Manoeuvre Warfare Doctrine for Urban Operations (PDF)

					Manoeuvre Warfare Doctrine for
Urban Operations
                                                                                                by Major A.R. Jayne, CD

  [The] future of warfare lies in the streets,   required. The tenets of manoeuvre     sequences: “Military actions in some
  sewers, high-rise buildings, industrial        warfare will then be presented and    cities, such as Hong Kong, New York,
  parks, and the sprawl of houses, shacks,       applied to the urban battlespace to   Frankfurt, Seoul and Singapore, would
  and shelters that form the broken cities of    derive new doctrine.                  endanger the very economic stability
  our world.1                                                                          of the nation—and the planet. Con-
                                                The Future Security Environment        sequently, the operational commander will

            he projection of the future of recognizes that globalization continues     probably be constrained by various
            warfare provided above by to accelerate and has integrated                 political dictates, limitations and rules
            Ralph Peters supports a Canada into the world community to                 of engagement.”5 Canada will be
            growing realization that such an extent that global concerns will          obligated to commit forces to these
current trends will change the security become Canadian concerns more                  conflicts to protect its interests.
environment that has driven Canadian rapidly than ever before.3 Population             Therefore, we must be prepared to
policy and doctrine over the past few pressure, mismanagement, over-con-               conduct operations against an enemy
decades. As a result, the Canadian Army, sumption, the uncontrolled growth of          that has decided to conduct operations
specifically the Directorate of Land cities, environmental deterioration and           centred in and around large urban
Strategic Concepts, has published a climatic changes are leading to the                areas.6
report on the future security depletion of food production cap-
environment,2 which serves as the ability, potable water and natural                        Advances in technology are also
foundation for the identification, resources, which will widen the gap increasing the likelihood of urban
development, and refinement of the between the “have” and the “have not” warfare. The advances in precision
capabilities and doctrine needed by the countries, which, in turn, could weapons and surveillance that favour
future Army. Fighting                                                                                Western military forces
effectively in an urban                                                                              will threaten operational
battlespace is one of the                                                                            and tactical manoeuvre
critical capabilities that
                                     Fighting effectively in an urban
                                                                                                     of potential enemies in
must be developed                   battlespace is one of the critical                               open terrain. Opponents
within the Canadian             capabilities that must be developed.                                 who wish to capitalize
Army to meet the                                                                                     on political situations
demands of the future                                                                                and restrictive rules
security environment. Our current threaten Western interests.4 Population of engagement and mitigate the
tactical doctrine is based on Second migration and urbanization are leading technology available to Western forces

                                                                                                                                   Manoeuvre Warfare for Urban Operations
World War experience and does not to more and bigger cities, which will will likely find cities appealing. This will
adequately address the exigencies of the impose great burdens on national be increasingly likely if they know the
urban battlespace or the principles of infrastructures, especially in developing terrain better than their opponents and
manoeuvre warfare currently practised nations. If demographers and political can gain the support of the urban
by the Canadian Army. The aim of this strategists are correct, many, if not most resources and populations.7
article is to argue that the application of of the conflicts of the future will be
the tenets of manoeuvre warfare to the conducted in or around large urban                   The projection that conflicts will
conduct of urban operations is possible. areas. Cities and their outlying urban most likely be fought in and around
                                            sprawls will increasingly be the political, urban centres is not useful to the
     In order to achieve the aim of this economic, social, and cultural centres examination of doctrine without an
article, new doctrine for the future of gravity of the world. In future analysis of how an enemy could use
urban battlespace, based on the tenets conflicts, the control of large urban such terrain to fight. Western alliances
of manoeuvre warfare, will be areas will be critical to the successful could possibly be challenged regionally
proposed. To adequately set the stage, it attainment of strategic, operational, by China, India, or by one or more
is necessary to first define the battle- and tactical objectives. The operational major competitors, but the most likely
space within the future security and strategic goals of opponents who threat is from asymmetric attacks by
environment and then compare the choose to fight in urban areas will mean state and non-state powers.8 Future
current tactical doctrine against it to that military operations in those urban opponents will likely employ asym-
demonstrate why a new doctrine is centres may have far-reaching con- metric attacks in an attempt to succeed

Volume 5, No. 1        x   Spring 2002                                                                                      65
                   against   stronger,    technologically       mander would be given the authority to            The traditional approach to urban
                   superior Western allies. This form of        lay siege to the city and starve out the     combat will not serve to achieve
                   attack avoids strengths and exploits         enemy due to consideration for the           political or strategic victory for Western
                                                                                                             forces in the future security environ-
                                                                                                             ment. Cities will undoubtedly be the
                   Current tactical doctrine is inadequate                                                   centres of gravity for enemy forces, but
                   to guide future commanders.                                                               the restraints necessitated by economic,
                                                                                                             social, cultural, and political con-
                   vulnerabilities. It may include ex-          civilian populace. Thus, the freedom of      siderations and the likely forces
                   ploiting the fears and beliefs of a          action of the enemy, who desires to          available will require a new method of
                   population, undermining political            achieve his aims within the city itself,     defeating the enemy. This new method
                   support for a government or its actions,     would not have been affected.                can be found in the application of the
                   exploiting Western sensitivity to                                                         tenets of manoeuvre warfare.
                   casualties, or attempting to disrupt              The conduct of the break-in
                   complex economies. Such attacks              consists of an advance to the perimeter           Manoeuvre warfare focuses on the
                   can take the form of terrorism,              of the area and the seizure of a             enemy’s centre of gravity, the source of
                   psychological operations, misinformation,    foothold. This stage of the operation is     his freedom of action, and his physical
                   the use of weapons of mass destruction,      normally accompanied by artillery fire       strength or will to fight and determines
                   and information systems disruption or        to suppress enemy fire and observation       how best to attack, neutralize, or
                   destruction.9                                of the approaching troops. The               destroy these factors. The emphasis is
                                                                political limitations on collateral          on the defeat of the enemy rather than
                         Given the nature of the projected      damage and civilian casualties will likely   attempting to hold or take ground for
                   future security environment and the          make this practice unacceptable in           its own sake. In attempting to defeat the
                   likely threats to Canadian interests,        future urban conflicts. As well, it is       enemy, a commander seeks to apply his
                   current tactical doctrine is inadequate      unlikely that the enemy would have           strength against the enemy’s vul-
                   to guide future commanders. Current          sufficient force to defend the entire        nerabilities. Inevitably, manoeuvre
                   doctrine does not sufficiently address       perimeter of the city; therefore, break-     warfare will include elements of
                   operations in a large urban environ-         in would not be necessary. During the        movement, application of firepower,
                   ment with possible political limitations     first Chechen War, the Russians were         and positional defence in order to find,
                   and constraints against an opponent          allowed to penetrate deep into Grozny        fix, and strike the enemy on the moral
                   who is technologically inferior but who      before the Chechen opposition                and physical planes. Finally, operations
                   enjoys the relative protection of            attacked and destroyed them.13               based on manoeuvre warfare will most
                   complex terrain and the ability to affect                                                 likely be joint in nature and practically
                   the international balance of power.               The traditional approach to             all will be combined.16
                   Current Land Force tactical doctrine         fighting through the urban area is to
                   states that the attack on a built-up area    conduct a systematic sweep of the city.           In order to set the stage for the
                   may be conducted as any other: the           This method consumes inordinately presentation of new tactical doctrine,
                   built-up area is first “isolated”; the       high quantities of manpower, time, and a number of premises should be
                   attacker then advances to the perimeter      logistical support.14 It is unlikely that a articulated. Any friendly force (most
                   of the area and seizes a foothold, thus      Western force would
                   achieving a “break-in”; then the enemy       be able to conduct this
                   is cleared during the “fighting through”     type of warfare due to
                   stage of the operation.10                    sensitivity to casualties.
                                                                The enemy could en-
                        Although the isolation of a city can    gage in a wide variety
                   doctrinally mean the securing of             of asymmetric methods
                   positions outside the area to support        to slow the tempo of
                   the point of entry and the conduct of        operations, cause large
                   raids to disrupt and capture key             numbers of friendly
                   positions, this term generally refers to     casualties and attempt
                   the encirclement and cut-off of all          (through various means
                   approaches to the city.11 The rapid          including terrorism)
                   growth of modern cities compounds            to break the will of the
Major A.R. Jayne

                   the difficulty of this task, and one can     Western people to
                   imagine the difficulty of and the size of    continue the fight.15
                   force involved in isolating a city such as   In the ensuing long,
                   Toronto. Shanghai and its surrounding        costly battle, the Urbanization may make operations in cities more likely
                   areas, for example, contains over 125        enemy would only in the future. Concern over the growth of the “urban
                   million people and covers 2,383 square       need to avoid defeat battlespace” is not new and was examined by NATO in
                   miles.12 If it were possible to isolate      rather than achieve the 1970s and1980s. Is it that we must hold cities to
                   such a city, it is unlikely that a com-      success.                    fight in the countryside or vice versa?

                   66                                                                                 The Army Doctrine and Training Bulletin
                                             PHYSICAL PLANE                  MORAL PLANE            city block-by-block. The use of
                                         Find      Fix    Strike      Find      Fix     Strike      communications, signal and human
Winning the Information Battle             X                            X                           intelligence sources, psychological
Securing the Environment *                                                        X
                                                                                                    operations, civil-military cooperation,
Shaping the Environment                   X                                                X
Exploiting the Environment                          X         X                            X
                                                                                                    and public affairs will be crucial to
                                                                                                    success. If the commander can gain
* May include combat operations that involve fixing and striking the enemy on the physical plane.
                                                                                                    detailed information of the enemy, he
likely a coalition) involved in such              the moral and physical planes. The                can then decide how best to defeat
future urban combat would likely have             other three categories involve fixing             the enemy. Technology will play a
the capabilities of at least a division.          and striking on both the moral and                role in winning the information battle.
This division would also be functioning           physical planes as well as finding on the         The extensive communications infra-
within a corps and hence have access to           physical plane. The following matrix              structure in a modern city will allow the
a full range of capabilities such                 succinctly groups the operations                  enemy various means of communicating
as psychological and information                  inherent to each category and should              including local telephones, cell phones,
operations. The enemy would likely be             provide focus for the detailed                    the Internet, and radio. The com-
an armed force that has some                      explanation of each.                              mander does not necessarily have to
technological equivalency with Western                                                              deny these means of communication to
powers but could not hope to achieve                   Winning the information battle will          the enemy if he can exploit them for his
its aims in conventional warfare in open          be key to achieving success in an urban           own purposes. The commander must
terrain against Western coalition forces.         environment.17 Not only will it be                also conduct defensive information
Such an enemy would likely have                   necessary to have detailed information            operations to shield his forces,
decided, therefore, to pursue its                 on the city but, perhaps more critically,         intentions, and capabilities from the
objectives by fighting in the cities where        information on the enemy will be                  enemy. Such operations will be
it enjoys a detailed knowledge of the             required. In order to define the                  especially important in an environment
terrain and some public support. In               enemy’s centres of gravity, his sources           where all or part of the population
order to protect Western interests in             of freedom of action, and his will and            supports the enemy.
the region, the friendly forces would             cohesion, extensive use of all facets of
have to defeat the enemy without                  information operations will be                   The information battle will be
creating corollary problems such as               required. A commander will have to fought throughout the operation
mass civilian casualties, massive in-             understand why the enemy has chosen within the urban environment. It will
frastructure damage, and a hardening              to fight in the city and what he hopes to serve as the underlying catalyst that
of the political opinion against the              accomplish. Much like any coalition enables the commander to define
coalition forces and powers. The                  force, the enemy will unlikely be able to the enemy intentions, strengths,
friendly forces would also have to                control all portions of the city weaknesses, and centres of gravity. The
simultaneously protect themselves                 simultaneously. The
against attack by the enemy and incur             enemy will have to
“acceptable” levels of casualties.                focus his centre of                   A commander will have to
                                                  gravity and be forced        understand why the enemy has
     In order to be successful in the             to choose targets that
situation that has been presented, the            further his aims and                  chosen to fight in the city.
coalition force will have to employ               enable him to achieve
doctrine different from what currently            his goals. These targets may be designed identification of nodes allows the

                                                                                                                                                Manoeuvre Warfare for Urban Operations
exists. It is proposed that this doctrine,        to control economically or politically commander to find the enemy on the
firmly based in manoeuvre warfare                 important areas, or they may be moral plane and determines the overall
theory, will involve four equally                 focussed on control of the civilian intentions and aims of the enemy. The
important and concurrent activities to            populace. These targets are referred to identification of nodes may also allow
achieve success: winning the information          as “nodes” and can be defined as areas the commander to find the enemy on
battle, securing the environment, shaping         within the city that hold tactical, the physical plane. This is especially
the environment, and exploiting the               operational, or strategic value to either true if the enemy has been in the city
environment. These activities must not            the enemy or coalition forces who for a sufficient period of time to occupy
be confused with the widely known                 control them.18 It is possible that a and control nodes within the city.
Find-Fix-Strike cycle; they are categories        node, such as public opinion or
of concurrent, complimentary operations           political support, may relate to the             As the information battle is being
that each contains an element or                  moral plane and have no physical fought, the commander will start to
elements of the Find-Fix-Strike cycle             location per se.                            gain information that will enable him to
that intersect to allow the defeat of the                                                     start the process of securing the
enemy. The prosecution of the                          The identification of nodes within environment. Securing the environment
information battle provides the basis of          the city will allow the commander to is designed to deprive the enemy of his
the other three categories and allows             focus the activities of the force to defeat freedom of action and wrest the
the commander to find the enemy on                the enemy without clearing the entire initiative from him. As has been stated,

Volume 5, No. 1       x   Spring 2002                                                                                                    67
                   neither the coalition force nor the             Securing the environment may also             As is readily apparent, it is not
                   enemy can hope to control the entire        include the use of wider ranging              possible to determine exactly when and
                   city. Therefore, the commander must         techniques to fix the enemy on                where the force commander would
                   focus on controlling those nodes that       the moral plane. For example, if the          have to act to secure the environment.
                   are important to the enemy and to his       enemy is intent on exploiting the             As manoeuvre warfare theory states, we
                   forces. It is important to note that the
                   nodes important to the friendly forces
                   and the enemy may or may not overlap.              Traditional methods of finding the enemy
                   In order to achieve success, the
                   commander must focus on the effects                with reconnaissance assets and aerial and
                   to be achieved rather than the terrain.19            space surveillance will not be sufficient.
                   If the enemy intends to install himself
                   as the de facto government of the area,
                   the presidential palace may prove to be
                   a critical node that would help the         civilian populace, the protection and         must focus on the enemy. No two cities
                   enemy solidify his claim to power.          provision for that populace could             or situations would be exactly the same;
                   Denying that area to the enemy will         become a critical factor in the battle.       therefore, it is impossible to list the
                   then limit some of the options open to      The maintenance of the supply and             nodes or methods that will always be
                   him. It is important to realize here that   infrastructure necessary to sustain the       effective in fixing the enemy on the
                   the enemy may or may not already            civilian population, coupled with             moral plane. It is, however, possible to
                   control this node, and combat               protection and an aggressive public           recognize the merit of denying the
                   operations may be necessary to take it,     affairs campaign, would limit the             enemy the nodes and opportunities
                   but it is the node itself that holds the    enemy’s ability to impact the                 that are essential to achieving his
                   importance, not the physical forces of      population and thereby achieve his            goals. As this is accomplished, the
                   the enemy. As the commander                 aims.20 In this example, it can easily be     environment will become more secure.
                   recognizes and gains control of the key     seen how securing the environment             The enemy will have fewer and fewer
                   nodes within the city, the enemy will be    would require the effective conduct           options available and the initiative will
                   faced with fewer and fewer options that     of information operations. As the             pass to the friendly forces.
                   will enable him to achieve his aims. The    presence of the coalition force
                   overall effect is that the enemy will be    started to nullify the efforts of the              As the initiative passes to the force
                   fixed on the moral plane. This is very      enemy and public opinion turns in             commander, he can now start to shape
                   important in the overall concept of         favour of the coalition, the ability to use   the environment to his advantage. The
                   manoeuvre warfare in the urban              the population as a source of                 enemy is struggling to maintain the
                   environment. The freedom of physical        information would increase. While the         upper hand in the information battle
                   manoeuvre that is available to the          coalition force could not observe the         and has been, or is in the process of
                   enemy will not have been appreciably        entire city at once, the civilian populace    being, fixed on the moral plane through
                   degraded at this time, but the              could accurately and quickly provide          the loss of nodes critical to achieving his
                   commander has been successful in            information on the enemy that would           goals. Shaping the environment is
                   wresting initiative from the enemy.         be useful to the force commander.             intended to create an environment
                                                                                                             where the commander has greater
                                                                                                             control over the city as a whole and can
                                                                                                             start to find the enemy on the physical
                                                                                                             plane. This process must start from the
                                                                                                             outset of the battle with psychological
                                                                                                             operations, civil-military cooperation,
                                                                                                             public affairs, and intelligence and
                                                                                                             counter-intelligence operations, but
                                                                                                             these are initially focussed on winning
                                                                                                             the information battle. Once the enemy
                                                                                                             has been fixed on the moral plane and
                                                                                                             the force commander has secured the
                                                                                                             environment, it is now possible to use
                                                                                                             these tools to shape the environment to
Major A.R. Jayne

                                                                                                             his advantage. The intent is to physically
                                                                                                             find the enemy. Traditional methods of
                                                                                                             finding the enemy with reconnaissance
                                                                                                             assets and aerial and space surveillance
                                                                                                             will not be sufficient to determine the
                                                                                                              exact locations and centres of gravity of
                   New technologies and methodologies, such as UAVs, may aid urban combat.                    the enemy. However, if the enemy has

                   68                                                                                 The Army Doctrine and Training Bulletin
                                                                The force com-              terrain and the possible threat in order
                                                           mander may now take              to achieve victory. The defeat of an
                                                           direct actions against           enemy in an urban environment has
                                                           the enemy’s vulner-              been described as similar to the modern
                                                           abilities to ensure his          treatment of cancer. The doctor must
                                                           defeat on the physical           analyze the body to determine which
                                                           plane. This is accom-            system or systems the cancer is trying to
                                                           plished through ex-              infect. Once this is known, he can use
                                                           ploiting the urban               drugs to protect the unaffected systems
                                                           environment. It is here          and precision laser surgery to eradicate
                                                           that the force com-              the cancerous cells from the body.
                                                           mander can employ                Overall, the doctor tries to defeat the
                                                           the elements of man-             cancer while preserving the body and
                                                           oeuvre, application of           mind of the patient.21
                                                           firepower, and positional
                                                           defence to fix and                    The future security environment
                                                           strike the enemy.                and the emerging threats to Western
                                                           Whether the enemy is             interests present a problem to
                                                           trying to regain control         commanders of the future that the
                                                           of a critical node,              current doctrine for fighting in the
                                                           consolidating his for-           urban environment is not capable of
Special lightweight vehicles with ascent systems may ces in a specific area of              addressing. The current doctrine does
be required for urban areas.                               the city, or trying to           not consider the limitations that are
                                                           maintain an effective            likely to be placed on Western forces or
lost the initiative and is fixed on the logistical chain, the force commander is            embody the tenets of manoeuvre
moral plane, he will have to take in a position to choose when and where                    warfare. This article has proposed a new
measures to try to regain the initiative to disrupt or defeat the enemy. The                doctrine that is based on the tenets of
and achieve his goals. The force force commander must protect the                           manoeuvre warfare and is specifically
commander can use this knowledge to nodes that he has secured and be                        designed for the urban environment.
anticipate how and where the enemy is willing and prepared to act decisively                This doctrine is based on the activities of
likely to act and position assets to and counter-attack when the enemy                      winning the information battle and
confirm or deny his intelligence.        attempts to regain them.                           securing, shaping, and exploiting the
                                                                                            environment. These activities can and
      The force commander has now                  Once again, exploiting the               will     happen      concurrently      and
created the conditions whereby he can         environment can be conducted                  compliment each other. Winning the
use the environment to find the enemy.        concurrently with the other steps of this     information battle will provide the
He controls the critical nodes that the       proposed urban doctrine. Commanders           catalyst for all the other steps to take
enemy requires to achieve his aims and        must seize every opportunity to fix and       place. Seizing key nodes within the city to
has secured the environment while             strike the enemy. These opportunities         secure the environment will fix the
winning the information battle. Ag-           may require widely varied responses           enemy on the moral plane and wrest the
gressive use of psychological operations,     such as a ground attack against an            initiative from him. Operations designed

                                                                                                                                          Manoeuvre Warfare for Urban Operations
civil-military cooperation, and public        enemy safe haven, the precision               to shape the environment will turn the
affairs has continued to weaken the           bombing of a certain building, or             urban terrain to the advantage of the
enemies’ resolve and swing public             harassment by sniper fire. In any event,      commander, and the enemy will be
support in favour of the coalition. The       these operations will have the net effect     forced to admit defeat or try to regain
enemy still retains the ability to            of disrupting the enemy, attacking his        the initiative. With this achieved, the
physically move within the city but not       physical strength and cohesion, and           commander will be in a position to fix
without fear of being located. It is within   contributing to the defeat of his will to     and strike the enemy vulnerabilities by
this context that shaping the environ-        continue the fight.                           exploiting the environment. The end
ment includes striking the enemy on the                                                     state will be the eradication of the cancer
moral plane. Faced with deteriorating              The doctrine proposed above does         that may threaten the cities of tomorrow.
public support, the enemy must act or         not attempt to provide a specific
admit defeat, and, in doing so, he either     checklist for the prosecution of a battle
moves to ground chosen by the force           in an urban environment or to define the
commander or reveals his location and         technology, training, or tactics required
intentions, which can subsequently be         to successfully prosecute such a battle.
exploited. This situation, coupled with       The doctrine is formulated to provide
offensive information operations, will        overall guidance to a commander within
assist in defeating the will and cohesion     a set of general principles that will allow
of the enemy.                                 him to make sense of the complex

Volume 5, No. 1     x   Spring 2002                                                                                               69
                                                                                                     3. Ibid, p. 10.
                     ABOUT THE AUTHOR…                                                               4. Ibid, p. 11.
                                                                                                     5. Lester Grau and Jacob Kibb, “Urban Combat: Confronting the
                          Major Andrew Jayne is a graduate of the Royal                              Specter,” Military Review, Jul-Aug 99.
                                                                                                     6. Robert F.Hahn II and Bonnie Jezior, “Urban Warfare and the Urban
                     Military College of Canada with a B.Eng. (Civil). He has
                                                                                                     Warfighter of 2025,” Parameters (Summer 99), pp. 74-86.
                     held various appointments in Canadian and British field                         7. Ibid.
                     and armoured engineer units and in Headquarters                                 8. Directorate – Land Strategic Concepts, “The Future Security
                     1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group. Major Jayne also                           Environment,” Report No. 99-2, Aug 99, p. 13.
                     served with the 1st Battalion Princess Patricia’s Canadian                      9. Ibid, p. 13.
                                                                                                     10. B-GL-300-002/FP-000 Land Force Tactical Doctrine, pp. 8-21.
                     Light Infantry Battlegroup in Croatia in 1994 and with a
                                                                                                     11. Ibid, pp. 8-21.
                     British engineer squadron with Implementation Force                             12. Grau and Kibb.
                     (IFOR) in 1996. He is currently the Officer Commanding                          13. Ibid.
                     18 Administrative Squadron, 1 Combat Engineer                                   14. Ibid.
                     Regiment in Edmonton, Alberta. This article was written                         15. Hahn II and Jezior.
                                                                                                     16. B-GL-300-003/FP-000 Command, Jul 96, p. 3-3.
                     while the then Captain Jayne was a student at the
                                                                                                     17. Hahn II and Jezior.
                     Canadian Land Force Command and Staff College in                                18. Ibid.
                     November 2000.                                                                  19. LCol C.G. Magee, Directorate Army Doctrine 4, Briefing to CLFCSC
                                                                                                     Students, Fort Frontenac, Kingston, 23 Oct 00.
                                                                                                     20. Grau and Kipp.
                                                                                                     21. Magee.

                   1. Ralph Peters, “Our Soldiers, Their Cities,” Parameters (Spring 1996), p. 43.
                   2. Directorate – Land Strategic Concepts, “The Future Security
                   Environment,” Report No. 99-2, Aug 99, p. i.

                              The Canadian Rangers

                              T   he Canadian Rangers are reservists who provide a
                                  military presence in remote, isolated and coast
                              communities of Canada. Established in 1947, the
                              Canadian Rangers are responsible for protecting
                              Canadian sovereignty by reporting unusual activities or
                              sightings, collecting local data of significance and
                              conducting surveillance or sovereignty patrols as

                                   There are currently 3,500 Canadian Rangers
                              located in 144 communities across Canada. They are
                              organized into five Canadian Ranger Patrol Groups
                              (CRPG), numbered one through five, under the
                              command of Canadian Forces Northern Area and
                              the four Land Force Areas.                                                Planning exercise activity with Army personnel.

                                                                                             Two Canadian Rangers with Her Excellency the Right
                                                                                             Honourable Adrienne Clarkson, following an investiture
                                                                                             ceremony in Ottawa where 17 Canadian Rangers from
Major A.R. Jayne

                                                                                             across Canada were awarded the Ranger Bar to the
                                                                                             Special Service Medal.

                   70                                                                                                The Army Doctrine and Training Bulletin

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