The Rise and Spread of Islam-Chapter 10 Section 1: 1. Where did Islam originate? Describe the people and their lifestyle. Islam originated in the Arabian Peninsula (also known as Southwest Asia or the Middle East). The people living there were nomads called Bedouins who lived in tribes or clans. They developed fierce fighting skills and took pride in their ability to defend their families. Most of the area was desert so they moved around and eventually settled in one of the few farming communities or a market town. 2. Why was Arabia a crossroads of trade? Arabia is located between Asia (to the east), Europe (to the north), and Africa (to the west). Goods moving from one area to the other passed through Arabia and allowed the Muslim Arabs to establish a wealthy empire. 3. What religion was practiced before Islam? Before Islam the Arabic peoples practiced a polytheistic religion. Some people believed in one God called Allah and some people practiced Christianity or Judaism, but most believed in many different gods. 4. Who is Mohammed? Who is Allah? What does Islam mean? What does Muslim mean? Mohammed is the prophet who founded Islam. Allah is the one true God of Islam. Islam means “submission to the will of Allah”. Muslim (people who follow Islam) means “one who submits to Allah”. 5. What is the importance of Mecca and Medina? Mecca is the city where Mohammed was born and where he founded Islam. It is the center of Islam. Medina is the city where Mohammed and his first followers fled to because they were forced out of Mecca. After Mohammed and his followers gained power they went back and took over Mecca. 6. What is the holy book of Islam? What are the major beliefs? The Qur‟an (Koran) is the holy book of Islam. Islam is monotheistic. Muslims believe everyone must take personal responsibility for their actions and that there will be a final judgment and people will go either to heaven or hell based on their actions. They also believe that all Muslims must follow the Five Pillars. 7. What are the Five Pillars? The Five Pillars are: Faith-Muslims must testify that there is only one God (Allah) and that Mohammed is the last prophet. Prayer-Muslims must pray five times per day facing Mecca. Alms-Muslims must support the poor through a special alms tax. Fasting-Muslims must fast during the holy month of Ramadan (they only eat one meal at sundown). Pilgrimage-Muslims must travel to Mecca at least once in their lifetime if they are able. 8. What language is used in the Qur’an? Arabic is the language used in the Qur‟an. 9. How does religion affect the daily lives of Muslims? The Five Pillars and the Muslim law (called the shiri‟a) dictated what people did-when to pray, how to pray, how to dress, what to eat, etc. 10. How is Islam related to Judaism and Christianity? They are all religions “of the book” because they all have holy books and they all believe in one God and the prophet Abraham. They also all believe in a final judgment and heaven and hell. The Rise and Spread of Islam-Chapter 10 Section 2: 1. What is a caliph? Who are the “rightly guided” caliphs? What territory did they add to the Muslim world? A caliph is the Muslim leader. It means „successor‟ or „deputy‟. The “Rightly Guided Caliphs” were the first four ELECTED caliphs who had known and supported Muhammed. The Muslim world eventually included Arabia, Syria, lower Egypt (which was part of the Byzantine Empire), parts of the Persian Empire. It covered around 6000 miles from the Atlantic (next to Spain) to the Indus river. 2. Why was the spreading of Islam so successful? Islam spread so successfully because of the military which was very well-trained and also very faithful. When they conquered people they were examples of the Islamic religion. 3. How did the Muslims treat conquered peoples? Muslims allowed conquered peoples to keep their own religion but if they converted to Islam they didn‟t have to pay poll taxes. Christians and Jews were able to pay to be exempt from military service. Muslims did place various restrictions on the personal freedoms of their conquered peoples. 4. Describe what happened after Uthman’s murder in 656. Who are the Umayyads and how did their rule differ from previous caliphs? After Uthman‟s murder civil war broke out among the Muslims. The Umayyads took over. They established hereditary rule (dynasty) instead of having elected rulers like the previous caliphs. The Umayyads also moved the capital from Mecca to Damascus. 5. Describe the split in Islam? What are the two groups? The Muslims split into the Shi‟a (Shiites) who resisted Umayyad rule and believed that caliphs should be related to Muhammed and the Sunnis who didn‟t openly resist Umayyads and followed their rule. 6. Who overthrew the Umayyads in 750 and took control of the empire? The Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads in 750 and took control of the Muslim Empire. 7. What group took control of Spain? At what battle was the Muslim conquest of Europe stopped? The Berbers took control of Spain and spread Islam into Europe for the first time. The Muslim conquest of Europe was stopped at the Battle of Tours in France. 8. Why did the Abbasids move the capital to Baghdad? How did they consolidate power? The Abbasids moved the capital from Damascus to Baghdad in order to solidify their power and control of the Persian Empire which they conquered. In order to govern their growing empire they created a strong bureaucracy. They divided the government into different departments like: The treasury kept track of the flow of money in the empire The Chancery produced official documents A special department ran the military In order to support the bureaucracy they collected taxes. 9. Where was the Fatimid Dynasty located? Despite divisions between the Abbasid Empire and the smaller powers, what unified them? The Fatimid Dynasty established power in Egypt, western Arabia, and Syria. Despite the fact that there were different empires, they were still unified through their religion (Islam), their language (Arabic), trade, and the economy. 10. Describe the Muslim trade networks. How did they encourage the flow of trade? The trade networks of the Muslim world existed in: The Mediterranean (they could trade with North Africa and Europe) The Indian Ocean (they could trade with India, Africa, or China) Land routes connecting the Silk Roads from China with Africa and Europe Section 3: 1. List four important Muslim cities. Describe the city of Baghdad. Four important Muslim cities were Baghdad, Damascus, Cairo, and Cordoba. The city of Baghdad was a magnificent city built within the protection of three circular walls. In the center of the city was the caliph‟s palace which was made of stone and marble and the great mosque which was used for worship. 2. Describe the social classes. The upper class was the people who were born Muslim. The second class was the people who converted to Islam. The lower class was the non-Muslim protected peoples (Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians). The bottom class was the slaves. 3. What was the role of Muslim women? In the early days is Islam women were allowed to participate in public life and gain an education. They generally had more rights than the women in Europe at the same time. Women were expected to be obedient to men but they still had certain rights concerning marriage, family, and property. Women were responsible for raising the family. 4. Why did Muslims support science and learning? How did they encourage scholarship? Muslims supported science and learning for practical purposes. They wanted qualified physicians to treat them. They wanted accurate calculations for the times of prayer and the direction of Mecca. The encouraged scholarship by encouraging scholars to collect and translate philosophical and scientific texts into Arabic and they opened the House of Wisdom in Baghdad which was a combination of translation academy and library. 5. What medical advancements were made? Al-Razi wrote the Comprehensive Book and Treatise on Smallpox and Measles. Al-Razi used observations to locate the best and healthiest place for a hospital. 6. Describe the Muslim advancements made in math and science. Muslims used scientific observation and experimentation in order to find solutions to problems. The made advancements in math such as Algebra (al-jabr), in optics (they were able to create telescopes and microscopes), and they charted stars, comets, and planets. 7. What ideals were celebrated by Muslim poetry and literature? The ideals of bravery, love, generosity, and hospitality were celebrated in Muslim poetry and literature. 8. What is a popular piece of Muslim literature which includes fairy tales, parables, and legends? A very famous and popular piece of Muslim literature is The Thousand and One Nights. 9. Why did Islam forbid the depiction of life in art? What form of art did Muslims turn to? Islam forbids the depiction of life in art because the creation of life would amount to idolatry and only Allah can create. The Muslims instead created calligraphy (decorative writing), woodwork, ceramics, and textiles. 10. What three Muslim empires would later emerge and reflect the blended nature of Muslim culture? Three Muslim Empires which would later emerge are the Ottoman, Safarid, and Mughal. The Rise and Spread of Islam-Chapter 10 Study Guide 1. Who was the founder of Islam? Muhammed was the founder of Islam. 2. Where did Islam originate? Islam originated on the Arabian Peninsula. 3. What holy city are Muslims expected to make a pilgrimage to at least once in their lives? Muslims are expected to make a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in their lives. 4. Where did Islam spread? Islam spread from Mecca to Medina and then through central Asia, North Africa, Spain, and parts of the old Byzantine and Persian empires. 5. What type of religion is Islam? Islam is a monotheistic religion. 6. What is the Arabic word for God? Allah is the Arabic word for God. 7. What is the holy book of Islam called? The Koran is the holy book of Islam. 8. What are the similarities and differences between Christians, Jews, and Muslims? Christians, Jews, and Muslims all believe in one God, the existence of prophets (like Abraham, Moses, and Jesus), and final judgment. They each have a holy book (Jews have the Torah, Christians have the New Testament, and Muslims have the Koran). Islam believes that Jesus is just a prophet and that Muhammed is the final messenger of God. 9. What are the two holy cities of Islam where Muhammad first gained followers? The two holy cities of Islam are Mecca and Medina. 10. What are the basic tenets of the Islamic faith called? The Five Pillars (faith, prayer, alms, fasting, pilgrimage) are the basic beliefs of Islam. 11. What facilitated trade and stimulated intellectual activity in the Muslim world? The Arabic language helped make trade and intellectual scholarship easier in the Muslim world. 12. What two weakened empires helped Islamic religion and culture spread? The weakened Byzantine and Persian empires helped Islamic religion and culture spread. 13. What was also spread along with the Islamic religion? The Arabic language was spread along with the Islamic religion. 14. What were the unifying forces in the Muslim world? The unifying forces in the Muslim world were religion (Islam) and trade. 15. What battle stopped the spread of Islam into Europe? The Battle of Tours stopped the Muslims from spreading Islam into the rest of Europe. 16. Where did the Battle of Tours take place? The Battle of Tours took place in France. 17. What are the three historical turning points in Islam? Three major turning points in Islam are the division of Islam between Shi‟a and Sunni, the conquest of Jerusalem and Damascus, and the Battle of Tours (which kept Islam from spreading into Europe). 18. What is an example of an Islamic contribution in architecture? A famous contribution of Islam to architecture is the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. 19. What mathematical contributions is Islam credited with? Algebra and Arabic numerals are two Islamic mathematical advancements. 20. What are the Five Pillars? The Five Pillars or guides for living in Islam are faith, alms, prayer, fasting, and pilgrimage.