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									Data Collection 101

   Mary Scamman
MSAD6 Technology Day

Learn why we collect data
Learn what type of data to
Learn how to collect data
Learn why we graph data
Learn how to graph data
     Why do we collect data?
To get specific information about
Collecting data on performance helps us
 determine/define a need
Collecting data on performance helps us
 develop an effective intervention
Collecting data on performance helps us
 determine effectiveness of an intervention
Collecting Data helps us make decisions
What type of Data do we collect?

People collect data on:
  sale of shoes
  cigarettes smoked
  amount of calories eaten and weight
  other things????
  academic or behavioral performance of a
   student in school
        How we get started
Select the behavior to study
Define behavior in concrete/measurable
Choose a data collection system
Determine when to collect data
Implement the data collection system
Summarize and graph data
Analyze the data
Utilize data to make decisions
        Defining the Behavior
Define the behavior
  The behavior must be “operationalized” or defined in
     Observable terms
     Measurable terms
Behaviors must
  Be easily observed,
  Countable or measurable,
  Have a beginning and end,
  Be repeatable
A precise definition also identifies when and
 under what conditions the behavior occurs
     Define these behaviors

Define the following:
Start with defined as…..
  Self Injury
  Non compliance
  Off task
 Aggression - any actual or attempt to harm another
  person by hitting, pushing, scratching, pinching, or

 Aggression: Any forceful event of hitting, slapping,
  kicking, pulling at the neck of staff’s clothing,
  grabbing and/or throwing staff’s glasses, or head-
  butting another person or animal (where forceful may
  mean audible, delivered from a distance of a foot or
  more, or producing signs of tissue trauma such as
  redness or broken skin), also, any occurrence of
  pinching, pulling hair, grabbing at a person’s glasses
  or face, or scratching. (Record percent of 15-minute
 Head Hit: Any instance of slapping or hitting her face or head, any instance
  of banging her head against a wall or object. (Record percent of 15-minute
  intervals). Hitting and banging are contrasted with simple touching or
  tapping in terms of force: hitting or banging—whether hand-to-head or head-
  to-object—are characterized by elements including but not limited to audible
  contact and/or visible tissue trauma (e.g., redness or broken skin) and/or a
  strike from a foot or more away.

 Hand Bang: Forcibly banging any object with the side or back of her hand.
  (Percent 15-minute intervals).

 Property Destruction: Throwing objects, pushing furniture over or into
  other objects or walls. (Record percent of 15-minute intervals).

 Tantrum: Combination of aggression, head-hits, and property destruction—
  tantrums occur almost exclusively when the phone rings. (Record percent of
  15-minute intervals)
    Data Collection Systems

Anecdotal and naturalistic
Permanent products
Event recording
Interval recording (whole, partial, time
 sample, interludes)
Naturalistic observation recording

A direct way of collecting data
a complete description of a students behavior
 in a particular setting or during a particular
 event; there is no pre-defined or
 operationalized target behavior(s); the report
 is narrative, written in every-day language,
 and describes individuals and their
Naturalistic observation recording

record setting, activity and individuals in the
 setting (& their relationships)
record everything the target student says and
 does and to whom or to what
record everything done and said to the target
 student and by whom
differentiate fact from impressions or
mark the time periodically
       Permanent products
tangible items or environmental effects that
 result from a behavior, products that are
data is collected after the behavior has
Used to grade spelling tests, check arithmetic
 problems, or count the number of wooden
 stakes painted by a student
Also useful in producing a portfolio
                Event recording
 direct way of recording data
 a tally mark is recorded for each occurrence of a
    must be used with discrete behaviors (those which have
     an obvious beginning and end.)
    difficult with high frequency behaviors, not as useful with
     high variability behavior
    Charts/counting devices may interfere with instruction or
     be difficult to manage
             Event recording
 Method
  define the behavior
  describe the setting
  set the observation period
  divide the observation period into smaller intervals
    of time to see distribution over time

 Yields rate per time
   //// tally marks in 20 minutes equals
 4 events/20 min = .2 behaviors per minute
 Interval Recording - whole and partial
Direct method of data collection
  partial interval- behavior occurred at least once during
   the interval
  whole interval- behavior occurred during the whole
approximations of behavior frequency, duration,
 distribution or occurrence/non-occurrence
  get approximations of behavior, may have more than
   one behavior occurring at one time,
  easy to get under/over estimates, difficult to use and
   teach at the same time, a third party observer is often
               Interval recording
              (whole and partial)
   define behavior
   describe setting
   set total observation period
   set equal interval size (usually no longer than 30
     seconds) so can compare the results
   record occurrence/non-occurrence
 Yields % of intervals in which behavior occurs
 (CANNOT convert to rate)
  # of intervals behavior occurred X 100
      total number of intervals
Direct method of data collection
how long a behavior lasts form beginning to
 end, can also get frequency, must be a
 discrete behavior
  define behavior
  describe setting
  measure from beginning to end of target behavior
Yields percent, rate, average and/or range
 1 min 10 sec, 40 sec, 4 min 10 sec, 2 min = 8
 min total duration out of seat for 20 minute
  (range) 40 sec to 4 min 10 sec (lowest to highest)
  (average) total duration divided by frequency 8 min/4
   = 2 minutes
  (percent) time out of seat 8 min/20 min = 40%
  (rate) 8 min/20 min or .4 min per minute
Direct method of data collection
how long a student takes to perform a behavior
 from the time the antecedent stimulus (direction)
 is given and the initiation of the behavior
  define behavior
  describe setting
  define prompt, stimulus, cue, antecedent and record
   time given
  measure to initiation (on set) of behavior

Yields percent, range and/or average latency
 of response
 1 min 10 sec, 40 sec, 4 min 10 sec, 2
 min = 8 min total latency (sit down)
  (average) total latency divided by frequency 8
   min/4 = 2 minutes
  (range) 40 sec to 4 min 10 sec (lowest to highest)
  (percent) latency 8 min/20 min = 40%
    Practice Recording Data

10 second intervals
Partial Interval Recording
Whole interval recording
   Determine when to collect
Times will vary depending on:
  what behaviors are selected,
  how frequently behavior occurs,
  and available resources
Social behaviors may occur more
 frequently during unstructured times
 such as lunch and recess
Develop a schedule and stick to it
      Data Collection Practice
Use correct and reliable data
  Follow data collection system directions
  Record 0 or count for each interval
  Have a second observer simultaneously record the
   same behavior of the same student at the same time
  Calculate Interobserver Reliability (IOA)
  Data collection should be continuous and ongoing
  Establish baseline - 3 or more data points that are
  Evaluate increases and decreases in behavior to
   show effectiveness of an intervention - 3 or more data
   points in the same direction
 Data Collection and Graphing
  Graphing conventions
  Creating Graphs with Microsoft Excel, 1998,
   Carr and Burkholder, JABA, 31, 245-251.
Visual representation of the data so we
 can see trends in performance
Use the type of graph that shows the
 variability in performance the best

Line graph
  Most common
  X-axis = horizontal = time
  Y-axis = vertical = dependent variable
  Label with time/sessions X-axis or description of
   behavior on the y-axis and rate or interval
Scatter Plot
Bar graph
          Trend Language

Increasing/decreasing trend
Steeply, rapidly, slowly, gradually, gently
Step changes- increasing, decreasing, up,

Look within phases AND between phases

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