : CALAMI TY b: MISFORTUNE
                                                      <The earthquake in China was a tragedy>
the·o·ries
noun                                                  trans·ferred
the analysis of a set of facts in their relation to   verb
one another <there were many theories as to           to convey from one person, place, or situation to
how the lamp was broken>                              another <I was transferred to a new office>

there·fore                                            trans·por·ta·tion
adverb                                                noun
for that reason : CONSEQUENTLY b: because of          means of conveyance or travel from one place
that c: on that ground <I think, therefore I am>      to another <I ride public transportation to
                                                      work>
thir·ti·eth
adjective or noun                                     tres·pass
number 30 in a sequence <My thirtieth                 noun
birthday was many years ago>                          an unlawful act committed on the person,
                                                      property, or rights of another; especially : a
thor·ough·ly                                          wrongful entry on real property <Sam was
 adverb                                               arrested for trespass >
carried through to completion <Jane studied the
book thoroughly and did very well on the test>
twelfth
adjective or noun                                    un·con·scious
number twelve of a sequence <Some people             adjective
have parties on the twelfth night after              having lost consciousness <alan was
Christmas>                                           unconscious for three days after the accident>

twen·ti·eth                                          un·con·trol·la·ble
adjective or noun                                    adjective
number 20 of a sequence <I had a big party on        incapable of being controlled
my twentieth birthday>                               : UNGOVERNABLE <The woman had a rush of
                                                     uncontrollable emotions>
typ·i ·cal
adjective                                            un·de·sir·able
constituting or having the nature of a type <It is   adjective
typical of Frank to be so generous>                  not desirable : UNWANTED <undesirable side
                                                     effects of the medication are drooling and
tyr·an·ny                                            sleepiness>
noun
oppressive power <I am against every form of         un·doubt·ed·ly
tyranny over the mind of man>                        adverb
                                                     not doubted : GENUI NE, UNDISPUTED <Your
ubiq·ui·tous                                         story is undoubtedly true>
adjective
existing or being everywhere at the same time        un·eas·i·ness
: constantly encountered : WIDESPREAD <The            noun
peasant skirt is a ubiquitous fashion>               physical or mental discomfort <Ellen had a
                                                     feeling of uneasiness about leaving the gate
ul·tra·son·ic                                        open>
adjective
having a frequency above the human ear's             un·for·get·ta·ble
audibility limit of about 20,000 hertz —used of      adjective
waves and vibrations <Cats can hear ultrasonic       incapable of being forgotten : MEMORABLE
sounds humans cannot>                                <The musical CATS had unforgettable music
                                                     and staging>
unan·i·mous
adjective                                            uni·lat·er·al
having the agreement and consent of all <The         adjective
candidate received unanimous support>                done or undertaken by one person or party <The
                                                     army performed a unilateral withdrawal from
un·be·liev·able                                      the country>
adjective
too improbable for belief <the plot is unreal and
unbelievable>;

un·civ·i·lized
adjective
not civilized : BARBAROUS <The
kindergarteners were uncivilized>
uni·ver·si·ties                                      usu·al·ly
noun                                                 adverb
an institution of higher learning providing          accordant with usage, custom, or habit
facilities for teaching and research and             : NORMAL <I usually have coffee with my
authorized to grant academic degrees;                breakfast>
specifically : one made up of an undergraduate
division which confers bachelor's degrees and a      vac·u·um
graduate division which comprises a graduate         noun
school and professional schools each of which        a device creating or utilizing a partial vacuum
may confer master's degrees and doctorates           <I used a vacuum cleaner to clean the carpet>
<College-bound students generally begin to
visit universities in their junior year of high      valleys
school                                               noun
                                                     an elongate depression of the earth's s urface
un·nec·es·sary                                       usually between ranges of hills or mountains
adjective                                            <The valleys often flooded during spring
not necessary <It is unnecessary to raise your       runoff>
hand before you leave the classroom>
                                                     valu·able
un·til                                               adjective
preposition                                          having monetary value <the vase you smashed
used as a function word to indicate continuance      was very valuable>
(as of an action or condition) to a specified time
<Rory stayed with the pony until morning>            va·ri ·e·ties
                                                     noun
un·usu·al                                            the quality or state of having different forms or
adjective                                            types <I am growing several varieties of
not usual : UNCOMMON, RARE <It is unusual to         tomatoes in my garden>
have cake for breakfast>
                                                     var·i ·ous
ur·gen·cy                                            adjective
noun                                                 dissimilar in nature or form : UNLIKE <There
the quality or state of being urgent                 are various shoes in the store which you may
: INSISTENCE <Janet begged her mother to open        like>
the door with urgency>
                                                     ven·ti·late
us·age                                               transitive verb
noun                                                 to expose to air and especially to a current of
the action, amount, or mode of using <There          fresh air for purifying, curing, or refreshing
was a decreased usage of electricity due to          <Open the window to ventilate the room>
conservation>
                                                     ven·tril·o·quist
use·ful                                              noun
adjective                                            one who provides entertainment by using
capable of being put to use; especially              ventriloquism to carry on an apparent
: serviceable for an end or purpose < hammers        conversation with a hand-manipulated dummy
and screwdrivers are useful tools>                   <the ventriloquist was so talented, it looked like
                                                     the dummy was really speaking>
ver·ba·tim                                            vi·cin·i·ty
adverb                                                noun
in the exact words : word for word <I quoted          the quality or state of being near : PROXIMI TY
the speech verbatim>                                  <the police were in the vicinity of the crime
                                                      when it was committed>
ver·bose
adjective                                             vic·tim
containing more words than necessary : WORDY          noun
<Martin gave a verbose reply to a simple              one that is tricked or duped <Shawn was the
question>;                                            victim of the prank>
ver·nac·u·lar
adjective                                             view
using a language or dialect native to a region or     noun
country rather than a literary, cultured, or          extent or range of vision <The view of the
foreign language <slang is part of the                Spokane Falls from the downtown library is the
vernacular of any language>                           best in town>

ver·sa·tile                                           vil·lage
adjective                                             noun
embracing a variety of subjects, fields, or skills;   settlement usually larger than a hamlet and
also : turning with ease from one thing to            smaller than a town b: an incorporated minor
another <Linda was a versatile dancer, being          municipality <The village came together to
able to perform ballet and tap>                       celebrate the harvest>

vet·er·an                                             vil·lain·ous
noun                                                  adjective
a person of long experience usually in some           befitting a villain (as in evil or depraved
occupation or skill (as politics or the arts) <The    character) <a villainous attack on the village
boy was a veteran at spelling bees>                   struck fear in the hearts of the inhabitants>

vi·a·ble                                              vin·e·gar
adjective                                             noun
 capable of working, functioning, or developing       a sour liquid obtained by fermentation of dilute
adequately <There were several viable                 alcoholic liquids and used as a condiment or
alternatives to cutting down the tree>                preservative <I like a simple dressing of oil and
                                                      vinegar on my salad>
vi·bra·to
noun                                                  vir·tu·ous
a slightly tremulous effect imparted to vocal or      adjective
instrumental tone for added warmth and                morally excellent : RIGHTEOUS <Jane made a
expressiveness by slight and rapid variations in      virtuous decision to visit her grandmother>
pitch <String players add vibrato to their
playing by rapidly moving their finger side to        vis·i·ble
side>                                                 adjective
                                                      capable of being seen <There are thousands of
                                                      stars visible to the naked eye>
vi·ta·min                                            wield
noun                                                 transitive verb
any of various organic substances that are           to handle (as a tool) especially effectively
essential in minute quantities to the nutrition of   <Mira can wield a broom like no other>
most animals and some plants, act especially as
coenzymes and precursors of coenzymes in the
regulation of metabolic processes but do not
provide energy or serve as building units, and
are present in natural foodstuffs or sometimes
produced within the body <Vitamin C may help
cure colds>


viv·i ·fy
transitive verb
to endow with life or renewed life : ANIMATE
<We long for rains that vivify the barren hills>

vol·ume
noun
the degree of loudness or the intensity of a
sound <please turn down the volume on the
TV>

wan·der
verb
to move about without a fixed course, aim, or
goal <Don‟t wander off and get lost>

wave
noun
a moving ridge or swell on the surface of a
liquid (as of the sea) <The wave knocked me
over>

wealth·i ·est
adjective
characterized by abundance <Bill was the
wealthiest man in town>

weath·er
noun
 the state of the atmosphere with respect to heat
or cold, wetness or dryness, calm or storm,
clearness or cloudiness <The weather is
generally hot and dry in the summer>

								
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