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A Global Business

    Neil Colombini

     Kayla Madsen

      Nikki Scott

      CJ Stauffer



          The nationally respected University of Oregon track coach, Bill Bowerman and

track athlete Phil Knight founded Nike in 1964. Originally called Blue Ribbon Sports, the

two initially distributed shoes from the Japanese shoe manufacture, Onitsuka Tiger to

athletes throughout the state of Oregon. Phil Knight often sold shoes from the trunk of

his car after track and sporting events. Their main inspiration for venturing into the

athletic shoe business was to provide athletes with better quality shoes. Blue Ribbon

Sports quickly ended its relationship with Onitsuka Tiger and officially became Nike, Inc.

in 1978. The company took its name after the Greek goddess of victory and developed

the world renowned Nike “swoosh” logo along with a new innovative athletic shoe


          Within just two years Nike became public in 1980, controlling 50% market share

of the US athletic shoe market. Today, Nike is the world’s largest athletic footwear and

apparel supplier. The company employs more than 30,000 people globally. The Nike

World Headquarters, located near Beaverton Oregon, is home to more than 6,000

employees. The company’s innovative designs, development and marketing strategies

of high quality footwear, apparel, accessory, and equipment are all factor of Nike’s

continuing success. For the fiscal year ending May 31, 2008, Nike reported record

revenues of $18.6 billion.

Line of Business

          Nike markets its products under its own brand as well as Nike Golf, Nike Pro, Air

Jordan, Nike Skateboarding and subsidiaries including Cole Hann, Hurley International,

Umbro and Converse. Nike also owned Bauer Hockey between 1995 and 2008. In

addition to manufacturing sportswear and equipment, the company operates retail

stores such as Niketown, NIKE factory outlets, and NIKE Women shops. Nike sells its

products throughout the US and in more than 180 other countries.

Core Competencies

       Core competencies are capabilities that serve as a source of competitive

advantage for a firm over its rivals. Core competencies emerge over time through an

organizational process of learning how to position different resources and capabilities to

a company’s advantage. Nike’s core competencies exist in their effective marketing

strategies and their innovative product design. These two elements provide much value

and benefits to Nike’s consumers, are not easy for competitions to imitate, and can be

leveraged widely to most of their products and markets.

       Although Nike does not manufacture any of its own shoes, the company is still

today’s leader in selling athletic shoes and apparel. Nike's marketing strategy is an

important component of the company's success. Nike is positioned as a premium-brand,

selling well-designed and expensive products. Nike lures customers with a marketing

strategy centering on their brand image: a distinctive logo (the swoosh            ) and

the advertising slogan "Just do it". Nike promotes its products by spons orship

agreements with celebrity athletes, professional teams and college athletic teams,

creative advertisements, and professional athlete endorsements.

       From 1972 to 1982, Nike relied almost exclusively on print advertising. Most of

the early advertising was focused on a new shoe release, essentially outlining the

benefits of the running, basketball or tennis shoe. In 1982, Nike aired its first national

television ads, created by newly formed ad agency, Wieden & Kennedy, during the New

York Marathon. The first television ad marked the beginning of a remarkably successful

partnership between Nike and W& K that remains intact today. Not only was television

advertisements a huge success for Nike by reaching mass markets, but also the

company’s creative, eye catching & inspirational commercials are key factors that

created such a strong brand image for the company. Nike also has earned the Emmy

Award for best commercial twice since the award was first created in the 1990s.

       Nike has signed top athletes in many different professional sports to

endorsement deals in order to further promote their products. Nike's first professional

athlete endorser was Romanian tennis player Illie Nastase, and the company's first track

endorser was distance-running legend Steve Prefontaine. Today the company has

numerous athlete endorsements from golf pro Tiger Woods, Basketball phoneme Kobe

Bryant and tennis pro James Blake. Nike also sponsors various minor events including

Hoop It Up (high school basketball) and The Golden West Invitational (high school track

and field). Nike uses web sites as a promotional tool to cover these events. Nike also has

several websites for individual sports, including,,

and As of February 29, 2008, Nike’s endorsement and sponsorship

obligations are around $3.4 billion.

       The company’s innovative and creative product designs are what truly set Nike

apart from their competitors. Focusing one of its corporate values on technology and

innovation, Nike has pioneered four shoe-cushioning systems that reduce shock,

distribute pressure, protect from impact and offer comfort. These technological

developments include: Nike Air, Nike Air Max, Nike Air Zoom, and Nike Shox. It is these

innovations that improve performance and bring comfort to Nike consumers.

       Nike has also created an online website that is ideal for customization. The NIKE

ID Web site provides a fun and easy way for users to customize and buy footwear and

athletic gear. The site transforms the visitor into a designer, allowing them to apply their

choice of designs, colors and materials to a broad range of shoes, bags and equipment.

NikeID was the first of its kind when it was launched in 2000 Nike again, revolutionized

the way the world looked at sneakers and how consumers buy them.

       By focusing on their core competencies, Nike has remained the world's leading

supplier of athletic shoes and apparel and a major manufacturer of sports equipment

with revenue in excess of $18.6 billion in 2008.

SWOT Analysis


       A main strength of Nike is the incredible brand awareness. The “swoosh” is the

symbol of Nike and says Nike in all languages. Nike is the #1 shoemaker in the world and

largest marketer of athletic footwear holding a 37% market share globally. Nike has over

22,000 retail stores in 160 countries. In addition to its wide range of core athletic shoes

and apparel marketed under the flagship Nike brand, the company also sells footwear

under the Converse, Chuck Taylor, All Star, and Jack Purcell brands through wholly

owned subsidiary Converse Inc. and sells under the brands Starter, Shaq, and Asphalt in

the discount retailer channel through another subsidiary, Exeter Brands Group LLC. The

firm also sells Nike and Bauer brand athletic equipment; Hurley surfing, skateboarding,

and snowboarding apparel and footwear; and Cole Haan brand dress and casual

footwear. (, 2008)

       Nike predicts 2009 revenue to be up by 17% to $5.4 billion, which means Nike,

would have 28 consecutive quarters of year over year growth. One of the reasons for

this success is that Nike has contracts and is attached with literally every important

sports icon in the world. Just this last year the Nike brand was featured in the top

basketball, golf, and tennis stages in the world. Not to mention the impact the Beijing

games had on the Nike brand. All the Chinese stores set records for sales. 8 out of 10

players on both the men and women’s basketball teams wore Nike shoes. In major

global sports, soccer and basketball, Nike leads in both. (Nike, Inc., 2008)


       The Nike organization prides itself on innovation. They are constantly updating

and inventing new products for the market. However, even though this strateg y works it

may be risky putting all your “eggs in one basket.” The real question is what strategy

does Nike have when the consumer doesn’t care about innovation? This is not major

weakness of the company, but it should be taken into consideration when anal yzing.

       There’s no question that Nike has been on a sort of chopping block when it

comes to organizations like CorpWatch, etc. Although none of the allegations may be

true, it is a sure weakness of the company that they let these allegations be considered.

If you are corporation as large as Nike and use the resources they have, mainly the

outsourcing of work, I am surprised that Nike did not take into account what issues

might arise from doing so. Ideally Nike should not be involved in unethical practices, but

if they are they need to be able to hide it, or else that is a major weakness to the


        The retail sector Nike sells to is very price sensitive. Nike does have its own

retailer in Nike Town and the outlet stores. However, most of its income is derived from

selling into retailers. Retailers tend to offer a very similar experience to the consumer

and it is difficult to tell how one retailer is different from the other. The result is that

margins tend to get squeezed as retailers try to pass some of the low price competition

pressure onto Nike. (Marketing Teacher, 2008)


        The opportunity of Nike grows with every sports star that rises using the brand

and every family that grows financially and capable of buying their products. The major

opportunity in this day is China and its massive economic growth rate. Being the global

company it is Nike has noticed, and revenues in China have increased 50%. Not only

China, but Russia and Brazil grew 40% and 30% over the last year.

        In the new era of knowing your carbon footprint Nike has the opportunity to

show that even though they are a billion dollar organization, they do care about the

environment. There is the opportunity for Nike to produce athletic wear from

manufacturing waste and extend eco-friendly projects like the ‘Reuse-A-Shoe Program’

aimed at further recycling. (Business Teacher, 2008)


        Nike faces an interesting time with the meltdown of the US economy and

possible world recession. Recession proof comes to my mind, because numbers for Nike

haven’t declined. It appears that consumers will buy their Nike shoes no matter what

the financial situation is. However, it is still a major threat. It is too big to ignore, not

only for Nike, but for any company selling retail products. Even with the large market

share Nike has, competition is always a threat. Fila, Addidas, and New Balance are still

around and are the major competitors to Nike and their customers. A final threat Nike

faces is the issue of Nike’s questionable labor conditions/issues/practices. Do they or do

they not employ small children and pay them pennies per hour? The question remains

and Nike will argue that they are doing everything within their “guidelines” but cases

like these can severely tarnish or break a company. In the past these issues haven’t

seemed to bother too many people, but Nike should be aware of this issue (and I’m sure

they are) as it could come back at anytime. In fact, if you Google the word ‘Nike’ the

final webpage on the front page of Google is a website to boycott Nike. I will argue Nike

can consider this to be a threat.

Organizational Design

        The Nike organizational structure is hybrid of the geographical design and the

product based design (see Figure 1). What this entails is that managers of certain areas

respond to both their geographical Vice President and their product Vice President.

Interestingly enough, there is no formal communication link between the two different

Vice Presidents, but this structure Nike has created has allowed overlapping

management responsibilities and fluid leadership structure.

Global Strategies and Environmental Practices

       Nike is moving forward strong in the global market. They are prepared to be the

leader in soccer shoes and apparel by the next World Cup Championship in 2010 and

they are making deals and pushes that really demonstrate their competitive edge. Nike

Inc. managers said Tuesday they will add 100 new company stores worldwide over the

next three years as part of a plan to reach $23 billion in sales by 2011 for the world's

largest athletic shoe and clothing manufacturer. This is not only a push to go more

global but also part of their current global strategy to make it more possible to

customize and individualize Nike. Their newest strategy is putting emphasis on

individuality and appealing to each sport and athlete in a way they have never done

before. The current breakdown will be into 6 broad categories that will help define their

biggest markets: soccer, basketball, running, men's training, women's fitness, and sports

culture. This change in both their structural organization as well as opening of stores will

be a big move. There is potential here for growth but also the pros and cons need to be

evaluated in order to better understand why they are doing this. Although expansion is

always seen as good, how could this possibly be compromising to Nike themselves?

Opening so many more stores could make it so that Nike is competing with Nike.

However, with the broadening of their 6 categories and the awareness being arisen in

many new countries this could actually be a great potential for Nike and their brand.

Getting their name out there, particularly to countries where there is such a large

population allows for Nike to make this extreme increase in stores since

       In the soccer realm Nike has already had one big win over its German competitor

Adidas by signing a $506 million dollar contract with French National team Le Blue who

previously had been with Adidas for approximately 30 years. Not only this but they have

also signed Ronaldo de Assis Moreira more commonly known as Ronaldinho in the

soccer world to join famous athletic stars Michael Jordan, Lebron James and Tiger

Woods to have his own line of Nike merchandise. This also includes a symbol and a line

of soccer wear that will hopefully appeal to many young soccer generations who see the

Brazilian as a soccer superstar.

        Not only is Nike always evaluating and re working their marketing strategy at

home as well as internationally, they are also pendent on where their next biggest

potential will be. As most in the business world know, Brazil, Russia, India and China

BRIC are the biggest emerging countries with potential for huge growth due to their up

and coming populations and markets. Taking these geographical aspects into

consideration Nike has determined Russia, India and China to be its main focuses due to

high growth rates and the fact that they have determined China to be their future

number two investor for products.

       One of the biggest parts of any global strategy in today’s world involves

technology and the use of the internet. Nike is now making its online website more

available for customizing as well as ordering. They have adapted this pag e in many ways.

When you first log onto the website you first chose where you are located in the world,

then secondly you chose the language in which you would like to communicate. With

over 14 languages to choose from and 100 locations this is just anothe r piece of

evidence that shows how Nikes global strategy reaches every part of the world. When

one enters the European web page for Nike, advertisements are more directed towards

soccer, or fútbol as known by in Europe, and famous sports icons are front and center

on the page. When looking at Nikes United States region, the emphasis is more on

Basketball, Golf, NikeID and Nike+ which are more customized versions of Nike’s lines of

apparel. This easy access and targeting of different needs of the consumer in different

ways and languages permits Nike to hold on to that number one spot as shoe makers.

Nike has also proved to flourish in developing new brands and markets while it is pairing

with many other shoe companies as well as brands to widen its potential target market.

       As long as anyone can remember Nike has always been a global company and

with this global aspect comes many responsibilities. Since 1993 Nike has had a team

called NEAT, the Nike Environmental Action Team whose mission is to develop answers

to the problems that Nike’s business—and the sports industry as a whole—pose to the

environment and how they could integrate these into the everyday company’s business

practices. This team has been essential in the planning and development of many ideas

and sustainable practices that are carried out very frequently.

   In 1997, NEAT wrote a company policy that implemented these ideas and in 1998

was distributed to over 2000 employees. It consisted of the following principals:

      Integrate principles of sustainability into all major business decisions.

      Scrutinize environmental impacts in day-to-day operations and throughout every

       stage of the product life cycle.

      Design and develop product, materials, and technologies according to the

       fundamental principles of sustainability.

      Promote sustainable practices throughout the supply chain and seek business

       partnerships with suppliers who operate in a similar manner.

      Educate employees, customers, and business partners to support the goal of

       achieving sustainability.

       Not only did Nike implement this policy over ten years ago, they have made

remarkable and noteworthy sustainability efforts such as their recycle a shoe and their

water quality control. Among many others are chemical reduction, corporate boxes,

customer catalogs, organic cotton and plastic tank tops. All of the boxes used for

shipping as well as shoe boxes are post consumer recycled and they have been making

efforts to use post consumer recycled products in other mean of advertising such as

catalogs, posters, etc.

       Environmentally Nike is taking the right steps to prove their commitment to

doing better by the world and making their company more sustainable. Nike did not just

recently get on the “green” bandwagon of 2008 but has been working towards

renovating and innovating their products and lowering their pollution for many years.

“This is what we’ve been up to at Nike: challenging our assumptions, evolving our

perspective, building a new approach, considering how we can harness the power of our

business to influence social and environmental change and the power of that change to

help our business grow” Even though Nike received a bad rap for an incident in the

1990s and most pair Nike with the word sweat shops, Nike is making distinctions and

changes to become a more global friendly and worldwide supported in all aspects. The

fact that looking at Nikes online website you can find information on their global

footprint and social impacts reflects that this company is dedicated to movement

towards building responsibility as a global company. “Understanding Nike’s global

footprint and prioritizing areas where we have the greatest environmental and social

impact is essential for building a robust business case for corporate responsibility and

prioritizing our efforts.”

Diversity and Inclusion

        As we have discovered throughout our class, we all understand the importance

of employees and their happiness in order to successfully run any business. Due to the

magnitude of Nike and their number of stores and manufacturing plants throughout the

world, they have taken the time to recognize the importance of each individual and

what they can contribute to the team. For this reason, Nike does not call its employees,

employees, yet, team members because each part of the team has something to add to

the business. They have also admitted that they have a very large array of workers and

this brings many diverse cultures and points of views together. “At Nike, Diversity and

Inclusion is what drives creativity and innovation. It takes every one of our over 30,000

employees working at the top of their game for Nike to reach its highest potential. And

we know that outstanding teams are composed of diverse people, backgrounds and skill

sets.” This is a crucial factor in Nike’s diplomacy in their many locations and globally. In

identifying these differences they have set apart the opportunities to better understand

how their teams will work together and what adversity they may face because of this. In

order to strive to reach this mission they have put into action these strategies:

      Cultivate diversity and inclusion to develop world-class, high-performing teams

      Ignite change and inspire critical conversations around diversity, inclusion and


      Create venues and environments for open dialogue, diverse opinions and a

       multitude of perspectives

   All of which will in future venture apply and assist them in working more efficiently

and having more satisfied employees for longer periods of time.

Degree of Cultural Integration

       Although Nike is one of the leading global companies to this day, it’s important

to study and analyze how they first became global. Within the analysis it’s important to

examine their methods of integrating the company to the different cultures. Over the

years Nike has shown that their initial global expansion actually did not work too well,

which induced the negative media coverage about poor working conditions in their

manufacturing plants. Nike brought the “American Consumerism” marketing approach

to Asian countries that later led to some critical issues and concerns. However, the

interesting fact about Nike is that they managed to conduct their business globally,

without owning any manufacturing plants in Asia.

       Nike first started its mass producing system by going international straight from

the onset. They looked into the Asian countries to find cheap quality labor. In 1964

Nike signed a contract with Onitsuka Tiger Company who produced cheap but quality

shoes for Nike. Unfortunately in the 1970’s the price for shoe materials increased about

300%, giving Nike a big incentive to move to different countries. They later looked into

Taiwanese and Korean manufacturers and sent their own Nike production staff to train

and oversee the plants. Due to the inhere nt cost efficiency Nike was experiencing in the

Asian plants, they decided to open up manufacturing plants in Europe and America.

Regrettably, Nike encountered a loss of almost $1 million US from the European plants

which led to their conclusion that it was cheaper to produce in Asia and transport to

Europe and America, regardless of transportation costs and foreign tariffs.

       As years passed, the cost of shoe equipment and labor costs rose to

astronomical proportions and were forced to look into differen t countries as the South

Koreans were able to produce for their own local companies. Therefore Nike expanded

and made contracts with producers in the Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, and Hong

Kong. Nike then saw great opportunities in China and wanted to expand even further.

Upon arrival Nike requested that their Taiwanese managers would train and oversee the

Chinese factories. However, Nike faced diplomatic and cultural problems with the

Chinese government (Locke & Siteman, 1999). Chinese officials denied any Taiwanese

or Korean managers to enter and train in the state owned factories. This created a

problem with the factory workers when they attributed little flexibility, almost no

management to worker motivation, and the distribution networks were much

undeveloped. Due to the immature workforce system and low volume of production

Nike lost close to $1 million US. Luckily, in 1989 Taiwanese managers were allowed to

enter China and manage their own foreign owned factories. Thus, Nike moved to the

foreign owned companies with the Taiwanese management system and was back on


         The success of these factories, in terms of sales revenue, made it appear as if

Nike was culturally integrating their company very well into the Asian market. This

belief soon came to a halt when the US public was made aware of Nike’s unethical

treatment and regulations within their Asian plants. Countless individuals and

companies were forced to reanalyze Nike’s global attributes and rethink how the

company as a whole operated.

         The first reports were noted during 1997 in Indonesia as US reporters entered

the premises’. Nike contracted about a dozen factories employing approximately

120,000 people. Ninety percent of the labor forces in the majority of the factories were

women, ages 19-20. Korean managers were brought in for their managerial and training

skills; however, several laborers claimed they feared their managers because they would

take wages away if the quality of the shoe was under the minimum requirement. Some

managers were fired by Nike staff after learning that they would beat the workers if

they didn’t meet their quota (Stanford, 1998).

         The factories were often 100° F with paint and glue fumes engulfing the air

quality. Many reporters claimed they almost fainted by just standing in the plant. The

workers were often wore no shoes and worked severe overtime shifts. Some of the

factories had employees working 12 hours a day, six days a week. This created a bigger

problem as Nike did not conform to Indonesian law. Compulsory overtime is illegal in

Indonesia; however the governmental enforcement lacks persistence. Managers also

failed to educate the workers of their legal rights, using the lack of knowledge to their

own advantage.

       Indonesian plants often provided living spaces for the workers so they could live

and work on the same premises. Approximately 10,000 people lived in the factories on

their own free will because of how much cheaper it was compared to their normal living

conditions. Three meals a day were provided, with a mosque, chapel, and even

convenience stores. Nike seemed to be culturally responsible in this area, respecting

the local religion practices.

       Despite Nike’s little effort to effectively manage an international production

factory, in 1997 10,000 out of 13,000 workers went on strike, demanding they be paid

the new governmental minimum wage of $71.37 US/month (Stanford, 1998). Nike’s

inherent response to this strike was that they paid their workers “attendance

allowance,” meaning that they wage would stay the same if they lived on the premises.

They also argued that $2.46 US/day was more than they would make and covered 90%

of their essential living costs. However, due to the large size of workers on strike, Nike

agreed to pay the new minimum wage. Nike’s factories in Vietnam faced the same

obstacles as Indonesia.

       In Vietnam, Korean and Taiwanese contractors opened up 15 shoe and apparel

plants employing almost 50,000 workers. Labor strikes around the country provoked

the government controlled newspapers to attack Nike and their horrible working

conditions. For example, the monthly minimum wage for state owned factories was $20

US whereas foreign owned factories, in which Nike operates, wage was $45 US. Nike

was accused of paying the state owned minimum wage for the first three months the

factory was open. This caused much controversy mainly because workers maintained

that their income was not sufficient to sustain their family. Only half of the Vietnamese

workers were able to save money from their paycheck. By law, 1% of every worker’s

paycheck was deducted for governmental health insurance (Stanford, 1998). Conversely,

Nike also deducted their own amount from the checks, claiming they offered workers

Nike’s health insurance. After these reports were made public, Nike’s CEO Phil Knight

pronounced in a speech in 1998 that because of the absence of Nike’s local

management team, “the Nike product has become synonymous with slave wages,

forced overtime, and arbitrary abuse.” After much controversy over wages and working

conditions, the US media became more apparent to the public eye as child labor was

revealed in Nike’s factory in Pakistan.

       The city of Sialkot is the center for manufacturing and exporting labor-intensive

goods in Pakistan. This city is a magnet for foreign investors bringing in $385 million of

US exports. Instinctively, Nike took an opportunity that led them to high quality hand

stitched soccer balls. 70% of all quality soccer balls are produced in Sialkot for well

recognized sport companies such as Nike, Reebok, and Adidas (Locke, 1999). Regardless

of Nike’s success in the Pakistan market, a TIME magazine article was published showing

a child stitching a Nike soccer ball. This allegation regarding child labor became a wake

up call to Nike, exclaiming that their international human rights policies severely need to

be repositioned. According to Maria Eitel, Vice President and Senior Advisor for

Corporate Responsibility at Nike, “this represented a ‘critical event’ for the company in

terms of its understanding of globalization, international labor standards, and corporate


       Within the next few weeks the Sialkot Chamber of Commerce then signed the

Atlanta agreement which eliminated child labor in the soccer ball industry. Nike also

welcomed and scheduled foreign worker inspectors when they established the Labor

Practices Department in 1996. Nike insists that any of its contractors caught employing

child workers must remove the child from the factory, continue to pay the child’s wages,

and pay for the child’s school fees until he/she reaches legal working age. These reports

from Goodworks International visited several Asian production facilities and gave mostly

negative responses. These critiques argued that Nike did not take their Code of Conduct

seriously across seas. The Nike Code of Conduct was established to form a stronger

relationship between foreign factories and ethical treatments and standards. The Nike

Code of Conduct begins with, “Implicit in that act was the determination that we would

build our business with all of our partners based on trust, teamwork, honesty, and

mutual respect. We expect all of our business partners to operate on the same

principles” (Nike, 2004). However, Goodworks International reported that in some

factories the Code of Conduct was not posted on the walls and if they were they were

usually in languages the workers could not read.

       What they Goodworks reported next was a very strong point to why Nike has

been failing to maintain ethical status. Expatriates are an essential means to effectively

communicate between two cultures. Some factories lacked expatriates all together.

“One of the factories we visited in Vietnam is owned by a Taiwanese company, the pla nt

manager is a Taiwanese and most of the line managers are Taiwanese. The lack of

indigenous management in these factories tends to undermine communication between

manager and workers” (Goodworks International, 1998). In some Vietnam factories the

expatriates’ management staff did not speak the local language fluently. It will be

interesting to see where Nike takes their company in the future.

       It’s uncommon to hear about the negative stories about Nike anymore. It seems

they have either succeeded to adequately adapt themselves to the foreign cultures, or

they spend a lot of money hiding it. Nonetheless, Nike has shown that it is possible for

companies to begin internationally, but has poor standings in terms of a positive degree

of cultural integration.


Figure 1

                                      Works Cited (2008, May 1). Nike Inc. Information from Retrieved
December 1, 2008, from

       Business Teacher. (2008). Business Teacher. Retrieved December 10, 2008, from
Nike SWOT Analysis: -resources/swot-

        Locke, R., & Siteman, A. (1999). The Promise and Peril of Globalization: The Case
of Nike. Boston: MIT.

       Marketing Teacher. (2008, December 1). Nike, Inc. SWOT. Retrieved December
10, 2008, from Marketing Teacher:

       Nike, Inc. (2008). Q1 2009 Earnings Conference Call. Beaverton: Nike.

      Stanford. (1998). Nike: Managing The Non-Market Environment. Standford
Graduate School of Business.

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