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					   "Learning is like rowing

not to advance is to drop back."
            —Chinese proverb
Traditional Fragmented Approach
            To Reading
                  Reading              Each teacher creates their
                  Program              own reading program

                                             Some teachers create
            In- Class Interventions
                                             In –class Interventions

                                                   No Schoolwide
          School Wide Interventions                Intervention

                                                         No system
     System for handling individual needs                   for
Systems Approach to Reading
        Reading                          Researched based core
                                         reading program for all
        Program                                 students

     Strategic (In-Class)                Data driven in- class
       Interventions                        interventions

      School Wide
      Interventions                 Schoolwide Intervention

        System for
        individual          System for individual solutions
         A professional
                Level I

         Annual                                   Level II
         Standard                     Strategic,
                                                                                     Level III
         treatment                    Supplemental Care
         REGULAR                      Team working with                      Intensive Care
         physician;                   regular physician;                     TEAM of doctors, nurses,
         Screening data               Diagnostic data                        technicians, etc.; Monitoring data

                          Continuum of Time & Intensity & Data Collection
Jan Hasbrouck ,WSRI Executive Consultant T erry Leppien ,OSPI Director of Reading Washington State K-12 Reading Model
       3 Levels of
         Level I
                           Level II
       ALL Students
          53%            Approx. 20-30 %            Level III
                                                    Intensive Intervention
                          26%                       Approximately 5-10%

                Continuum of Time & Intensity & Data Collection

Adapted from the 3-Level Reading Model UT Center for Reading & Language
                           Reading Instruction
                                                Knowledge & Skill



                              Modeling                           Student

Ruth Gumm & Sheryl Turner Eastern Regional Reading First Reading First Technical Assistance Center
Cumulative Effects of
Intensity & Duration

                                                                                     Tacoma Reading Goal by 3rd grade
Grades K-5 Reading Block

                                                                                                                        Student Reading Proficiency
                           Ruth Gumm & Sheryl Turner Eastern Regional Reading First Reading First Technical Assistance Center
                               Excellent 1st Instruction
                                               “The best intervention is effective instruction.”
                                                                                               - National Research Council

                                                                            Each layer aims at preventing
                                                                                 reading disabilities

                                                                     Each layer provides more intense
                                                                        & supportive intervention

                              Layers of intervention respond
                                    to student needs

Ruth Gumm & Sheryl TurnerEastern Regional Reading First Reading First Technical Assistance Center
                          Excellent 1st Instruction
                 “The best intervention is effective instruction.”
                                                                                 - National Research Council

                                                                                  Whole group instruction
                                                                                          - core reading program

                                                       Differentiated/ Strategic instruction
                                                                 - small group rotations
                                                                 - core & supplementary reading programs
                                                                 - selected strategies and practices
                                                        Differentiated classroom intervention
                                                              - small, flexible group(s)
                                                              - supplemental & intervention programs

      Benchmark testing of students is conducted at least three
           times a year to determine instructional needs.
Ruth Gumm & Sheryl TurnerEastern Regional Reading First Reading First Technical Assistance Center
                                         Myths About Reading

                                                       No phonics
                                 Reading is a            after 1st
                                   natural              grade???

                                                                      Give them time
                                                                     and they’ll catch
                     Volunteers                                             up
Joseph Torgesen, Florida Center for Reading Research
     Level I

Screening data
                                  Level II
• Benchmark
assessment                                       &
(3x per year)
                       Diagnostic data                  Level III
• Monitor progress
(in-program              Benchmark assessment
assessments, unit tests, (3x per year)
                         • Diagnostic tests
                                                 Monitoring data
daily performance)                               Benchmark assessment (3x per year)
                         • Progress monitoring
                                                 • Diagnostic tests
                       (at least 2x monthly)
                                                 • Progress monitoring (weekly is optimal)

                Continuum of Data Collection
         Progress Monitoring
 Students scoring in the Low Risk category on a
  subtest are likely to achieve the end of the year

 Students scoring in the Some Risk category on a
  subtest may have limited skills in that area. These
  students will need strategic instruction in order to
  reach the end of the year benchmark.
   – This may include small group instruction within the classroom,
     double dosing, and/or small group interventions.

 Students scoring in the At Risk category on a
  subtest are at risk for difficulty in that area. These
  students will need intensive intervention in order to
  reach the end of the year benchmark.
        Classroom Data Activity
 At your grade level table, highlight your class
  DIBELS data by subtest.

 Use pink to highlight At Risk/Deficit scores in
  your classroom.

 Use yellow to highlight Some Risk/Emerging
  scores in your classroom.

 Use green to highlight Low Risk/Established
  scores in your classroom.
       Intervention Activity
•Add student names to the Data Analysis
  •This will be what we use to help make
  intervention decisions.

•At your tables, talk about what the data is
showing with regards to the interventions
needed for your students.
•Now, transfer this information to the
Intervention Planning sheet.
         Progress Monitoring
 PM done monthly for students who are Low Risk.
  – This is done at the student’s grade level

 PM done twice a month for Some Risk and At Risk
  – At the student’s instructional level

 Not all DIBELS subtests have PM assessments
  – Other curriculum based materials can be used.
     The Who, Where, & When
 PM will be completed by the 90 minute block teacher
  for At Risk & Some Risk students.
  – this would help W2R teachers make instructional
    decisions based on the data

 Low Risk students can be monitored monthly either
  by the reading teacher or the homeroom teacher.

 Regardless of who does the PM sharing information
  is vital.
Progress Monitoring Nuts & Bolts
 Passages available on line and on disk

 Focus on accelerate above the aim line.

 Check specific guidelines to determine the
  students instructional level for PM
Interventions should be organized in levels
        •Aimed at preventing reading difficulties

               •Each level provides more intensive and
               supportive intervention

                            •Layers of intervention
                            responds to student needs
  Level I
                   Level II
                                   Level III
        Level I: Core class instruction

 Level I
Core reading program
Benchmark Testing
Ongoing professional
  What if students are not being
     successful in Level I?
 Full 90 minutes at instructional level
 5 components
 Explicit , systematic instruction
 Repetition and pacing of skills
 Independent time
 Monitoring and Adjusting
Level II: Supplemental instruction

         Level II
      Programs, strategies,
         and procedures
          designed and
           employed to
          enhance, and
         support Level I.
      Instructional features for interventions
     Interventions are more effective when they:
      Focus systematic and explicit instruction on deficient skills

      Increase the intensity of instruction

      Provide opportunities for guided practice of new skills

       Provide systematic cueing of appropriate strategies in context

      Scaffold learning to apply new skills

Joseph Torgesen, Florida Center for Reading Research
 Level III: Intensive intervention
• Intensive, strategic, supplemental
• Designed and customized small-
group or 1:1
• Occurs during 90 minute
instructional block and beyond

                            Level III
     "There is little
     evidence that
children experiencing
difficulties learning to
read, even those with
 identifiable learning
   disabilities, need
   radically different
   sorts of supports
 than children at low
  risk, although they
may need much more
  intensive support"
(Snow, Burns, Griffin, pg 3, 1998)
      We know that interventions have
       tended to stabilize the relative
      deficit in reading skill rather than
                  remediate it.

Joseph Torgesen, Florida Center for Reading Research
      What do struggling readers need to
                  work on?
              Motivation (pleasure, purpose, success)
                      Decoding                         Comprehension
           Word                        Fluency      Academic     Comprehension
        Recognition                                 Language       Strategies

    * concepts        of        * sightwords     * background   *comprehension
      print                     * automaticity     knowledge      monitoring
    * phonemic                  * prosody        * vocabulary   * text structures
      awareness                 * accuracy       * syntax       * cognitive
    * phonics                                                     strategies
                                                                (e.g., paraphrasing)

(NRC Report, 1998) Shefelbine (2001)
               An Example of a Continuum of
                      Interventions      Supplementary
                                                           Materials Plus
                       Small group                         Double Dose
                                           Before or
                 S     pull aside
                                           after       I
                 T     during CORE to
                                           school      N
                 R     work on
C                                          instruction T
                 A     specific skills
O                                                      E
R                T
E                E
90 minutes                                             V
                 C                                          1:1 Intensive
5 components                                           E
Explicit ,                                                  instruction
                             Double Dose                    with a a
instruction                                                 specialized
Repetition                                                  instructor
and pacing of

                     Increasing in intensity
 Vignette #1
                                  Is further Diagnostic testing
 In September of 3rd              needed to plan instruction?
 grade, Joe read 65
 benchmark .

 Vignette #2                   YES                           NO
                           What skills              Place in
 In January of 1st         will be                  instructional
 grade, Jane scored 14     tested?                  level reading
 on PSF, 28 on NWF                                  group and
 and a 7 on her ORF                                 monitor
 benchmarks.                                        progress.

 Vignette #3
                         What is the plan
 In September of 5rth                              Place in
                         for intervention
 grade, Tim read 70                                instructional and
                         and progress
 WCPM on the DIBELS                                intervention
 benchmark .                                       program.
 The Big Ideas for Preventing Reading Failure

• Increase the quality and consistency of instruction
  in every classroom

• Conduct timely and valid assessments of reading
  growth to identify struggling readers

• Provide more intensive interventions to “catch up”
  the struggling readers

Joseph Torgesen, Florida Center for Reading Research