FLORA AND FAUNA IN INDONESIA A. FLORA AND FAUNA IN INDONESIA According to alfred russel wallace and max carl weber, flora nad fauna in Indonesia are divided into three types, flora and fauna in west region, central region and east region. It contains the regional distribution according ti wallace and weber line. a. Asiatic (west indonesia region) covers Sumatera, Java and Borneo island. Flora in this region is classified as tropical forest. Example : timber tree, camphor tree, and mahogany. Fauna in this region is classified as big mammals, such as elephant, tiger, rhinoceros and orang utan. The region is entitled as asiatic since the flora and fauna are similar to Asian flora and fauna. b. Transitional (central Indonesia region) covers Celebes, Nusa Tenggara and Moluccas island. The floa in this region is classified as tropical forest. Example: iron wood , eucalyptus, savannah, and pine trees. Fauna i this area is original fauna of Indonesia, such as dwarf buffalo, komodo, tapir, buffalo and horses. The region is entitled ad trasitional since the flora and fauna are quite different to Asia’s or Australia’s. c. Australasian(east indonesia region) covers Papua island and all surrounding smaller islands. Type of flora is classified as tropical forest. Example : nipa palm (thach palm) and sago palm. Australasian fauna is kangaroo, cassowary, parrot, and cockatoo/pincers. Entitled as austalasian since the type of flora and fauna in this region is similar to australia’s flora and fauna. 1. Flora in Indonesia There are various floras in indonesia. The climatic condition, soil, landform and water affect the various floras in Indonesia. Indonesia has tropical climate, with different humidity, temperature, and wind direction as well as precipitation level. In consequence, there are different types or floras. Typeof flora in Indonesia is classified based on geological factor, climatic factor, and elevation factor. a. Type of Flora based on the Geological factors Based on geological factors, flora in Indonesia is classified into threeregions, namely flora in sunda shelf, flora in sahulshelf, and flora in trasitional zone. Flora in sunda shelf Flora in Sunda shelf is classified into asiatic flora. Example : types of timber, rattan and jackfruit trees. Thre are various ebdemic tree, located in a very specialized and localizedarea. Example : raflesia arnoldi, located in the boundary of bengkulu, Jambiand South Sumatera. Flora in Sahul Shelf Flora in Sahul shelf is classified into australasian flora, it has North Australia troppical rainforest type, with very rapid canopy density, it is alwyas green throughout the year. The tropical rainforest consists of various types of trees, such as iron wood, black eben, black walnut, and merbau logs. Inthe coastal area, there are mangrove and pandan leeve, while in swamp area there is sago for food production. Endemic flora, such as rhododendron sp is flourishing in upper area. Flora in Trasitional Zone Vegetation in the transisional zone is characterized by vegetation of tropical savannah, example: Nusa tenggara island, forest area in Celebes island, and forest in Moluccas (it contains various type of trees). Flora in Celebes island is similar to flora in dry area of moluccas island, java island an philipines island. Vegetation in the mountainous area is similar to vegetation in borneo island. Coastal vegetation and low land vgetation are similar to vegetation in papua island.