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Self Replicating Robots

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SELF-REPLICATING
ROBOTS

                          BY:
                          SAHITI CHUKKAPALLI
                          ANUPAMA BOMMAKANTI


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                           ABSTRACT
Self reproduction is ultimate form of self repair. Self replication is
generally considered to be a machine that can build itself, and that they
can build another copy and so on. The self reproducing machines
demonstrated here are essentially modular robots, consisting of multiple
identical actuated modules with electromagnets to selectively weaken and
strengthen connections .The cubes are powered at the base and transfer
data and power through their faces. The control of machine is distributed
among the modules executes a motion schedule governed by time and
contact events. The sides also have electromagnets that enable them to
selectively attach and detach from each other. The modular robot can thus
reconfigure itself. And in each block is a small computer chip which is
programmed with step-by-step instructions about what to do. It is a small
step towards developing robots that can repair and replicate themselves in
space or hazardous environments



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DEFINITION OF ROBOTICS:
Robotics is the science and technology of how
robots are made and function via electronic
and mechanical processes. It is also about
understanding the software applications that
control their movements. Robots are essentially
machines that perform tasks.



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SELF REPLICATING ROBOTS:
DEFINITION:
•Self-replication is the process by which a thing may act,
and thereby make a copy of itself.
•Biological cells, given suitable environments, reproduce
by cell division. During cell division, DNA is replicated
and can be transmitted to offspring during
reproduction.. Computer viruses reproduce using the
hardware and software already present on computers.
• A self-replicating machine is, as the name suggests, an
artificial self-replicating system that relies on
conventional large-scale technology and automation.
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 It is unlikely that this would all be contained within a
single monolithic structure, but would rather be a group of
cooperating machines that is capable of manufacturing all
of the machines.
The factory needs production of mining robots to collect
raw materials, construction robots to put new machines
together, and repair robots to maintain itself against wear
and tear, all without human intervention or direction.
Self-replicating machine needs the capacity to gather
energy and raw materials, process the raw materials into
finished components, and then assemble them into a copy
of itself
The advantage of such a system lies in its ability to
expand its own capacity rapidly and without additional
human effort.
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Self-replicating machine needs the capacity to gather energy
and raw materials, process the raw materials into finished
components, and then assemble them into a copy of itself
 The advantage of such a system lies in its ability to expand
its own capacity rapidly and without additional human effort.




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SELF REPLICATING
MACHINES REQUIRE:
•Construction materials
•Manufacture of new parts
•Consistent power source
•Programming the new members




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Theory:
Research by John von Neumann established that
one common form of a replicator has several
parts:
A genome, a compact, usually error-resistant
representation of the replicator's stored
algorithm. Biologically, this is DNA.
A specialized set of mechanisms to copy and
repair the genome, using resources gathered by
the body. Biologically, this is something like
transcriptase.
A body, which gathers resources and energy,
and interprets a stored algorithm. Biologically,
these are ribosomes.
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A self-reproducing computer
program

In computer science a self-reproducing
computer program is a computer program,
that, when executed, outputs its own code.
An example in the Python programming
language:
a='a=%s;print a%%`a`';print a%`a`

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CLASSIFICATION OF SELF REPLICATING ROBOTS:

Recent research has begun to categorize replicators,
based on the amount of support they require.
•Natural replicators have all or most of their design
from nonhuman sources. Such systems include natural
life forms.
•Autotrophic replicators can reproduce themselves "in
the wild". They mine their own materials. It is
conjectured that non-biological autotrophic replicators
could be designed by humans, and could easily accept
specifications for human products.
•Self-reproductive systems are conjectured systems
which would produce copies of themselves from
industrial feedstocks such as metal bar and wire.
•Self-assembling systems are assemble copies of
themselves from finished, delivered parts.
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Design consideration
The design phase of the replicators is very broad. A
comprehensive study to date has identified 137 design
dimensions grouped into a dozen separate categories,
including: (1) Replication Control, (2) Replication
Information, (3) Replication Substrate, (4) Replicator
Structure, (5) Passive Parts, (6) Active Subunits, (7)
Replicator Energetics, (8) Replicator Kinematics, (9)
Replication Process, (10) Replicator Performance, (11)
Product Structure, and (12) Evolvability.



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Construction:
A self replicating robot which has been developed
recently contains a series of modular cubes called
"molecubes" each containing identical machinery
and the complete computer program for replication.




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•The cubes have electromagnets on their faces that
allow them to selectively attach to and detach from
one another, and a complete robot consists of several
cubes linked together.

•Each cube is divided in half along a long diagonal,
which allows a robot composed of many cubes to
bend, reconfigure and manipulate other cubes. For
example, a tower of cubes can bend itself over at a
right angle to pick up another cube.




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Base plate that supplies energy to cubes.




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  WORKING PRINCIPLE:
 Replication starts with , the stack of cubes bending over and
  sets its top cube


 Then it bends to one side or another to pick up a
  new cube and deposit it on top of the first


By repeating the process, one robot made up of a stack of
cubes can create another just like itself. Since one robot
cannot reach across another robot of the same height, the
robot being built assists in completing its own construction.


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    APPLICATIONS OF THE SELF
      REPLICATING ROBOTS
 Terrestrial Applications: An Intelligent Earth-Sensing
  Information System
 A new primitive cell state in the system to permit signals to
  cross without interference called "wire-crossing" organ can be
  devised using only the self replicating cell types
 Studies of the flow of excitation in heart tissue, the dispersal of
  medicinal drugs, and pattern recognition
 Cell spaces also have been investigated as abstract
  mathematical objects where one tries to determine whether
  from every mathematical pattern all other patterns can be
  attained, and whether there are some patterns not attainable
  at all by means of the transition function, and various other
  specialized questions.

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              CONCLUSION
 Self-reproduction is the ultimate form of self-
  repair. We see that robotic systems are becoming
  more complex, and in some cases like space
  exploration, they need to sustain operation for
  long periods of time without human assistance.
 If you send a robot to Mars, for example, and it
  breaks, there is little you can do. But if instead of
  sending a fixed robot you send a robot with a
  supply of modules, then that robot may be able to
  self-repair and even make more and possibly
  different robots if the mission needs change
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