SINGAPORE by nikeborome

VIEWS: 86 PAGES: 46

									THE NATIONAL
SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS
AND STRATEGIES OF
ASEAN COUNTRIES
SINGAPORE
SINGAPORE’S SUCCESS


 Emphasis and effective policies for the
  development of human resources and
  supporting infrastructures

 Attracting investments from multinational
  corporations (MNCs)
STRATEGIC ISSUES


 Technology Creation VS Technology
  Absorption

 Public Sector VS Private Sector
EVOLVING STRATEGY


 “Follower” Strategy
 Outward orientation
 Liberal Trade Regime
 Free-market Competition
 Government Intervention
PHASES OF ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT

 PHASE ONE: Early Industrialization

   employment creation
   attracting foreign investment in export-
    oriented manufacturing
   liberal policy of free immigration of foreign
    managers and technical staff
PHASES OF ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT

 PHASE TWO: Technological Upgrading

   Labor surplus turned into Labor shortage
   industrial training to upgrade the skill level of
    workers and increase the number of
    technicians and engineers
PHASES OF ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT

 PHASE THREE: Industrial Restructuring and
  Economic Diversification

   review of government policies
   new technology-intensive industries
PHASES OF ECONOMIC
DEVELOPMENT

 EMERGING PHASE: Total Business Center,
 Knowledge-Intensive Industrialization and
 Internationalization

   “Next Lap”
   Strategic Economic Plan (SEP)
STRATEGIES

 Encourage Technological Upgrading of MNC
  Operations
 Attract New “High-Tech” Investments
 Promotion of MNC technology Transfer to Locals
 Manpower Development Programs
 Infrastructure Development
 Rapid Deployment of Technology in the
  Government Sector
 Promotion of R&D
 Technology Development Performance
EMERGING ISSUES AND POLICIES


 The Need to Invest in Innovation
 The New National Technology Plan
NEW STRATEGIC DIRECTION


 Promotion of Creative and Design Skills
 Strategic Partnership with Key MNCs and
  Overseas Research Institutes
 Attracting S&T Talents from Overseas
MALAYSIA
  SECTORS OF THE MALAYSIAN
  ECONOMY

 First Sector – agriculture and mining
 Secondary Sector – manufacturing and
  construction
           a) Electrical and Electronic
           b) Textile and Apparel
 Tertiary Sector
  MALAYSIA’S MAIN STRATEGY

 broaden the base of manufacturing services


 concentrate on 2 sub-sectors, electrical and
  electronic, textile and apparel
    TECHNOLOGY & INDUSTRIAL
    DEVELOPMENT
 Development of self-reliance in S & T
 Increase national awareness, & to create an S &
    T oriented society
   Industry must recognize the need for R &D
   The engine of transformation process &
    foundation of Malaysia’s enhanced
    international competitiveness
   Awareness that technological development is a
    shared responsibility
   Concentrate on Malaysia’s greatest asset, the
    skills of the people
 KEY ISSUES FOR DEVELOPMENT

 significance for firm level competitiveness
 national S & T infrastructure
 structure of domestic industrial sector
 size of the local market demand
 JUSTIFICATION FOR THE
 GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION

 Riskiness, uncertain gestation periods, and
  high attrition rates for frontier technologies

 Imperfect capital markets
  ASPECTS OF THE PROCESS OF
  DEVELOPMENT

 ability to make independent technological
  choices
 adapt and improve upon chosen techniques and
  products
 generate new technology
 STEPS OF THE GOVERNMENT IN
 DEVELOPING INDUSTRIAL
 STRUCTURE
 Financial support

 Fiscal support
  RESHAPING THE R & D SYSTEM

1. Increase investment in R & D
2. Accord high priority to R & D
3. Focus public sector R & D to draw up 5 yr
   budget plan detailing research programs and
   priorities
4. Implement a system of contract research
5. Aim for greater degree of financial autonomy
   for public R & D institution
 KEY FACTORS FOR S & T
 DEVELOPMENT

 Enhancement of the capability of domestic
  enterprise
 Funding
 Strong exporting firms
 Increase demand for technology by encouraging
  Malaysian firms to be OEM to foreign firms
 Developing the S & T human resource
THAILAND
THAI ECONOMY AND ITS
STRUCTURE

 Output of MANUFACTURING sector
 exceeded that of the AGRICULTURAL sector.

 AGRICULTURAL sector was taken over by
 the TRADE sector.
CHANGES IN POLICIES


 Monetary Policy
 Tariff Policy
 Tax Policy
 Energy Pricing Policy
 Industry Policy
HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY IN THAILAND

 1949
 Constitution of the Royal Thai Kingdom B.E
 2492, which states in Article 65 that

 “The government should support research
 in the fields of liberal arts and sciences.”
HISTORY OF SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY IN THAILAND

 1956  National Research Council Act


 1963  National Applied Science Research
  Institute

 1979  Ministry of Science, Technology and
  Energy (MOSTE)
FIFTH PLAN


 ISSUES
  Limited Use of Science and Technology
  Slow Improvement of Imported Technology


 RESULTS
  Signed Agreement with Foreign Countries
  National Center for Genetic Engineering and
   Biotechnology (NCGEB)
SIXTH PLAN


 ISSUES
  Cooperation between S&T units of all government
   agencies and the private sector was the key to
   success.
  Effective linkage between developers and users of
   S&T was needed to have an impact on the
   problems and the needs of the private sector
SIXTH PLAN


 RESULTS
  Office of Science and Technology Development
   Board (STDB)
  National Center for Metals and Materials
   Technology (NCMMT)
  National Electronics and Computer Technology
   Center (NECTEC)
AREAS OF EMPHASIS


 Biotechnology (NCGEB)


 Materials (NCMMT)


 Electronics (NECTEC)
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

 EXPENDITURE
  Low Budget Allocation


 FUNDING
  Research Grants
  Government Funds
  Foreign Funds.


 OUTPUT
  Journal Articles
  Patent
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT


 PRIVATE SECTOR
  Good in Operating, Adapting and Utilizing
   Technology
  Weak in Innovating and Creating New Technology


 MANPOWER
  15 scientists and engineers per 10, 000 population
SEVENTH PLAN


 RESULTS
  Creation of awareness in the role of science and
   technology among the populace
  More R&D in the public and private sectors
  Scholarships for advanced degrees in science and
   technology in industrialized countries
SEVENTH PLAN


 STRATEGIES
  Only one mention R&D.
  Most of the strategies address the utilization,
   acquisition, transfer, and diffusion of technology
  Targets industry at sectoral levels
SECTORAL TECHNOLOGY


 Electronics Industry
 Metal-Working and Machinery Industries
 Petrochemical and Plastics Industry
 Textile Industry
 Food Industry
 Gems and Jewelry Industry
 Iron and Steel Industry
INDONESIA
ELEMENTS OF S&T SYSTEM

 National commitment to technology based
  development

 Technological infrastructure


 Socioeconomic infrastructure


 Productivity capacity
POLICIES TO DEVELOP
MANUFACTURING AND
HIGH-TECH INDUSTRIES

 Policy to support the development of
  government-owned high-tech strategic
  industries

 Economic reform policies that encourage
  firms to invest in manufacturing and high-
  tech industries
REASONS TO SUPPORT
MANUFACTURING AND
HIGH-TECH INDUSTRIES

 To support political and economic aims in the
  unity concept of Wawasan Nusantara

 To promote the take-off stage of Indonesian
  development
BAHARUDDIN JUSUF HABIBIE
 “ The only criterion for the appropriateness of
  technologies for any particular country
  including technologically less-developed
  countries, is their utility in solving actual
  problems in that particular country…. To
  develop its technology, no country can
  continue to be a net technological importer
  indefinitely. At some point it must be able to
  develop its own technologies. ”
EIGHT VEHICLES FOR
INDUSTRIAL TRANSFORMATION
 Aeronautics and aerospace
 Maritime and ship building
 Land transportation
 Electronics and telecommunications
 Energy industry
 Engineering industry
 Agricultural equipment
 Defense industry
FIVE BASIC PRINCIPLES
FOR SUPPORTING S&T
 Commitment to education and training
 Realistic and consistent concept of the nature
  of the society
 Conducting technology transfer
 Belief that a country cannot perpetually be a
  technology importer
 Belief that a country should be able to
  achieve international competitiveness as
  soon as possible
FOUR PHASES OF
INDUSTRIALIZATION
 Use of the existing in the assembly and
  manufacture of products
 Integration of the existing technologies into
  the adaptation process to design and
  manufacture new products
 Improvement of borrowed technology
 Maintenance in the improvements achieved
  in the first three phases
INFLUENTIAL FACTORS IN THE
LOW GROWTH OF ECONOMY
 Weak demand for oil
 Prices of primary commodity exports were
  down
 Depreciation of dollar
 Government revenues from oil permitted the
  government to expand expenditures on
  nontrade goods
 Government’s extensive industrial protection
  and regulations that distorted market
  mechanism
IMPACT OF THE ECONOMIC
REFORM POLICIES ON
S&T DEVELOPMENT

 Tremendous increase in manufacturing and
  high-tech investments by the private sector

 Increase of companies that conduct applied
  research activities for the promotion of
  technological capabilities

								
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