REWARDS accuracy grade

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					Rewards Overview

   MiBLSi State Conference
          April 17, 2007
  Facilitator: Edwina Borovich
           MiBLSi State Trainer and Coach
           REWARDS Trainer
           wenbead@aol.com



                                            1
              REWARDS
R = Reading
E = Excellence
W = Word
A = Attack and
R = Rate
D = Development
S = Strategies
Anita Archer Mary Gleason   Vicky Vachon

                                           2
What is REWARDS?
A research-validated program
To teach intermediate and secondary students
a flexible strategy for decoding long words:
   Presence of affixes in about 80% of multisyllabic words
   Every decodable chunk must have a vowel grapheme
   Close approximation                Actual pronunciation
                           language
                        oral/aural language
                           context

To increase their oral and silent reading fluency.
                                                          3
   Who is it designed for?
Students who:

  Are in 4th through 12th grades.

  Have mastered skills associated with 1st and 2nd grade.

  Have difficulty reading long words. This program is appropriate
  for struggling students reading between the 2.5 and 5.0 grade
                        and/or

  Have poor Fluency. This program is appropriate for students who
  read grade level materials slowly (60-120 words per minutes)



                                                                    4
After Participating in REWARDS
Students Will…
Decode previously unknown multisyllabic words
containing two to eight word parts
Accurately read more multisyllabic words within sentences
Accurately read more multisyllabic words found in content
texts and class materials
Have an expanded vocabulary
Read narrative and expository text accurately and fluently
Experience increased comprehension as accuracy, fluency
and vocabulary increases
Have more confidence in their reading ability


                                                         5
Why was REWARDS developed?

 READING
is the major predictor of academic success


Yet   many of our intermediate and secondary
students are poor readers, have trouble passing
content-area classes and are not doing well on the
state tests.

                                                     6
Options for selecting students
Current reading level can be determined using a
group or individually administered standardized
reading test (informal reading inventories, Woodcock,
PIAT, WIAT).

Fluency can be determined by selecting a passage
from a grade-level expository textbook. Have the
student orally reading for a minute. If the student
reads 60-120 correct words, he/she can profit from
REWARDS.



                                                        7
     Differences between REWARDS
     Intermediate and Secondary
    Intermediate                     Secondary
For Students–Grades 4-6          Students–Grades 6+
25 lessons                       20 lessons
Word choice, reading and         Word choice, reading and
interest level-Grades 4, 5 & 6   interest level-Grades 6+
Expanded instruction focusing    Word relatives exercise
on word relatives                optional
More in-depth vocabulary         Vocabulary exercise optional
component


                                                           8
REWARDS (Intermediate)
REWARDS
(Original/Secondary)

REWARDS Plus: Reading
Strategies Applied to Social
Studies Passages

REWARDS Plus: Reading
Strategies Applied to
Science Passages
                               9
Where can this program be used?
General education classes in intermediate grades
(4th, 5th, and 6th)
Special reading classes
   Remedial Reading
   Special Education
   Compensatory Education Programs
Intensive Programs
   Summer School
   Interim sessions
   Extended day

                                                   10
Who might teach this program?
General education teacher
Reading teacher
Special education teacher
Remedial or compensatory education teacher
Well trained paraeducator with a small group or
individual
Well trained tutor working with an individual


                                                  11
Why might you want to use
REWARDS?


Word recognition is a necessary, though not
sufficient, skill to allow comprehension.




                                              12
Simulation
As you participate in the following activity, reflect on
the contributions word recognition makes to reading
comprehension.
You will be working with partners. Count off 1-2.
1s will be the Readers and 2s will be the Test
Administrators
Take out your Training Manual – “Ones” the Readers
titled Simulation: Reader. “Twos” turn the page to
Simulation Test Administrator. Ones and twos follow
the directions on your page exactly as written.



                                                           13
    Why might you want to use
    REWARDS?
   word recognition skills are the most pervasive and
    debilitating source of reading challenges
   The ability to decode long words is the major
    difference between good and poor readers. Poor
    decoders, even those who can decode single
    syllable words, have a difficult time with
    multisyllabic words. (Just & Carpenter, 1987)
   Low decoders
      Pronounce fewer affixes and vowel sounds
        correctly
      Disregard large portions of letter information
      Two to four times as likely to omit syllable

                                                         14
Why might you want to use
REWARDS?
Many new words in intermediate and secondary
materials
 From fifth grade on, average students encounter
  approximately 10,000 words that they have
  never previously encountered in print. (Nagy &
  Anderson, 1984)
Most of these new words are longer words having
two or more syllable.
The longer words are often content words that
carry the meaning of the passage.

                                                    15
Why might you want to use
REWARDS?
Decoding instruction often ends in second
grade.
   Unfortunately, the number of multisyllabic
    words begins to dramatically increase in third
    grade.
Students need a flexible strategy for
pronouncing long words.
   No relationship exists between knowledge of
    syllabication rules and successful reading.
    (Canney & Schreiner, 1997)

                                                     16
Why might you want to use
REWARDS?

Teaching Helps
Other Research
   Fourth and sixth graders having difficulty reading
    longer words had significant gains when taught to use
    affixes and vowels to pronounce long words.
    (Shefelbine, 1990)
   Seventh, eighth, and ninth graders who were taught a
    decoding strategy for reading long words had fewer
    oral reading errors and increased reading
    comprehension (Lenz & Hughes, 1990)

                                                            17
Why might you want to use
REWARDS?

REWARDS Research
   Reading deficient fourth and fifth graders who
    were taught the REWARDS strategies made
    significant gains over students receiving
    monosyllabic word instruction. (Archer, Gleason,
    Vachon, & Hollenbeck, 2000)
   Significant increases in word reading accuracy
    and fluency were observed in sixth, seventh,
    and eighth graders using REWARDS program.
    (Vachon & Gleason, 2000)



                                                       18
What materials are included in
REWARDS?
 Teacher’s Guide
     Introduction
     25 Lessons/Intermediate 20Lessons/Secondary
        Preskills (Lessons 1-15 Intermediate & Lessons 1-
          12 Secondary)
        Strategy instruction (Lessons 16-25 Intermediate &
          Lessons 13-20)
                Generalization to sentence and passage reading
                Fluency building
          Blackline masters for overheads
          Pre, post, and generalization tests-
          Additional support materials
          Fluency Graph
                                                                  19
Materials - Continued
 Overhead Transparencies
 Posters
 Student Book
 Video – Optional (but helpful)




                                  20
     Pre-tests and Post-tests
Pretest/Posttest- words taught in the program

Pretest/Posttest Reading Fluency (Intermediate)
  Designed to measure growth from the beginning of the
  program to the end.
  Children who meet criteria (2.5-5.0/poor or fluency 60-
  120 in grade level materials) start at the beginning of
  program, regardless of Pre/Post test scores.

Generalization Test – words not taught but contain
  introduced elements
  Designed to be given after completion of the program

                                                            21
Research Based &Validated Techniques
Included in REWARDS


   The Decoding Strategy
     Overt              Covert
   Active Student Participation
   Repeated Reading-Fluency


                                   22
          Overt Strategy

1. Circle the word parts(prefixes) at the beginning of the word.
2. Circle the word parts (suffixes) at the end of the word.
3. Underline the letters representing vowel sounds in the rest of the
  word.
4. Say the parts of the word.
5. Say the parts fast.

6. Make it into a real word.                     Example:


                                       reconstruction
                                                                   23
Overt Strategy

1. expansion
2. fraction
 3. confederate

                  24
Strategies for Reading Long Words

     Covert Strategy
1.   Look for prefixes, suffixes, and vowels
2.   Say the parts of the word.
3.   Say the whole word
4.   Make it a real word

            reconstruction
                                               25
What are the necessary preskills?

1. prefixes
2. suffixes
3. vowel sounds and combinations
4. blending – letters and syllables
5. language
6. vocabulary


                                      26
 Preskills Lesson Activities
ACTIVITY A: Oral Activity--Blending Word Parts Into Words
ACTIVITY B: Vowel Combinations
ACTIVITY C: Vowel Conversions
ACTIVITY D: Reading Parts of Real Words
ACTIVITY E: Underlining Vowels in Words
ACTIVITY F: Oral Activity:--Correcting Close Approximations
            Using Context
ACTIVITY G: Prefixes and Suffixes
ACTIVITY H: Circling Prefixes and Suffixes
ACTIVITY I: Vocabulary
ACTIVITY J: Spelling Dictation
                                                       27
Vowel Graphemes
         Sounds and Names for Vowel Graphemes
 Vowel   Sound   Key Word     Name    Key Word
Letter
  a        a        cat        a          labor
  i        i         sit       i          pilot
  o        o        hot        o         locate
  u        u        cup        u        human
  e        e        get        e        female




                                                  28
     REWARDS (Secondary) - Student
     Book Lesson 1

     Activity A: Oral Activity - Blending Word Parts Into Words
     Activity B: Vowel Combinations
        ay (say)           ai (rain)               au (sauce)
     Activity C: Vowel Conversions
                 a                         i
     Activity D: Reading Parts of Real Words
1.   frain                trast            cay              scrip

2.   fa                  tain             happ              ca
      *                                                     *
3.   vi                  vict             tist              aud
      *
4.   path                tri              aut               min
                          *
                                                                    29
     Lesson 1- Vowels
     Activity E: Underlining Vowel sounds in Words
1.   waistband       fraud          plaything
2.   pigtail         vault          pathway
3.   waylay          launch         railway
4.   midway          blackmail      maintain
5.   applaud         layman         hairpin

     Activity F Oral Activity – Correcting Close
     Approximations Using Context
                                                     30
Prefixes and Suffixes (pp 12-14 in T G)
80% of words have at least 1 prefix/suffix

Review prefix/affix list

Many affixes are not pronounced as you
would expect given the graphemes in the
affix.

                                             31
    Prefixes and Suffixes (pp. 12-14)



   Check the affixes that are not pronounced as you would expect
    given the graphemes in the affix.




                                  P12+




                                                                    32
Prefixes and Suffixes        continued




              p13 maybe split to p14




                                         33
Prefixes and Suffixes   continued




                                    34
Lesson 1 - Prefixes and Suffixes
Activity G: Word Parts at the Beginning
and End of Words
discover
dis                dis
mistaken
mis                mis
abdomen
ab                 ab
advertise
ad                 ad


                                          35
     Lesson 1 - Prefixes and Suffixes
     Activity H: Circling Word Parts
1.   addict         milkmaid           damp
2.   distract       ad-lib             disclaim
3.   admit          misfit             backspin
4.   mislay         misplay            distraught
5.   mast           banish             display
6.   misprint       distill            digit
7.   disband        abstract           mismatch

                                                    36
     Lesson 1 - Vocabulary
   Activity I: Focus on Meaning
a. To not claim (line2, Activity H) __________________
b. A person that does not fit into a group
     (line 3, Activity H)___________________________________

c. A word or phrase that was not printed
   correctly (Line 6, Activity H)______________________
d. To not match (Line 7 Activity H)_____________________

                                                               37
  Vocabulary        continued




  Choice Activity- Word Relatives –Appendix C of
  teacher manual (3 Word families and sentences)

Family 1
  admit      If you have a ticket, they will admit
             you to the theater.
  admitted   Jason and Samantha were admitted to the
             movie theater.
  admission The theater admission was five dollars.
  admittance Theater goers show heir tickets to gain
             admittance.


                                                       38
Spelling
Activity J: Spelling Dictation

1.                  2.

3.                  4.



                                 39
   Strategy Instruction

  I do it – Model
  We do it – Guided Practice
      We do it
           We do it
   (gradually fade we do it)
  You do it – Check for Understanding

Moving on to Lesson 16 (Intermediate) Lesson 13
(Secondary) we begin adding in strategy instruction.

                                                       40
Lesson 13 - Strategy Instruction:
Modeling & Guided Practice
 Activity D: Strategy Instruction
 1. propeller                       construction
 2. infection                       suddenness
 3. befuddle                        instruction
 4. exterminate                     commitment

 Activity E: Strategy Practice
 1. expansion                       unspeakable
 2. container                       effective
 3. performance                     consultant
 4. reunion                         fraction
 5. furnish                         inartistic



                                                   41
     Lesson 23 – Sentence Reading
     Activity G: Sentence Reading
1.   The performance was very artistic.
2.   Our new plane propeller is very effective.
3.   The cruel words in the letter were unspeakable
4.   When construction is finished, we can furnish
     the house.
5.   Everyone is sick because the infection spread .
6.   Did you make a commitment to finish the work?
7. - 12

                                                       42
     Passage Preparation
      Activity H: Passage Preparation
                                        Part I – Tell
1.    although                                   believed
2.    justice                                    Europeans
3.    Christian                                  language



                               Part II - Strategy Practice
1.    escape                                    profitable
2.    indenture                                 colony
      indentured                                colonies
                                                colonists
3.    racism                                    superior
4.    inferior                                  marketplace
5.    Middle Passage                            plantation



                                                              43
         Passage Reading
        Activity I: Passage Reading
                                  “Growth of Slavery
          Tidewater planters needed many workers to make their land
9     profitable. At firs, they tried to make Indians work the land. Or
21    they brought indentured servants from England. By the late
30   1600s however, planters were buying large numbers of African
39   slaves. Although people in other colonies owned some slaves, most
49   slaves live in the South. (#1)
54        Why did southern planters turn to African slave labor: The
64   English saw how slave labor earned profits for the           Spanish
74   colonists. Planters believed that Africans were used to warm
83   climates. Then, too, it was hard for blacks to escape



                                                                            44
   Classroom Application-Passage
   Preparation
  Tell
________________ ________________
________________ ________________
________________ ________________
  Strategy
________________ ________________
________________ ________________
________________ ________________
________________ ________________
________________ ________________
________________ ________________

                                    45
Fluency Building-Repeated Readings

Why is reading fluency important?
– Fluency is related to reading comprehension.
        (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998; Fuchs, Fuchs, & Maxwell,
            1988; Jenkins, Fuchs, Espin, vanden Broek, & Deno, 2000)
– When students read fluently, decoding requires less attention.
  Attention can be given to comprehension.
                               (Samuels, Schermer, & Reinking, 1992)
– Accurate and fluent readers will read more.
                    (Cunningham & Stanovich, 1998; Stanovich, 1993)
– Fluent readers complete assignments with more ease.
– Fluent readers perform better on tests involving reading.

                                                                       46
Fluency Building - Repeated Readings

How is reading fluency increased?
  Practice Practice Practice Practice
  Repeated Reading activities




                                        47
Fluency Building-Repeated Readings
Continued




                                     48
Correction of Errors




                       49
Posttest

            Generalization test
Administer like the word list pretest/posttest
Record the score
Determine students who may benefit from
additional practice



                                                 50
REWARDS



           Questions?

           Evaluation


          Thank you!

                        51

				
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