Deepening Comprehension with Fiction and Nonfiction Texts Gay Su Pinnell TARA 2008 Systems of Strategic Actions Thinking Within the Text Thinking Beyond the Text Thinking About the Text How Readers Process a Text – Comprehending Strategies Strategic Systems for Thinking Within the Text Solving Using a range of strategies for decoding and understanding the meaning words of words. Monitoring/ Checking on their reading to be sure of the meaning and self correcting Self- when needed. correct ing Gathering Picking up the important information from print as the eyes move across it. Summarizin Putting together and remembering the important information as an g ongoing statement of what the text is all about. Maintaining Sustaining smooth, phrased reading that reflects rapid word solving Fluenc while thinking about the meaning of the text. y Adjusting Varying reading style and rate according to purpose for reading and the type of text. Strategic Systems for Thinking Beyond the Text Predicting Anticipating what will follow-0-at the word phrase, sentence, or text level. Connecting Searching for, noticing, and making connections to their own personal experience to their knowledge of the world (content knowledge), and to other texts they have read. Inferring Thinking about what the writer implies but does not tell explicitly. Synthesizing Revising one’s own background knowledge as new understanding is acquired. Strategic Systems for Thinking About the Text Analyzing Closely examining elements of the text to know more about the writer’s craft and the construction of text. Context #1: Interactive Read Aloud (A Foundation) Teacher reads a text aloud Teacher and students think about, talk about, and respond to the text Reader and listener are active Listeners process language, ideas, and meaning of the text Teacher stops briefly and intentionally to demonstrate text talk or invite interaction Structure Selection and Preparation Opening Reading Aloud Embedded Teaching Text Talk Discussion and Self-Evaluation Record of Reading Written or Artistic Response (optional) Intentional Conversation Opening moves Conversational moves directed toward a goal of instruction Embedded teaching Text talk as evidence of thinking The analysis of a text will help you think about opportunities for deepening students’ understanding. Develop a Shared Language as Appropriate to Grade Level Fiction: Setting Genre Characters Style Problem or Plot Simile Narrator Metaphor Perspective Personification Mood Develop a Shared Language as Appropriate to Grade Level Factual Texts: Accuracy of Information Style Organization Features Patterns Develop a Shared Language as Appropriate to Grade Level Biography: Setting Subject Themes Accuracy Structure Illustrations/Graphic Features Developing Text Sets Themes Topic Structure Genre Author Illustrator Fiction/Nonfiction Craft Element Friendship My Best Friend (Rodman) My Best Friend (Hutchins) My Best Friend Moved Away (Carlson) Ira Says Goodbye (Waber) Ira Sleeps Over (Waber) A Rainbow of Friends (Hallinan) Animals as People Petunia (Duvoisin) Koala Lou (Mem Fox) Leo the Late Bloomer (Kraus) Pig Pig Grows Up (Kraus) Pig Pig Goes to Camp (McPhail) Elmer (McKee) I’m Not Moving, Mama (Carlstrom) Traditional Literature/Pourquoi Tales Why Mosquitoes Buzz in People’s Ears (Aardema) The Great Ball Game (Bruchac) Why Ducks Sleep on One Leg (Garland) The Cat’s Purr (Bryan) The Great Race (Goble) How Night Came From the Sea (Gerson) How the Guinea Fowl Got her Spots (Knutson) Memoir My Name is Yoon Those Summers (Aliki) (Recorvits) Fireflies (Brinkloe) Tar Beach (Ringgold) Big Mamas (Crews) Grandfather’s Journey (Say) Shortcut (Crews) We Had a Picnic This Grandma’s Latkes Sunday Past (Woodson) (Drucker) Sweet Sweet Memory How My Parents (Woodson) Learned to Eat Coolies (Yin) (Friedman) All Those Secrets of the Tell Me a Story Mama World (Yolen) (Johnson) Stevie (Steptoe) Saturdays and Teacakes (Laminack) Uncle Jed’s Barbershop (Mitchell) Planning a Year of Interactive Read Aloud Consider authors, illustrators, genres, topics, writer’s craft, content studies. Context #2: Book Clubs Building a deeper meaning of a text Thinking and talking together about an age appropriate, grade appropriate text Shared inquiry Structure Prepare Discuss Summarize and Evaluate Extend (optional) Minilessons to Support Literature Discussion Procedural Strategies and Skills Literary Analyses Scheduling Groups Depends on class size and group size Depends on the text Scheduling Book Clubs- Examples for 4 Clubs: Monday and Wednesday, first 2 weeks of each month All groups on the 1st Wednesday of the month 1 or 2 groups every Friday Every other week—1 group per day, Monday through Thursday 1 club a day staggered across first 5 days of the month Structure for Book Clubs Preparing Read, think, mark Discussing Talk and listen Evaluating Reflect Extending Extending and (Optional) sharing understanding Thinking about our Book Club Discussion: Everyone got a chance to talk. People spoke clearly. People looked at the speaker. People used signals to get a turn. The group worked ass a team: no ones said, “Hurry up.” People in the group were polite and kind to one another. People commented on one another’s thinking. People were reminded to show evidence for the points they made. Group members went to the text to show what they meant. People stayed on the topic. The leader did a good job being patient. People in the group referred to the illustrations. Group members gave details in their answers to questions. Today in Book Club I: Teacher’s Role Leader Facilitator Participant Observer Evaluator Getting Started with Book Clubs 1. Making Good Book Choices 2. Making Choices for Book Club 3. Preparing for Book Club 4. Making Notes for Discussion 5. Using a Thinkmark to Make Notes 6. Writing Personal Reflections and Questions 7. Getting Started Quickly 8. Respecting Group Members 9. Respecting one another’s thinking Getting Started with Book Clubs 10. Participating Actively 11. Listening Well 12. Taking Turns 13. Building on Ideas 14. Disagreeing Politely 15. Encouraging Group Members 16. Marking Sentences or Passages 17. Noticing Memorable Language 18. Noticing Important Information in the Text and Art 19. Noticing Important Information in the Illustrations Getting Started with Book Clubs 20. Using Stick-on Notes to Mark Places 21. Supporting Your Thinking with Evidence 22. Searching for Information 23. Sharing Your Thinking 24. Summarizing the Learning 25. Evaluating the Discussion 26. Having a Good Discussion 27. Making Predictions 28. Noticing Perspectives 29. Identifying Genre Getting Started with Book Clubs 30. Using a Good Voice Level 31. Asking Questions 32. Asking Follow-up Questions 33. Requesting Evidence 34. Noticing What Made the Text Engaging or Interesting 35. Reflecting After Discussion Context #3. Guided Reading--Structure Text Selection Text Introduction Reading and Interaction Discussion of the Meaning Teaching Extending Meaning (optional) Working with Words (optional) Book Clubs and Guided Reading Book Clubs Guided Reading Mixed Groups Similar Group Not Leveled Texts Members Individual Selection Leveled Texts (with guidance) Teacher Selection Teacher Role of Text Changes Explicit Instruction Discussion of the meaning of texts. Teaching for systems of strategic actions for comprehending texts. Analysis of Texts—What does this text demand of the reader? Fiction Nonfiction What background information What background information is needed to understand the is needed to understand the text? text? What are the word solving How is information presented challenges? in the text? (Categories, What does the reader need to sequence, etc.) understand about the plot and What are the word solving characters? challenges? What are the key What are the key understandings required of understandings required of the reader? the reader? What literary features offer What graphics and readers’ opportunities to learn? tools require understanding?