Weight training is a program for developing strength and/or endurance through use of weights,
barbells, or machines.
OBJECTIVES TO A PROGRAM OF WEIGHT TRAINING:
· Corrective Therapy
The frequency of workout sessions is recommended to be every other day, so the body is afforded
ample time to rebuild muscle tissue. Rest two days (48 hours) in between.
Breathing while lifting should be in rhythm with the activity; inhale on the negative work and exhale on
the positive work (the lifting phase). Exhale when pushing against a resistance.
MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE:
· Muscular strength is the ability of a muscle group to apply a maximal force against
a resistance one time.
· Muscular endurance is the ability to repeat muscle movement over a period of time
· Always use a spotter. The spotter always stands behind the lifter.
· Go through a full range of motion
· Breath properly
· When you start a lifting program, focus on endurance
· Wear gloves to prevent blisters
· Keep back straight and hips aligned below shoulders to prevent back strains.
· Stretch prior to workout to warmup muscles to prevent injury.
BENEFITS OF MUSCULAR FITNESS:
· Improve your physical appearance
· Improve posture
· Perform physical activity more efficiently
· Reduce fatigue
· Avoid back pain
· Prevent muscle injuries from normal activities
· Prevent muscle soreness
· Increase bone density
· Females estrogen prevents women from becoming muscle bound
· Raises basal metabolic rate
Atrophy: Shrinking of a muscle due to lack of use.
Flexion: Bending of a joint or lessening the angle of the joint.
Extension: Straightening of a joint, opposite of flexion.
Adduction: Movement toward the midline of the body.
Abduction: Movement away from the midline of the body.
Medial: A location toward the midline of the body.
Lateral: A location away from the midline of the body.
Anterior: An area pertaining to the front of the body.
Posterior: An area pertaining to the back of the body.
Contraction: Simulation of a muscle.
Isometric Exercise: Contract or tighten your muscle but do NOT change the length
(force is against a stationary object).
Isotonic Exercise: Those which you lengthen and shorten the muscle through a full
range of motion (the use of specially designed machines).
Isokenetic Exercise: A muscle has different levels of strength while moving through a
complete range of motion (the use of specially designed machines).
Endurance: The ability to perform work for an extended period of time. Training lighter
weights for more repetitions.
Fatigue: Diminishing capacity of a muscle to perform work.
Flexibility: The range of movement possible at a joint. Proper weight training does not
not increase flexibility.
High Bulk: A workout using more weight and fewer repetitions. Intent is to develop
Hypertrophy: The increase in muscle size.
Repetition (Reps): Completion of a single, full range movement of the body part
being exercised. Recommended number of reps for strength
training is four (4) to ten (10).
Resistance: The amount of weight lifted.
Set: A certain number of repetitions.
Strength: The amount of force a muscle can exert.
Cardiovascular: Involves the heart, lungs, and the blood vessels and their capacity
to supply the body with oxygen and remove wastes.
Target Zone: The minimum heart rate and duration of exercise needed to develop
endurance. The average minimum training heart rate is 140 beats per
minute for a minimum of ten (10) minutes, but twenty (20) minutes or
more is advised. To establish your own target zone use this formula.
Maximum heart rate (220) minus your age times 70% = your own target
zone. You should not exceed your maximum heart rate which is
220 minus your age.
Anaerobic: Generation of energy without using oxygen. Energy is stored in the muscle.
When you use your muscles with maximum effort, the energy comes first
from anaerobic processes. This energy supply depletes fairly rapidly and
then the body must rely on oxygen to rebuild the energy compounds ( aerobics)
Aerobics: Generation of energy using oxygen supplied to the muscles by means of the
Muscle Fibers: Weight training increases muscle fiber size not the number of fibers.
The body needs time to repair the breakdown of the muscle fibers caused
by the workout. Specific muscle workouts should be every other day. Fast
twitchanaerobic type, high strength/low endurance exercises. Slow
twitchmuscle endurance. Intermediate twitchboth slow and fast combined.
Anabolic Steroids: Illegal drug used by some athletes to improve their athletic performance.
They are a synthetic version of the male hormone testosterone. Steroids
Change the body’s chemistry and can cause liver disease, heart problems,
acne, baldness, sleep disorders, infertility in women, depression, hostility,
and dangerously aggressive behavior.
Endorphins: Hormones released when a person does physical activity. Gives a feeling of
wellbeing and reduces stress, tension, and anger.
Food Nutrients: Health conscious people should satisfy their nutritional needs by eating several
servings of the following four food groups. Two or more servings of meat and
milk. Four or more servings of fruits, vegetables and grains. Three nutrient
categoriescarbohydrates, proteins, and fats provide muscles with the fuel
needed for peak performance.
Carbohydrates: These are the best source of energy. Great precompetition food. It can be
found in foods rich in starch, such as pasta, potatoes, bread, rice, cereals,
Proteins: These are also an energy source but are used primarily by the body to build tissues.
They can’t be digested as easily as carbohydrates. All the protein that is needed can
be acquired through small portions of poultry, fish, yogurt, and milk.
Fats: These are the most concentrated form of energy. Fats are much harder to digest than
carbohydrates. Fatty foods such as beef, butter pork, cream, and fried foods should be
consumed in moderation.
PRINCIPLES OF TRAINING
Specificity: The activity performed must be specific to the desired effect. An example,
muscle strength training may not lead to flexibility; flexibility training may
not help cardiovascular endurance. Also, each area of the body must be worked
on specifically strength, endurance, and flexibility. However, it is possible to
design a program that improves more than one aspect at a time.
Overload: In order to improve in any area of fitness, the workload must be greater than
that to which the individual is accustomed.
Progression: The overload should be gradual and moderate within minimum and maximum
limits to prevent soreness and injury.
Reversibility: “If you don’t use it you will lose it”. With no training, the effects of training will
be lost. This is called atrophy.
RegularityF.I.T.: The activity must be performed on a regular and frequent basis with
An adequate amount of intensity and time in order for improvement
Frequency: Exercise must be preformed a least three (3) times a week
for improvement to be seen.
Intensity: You must continue to use the overload principle to see improvement.
If exercise intensity is to low, no improvements will be made.
Time: You need to exercise at least 30 minutes at a time for maximum benefits.
COMPONENTS OF HEALTH RELATED FITNESS
1. Strength: Muscular strength is the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to exert a maximal
Force against resistance. Finding a “one rep max” or testing on pushups is the
measure we used in class.
2. Muscle Endurance: Muscular endurance is the ability of muscles or groups of muscles to
exert force over a period of time against a resistance less than the
maximum an individual can move. We tested abdominal endurance by
doing crunches to a cadence.
3. Cardiovascular Endurance: Aerobic fitness is the measure of the hearts ability to pump
oxygenrich blood to the rest of the body an the ability to
adjust to and recover from physical activity. The mile run and
PACER are common tests to this fitness component. Aerobic
fitness should be a priority of any fitness program.
4. Flexibility: The ability of a joint and the muscles and tendons surrounding it to move freely
and comfortably through its intended full range of motion (ROM). Simply put,
it is the “range of motion available in a joint or a group of joints”. The “sit and
reach” can measure hamstring and lower back flexibility. Being flexible allows
for easier movement and can prevent injury.
5. Body Composition: The ratio of lean body mass to body fat, usually expressed in terms of
percent of body fat. Muscle weighs more than fat.
Deltoids: This muscle is located on the shoulder and is the prime abductor of the arm. Has three
Sections: anterior, middle, and posterior. Rowing, military press, standing flies and
Pectoralis Major: This muscle covers the chest and attaches to the upper part of the humerous.
Adductor of the arm and shoulder. Aids in the act of throwing. Pushups,
bench press, supine flies, and deep dips.
Biceps: Upper anterior part of the arm. Flexor of the elbow joint. Curls and open grip pullups.
Triceps: Upper posterior part of the arm. Extensor of the elbow joint. This muscle is the
antagononistic muscle to the biceps and very important in the act of throwing. Pushups
dips, last part of military press.
Rectus Abdominus: Two muscles that run vertically from pubis to sternum. Flexor of the
trunk. Situps. Abdominals.
Gluteus Maximus: A large thick muscle that forms most of the buttocks. It is extensor of the
hip joint. Not used in ordinary walking. Squats, cleans, and sprints.
Quadriceps: This group of muscles is located in the anterior thigh, and they are primary
extensors of the knee joint. The srtorius and rectus femoris aid in hip flexion.
Vastus lateralis and the vastus medialis are the other two muscles in this group.
Squats, cleans, leg press, jumps, knee extensions, sprints and lunges.
Hamstrings: This group of muscles is located in the posterior thigh. Flexors of the knee
joint and along with the gluteus maximus help extend the hip. Biceps femoris,
semitendinosus, and semimembranosis make up this muscle group. Sprints.
Bicycling, and leg curls.
Calf Muscle: Toe raises.
TYPES OF LIFTS:
Curl: Uses bent bar to perform exercise.
Bench Press: Performed while lying on your back on a bench.
Military Press: Performed by pressing the bar overhead.
Clean and Jerk: Performed by lifting the bar to the chest and then lifting it overhead.