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Comprehension with
Fiction and Nonfiction
Gay Su Pinnell
TARA 2008
Systems of Strategic Actions

 Thinking Within the Text
 Thinking Beyond the Text

 Thinking About the Text
               How Readers Process a Text – Comprehending Strategies
Strategic Systems for Thinking Within the Text
Solving         Using a range of strategies for decoding and understanding the meaning
     words           of words.
Monitoring/     Checking on their reading to be sure of the meaning and self correcting
    Self-           when needed.
Gathering       Picking up the important information from print as the eyes move across
Summarizin      Putting together and remembering the important information as an
    g                 ongoing statement of what the text is all about.
Maintaining     Sustaining smooth, phrased reading that reflects rapid word solving
    Fluenc           while thinking about the meaning of the text.
Adjusting       Varying reading style and rate according to purpose for reading and the
                     type of text.
Strategic Systems for Thinking Beyond the Text
Predicting      Anticipating what will follow-0-at the word phrase, sentence, or text
Connecting      Searching for, noticing, and making connections to their own personal
                     experience to their knowledge of the world (content knowledge),
                     and to other texts they have read.
Inferring       Thinking about what the writer implies but does not tell explicitly.
Synthesizing    Revising one’s own background knowledge as new understanding is
Strategic Systems for Thinking About the Text
Analyzing       Closely examining elements of the text to know more about the writer’s
                     craft and the construction of text.
      Context #1: Interactive Read
       (A Foundation)
 Teacher reads a text aloud
 Teacher and students think about, talk about,
  and respond to the text
 Reader and listener are active

 Listeners process language, ideas, and
  meaning of the text
 Teacher stops briefly and intentionally to
  demonstrate text talk or invite interaction

 Selection and Preparation
 Opening

 Reading Aloud
     Embedded Teaching
     Text Talk

 Discussion and Self-Evaluation
 Record of Reading

 Written or Artistic Response (optional)
Intentional Conversation

   Opening moves

   Conversational moves directed toward
    a goal of instruction

   Embedded teaching

   Text talk as evidence of thinking
The  analysis of a text
will help you think about
opportunities for
deepening students’
Develop a Shared Language as
Appropriate to Grade Level
   Fiction:
     Setting            Genre
     Characters         Style

     Problem or Plot    Simile

     Narrator           Metaphor

     Perspective        Personification

     Mood
Develop a Shared Language as
Appropriate to Grade Level
   Factual Texts:
     Accuracy of Information
     Style
     Organization
     Features
     Patterns
Develop a Shared Language as
Appropriate to Grade Level
   Biography:
     Setting
     Subject
     Themes
     Accuracy
     Structure
     Illustrations/Graphic Features
      Developing Text Sets

 Themes
 Topic
 Structure
 Genre
 Author
 Illustrator
 Fiction/Nonfiction
 Craft Element
     My Best Friend (Rodman)
     My Best Friend (Hutchins)
     My Best Friend Moved Away (Carlson)
     Ira Says Goodbye (Waber)
     Ira Sleeps Over (Waber)
     A Rainbow of Friends (Hallinan)
Animals as People
    Petunia (Duvoisin)
    Koala Lou (Mem Fox)
    Leo the Late Bloomer (Kraus)
    Pig Pig Grows Up (Kraus)
    Pig Pig Goes to Camp (McPhail)
    Elmer (McKee)
    I’m Not Moving, Mama (Carlstrom)
Traditional Literature/Pourquoi Tales
     Why Mosquitoes Buzz in People’s Ears
     The Great Ball Game (Bruchac)
     Why Ducks Sleep on One Leg (Garland)
     The Cat’s Purr (Bryan)
     The Great Race (Goble)
     How Night Came From the Sea (Gerson)
     How the Guinea Fowl Got her Spots (Knutson)

                              My Name is Yoon
   Those Summers (Aliki)      (Recorvits)
   Fireflies (Brinkloe)      Tar Beach (Ringgold)
   Big Mamas (Crews)         Grandfather’s Journey (Say)
   Shortcut (Crews)          We Had a Picnic This
   Grandma’s Latkes           Sunday Past (Woodson)
    (Drucker)                 Sweet Sweet Memory
   How My Parents             (Woodson)
    Learned to Eat            Coolies (Yin)
    (Friedman)                All Those Secrets of the
   Tell Me a Story Mama       World (Yolen)
    (Johnson)                 Stevie (Steptoe)
   Saturdays and
    Teacakes (Laminack)
   Uncle Jed’s Barbershop
Planning a Year of
Interactive Read Aloud
   Consider authors, illustrators, genres,
    topics, writer’s craft, content studies.
Context #2: Book Clubs

   Building a deeper meaning of a text

   Thinking and talking together about an
    age appropriate, grade appropriate

   Shared inquiry

  Prepare
  Discuss
  Summarize and Evaluate
  Extend (optional)
Minilessons to Support
 Literature Discussion
  Procedural
  Strategies and Skills
  Literary Analyses
Scheduling Groups

 Depends on class size and group size
 Depends on the text
Scheduling Book Clubs-
Examples for 4 Clubs:
 Monday and Wednesday, first 2
  weeks of each month
 All groups on the 1st Wednesday of
  the month
 1 or 2 groups every Friday
 Every other week—1 group per day,
  Monday through Thursday
 1 club a day staggered across first 5
  days of the month
   Structure for Book Clubs

Preparing       Read, think, mark

Discussing      Talk and listen

Evaluating      Reflect

Extending       Extending and
(Optional)      sharing understanding
         Thinking about our Book Club
   Everyone got a chance to talk.
   People spoke clearly.
   People looked at the speaker.
   People used signals to get a turn.
   The group worked ass a team: no ones said, “Hurry up.”
   People in the group were polite and kind to one another.
   People commented on one another’s thinking.
   People were reminded to show evidence for the points they made.
   Group members went to the text to show what they meant.
   People stayed on the topic.
   The leader did a good job being patient.
   People in the group referred to the illustrations.
   Group members gave details in their answers to questions.
Today in Book Club I:
Teacher’s Role

 Leader
 Facilitator

 Participant

 Observer

 Evaluator
Getting Started with Book
1.   Making Good Book Choices
2.   Making Choices for Book Club
3.   Preparing for Book Club
4.   Making Notes for Discussion
5.   Using a Thinkmark to Make Notes
6.   Writing Personal Reflections and
7.   Getting Started Quickly
8.   Respecting Group Members
9.   Respecting one another’s thinking
Getting Started with Book
10.   Participating Actively
11.   Listening Well
12.   Taking Turns
13.   Building on Ideas
14.   Disagreeing Politely
15.   Encouraging Group Members
16.   Marking Sentences or Passages
17.   Noticing Memorable Language
18.   Noticing Important Information in the Text and
19.   Noticing Important Information in the
Getting Started with Book
20.   Using Stick-on Notes to Mark Places
21.   Supporting Your Thinking with Evidence
22.   Searching for Information
23.   Sharing Your Thinking
24.   Summarizing the Learning
25.   Evaluating the Discussion
26.   Having a Good Discussion
27.   Making Predictions
28.   Noticing Perspectives
29.   Identifying Genre
Getting Started with Book
30.   Using a Good Voice Level
31.   Asking Questions
32.   Asking Follow-up Questions
33.   Requesting Evidence
34.   Noticing What Made the Text
      Engaging or Interesting
35.   Reflecting After Discussion
Context #3. Guided
 Text Selection
 Text Introduction

 Reading and Interaction

 Discussion of the Meaning

 Teaching

 Extending Meaning (optional)

 Working with Words (optional)
        Book Clubs and Guided
               Book Clubs                 Guided Reading
           Mixed Groups                 Similar Group
           Not Leveled Texts             Members
           Individual Selection         Leveled Texts
            (with guidance)              Teacher Selection
           Teacher Role                  of Text
            Changes                      Explicit Instruction

Discussion of the meaning of texts.
Teaching for systems of strategic actions for comprehending texts.
Analysis of Texts—What does
this text demand of the reader?
           Fiction                               Nonfiction
   What background information        What background information
    is needed to understand the         is needed to understand the
    text?                               text?
   What are the word solving          How is information presented
    challenges?                         in the text? (Categories,
   What does the reader need to        sequence, etc.)
    understand about the plot and      What are the word solving
    characters?                         challenges?
   What are the key                   What are the key
    understandings required of          understandings required of
    the reader?                         the reader?
   What literary features offer       What graphics and readers’
    opportunities to learn?             tools require understanding?