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Template for Science Lessons for Riverdeep

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					                                               Elementary Science 5 E’s Lesson Plan

Teacher: Sam Corlew (demo teacher)               Grade Level: 4th                   Dates: May 2010
Title of Lesson: Force and Motion adapted from the DCPS annually assessed benchmark lesson
Benchmark(s) from      SC.C.2.2.4 The student knows that the motion of an object is determined by the overall effect of all of the forces acting on
                       the object. (Also assesses C.2.2.2 and C.2.2.3)
the SSS for this       SC.C.2.2.2 The student knows that an object may move in a straight line at a constant speed, speed up, slow down, or
lesson                 change direction dependent on net force acting on the object.
                       SC.C.2.2.3 The student knows that the more massive an object is, the less effect a given force has.
                       SC.H.1.2.1 The student knows that it is important to keep accurate records and descriptions to provide information and
                       clues on causes of discrepancies in repeated experiments.
                       SC.H.1.2.2 The student knows that a successful method to explore the natural world is to observe and record, and then
                       analyze and communicate the results. (Also assesses H.1.2.4 and H.3.2.2)
                       SC.H.1.2.4 The student knows that to compare and contrast observations and results is an essential skill in science.
                       SC.H.3.2.2 The student knows that data are collected and interpreted in order to explain an event or concept.

Essential Question     When the total mass of a car increases, what happens to the amount of force needed to pull car?

Objective for          The student understands that the mass of an object determines the amount of force needed to move it.
Students
NOTE                   ALL 5 E’s WILL NOT BE DONE IN ONE DAY.

Engage                 Show a picture of a car and a picture of a tricycle. Pose the question to the students, “If a rope were tied around the car
                       and another rope were tied around the tricycle, which would be easier to pull up a hill? Have students share their thinking
                       with a partner or the whole group.
                       Investigation : Exploring the Relationship Between Force and Mass
                                  1.   Post the testable question: When the total mass of a car increases, what happens to the amount of
                                       force needed to pull the car?
                                  2.   Distribute Student Procedures and Student Data Sheets.
                                  3.   Give the groups an opportunity to read the procedures. Clarify procedures only if necessary.
                                  4.   Remind each group to gather the materials needed for the investigation.
                                  5.   As students are working, circulate and observe their procedures for setting up the ramp, pulling the car,
                                       attaching the gram masses, and measuring force with the spring scale. Make note of differences among
                                       groups as the investigation proceeds. Check to see if groups are following procedures, but redirect
                                       students only if they are completely confused about the investigation.
                                  6.   Allow time for groups to conduct the trials by pulling the cars up the ramp with different masses and
Explore                                recording the force in their data table. Make sure one member from each group records the data on a chart
                                       with markers for class discussion.
Adapted from DCPS
Annually Assessed                 7.   Remind students to calculate the average for their trials and record the averages in the last column in their
Benchmark Lesson-                      data tables with a black marker.
Force and Motion                  8.   Have students post the charted data table for each group.


                       Using the charts that the students completed and posted. Pose the following questions:
                            1.    What do you notice about the data from our different groups?
                            2.    Why do you think some groups have different data from others? Explain your thoughts?
                            3.    How did you use the spring scale?
                            4.    What was different about using a spring scale from ways you are used to measuring?
                            5.    Did everyone use the spring scale the same way?
                            6.    What was the same about using the spring scale and the other tools you have been using?
                            7.    What did you notice about the amount of force that was required to move the object?
                            8.    How did the amount of force change as the mass of the car changed?
                            9.    What did we measure in this investigation?
                       Refer back to the essential question: When the total mass of a car increases, what happens to the amount of force
                       needed to pull the car? Ask the students if they can answer that question based upon the investigation that they
                       completed the day before? Let the students know that they will explain themselves in a few minutes.
                       Refer to the data from the explore portion of the lesson, pose the following questions to the students:
                                       1.   What statement can you make based on the data from this investigation?
                                       2.   What data can you use from the chart to support your statement?

Explain                                3.   When an object is at rest (not moving), the forces acting on the object are balanced. In order to make
                                            the car move, what happens?
                                       4.   When the greater forces on the car needed to become unbalanced. What caused the forces acting on
                                            the car to become unbalanced?
                                       5.   When the forces became unbalanced, what happened to the car?
                                       6.   When an object is moving in the same direction at a constant speed, the forces acting on the object
                                            are balanced. When were balanced forces acting on the car?

DCPS Science Department 2009-10                                                                                                                        1
                                       7.   When we used the spring scale to move the car up the ramp, what force was acting on the car to
                                            cause it to move up the ramp?
                                       8.   As we were pulling the car up the ramp, what is another force that was acting on the car?
                                       9.   How do you know gravity was acting on the car?
                                       10. How did adding more gram masses to the car affect the force of gravity acting on the car?
                                       11. What are some other times you have observed the difference of the effect of gravity pulling on objects
                                           with different masses?
                        After asking the previous questions give students the opportunity to explain the word force in their own words. Students
                       will create a Frayer Model using the word force as the concept to describe. In the center of the paper create a circle that
                       has the word force in the middle. In each of the four corners they are to answer the following questions in their own words:
                       essential characteristics, examples, non-examples and definition. Each group is to present their chart to the class. As
                       students are presenting the teacher should be noting misconceptions and future investigations.


                       Review the question, “When the total mass of a car increases, what happens to the amount of force needed to pull
                       the car? We found that the more mass the cars have the more force we need to pull the car? “
                       Ask this question: What are some other times you have observed the difference of the effect of gravity pulling on objects
                       with different masses? Chart the responses. (Examples: tug of war, pulling wagon, pushing grocery cart, pulling a box full
                       of books, pulling a cooler at the beach on the sand, etc)
                       Explain to the students that they are going to create an investigation using one of the examples from the chart. Explain that
                       for these examples we have to use items from the classroom or ones that can be brought from home.
                            1.    Pulling a box with different amounts of books.
                            2.    Pulling a car through a box top of sand.
Extend                      3.    Pulling a tray with gram stackers up a ramp.
                            4.    Tug of War using a rubber band.
                            5.    Dragging a pencil, pen and scissors up the ramp.


                       Students will create a poster that shows their materials, procedure, data and results. They also will need to draw a
                       conclusion about that answers: When the total mass of an increases, what happens to the amount of force needed to pull
                       the object.
                       Students will present the posters to the class.
                       Teacher will score using a rubric.
                       Investigation Assessment
                       As the class completes the investigation to answer the question: “When the total mass of a car increases, what happens to
                       the amount of force needed to pull the car?”The teacher circulates around the classroom with the Force and Motion
                       checklist to assess each student’s understanding of the various concepts. The teacher asks the student to demonstrate or
                       explain a concept and then scores the demonstration/explanation using a 4 point scoring rubric.
Evaluate               Culminating Assessment
                       Students will be given two scenario questions to answer in short response form.
                            1.    Explain why a truck driver has a harder time driving a full truck up a hill than an empty truck?
                            2.    When your car gets stuck in the sand, it is difficult for one person to push the car. If a team of 5 basketball
                                  players pushes together, the car moves more easily. Explain why. Use the terms force and weight/mass in your
                                  answer.
                       Teacher will score based upon a rubric that they create.

Supplies and                     1 spring scale
Technology Needed                1 empty ceramic coffee mug
                       Investigation
                       Per group:
                             1 toy car or truck (Cars must be able to carry gram masses. If your school has Hall’s cars, you can use those for
                                  this investigation.)
                             three 50-gram masses
                             3 meter sticks (to use as a ramp)
                             masking tape (to hold meter sticks together to build a ramp)
                             1 student chair
                             one 5-newton spring scale
                             1 large paper clip (attach to car as place to attach hook of spring scale – see below for directions on how to
                                  attach the paper clip to the car)
                             calculator
                             chart paper and markers
                             Student Procedures and Student Data Sheet
                       Extend:
                             Spring scales
                             Chart paper and markers
                             Rulers
                             Rubber bands
                             Gram masses
                             Sand
                             Tray
                             Toy car
DCPS Science Department 2009-10                                                                                                                        2
                                  Books
                                  Pencil
                                  Pen
                                  Scissors
                                  Tray from frozen dinner
                                  Hook
                                  Box
                                  ramps
Vocabulary               Force, inertia, friction, gravity, net force, balanced force, unbalanced force, Newton

Homework:                Students are to create a t-chart. On the t-chart they should list five examples of increasing the use of force due to changes
                         on mass.

Resources (A/V,          Doc. Cam, spring scales, DCPS Annually Assessed Benchmark Lesson
websites, books, etc.)

Special Instructions     Note to teachers:
                         Materials for investigations should be organized for groups before class sessions. Three to five students may
                         work in each group. Charting data is very important in these investigations. Charts for displaying group data for
                         each investigation should be posted. There must be a time for whole group discussion of charted data after each
                         of the investigations. Charts may be enlarged using a poster maker or drawn on chart paper. SAFETY GOGGLES
                         need to be provided for all students and worn by everyone in the classroom during investigations.


                         Using a Spring Scale to Measure Force Demonstration (before Investigation)
                                   Show students a spring scale. Use a projector or document camera to show the photographs on page 16 to give
                                   students a closer view.
                                   Be sure the flat part at the top of the plunger attached to the spring is at the zero N mark. If the top of the
                                   plunger is not lined up with the zero mark, you can adjust the tension on the spring by gently turning the hex nut
                                   at the top of the spring scale. When calibrating the spring scale:
                                             Turn the hex nut to the right to move the plunger toward the spring (the plunger will move up)
                                            Turn the hex nut to the left to move the plunder away from the spring (the plunger will move down)
                                   Explain that a spring scale is a tool used to measure force in units called “newtons.” N is the
                                   abbreviation for newtons.
                                   The spring scales we will use measures up to 5 N.
                                   What unit is used on this spring scale? (Each line on the scale is equal to 0.1 N.)
                                   The other side of the spring scale measures mass in grams.
                                   Show students how to look at the top of the plunger to read the force in N.
                                   Put a ceramic coffee mug on a table. Attach the hook of the spring scale to the handle of the mug.
                                   Demonstrate for students how to gently pull the spring scale parallel to the surface of the table until a constant
                                   force can be read. (It is very important that students pull gently. If they pull hard or jerk on the hook, the spring
                                   inside the spring scale can be ruined.)
                                   Ask a student to read the measurement on the spring scale. Be sure the student is looking at the top of the
                                   plunger and reads the measurement to the closest tenth of a Newton.
                                   Record the following on the board or a chart: The amount of force needed to move the coffee mug across
                                   the table was __N.
                                   Students will need to practice using the spring scale to gently pull the cars and reading the measurement
                                   accurately before they begin to record data.

Additional               ESOL: TPR (Total Physical Response), charting, graphic organizers
Differentiated           Inclusion: small grouping, charting, graphic organizers, hands on examples
Instruction
Higher Order             Probing Questions to Ask Students After Investigation 2 ( Questions with possible answers from DCPS
Questions                Benchmark Lesson)
                              1.   Look at the data on each group’s chart. What patterns do you see in the data? The pattern we want
                                   students to see is that the amount of force required to move the car increased as the number of gram masses in
                                   the car increased. Students should refer to the number of gram masses in the car and measurements of force in
                                   newtons to describe patterns.
                              2.   Why do some groups have different data from others? Explain your thoughts. students set up ramps
                                   differently, group did not start the car at the same cm point, students did not use same method for pulling the car
                                   with the spring scale, different students pulled the car, groups did not attach the gram masses in the same way,
                                   students did not read the spring scale accurately, students did not use the correct unit of measure, etc.
                              3.   What was different about using the spring scale from ways you are used to measuring? Spring scales that
                                   measure in tenths are a little more challenging to measure when the object is moving. Usually we measure with
                                   objects standing still.
                              4.   What was the same about using the spring scale and the other tools you have been using? The person
                                   reading the measurement still needs to be eye level with the top of the plunger and read the number accurately.
                                   It measures in tenths like the double-beam balance, and needs to be calibrated before being used.
                              5.   Was it important for the same person do the same job for all of the trials? Explain why you answered the
                                   way you did. The same person needs to be pulling each time to keep the motion as close to the same as
                                   possible. The same reader needs to look at the spring scale because they will read it the same each time.
                              6.   How did the amount of force change as the mass of the car changed? the greater the mass, the more force
                                   was needed. Accept answers that compare the charted data precisely. Students should state numbers on the

DCPS Science Department 2009-10                                                                                                                            3
                                  chart in their responses.
                           7.     What did we do to try to get the most valid results? kept the constants the same: same car, same ramp,
                                  same type of gram masses, same spring scale, same set up of ramp, same starting location for pulling the car up
                                  the ramp, same method of pulling the car with the spring scale, same method of reading the spring scale, same
                                  unit used for measurement.
                           8.     What variables remained constant? car, ramp, set up, type of gram masses, spring scale, starting point,
                                  method for pulling the car, measurement method, units of measurement
                           9.     What is the independent variable? the number of gram masses in the car
                           10. What is the dependent variable? the amount of force needed to pull the car and the gram masses up the ramp
                           11. What did we measure in this investigation? the amount of force needed to move the car and the gram masses
                       Culminating Questions to Ask Students at Conclusion of Investigation 2
                       Let’s review the testable question: When the total mass of a car increases, what happens to the amount of force
                       needed to pull the car?
                                       12. What statement can you make based on the data from this investigation? The amount of force
                                           increases when the mass carried in the car increases. Students may also share that the amount of
                                           force required to move an empty car was less than the amount of force required to move a car carrying
                                           more gram masses.
                                       13. How can you use the data to support your statement? When the car was empty, it took __N to
                                           move the car. When the car carried 50 grams, it took __N to move the car. When the car carried 100
                                           grams, it took __N to move the car. When the car carried 150 grams, it took __N to move the car. It
                                           took the greatest number of newtons to move the car with 150 grams in it.
                                       14. When I moved the golf ball and marble with the ruler before Investigation 1, what force was
                                           acting on them to cause them to move? a push
                                       15. When we let marbles roll down ramps of different heights in Investigation 1, what force was
                                           acting on the marble to cause it to roll down the ramp? gravity
                                       16. When an object is at rest (not moving), the forces acting on the object are balanced. In order to
                                           make the car move, the forces on the car needed to become unbalanced. What caused the
                                           forces acting on the car to become unbalanced? When we pulled on the car, we caused the forces
                                           acting on the car to become unbalanced.
                                       17. When the forces became unbalanced, what happened to the car? It began to move
                                       18. When an object is moving in the same direction at a constant speed, the forces acting on the
                                           object are balanced. When were balanced forces acting on the car? when the car was not moving
                                           at the bottom of the ramp and when we were pulling the car up the ramp with a constant force showing
                                           on the spring scale
                                       19. When we used the spring scale to move the car up the ramp, what force was acting on the car
                                           to cause it to move up the ramp? a pull
                                       20. As we were pulling the car up the ramp, what is another force that was acting on the car?
                                           Gravity
                                       21. How do you know gravity was acting on the car? It was not “floating”, or moving off the meter stick.
                                           Something had to be pulling in down toward the ground.
                                       22. How did adding more gram masses to the car affect the force of gravity acting on the car? It
                                           took more force to pull the car up the ramp when it carried more gram masses. It took more pulling
                                           force to overcome the force of gravity pulling down on the car and the gram masses as you added
                                           more gram masses to the car.
                                       23. What are some other times you have observed the difference of the effect of gravity pulling on
                                           objects with different masses? it is harder to lift a heavier object than a lighter object, I pull harder to
                                           lift a heavy bag of groceries than I do to lift a light bag of groceries, it is harder to pull a bigger person
                                           back on a swing than a lighter person, etc.
                                       24. Explain why a truck driver has a harder time driving a full truck up a hill than an empty truck. It
                                           takes more force to move something that has more mass [is heavier] than it takes to move something
                                           that has less mass [is lighter]. A full truck has more mass than an empty truck so it is harder to move a
                                           full truck up a hill.
                                       25. When your car gets stuck in the sand, it is difficult for one person to push the car. If a team of 5
                                           basketball players pushes together, the car moves more easily. Explain why. Use the terms
                                           force and weight/mass in your answer. A car is too heavy for one person to push out of the sand. A
                                           team of 5 basketball players can exert more force on the mass of the heavy car to move it out of the
                                           sand.

Reflections on this    This lesson should be taught after they have completed Investigation One from “Force and Motion”, DCPS Benchmark
lesson                 Lesson.




DCPS Science Department 2009-10                                                                                                                             4

				
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