FLORA AND FAUNA IN INDONESIA


  According to alfred russel wallace and max carl weber, flora nad fauna in Indonesia
  are divided into three types, flora and fauna in west region, central region and east
  region. It contains the regional distribution according ti wallace and weber line.

  a. Asiatic (west indonesia region) covers Sumatera, Java and Borneo island. Flora in
     this region is classified as tropical forest. Example : timber tree, camphor tree, and
     mahogany. Fauna in this region is classified as big mammals, such as elephant,
     tiger, rhinoceros and orang utan. The region is entitled as asiatic since the flora
     and fauna are similar to Asian flora and fauna.
  b. Transitional (central Indonesia region) covers Celebes, Nusa Tenggara and
     Moluccas island. The floa in this region is classified as tropical forest. Example:
     iron wood , eucalyptus, savannah, and pine trees. Fauna i this area is original
     fauna of Indonesia, such as dwarf buffalo, komodo, tapir, buffalo and horses. The
     region is entitled ad trasitional since the flora and fauna are quite different to
     Asia’s or Australia’s.
  c. Australasian(east indonesia region) covers Papua island and all surrounding
     smaller islands. Type of flora is classified as tropical forest. Example : nipa palm
     (thach palm) and sago palm. Australasian fauna is kangaroo, cassowary, parrot,
     and cockatoo/pincers. Entitled as austalasian since the type of flora and fauna in
     this region is similar to australia’s flora and fauna.
     1. Flora in Indonesia
         There are various floras in indonesia. The climatic condition, soil, landform
         and water affect the various floras in Indonesia. Indonesia has tropical climate,
         with different humidity, temperature, and wind direction as well as
         precipitation level. In consequence, there are different types or floras.
         Typeof flora in Indonesia is classified based on geological factor, climatic
         factor, and elevation factor.
         a. Type of Flora based on the Geological factors
Based on geological factors, flora in Indonesia is classified into
threeregions, namely flora in sunda shelf, flora in sahulshelf, and flora in
trasitional zone.
 Flora in sunda shelf
    Flora in Sunda shelf is classified into asiatic flora. Example : types of
    timber, rattan and jackfruit trees. Thre are various ebdemic tree,
    located in a very specialized and localizedarea. Example : raflesia
    arnoldi, located in the boundary of bengkulu, Jambiand South
 Flora in Sahul Shelf
    Flora in Sahul shelf is classified into australasian flora, it has North
    Australia troppical rainforest type, with very rapid canopy density, it is
    alwyas green throughout the year. The tropical rainforest consists of
    various types of trees, such as iron wood, black eben, black walnut,
    and merbau logs. Inthe coastal area, there are mangrove and pandan
    leeve, while in swamp area there is sago for food production.
    Endemic flora, such as rhododendron sp is flourishing in upper area.
 Flora in Trasitional Zone
    Vegetation in the transisional zone is characterized by vegetation of
    tropical savannah, example: Nusa tenggara island, forest area in
    Celebes island, and forest in Moluccas (it contains various type of
    Flora in Celebes island is similar to flora in dry area of moluccas
    island, java island an philipines island. Vegetation in the mountainous
    area is similar to vegetation in borneo island. Coastal vegetation and
    low land vgetation are similar to vegetation in papua island.

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