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					Mgt 4440
Packet 2




Creativity
                 THOUGHTS ON CREATIVITY

1. In addition to being somewhat misunderstood, creativity is almost
   always somewhat underdeveloped in individuals. Why is this so? In
   American & Western European cultures, intelligence is a highly
   prized attribute. We honor & seek it. Much of our educational
   system fosters it. Psychologists & other behavioral scientists have
   being studying intelligence for more than 100 years. Creativity took
   a back seat to intelligence as a cultural icon during most of the 20th
   century. In sum, many of us do not know what creativity is, how
   creative we are, or how to act or think creatively. Perhaps more
   importantly, we have not been trained to be creative.




2. Beyond this, it is important to recognize that creativity is an
   individual difference just like height, visual acuity, or swimming
   ability. Some of us will be more creative than others.




3. Innovation may be more important for business managers than
   creativity itself. The manager is responsible for fostering a creative
   work climate and bringing creative ideas to the deliverable stage.
   Although there may be many novel ideas running about an
   organization, it is the technical people who deliver product or service.
   In the end, ideation – creative thought – must be married to basic
   good management practices. Some of these modern practices –
   bullpens & cross-functional teams – were developed with innovation
   in mind.


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4. Creativity & innovation are probably more of a competitive
   advantage today than 50 years ago. Business training & education
   have become somewhat homogenized in the past three decades. As a
   result, people are entering the business world with the same
   knowledge & the same ideas. Thus, it is new ideas that often trump
   traditional management practices. The analogy would be novel game
   plans in football that catch the opposition “off guard” and force the
   other team to play catch-up.



5. Taken to the extreme, creativity can produce a "paradigm shift". That
   is, the past becomes almost irrelevant when the shift occurs. Once
   someone enters the environment with a product or service that shifts
   the paradigm, the competition is overwhelmed. Simply put, they're
   completely unprepared to compete on the new playing field.



6. Finally, from a strategic point of view, creative approaches can, at
   times, trump traditional market research and related business
   practices. Studying consumer behavior, assessing their preferences,
   and understanding "markets" are critical to business. However, what
   if the public does not know what it wants? Case studies of striking
   changes in market share often demonstrate that the difference was a
   person's vision, not business research.




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7. When do you know you have creativity & innovation? When it is
   simple, elegant, and has great utility. Also, you often hear other
   people say, "Damn, why didn't I think of that?"

8. Creativity & Innovation in a Business Setting

              Creativity                    Innovation




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                                             Making Connections

Word Hints to Creativity
  OBJECT: Find a fourth word that is related to all three words listed below.

     For example, what word is related to these?

          cookies        sixteen     heart     __________________

     The answer is “sweet.” Cookies are sweet; sweet is part of the word
     “sweetheart” and part of the phrase “sweet sixteen.”

     What word is related to these words?

          poke      so     molasses          ____________________

     Answer: slow.


  Now try these words:

     1.      surprise              line            birthday         __________________________
     2.      base                  snow            dance            __________________________
     3.      rat                   blue            cottage          __________________________
     4.      nap                   rig             call             __________________________
     5.      golf                  foot            country          __________________________
     6.      house                 weary           ape              __________________________
     7.      tiger                 plate           news             __________________________
     8.      painting              bowl            nail             __________________________
     9.      proof                 sea             priest           __________________________
     10.     maple                 beet            loaf             __________________________
     11.     oak                   show            plan             __________________________
     12.     light                 village         golf             __________________________
     13.     merry                 out             up               __________________________
     14.     red                   star            house            __________________________




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                   CONNECTING LINES PROBLEM
Draw four straight lines that pass through each dot below. Do not retrace your line and do
not lift your pencils/ pen from the sheet once you begin.



                                                                  


                                                                  


                                                                  




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                              THINGS TO DO WITH IT
List as many uses as possible for a brick.




                                  UNTITLED STORY
Cannibals captured a missionary in darkest Africa and were about to boil him alive when the
chief of the tribe came to him and said, “My beautiful daughter loves you. Agree to marry her
and we will spare you.” The missionary refused, and was boiled and eaten by the cannibals.

Give this story a title.




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                  Creative Organizations
                     - A F ramework -




                                             Innovative
Creativity
                                             Product or
                                               Service




              Creative People
              Technical Skill
              Creative Individual & Group
               Techniques
              Management Practices
                          CREATIVE PEOPLE
Behavioral Characteristics

   Lots of ideas

   Lots of ideas quickly – brief incubation period

   Lots of novel ideas

   Open to new ideas

   Thinking style non-linear – inductive, “right brained”, intuitive, rely
    on insight, answers to problems may seem “strange” & initially
    difficult to explain

   Able to develop non-routine approaches to problems

   Comfortable with ambiguity

   Able to work alone

   Will deliver product or service that is unexpected

   Will develop creative skill

Some Other Possible Characteristics

   Dress & speech

   Political & social values

   (Think about it as a matter of self-expression)
Some Potential Downsides (if we’re talking about creativity in the
extreme & a lack of self-awareness)

    Develops non-routine solutions to routine problems

    Appears not to conform

    Could have problem “finishing” – not complete assignments

Some Misperceptions

    Creative people are artsy

    Creative people are driven by an inner demon that cannot be satisfied
     – Van Gogh

    Creative people are overly emotional or not well adjusted or not
     socially skilled

Manager Challenges & Opportunities

    Easier to find “smart” people than creative people

    Critical to identify and then match creative person to the task

    More critical to manage the team environment & put together a task
     oriented group with the potential for creative/innovative solutions


                                                IMPORTANT

Behavioral flexibility is a two-edge sword. It makes it difficult to adhere to standard operational procedures,
tight job descriptions, or highly controlling supervision. Hence, the widespread belief that creative people
can be behavioral problems. This stereotype (wrong as it is) is common in the classroom & the workplace.
On the other hand, it is that behavioral flexibility that underwrites the novel approaches that lead to
innovation.
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                               THE PEBBLE DILEMMA


ASSUME YOU ARE THE YOUNG WOMEN IN THIS CASE. WHAT
WOULD YOU DO? BE ADVISED. EXPERTS SUGGEST THERE IS ONE
VERY GOOD, RATHER INNOVATIVE SOLUTION.

   Many years ago, a small businessman found himself with a large debt to
   a creditor. The creditor, rumored to have been associated with organized
   crime, became adamant that repayment be made by a deadline that was
   impossible for the businessman to meet. Business was not good, and the
   businessman could not even keep up the interest payments, let alone the
   loan principal. The creditor, however, had become attracted to the
   businessman’s daughter, and in his conniving ways, decided he would rather
   have the girl than the small, failing business. The daughter, however, was
   repulsed by such a suggestion and resisted all his advances.

   The creditor was a gambling man and always enjoyed the thrill of a contest.
   He decided to propose a game to the businessman and his daughter that
   would decide her fate and that of the business. He indicated that he would
   put a white pebble and a black pebble into a bag and then have the young
   woman pick out a pebble. If she chose the black pebble, she would become
   his wife and the businessman’s debt would be considered paid in full. If she
   chose the white pebble, she could stay with her father and the debt would
   be cancelled. If she refused to participate in the game, the entire balance
   would be made due by the end of the month.

   Reluctantly, the businessman agreed to the creditor’s proposal. They met
   on a pebble-strewn path in the local arboretum to conduct this game of
   chance. As they chatted, the creditor stooped down, picked up two pebbles,
   and put them into a bag. The young woman, sharp-eyed with fright, noticed
   that the creditor had put two black pebbles in the bag. He held up the bag
   and asked the young woman to select the pebble that would decide her fate
   and that of her father’s business.




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                            RE-DEFINING PROBLEMS
The issue of creativity is critical in the initial stages of the problem solving process. It is
essential to widen or broaden the perspective of the problem before focusing on specific
solutions. Re-defining problems is an excellent method for accomplishing this. It is a playful
application of “brainstorming” at the first step of our problem solving model.

Re-defining problems

Re-defining entails examining a problem from another’s perspective. This technique is most
helpful and appropriate when different parties view the problem from opposing vantage points.
The technique is similar to role reversal procedures used in marital counseling and conflict
management.

Assume you are a homemaker, and your problem is stated below. Re-write the problem from
the perspective of the working spouse.

My spouse is a workaholic and doesn’t spend enough time with the kids or me.




Keys to Using

    Re-write as many times as possible
    Change subject & object of sentence
    For sure, change the perspective of the concerned parties if there is an interpersonal
     aspect
    Do this over the course of days
    Ask other people their viewpoints – get them to give you a statement that can be written
     down




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                       BRAINSTORMING
RULES

1. GENERATE AS MANY SOLUTIONS AS POSSIBLE.

2. DO NOT CRITIQUE OR EVALUATE ANY           SOLUTION    UNTIL   ALL
   ALTERNATIVES HAVE BEEN GENERATED.

3. TRY TO BE INNOVATIVE. COME UP WITH NOVEL IDEAS.

4. IF SOMEONE HAS A NOVEL IDEA AND YOU CAN ADD TO IT, DO THIS.

MANAGING GROUP

1. SOMEONE SHOULD BE APPOINTED SECRETARY. THIS PERSON TAKES
   DOWN THE IDEAS FOR LATER DISCUSSION. THIS PERSON ALSO
   CONTRIBUTES OWN IDEAS.

2. IF THE GROUP HAS NOT WORKED TOGETHER BEFORE; IT MAY HELP TO
   USE A ROUND ROBIN APPROACH TO GIVE PEOPLE AIR TIME.

3. SOMEONE-PROBABLY THE SECRETARY-SHOULD ASK THE GROUP IF ALL
   SOLUTIONS HAVE BEEN PUT ON THE TABLE. THIS USUALLY OCCURS AS
   THE GROUP LOSES MOMENTUM AND NEW ALTERNATIVES ARE NOT
   FORTHCOMING.

DECISIONS

1. REVIEW SOLUTIONS ELIMINATING ONES THAT ARE UNREALISTIC. BE
   MINDFUL NOT TO DROP ALTERNATIVES TOO QUICKLY. BE CREATIVE AT
   THE IMPLEMENTATION ALSO!

2. DEVELOP A LIST OF ALTERNATIVES-TWO OR THREE-THAT SEEM
   REASONABLE. USE THIS LIST AS A STARTING POINT FOR YOUR NEXT
   MEETING.




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              THE WIDGET COMPANY CASE
YOU MANAGE THE SHIPPING DEPARTMENT FOR WIDGET
MANUFACTURING. WIDGET PRODUCES A COSTLY, DELICATE
CRYSTAL THAT IS USED AS A COMPONENT FOR MEDICAL LASERS.
THE CRYSTALS ARE PACKED SEPARATELY-ONE TO A BOX.

LAST MONTH YOUR DEPARTMENT BEGAN USING DAY OLD
NEWSPAPER TO WRAP THE CRYSTALS. THE NEWSPAPER IS AN IDEAL
INSULATOR AND PROTECTIVE COVERING FOR THE CRYSTALS. IN
ADDITION, WIDGET GETS THE DAY OLD NEWSPAPER FREE, A
SIGNIFICANT COST SAVING FOR WRAPPING & SHIPPING MATERIALS.

RECENTLY, YOU HAVE NOTED AN INCREASED TURN AROUND TIME
FROM PRODUCTION TO CUSTOMER, DUE LARGELY TO LONGER THAN
ACCEPTABLE LAGS IN SHIPPING. IT APPEARS YOUR WORKERS ARE
READING THE OLD NEWSPAPERS AND NOT PACKING CRYSTALS AS
RAPIDLY AS THEY ONCE DID.

YOU WILL HAVE TO DECREASE THE TIME ASSOCIATED WITH
PACKING IN ORDER TO RESOLVE THE PROBLEM. HOW WILL YOU DO
THIS?




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                      HOME SECURITY SYSTEMS
                  -USING METAPHORICAL THINKING-
Creativity can be enhanced through fantasy and imagination. Therefore, it comes as no
surprise that the use of metaphors will often aid groups searching for creative solutions to
common problems.

A concrete example of metaphorical thinking is direct analogy. Here problem solvers
think about how others have resolved situations similar to the one they now confront.
Often the most productive approach is to examine solutions found in nature. For example,
wet leaves, which pack together snugly, suggested metaphorically how potato chips
might be packaged. The result was Pringles potato chips that are stacked and sold in a
can. (And, they don’t break!) The inventor of Velcro was inspired while removing burrs
from his dog’s fur. In both cases, the problem solver used metaphorical thinking: This is
like that.

This is your group’s problem: Design a home security system. Your group should use
this metaphor: Home security systems are like animals, fish, and plants. All living
things in nature must find ways of protecting themselves from predators and the
elements. What analogies can your group find and apply to the problem of home security
systems?

.




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                           POTENTIAL METAPHORS
Assume you are in a romantic relationship or the manager of a sales team. You want to create a
climate that is healthy, effective, and rewarding for all concerned parties. Using metaphorical
technique, what insights can you develop that apply to each situation.

   I WANT MY ROMANTIC                  A GOOD NOVEL              AN EXCELLENT BOTTLE OF
RELATIONSHIP TO BE LIKE                                                  WINE




 MY SALES TEAM IS LIKE          A PACK OF WOLVES OR AN               A WELL-COACHED
                                        ORCA POD                      FOOTBALL TEAM




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                        MORPHOLOGICAL THINKING
                          -BUILDING A VEHICLE-
A strict definition of morphology is: “the form of an organism considered as a whole.” As a
discipline, morphology is rooted in biology, and focused on how plants and animals are
structured. That is, the question of why plants and animals have certain characteristics is
addressed.

Later, morphological thinking was picked-up by engineers & architects. The practice entails 1)
determining what features or characteristics a building/machine should have, 2) listing the
forms each characteristic should take, and 3) looking for creative combinations of these
characteristics.

Step-by-step process

      DIVIDE THE SUBJECT INTO ITS DISTINCT CHARACTERISTICS

      LIST ALL POSSIBLE FORMS OR MANIFESTATIONS OF THESE
      CHARACTERISITICS

      BEGIN COMBINING THE VARIOUS FORMS, EXAMINE EACH COMBINATION
      IN LIGHT OF THE ORIGINAL PURPOSE

Problem: Building a vehicle

Assume for a moment you must build a vehicle. Begin by defining what a vehicle is, and listing
the main attributes of a vehicle. For our purposes, a vehicle is a “vessel that travels from place
A to place B, can carry things or people, and is powered by a source.” From this, we derive
three main attributes or characteristics of vehicles:

      VEHICLES HAVE A SOURCE OF POWER

      VEHICLES HAVE A SHAPE

      VEHICLES TRAVEL THROUGH OR ON A MEDIUM




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Now, under each attribute, list all possible forms or manifestations. Next, combine the unique
levels of each attribute, examining the type of vehicle that results.



 SOURCE OF POWER                          FORM                          MEDIUM




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                       CREATIVITY TECHNIQUES
PROBLEM RE-DEFINITION

     USE AT STEP 1 OF MODEL

     RE-STATE THE PROBLEM FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF ANOTHER PARTY

     HELPS CLARIFY PRESENT STATE & GOAL STATE IN TERMS OF DIFFERENT
      PERSPECTIVES




PROBLEM REVERSAL

     USE AT STEP 1 OF MODEL

     FLIP THE PROBLEM AROUND – OR INSIDE-OUT

     HELPFUL FOR SITUATION WHERE REVERSING THE PROCESS OR REVERSING THE
      SUBJECT MAKES SENSE, REMEMBER THE TOMATO PROBLEM  DON’T LOOK AT THE
      MACHINE, LOOK AT THE TOMATO



BRAINSTORMING

     USE AT STEP 2 OF MODEL (PERHAPS STEP 1)

     ASSUMES EFFECTIVE WORKING GROUP

     GROUP DEVELOPS EXHAUSTIVE LIST OF SOLUTIONS AT STEP 2 BEFORE EVALUATING
      ANY ONE SOLUTION

   IMPORTANT TO SET GOALS OF CREATIVITY & QUANTITY OF SOLUTIONS




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 METAPHORICAL THINKING

     USE AT STEP 2 OF MODEL

     A VARIANT OF BRAINSTORMING

     CAN BE GROUP OR INDIVIDUAL TECHNIQUE

     LOOK FOR A SITUATION THAT IS DIFFERENT BUT ANALAGOUS TO THE PROBLEM
      SITUATION

     FOR EXAMPLE, COMPARE A BUSINESS IN NEED OF REVENUES TO A HUNGRY
      PREDATOR; IS THERE ANYTHING THAT PREDATORS DO THAT M IGHT GIVE
      MANAGEMENT A HINT ABOUT HOW TO PURSUE NEEDED CASH

     TECHNIQUE ENTAILS FLUENCY IN ONE DIMENSION FOLLOWED BY DEVELOPING
      CONNECTIONS TO ANOTHER (PROBLEM) DIMENTION

   HELPFUL WHEN SEARCHING FOR AN INSIGHTFUL WAY TO RE- EXAMINE YOUR PRESENT
      SITUATION OR PROBLEM




MORPHOLOGICAL THINKING

     USE AT STEP 2 OF MODEL

     CAN BE GROUP OR INDIVIDUAL TECHNIQUE

     DEVELOP LIST OF ALL COMPONENTS OR ELEMENTS ASSOCIATED WITH A SUBJECT;
      NEXT LIST ALL POSSIBLE EXAMPLES FOR ALL ELEMENTS; NOW CONNECT EACH
      EXAMPLE UNDER EACH ELEMENT TO ANOTHER EXAMPLE UNDER ANOTHER ELEMENT;
      CONTINUE UNTIL DEVELOP LONG LIST OF NOVEL SOLUTIONS

     FOR EXAMPLE, A DINNER HAS THESE ELEMENTS  DRINKS, APPETIZER, ENTRÉE,
      LOCATION, COMPANY, MUSIC, LIST OF ALL POSSIBILITIES UNDER EACH ELEMENT,
      CONNECT EACH UNTIL FIND INTERESTING, NOVEL DINNER

     HELPFUL WHEN TRYING TO “BUILD” SOMETHING SUCH AS AN EVENT, A PROGRAM, A
      CAMPAIGN, OR A PHYSICAL STRUCTURE




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               MANAGING CREATIVE ORGANIZATIONS

                         Organization Culture & Creativity
         Helps Creativity                        Hurts Creativity
A climate that tolerates risk taking    A climate that values being
& making mistakes                       correct & avoiding public errors
Disregards tradition                    Emphasizes tradition
Youth                                   Age
Values expertise & ideas                Values seniority & status
Values conflict & effectively           Values harmony
handles conflict
Minimizes policy & written rules        Heavy on policy & written rules
Idea champions  senior                 Low confidence
managers who recognize &
reward innovative thinking
Effective planning  provide time       Organizational crises 
for creativity, the incubation factor   environment or poor planning
                                        forces quick problem solving &
                                        decision making
Diverse workforce

                                 Structure & Creativity

               Helps                                   Hurts
Cross functional teams  matrix         Rigid chain of command
organization, task forces
Decentralized structure &               Centralized structure & authority
authority
Loose job descriptions  the 3M         Tight job descriptions
example
Fluid, cross-functional                 Hierarchical communication
communication
Bullpens
Customers as part of the
organization




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