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					                                                                     Northwestern Local Schools
                                                                      Science Course of Study



                                                                                                                            Grade: 7
Standards:          Life Science                                                                                            Unit:  Dissection            1st Quarter: 3 weeks
                    Scientific Inquiry

        Benchmark/Indicator:


        Life Sciences
        Benchmark A: Explain that the basic functions of organisms are carried out in cells and groups of specialized cells form tissues and organs; the combination of
             these cells make up multicellular organisms that have a variety of body plans and internal structures.
        Characteristics and Structure of Life
What?




        1. Investigate the great variety of body plans and internal structures found in multicellular organisms.


        Scientific Inquiry
        Benchmark A: Explain that there are differing sets of procedures for guiding scientific investigations and procedures are determined by the nature of the
            investigation, safety considerations and appropriate tools.
        Doing Scientific Inquiry
        4. Choose the appropriate tools and instruments and use relevant safety procedures to complete scientific investigations.



        Enduring Understandings                                            Essential Questions

        Organisms have a variety of internal body structures.              How are internal and external body structures different in earthworms and forgs?
Why?




        Organisms have a variety of body plans.

        State Assessment Item                                              Grade Level Assessment
How?




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     Vocabulary                                                               Strategies/Clarification

     organisms                           esophagus
     symmetry                            crop
     multicellular                       gizzard
     body plans                          intestine
     internal structures                 anus
     scalpel                             liver
     forceps                             heart
     anterior                            lungs
     posterior                           gall bladder
     dorsal                              stomach
     ventral                             small Intestine
     mouth                               large intestine
     pharynx                             spleen


     Resources
     Ohio Resource Center (www.ohiorc.org) lesson plans: earthworm dissection (attached)

     http://www.carolina.com/workshops/presentations/Earthworm.pdf




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                              Earthworm Dissection
                                        Pictures: Modern Biology, Holt

The following is a classification of a species in the earthworm family Lumbricidae. This common
species is Lumbricus terrestris also known as the night crawler or dew worm.

                                            Phylum -        Annelida
                                              Class -     Oligochaeta
                                             Family -     Lumbricidae
                                             Genus -       Lumbricus
                                            Species -       terrestris

Objectives:
• Describe the appearance of various organs found in the earthworm.
• Name the organs that make up various systems of the earthworm.

Materials:
Safety goggles, dissecting pins, gloves, forceps, lab apron, scissors, paper towel, scalpel, water,
dissecting probe, preserved earthworm, hand lens, dissection tray.

Purpose:
In this lab, you will dissect an earthworm in order to observe the external and internal structures of
earthworm anatomy.

Background:
Among the most familiar invertebrate animals are the earthworms, members of the phylum Annelida. The
word annelida means "ringed" and refers to a series of rings or segments that make up the bodies of the
members of this phylum. Internally, septa, or dividing walls, are located between the segments. There
may be more than 100 segments in an adult worm. The clitellum is a swelling of the body found in
sexually mature worms and is active in the formation of an egg capsule, or cocoon. Eggs are produced
in the ovaries and pass out of the body through female genital pores. Sperm are produced in the
testes and pass out through tiny male genital pores. During mating, sperm from one worm travel along
the sperm grooves to the seminal receptacles of another worm. Fertilization of the eggs takes place
outside the body as the cocoon moves forward over the body, picking up the eggs of one worm and the
sperm of its mate. The pumping organs of the circulatory system are five aortic arches. Circulatory fluids
travel from the arches through the ventral blood vessel to capillary beds in the body. The fluids then
collect in the dorsal blood vessel and reenter the aortic arches. The earthworm takes in a mixture of soil
and organic matter through its mouth, which is the beginning of the digestive tract. The mixture enters the
pharynx, which is located in segments 1–6. The esophagus, in segments 6–13, acts as a passageway
between the pharynx and the crop. The crop stores food temporarily. The mixture that the earthworm
ingests is ground up in the gizzard. In the intestine, which extends over two-thirds of the body length,
digestion and absorption take place. Soil particles and undigested organic matter pass out of the worm
through the rectum and anus. The nervous system consists of the ventral nerve cord, which travels the
length of the worm on the ventral side, and a series of ganglia, which are masses of tissue containing
many nerve cells. The nerve collar surrounds the pharynx and consists of ganglia above and below the
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pharynx. Nervous impulses are responsible for movement and responses to stimuli. Each segment
contains an enlargement, or ganglion, along the ventral nerve cord. Excretory functions are carried on by
nephridia, which are found in pairs in each body segment. They appear as tiny white fibers on the dorsal
body wall. The earthworm has no gills or lungs. Gases are exchanged between the circulatory system
and the environment through the moist skin.

Procedure:
1. Put on safety goggles, gloves, and a lab apron.

2. Place earthworm in the dissecting tray & rinse off the excess preservative. Identify the dorsal side,
which is the worm’s rounded top, and the ventral side, which is its flattened bottom. Turn the worm
ventral side up, as shown in the diagram below.




3. Use a hand lens as you observe all parts of the worm, externally and internally. Find the anterior end
by locating the prostomium, which is a fleshy lobe that extends over the mouth. The other end of the
worm’s body is the posterior end, where the anus is located.

4. Locate the clitellum, which extends from segment 33 to segment 37. Look for the worm’s setae, which
are the minute bristle-like spines located on every segment except the first and last one.

5. Refer again to the diagram of the ventral view of the worm to locate and identify the external parts of its
reproductive system. Find the pair of sperm grooves that extend from the clitellum to about segment 15,
where one pair of male genital pores is located. Look also for one pair of female genital pores on
segment 14. There is another pair of male genital pores on about segment 26. Try to find the two pairs of
openings of the seminal receptacles on segment 10. Note: These openings are not easy to see.

6. Turn the worm dorsal side up. Using a scalpel and scissors, make a shallow incision in the dorsal side
of the clitellum at segment 33. CAUTION: Scalpels and scissors are very sharp. Report any cuts to
your teacher. Using the forceps and scalpel, spread the incision open, little by little. Separate each
septum from the central tube using a dissecting needle, and pin down each loosened bit of skin.
Continue the incision forward to segment 1.

7. Use the diagram below to locate and identify the five pairs of aortic arches, or hearts. Then find the
dorsal blood vessel. Look for smaller blood vessels that branch from the dorsal blood vessel.




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8. Locate the digestive tract, which lies below the dorsal blood vessel. Refer to the diagram above to
locate the pharynx, esophagus, crop, gizzard, and intestine.

9. To find organs of the nervous system, push aside the digestive and circulatory system organs. Use the
diagram below to locate the ventral nerve cord. Trace the nerve cord forward to the nerve collar, which
circles the pharynx. Find one pair of ganglia under the pharynx and another pair of ganglia above the
pharynx. The ganglia above the pharynx serve as the brain of the earthworm.




10. The worm’s excretory organs are tiny nephridia. There are two in every segment. Use the preceding
diagram to locate some nephridia.

11. Use the diagram below to locate and identify a pair of ovaries in segment 13. Look for two pairs of
tiny testes in segments 10 and 11. To find these organs, you will again have to push aside some parts
already dissected.




12. Dispose of your materials according to the directions from your teacher.

13. Clean up your work area and wash your hands before leaving the lab.



                     Earthworm worksheet                               Earthworm facts




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                                                                                           Nasco's Dissection Guide for the Earthworm
   DISSECTION GUIDE FOR THE EARTHWORM
   The earthworm belongs to a group of animals called annelids (segmented worms). The body of an annelid is usually divided
   internally and externally into well-defined segments which may be separated from each other by membranous partitions. Except for
   the tail and head regions, all segments are essentially alike. Other members of this group include the clam worms and tube worms,
   which live in the ocean, and the leeches.

   The earthworm hunts food at night and thus has been called a "night crawler." it usually extends its body from the surface opening
   of a small tunnel which it makes by "eating" its way through the soil. The rear end of the worm's body remains near the opening
   while the head end forages for decaying leaves and animal debris.

   It has been estimated that an acre of good soil contains over 50,000 earthworms. By their continuous foraging and tunneling these
   worms turn over 18 to 20 tons of soil per acre and bring over one inch of rich soil to the surface every four to five years. Thus,
   indirectly, the earthworm enriches farmland and provides for more food in a rapidly expanding population.
   A. EXTERNAL ANATOMY:
   Using Figure 1 as a guide locate the following (A hand lens or dissecting microscope will be helpful in locating the smaller
   features.):




   At the anterior (front) end is a small fleshy projection over the mouth. This is the prostomium. it is not considered to be a segment of
   the worm. The anus, the opening at the end of the digestive tract through which solid wastes are expelled, will be found at the
   posterior (hind) end.

   About one-third of the way back from the mouth region is a thick cylindrical collar - the clitellum. This structure, involved in
   reproduction, will be considered later.

   Place the worm so that the ventral side is uppermost. In living worms the ventral (lower) surface is a lighter color than the dorsal
   (upper) surface. In preserved worms the prostomium extends from the dorsal surface.

   With your finger, lightly stroke the ventral surface in an anterior direction. The bristles you feel are the setae and are used by the
   worm in movement. How many pairs of setae are there in each segment of the worm? Does each segment have setae?

   Each segment (except the first three and the last one) contains pores. The small openings connect with the metanephridia which are
   the primitive kidneys of the earthworm. Liquid wastes, which collect in the body cavity, are excreted through these nephridial



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   openings.

   Each segment of the worm is separated from the next one by a thin wall called a septum.
   B. INTERNAL ANATOMY:
   Place the earthworm on the dissecting tray, dorsal side up, and pin into position (Figure 2A). To expose the internal organs, dissect
   the worm as outlined in Figure 2B-F.

   A. Pin through prostomium. Pin through last (anal) segment.




   B.With forceps, lift dorsal skin. Cut slit at base of forceps (a) insert scissors and cut a line, slightly off center, through to the anus
   (b). Caution: Be careful to cut only as deep as the skin to avoid damaging internal organs.




   C. Beginning at the anal end, hold body wall with forceps and with razor or scalpel, cut through septa on both sides of the intestine.
   Cut to within 1/2 to 1 inch of the clitellum.




   D. Pin the body wall to the dissecting tray as illustrated.




   E. Cut through ciitellum anteriorly. Sever the septa and pin body wall to tray as illustrated in F.




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       1. Digestive Svstem:




            Figure 3 shows the general location and structure of the digestive system. The other organ systems have been omitted.
            Locate:

                o   a. The mouth is at the anterior end. The opening is located just below the overlapping prostomium.
                o   b. The mouth leads to a slightly expanded and muscular pharynx which is usually covered by three pairs of whitish
                    seminal vesicles. These will be examined later. Food taken in by the animal is passed on by muscular contractions
                    in the pharynx through the esophagus to the crop where it is temporarily stored,
                o   c. The crop opens into a thick-walled, highly muscular gizzard where food, with the aid of small soil particles
                    taken in during feeding, is ground up. It is then passed into the intestine where digestion and absorption occur.
                o   d. Solid waste products of digestion are passed to the exterior through the anus.




       2. Circulatory System




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            An interesting feature of the circulatory system is that it is a "closed" system in which the blood circulates within a series of
            blood vessels. The blood is red because it contains hemoglobin (the pigment that gives the red color to human blood).

            The major vessels of the circulatory system are a dorsal longitudinal vessel lying on top of the digestive tract and a ventral
            blood vessel lying below it. These two vessels are connected with each other by a number of vessels passing around the
            digestive tract. Five pairs of these (located in segments 7 to 11 inclusive) are larger than the others and comprise the
            "hearts." Pulsation of the hearts causes circulation of the blood.

            Most of the other blood vessels are difficult to observe unless the material has been sectioned for microscopic study.

       3. Reproductive System




            To obtain a clear view of the reproductive organs, cut through the intestine near the clitellum. Carefully lift it and ease it
            free as far forward as the posterior end of the pharynx. Then cut it out.

            Although earthworms are monoecious (They possess a complete set of male and female reproductive organs.) they
            nevertheless undergo cross-fertilization during copulation. Two worms come together along their ventral sides and become
            temporarily joined together by the secretion of a "slime tube." During copulation sperm cells are reIeased from the seminal
            vesicles and stored in the seminal receptacles of the opposite earthworms The animals separate and the clitellum then
            secretes a mucus ring. This ring slides over the anterior segments and picks up eggs from the oviducts in the 14th segment
            and sperm as it slides over the anterior end of the worm to form the egg cocoon, from which the young eventually hatch.
            The seminal vesicles have previously been described as lying alongside of the crop and gizzard. The testes are inside of
            these bodies and cannot be seen. Near the seminal vesicles, in segments 9 and 10, are the four small, spherical seminal
            receptables. By careful examination with a hand lens or dissecting microscope you may be able to locate the single pair of
            ovaries in segment 13.




       4. Nervous System




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            The nervous system in the worm is difficult to study. Its major component is the ventral nerve cord which runs the length of
            the worm on the inner ventral surface (Figure 3). At its anterior end the cord divides and passes around the front part of the
            pharynx where it enlarges to form two swellings - the cerebral ganglia, These might be considered primitive "brains."

            Along the length of the cord, lateral nerves are given off which go to the muscles of the body wall.

       5. Excretory System




            Each segment of the body, except the first three or four and the last one, contains a pair of excretory structures called
            metanephridia. These coiled tubular structures, lying next to the body walI, open to the exterior by a pore called a
            nephridiopore internally they are connected to the septum of the segment just anterior to them. Each nephridium collects
            fluid wastes from the segment anterior to the segment in which it is located.




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                                                                     Name______________________

                                      Earthworm Anatomy

External Anatomy

Examine your earthworm and determine the dorsal and ventral sides. Locate
the two openings on the ventral surface of the earthworm

The openings toward the anterior of the worm are the sperm ducts
The openings near the clitellum are the genital setae.

Locate the dark line that runs down the dorsal side of the worm, this is the
dorsal blood vessel. The ventral blood vessel can be seen on the underside of
the worm, though it is usually not as dark.

Locate the worm's mouth and anus.

Note the swelling of the earthworm near its anterior side - this is the
clitellum.




Internal Anatomy

1. Place the specimen in the dissecting pan DORSAL side up

2. Locate the clitellum and insert the tip of the scissors about 3 cm posterior.

3. Cut carefully all the way up to the head. Try to keep the scissors pointed up, and only cut
through the skin.

4. Spread the skin of the worm out, use a teasing needle to gently tear the septa (little thread like
structures that hold the skin to organs below it)

5. Place pins in the skin to hold it apart,

Reproductive System




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                                       The first structures you probably see are the seminal
                                       vesicles. They are cream colored and located toward the
                                       anterior of the worm. These are used for producing sperm.
                                       Use tweezers to remove these white structures from over
                                       the top of the digestive system that lies underneath it.

Circulatory system

The dorsal blood vessel appears as a dark brownish-red vessel running along the intestine. The
heart (or aortic arches) can be found over the esophagus (just posterior to the pharynx).
Carefully tease away the tissues to expose the arches of the heart, the run across the worm. If
you are careful enough, you can expose all 5 of them

The ventral blood vessel is opposite the dorsal blood vessel, and cannot be seen at this time
because the digestive system covers it.

Label the diagram (use the bold words from above)



Does the earthworm have a closed or open circulatory system?



Digestive System

The digestive system starts at the mouth. You will trace the organs all the way to the anus and
identify each on the worm.

Find the mouth opening, the first part after the mouth is the pharynx, you will see stringy things
attached to either side of the pharynx (pharyngeal muscles). The esophagus leads from the
pharynx but you probably won’t be able to see it, since it lies underneath the heart. You will find a
two structures close to the clitellum. First in the order is the crop, followed by the gizzard. The
gizzard leads to the intestine which is as long as the worm and ends at the anus.




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                                                         Describe the functions of each of the
                                                         organs and label them on the drawing.
                                                         (The words are listed for you)

                                                         Crop

                                                         Mouth

                                                         Pharynx

                                                         Intestine

                                                         Gizzard

                                                         Anus

Esophagus

Pharyngeal Muscles



*Use your scissors to cut open the crop and the gizzard. In which organ would you expect the
contents to be more ground up.

Organ systems

For the picture below, color code the organ systems for the earthworm using the following key:

Circulatory System - Red
Reproductive System - Blue
Digestive System - Green
Nervous System - Yellow




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Images used with permission from BIODIDAC

                                                                   http://www.biologycorner.com




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                                                     NAME _________________________________________
Dissection Instructions
1. Place the frog in the dissecting pan ventral side up.

2. Use scissors to life the abdominal muscles away from the body cavity.
Cut along the midline of the body from the pelvic to the pectoral girdle.

3. Make transverse (horizontal) cuts near the arms and legs.

4. Life the flaps of the body wall and pin back.

*If your specimen is a female, the body may be filled with eggs and an
enlarged ovary. You may need to remove these eggs to view the organs.

Locate each of the organs below. Check the box to
indicate that you found the organs.

Fat Bodies --Spaghetti shaped structures that have a bright orange or yellow color, if you have a
particularly fat frog, these fat bodies may need to be removed to see the other structures. Usually they are
located just on the inside of the abdominal wall.
Peritoneum A spider web like membrane that covers many of the organs, you may have to carefully pick
it off to get a clear view
Liver--The largest structure of the the body cavity. This brown colored organ is composed of three parts,
or lobes. The right lobe, the left anterior lobe, and the left posterior lobe. The liver is not primarily an
organ of digestion, it does secrete a digestive juice called bile. Bile is needed for the proper digestion of
fats.
Heart - at the top of the liver, the heart is a triangular structure. The left and right atrium can be found at
the top of the heart. A single ventricle located at the bottom of the heart. The large vessel extending out
from the heart is the conus arteriosis.
Lungs - Locate the lungs by looking underneath and behind the heart and liver. They are two spongy
organs.
Gall bladder--Lift the lobes of the liver, there will be a small green sac under the liver. This is the gall
bladder, which stores bile. (hint: it kind of looks like a booger)
Stomach--Curving from underneath the liver is the stomach. The stomach is the first major site of
chemical digestion. Frogs swallow their meals whole. Follow the stomach to where it turns into the small
intestine. The pyloric sphincter valve regulates the exit of digested food from the stomach to the small
intestine.
Small Intestine--Leading from the stomach. The first straight portion of the small intestine is called the
duodenum, the curled portion is the ileum. The ileum is held together by a membrane called the
mesentery. Note the blood vessels running through the mesentery, they will carry absorbed nutrients away
from the intestine. Absorption of digested nutrients occurs in the small intestine.


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Large Intestine--As you follow the small intestine down, it will widen into the large intestine. The large
intestine is also known as the cloaca in the frog. The cloaca is the last stop before wastes, sperm, or urine
exit the frog's body. (The word "cloaca" means sewer)
Spleen--Return to the folds of the mesentery, this dark red spherical object serves as a holding area for
blood.
Esophagus--Return to the stomach and follow it upward, where it gets smaller is the beginning of the
esophagus. The esophagus is the tube that leads from the frogs mouth to the stomach. Open the frogs
mouth and find the esophagus, poke your probe into it and see where it leads.


STOP!       If you have not located each of the organs above, do not continue on to the next
sections!

Removal of the Stomach: Cut the stomach out of the frog and open it up. You may find what remains of
the frog's last meal in there. Look at the texture of the stomach on the inside.

What did you find in the stomach?

Measuring the Small intestine: Remove the small intestine from the body cavity and carefully separate
the mesentery from it. Stretch the small intestine out and measure it. Now measure your frog. Record
the measurements below in centimeters.

Frog length: _______ cm                             Intestine length ________ cm

Post Lab Questions

1.   The membrane holds the coils of the small intestine together: ________________

2. This organ is found under the liver, it stores bile: ______________________

3. Name the 3 lobes of the liver: ____________, _______________, ______________

4. The organ that is the first major site of chemical digestion: ____________________

5. Eggs, sperm, urine and wastes all empty into this structure: ___________________

6. The small intestine leads to the: ____________________

7. The esophagus leads to the: _______________________

8. Yellowish structures that serve as an energy reserve: ____________________

9. The first part of the small intestine(straight part): _______________________

10. After food passes through the stomach it enters the: ____________________
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11. A spiderweb like membrane that covers the organs: ______________________

12. Regulates the exit of partially digested food from the stomach: ________________

13. The large intestine leads to the __________________

14. Organ found within the mesentery that stores blood: _____________________

15. The largest organ in the body cavity: _____________________

Label the Diagram

A. __________________________________

B. __________________________________

C. __________________________________

D. __________________________________

E. __________________________________

F. __________________________________

G. __________________________________

H. __________________________________

I. __________________________________

J. __________________________________

K. __________________________________

L. __________________________________

M. __________________________________

N. __________________________________




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                                                                                                                                      1st Quarter: 6 weeks


                                                                                                                               Grade: 7
Standards:          Earth and Space Science                                                                                    Unit:  Weather and Atmosphere
                    Life Science

        Benchmark/Indicator:
        Earth and Space Sciences
        Benchmark C: Describe interactions of matter and energy throughout the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere (e.g., water cycle, weather and pollution).
        Earth Systems
        3. Describe the water cycle and explain the transfer of energy between the atmosphere and hydrosphere.
        5. Make simple weather predictions based on the changing cloud types associated with frontal systems.
        6. Determine how weather observations and measurements are combined to produce weather maps and that data for a specific location at one point in time can be displayed
What?




             in a station model.
        7. Read a weather map to interpret local, regional and national weather.
        8. Describe how temperature and precipitation determine climatic zones (biomes) (e.g., desert, grasslands, forests, tundra and alpine).
        9. Describe the connection between the water cycle and weather-related phenomenon (e.g., tornadoes, floods, droughts and hurricanes).

        Life Sciences
        Benchmark C: Explain how energy entering the ecosystems as sunlight supports the life of organisms through photosynthesis and the transfer of energy through
             the interactions of organisms and the environment.
        Diversity and Interdependence of Life
        6. Summarize the ways that natural occurrences and human activity affect the transfer of energy in Earth’s ecosystems (e.g., fire, hurricanes, roads and oil spills).

        Enduring Understandings                                                                    Essential Questions

        Weather affects many aspects of your daily life (i.e., what you wear, what you do,         What factors affect weather?
        where you live).
                                                                                                   How is weather different from climate?
        Temperature and precipitation determine climatic zones.
Why?




                                                                                                   Is the earth's weather and climate changing?

                                                                                                   Does human activity impact weather and climate?

                                                                                                   What do you need to know to forecast the weather?

        State Assessment Item                                                                                  Grade Level Assessment
How?




        NAEP Questions                                                                                         Unit Test




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     Vocabulary                                                                            Strategies/Clarification

     See SEPUP Teacher’s Guide

     Additional vocabulary (not covered in materials but appears in standards):
     station model
     local weather map
     regional weather map
     national weather map
     biomes
             -desert (SEPUP calls it Dry)
             -grasslands
             -forests
             -tundra
             -alpine
     droughts
     global warming

     Resources

     Issues and Earth Science: Weather and Atmosphere




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Grade 7
Weather and Atmosphere
NAEP Questions                                                          Name




1. Which zones in the map above are most likely to have a temperate climate (warm summers and cold
  winters) ?

  A) 1 and 6
  B) 2 and 5
  C) 3 and 4
  D) 1, 2, and 3




3. Recent studies indicate that ozone in the upper layers of Earth's atmosphere is being depleted.
    What effect does the depletion of ozone have, and how is this effect harmful to humans?




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Some scientists think that the Earth‟s climate is getting warmer.


6. If these scientists are correct and the Earth keeps getting warmer for the next 50 years, what will
   happen to the oceans? Explain why this would happen.




   If these scientists are correct, what things about the Earth's weather will change? Explain why this would
   happen.




   If these scientists are correct, what will happen to plants? Explain why this would happen.




7. The Earth's climate may be getting warmer because of some things that people do. List two human
   activities that may contribute to warming of the Earth's climate.




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                                                                                                                                                 2nd Quarter: 9 weeks


                                                                                                                                       Grade: 7
Standards:           Earth and Space Science                                                                                           Unit:  Water Chemistry
                     Science and Technology
                     Scientific Inquiry

        Benchmark/Indicator:

        Earth and Space Sciences
        Benchmark C: Describe interactions of matter and energy throughout the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere (e.g., water cycle, weather and pollution).
        Earth Systems
        1. Explain the biogeochemical cycles which move materials between the lithosphere (land), hydrosphere (water) and atmosphere (air).
        2. Explain that Earth’s capacity to absorb and recycle materials naturally (e.g., smoke, smog and sewage) can change the environmental quality depending on the length of
             time involved (e.g. global warming).
        3. Describe the water cycle and explain the transfer of energy between the atmosphere and hydrosphere.
        4. Analyze data on the availability of fresh water that is essential for life and for most industrial and agricultural processes. Describe how rivers, lakes and groundwater can be
             depleted or polluted becoming less hospitable to life and even becoming unavailable or unsuitable for life.

        Science and Technology
        Benchmark A: Give examples of how technological advances, influenced by scientific knowledge, affect the quality of life.
        Understanding Technology
        1. Explain how needs, attitudes and values influence the direction of technological development in various cultures.
        2. Describe how decisions to develop and use technologies often put environmental and economic concerns in direct competition with each other.
What?




        3. Recognize that science can only answer some questions and technology can only solve some human problems.
        Benchmark B: Design a solution or product taking into account needs and constraints (e.g., cost, time, trade-offs, properties of materials, safety and aesthetics).
        Abilities To Do Technological Design
        4. Design and build a product or create a solution to a problem given two constraints (e.g., limits of cost and time for design and production or supply of materials and
              environmental effects).

        Scientific Inquiry
        Benchmark A: Explain that there are differing sets of procedures for guiding scientific investigations and procedures are determined by the nature of the
            investigation, safety considerations and appropriate tools.
        Doing Scientific Inquiry
        3. Formulate and identify questions to guide scientific investigations that connect to science concepts and can be answered through scientific investigations.
        Benchmark B: Analyze and interpret data from scientific investigations using appropriate mathematical skills in order to draw valid conclusions.
        Doing Scientific Inquiry
        6. Identify faulty reasoning and statements that go beyond the evidence or misinterpret the evidence.
        7. Use graphs, tables and charts to study physical phenomena and infer mathematical relationships between variables (e.g., speed and density).




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       Enduring Understandings                                                       Essential Questions

       Water is essential for life.                                                    How do you know the water you drink is pure and safe?
Why?
                                                                                       How does water move? (restate to talk about water cycle)
                                                                                       How does water move though the water cycle?

                                                                                       Why is it important for water to move?

       State Assessment Item                                                                     Grade Level Assessment

       NAEP Questions                                                                            Unit Test




       Vocabulary                                                                                Strategies/Clarification

       See SEPUP Teacher’s Guide

       Additional vocabulary (not covered in materials but appears in standards):
       biogeochemical cycles
How?




       lithosphere
       hydrosphere
       atmosphere
       absorb
       recycle
       industrial
       agricultural
       deplete

       Resources

       Issues, Evidence and You: Water




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      Ohio Standards           Lesson Summary:
       Connection:             This lesson presents students with a short history of pollution and the
                               self-cleaning abilities of the Earth. It begins with a brief history of the
 Earth and Space Sciences      pollution and subsequent revival of Lake Erie. Students will learn that
                               people and their actions harmed the lake ecosystem, but then
 Benchmark C                   conservation measures coupled with natural environmental processes
 Describe interactions of      allowed it to heal itself. Students will make or observe a model
 matter and energy             neighborhood and watershed. They will learn to recognize point source
 throughout the lithosphere,   and nonpoint pollution, and discuss ways to improve the health of a
 hydrosphere and               model watershed. Students take the role of community members and
 atmosphere (e.g., water       discuss what, if any, actions their community could take to lessen the
 cycle, weather and            effects of water pollution. They will become the decision makers and use
 pollution).                   their decisions to predict environmental changes that may happen in
                               their own futures.
 Indicator 2
 Explain that Earth‟s          Estimated Duration: Three hours and 20 minutes
 capacity to absorb and
 recycle materials naturally
 (e.g., smoke, smog and
 sewage) can change the
 environmental quality
 depending on the length of
 time involved (e.g. global
 warming.)


                               Commentary:
                               The abstract topic of contaminant cycling is typically difficult for
                               middle-grade students to appreciate. This lesson incorporates hands-on
                               activities to help students understand how pollution affects the
                               environment, and how environmental quality can naturally remediate
                               over time.

                               This lesson was reviewed by teachers across the state of Ohio. Some of
                               the comments about this lesson were:
                                “A comment from one class was that” „This lesson is cool‟.”
                                “All students were engaged in this activity.”
                                “I heard many conversations at the end of class that revealed the
                                    students were continuing to evaluate and anticipate what would
                                    happen in the next class.”




Pre-Assessment:
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    Hand copies of Attachment A, Pre-Assessment out to students.
    Instruct students to follow directions on the sheet, cutting out descriptions of events and assembling them on time lines. You may want
     to work with a social studies teacher to help familiarize students with time lines.

Scoring Guidelines:
 See Attachment B, Pre-Assessment Answers, for the correct chronology and dates of the events.
 After giving students time to complete the time line activity individually, use an overhead projector or large chart paper to allow the
    class as a whole to agree on a correct chronology. You may wish to help students or encourage students to use the Internet or local
    sources such as the Soil and Water Conservation District Office or the local Health Department.
 You may want to walk around the room and gauge student understanding rather than collecting and scoring time lines. Listen for
    student understanding of the chronology of environmental changes.

Post-Assessment:
 Copy and distribute Attachment C, Post-Assessment Directions and Rubric to students. Depending on the students‟ background and
    abilities, you may have to preface the post-assessment with a collaborative brainstorming activity for time line ideas, or you may need
    to present an example.
 Instruct students to follow directions on the handout and to use the rubric as a guideline for their work.

Scoring Guidelines:
See the rubric in Attachment C, Post-Assessment Directions and Rubric, to guide the scoring of student work.

Instructional Procedures:

Instructional Tip:
Before starting this lesson, students should understand what a watershed is, and be aware different types of pollution such as chemical,
nuclear, noise and heat, as well as animal waste, sewage and sediment. Students learned about renewable and non-renewable resources in
the Grade 5 Earth Science indicators, and will revisit the topic of natural resources in Grade 10.
1. Conduct the pre-assessment with students.
2. After the pre-assessment, promote discussion about the pollution and recovery of Lake Erie. Questions for discussion after the pre-
    assessment may include:
     What indicators made scientists say that the lake was dead?
     What were some factors that caused the situation?
     How long did it take for the lake to go from healthy to unhealthy? To become more healthy again?
     How is the health of the rivers, lakes and creeks near our area?
     Are lakes and/or the rivers near your home still in danger? From what?
3. Share information about watersheds with students, especially concerning pollution and its remediation. Make sure that students
    understand what a watershed is and how water travels through the watershed. Students may retrieve information, conduct a search of
    resources, or review information that you provide.

Instructional Tip:
Information is available through your county Soil and Water Conservation District. Local parks usually have this information available,
too. A good place to start your search for information is at the Environmental Protection Agency's Web site, http://www.epa.gov.

4.   Invite the local Soil and Water Conservation District spokesperson to come in and talk about water, soil and air quality in your area.
     Most will have a demonstration model of a watershed and some excellent activities on point and non point source pollution.
     Alternatively, you may buy, demonstrate or have students build their own watershed model. See Attachment D, Model Watershed, for
     directions if you choose to make a watershed models. If you or your students make your own models, be sure to help them understand
     the difference between point and non point source pollution. Point pollution is that which can be attributed to a single source (such as
     factory exhaust pipe), whereas non point pollution is that which accumulates in watershed run-off, from a variety of sources (such as
     animal waste and fertilizers).
5.   Have students answer the following questions in their journals or on a blank sheet of paper:
      Define the difference between point source pollution and non point source pollution.
      Make a list of the key events that occurred in the watershed demo.
      If you wanted to clean up this environment, what problem would you try to take care of first? Why did you choose that one?
          Answer with at least two complete sentences. (Easiest, most difficult, most expensive, most destructive?)
6.   When students are done recording their answers, have them share their answers and ideas with the class. Write these on the chalkboard
     or an overhead. Ask if anyone thought of any other ideas and include these. Doing nothing to the environment is an option.


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7.   Lead a discussion among students about the changes that each environmental event encountered in the watershed demonstration has
     on the water quality and/or the people living in their own community. List both positive and negative changes on the board. This is a
     brainstorming session and all answers should be considered acceptable. No evaluative statements should be made by the teacher.
8.   After the students have identified environmental impacts on their watersheds and have discussed ways to clean up the environment,
     administer the post-assessment.



Differentiated Instructional Support:
Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs, to help all learners either meet the intent of the specified indicator(s) or, if the
indicator is already met, to advance beyond the specified indicator(s).
 Heterogeneous groups of students help support those that may struggle with certain aspects of the lesson, while encouraging more
     advanced students to stretch their abilities by communicating and creating.
 The lesson calls for a variety of skills including writing, organizing, creating, evaluating, making and using graphic presentations and
     predicting.
 In the Pre-Assessment, visual learners may benefit from additional photographs or drawings of historical environmental events on
     Lake Erie.

Extensions:
 Have students participate in an extension activity where they role play community members with different interests in the
    environment. See Attachments E, Community Board Extension and F, Hear This Extension for instructions and handouts for this
    extension activity.
 Graph temperature fluctuations for a specific month over a ten-year period, using records available over the Internet. The Web site for
    the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, at http://www.noaa.gov, is a good place to search for this information.
 Visit a stream or pond in your community and conduct an assessment, including water quality and biotic diversity.
 Bring in pond water and have students examine it for macro invertebrates and micro invertebrates. Keep it in the classroom for several
    days. Have students note what changes take place. Then, add an aerator and have them note the changes. They should see different
    activity levels of organisms in anoxic and oxygen-rich conditions.

Homework Options and Home Connections:
 Have students‟ interview parents and grandparents about environmental changes they have seen. Have the students share the
   information with the class.

Interdisciplinary Connections:
 Mathematics: If lesson extensions such as a pond survey are used, students have the chance to use math skills, including counting,
    multiplying, dividing, algebra and estimation.

Materials and Resources:
The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of Education should not be interpreted as an
endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of Education. The Ohio Department of Education
does not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses listed are for a given site’s main page, therefore, it may be necessary to
search within that site to find the specific information required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet
changes over time, therefore the links provided may no longer contain the specific information related to a given lesson. Teachers are
advised to preview all sites before using them with students.

For the teacher: Attachments, markers, chart paper, Internet access.

For the students: Attachments, poster board, markers, chart paper, Internet access.

Vocabulary:
 non point source pollution
 point source pollution
 pollution
 watershed

Technology Connections:
 Teachers may permit students to use a computer presentation program to make their presentations. Students may also use a word-
   processing program to write their essays and a spreadsheet program to enhance their presentations with graphs or tables.

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   Environmental information about watersheds is available through the Environmental Protection Agency's Web site, at
    http://www.epa.gov. Follow the link to “Water”, and then link to the “Surf Your Watershed” feature.
   Real-time and historic weather data are available through the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Web site, at
    http://www.noaa.gov. Follow the link to “Weather”, and then access the appropriate national weather stations.

Research Connections:
Marzano, R. et al. Classroom Instruction that Works: Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement. Alexandria:
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development, 2001.

    Nonlinguistic representations help students think about and recall knowledge. This includes the following:
     Creating graphic representations (organizers);
     Making physical models;
     Generating mental pictures;
     Drawing pictures and pictographs;
     Engaging in kinesthetic activity.

    Setting objectives and providing feedback establishes a direction for learning and a way to monitor progress.
    This provides focus on learning targets and specific information to that allow the student to adjust during the
    learning process, for increased learning.




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General Tips:
 Adding machine tape works well for time lines. Time lines should be divided into equal parts.
 Teachers can shorten the time period required to complete this activity by providing background information, limiting presentation
   time, as well as requiring students to complete the post-assessment as a homework assignment.
 Teachers needing additional background information may want to check the local Soil and Water Conservation District (SWCD)
   office or the Ohio EPA office and/or Web site.

Attachments:
Attachment A, Pre-Assessment
Attachment B, Pre-Assessment Answers
Attachment C, Post-Assessment Directions and Rubric
Attachment D, Model Watershed
Attachment E, Community Board Extension
Attachment F, Hear This Extension




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                                                                Attachment A
                                                               Pre-Assessment

Events in the Life of a Lake                                     Name _____________________________
                                                                                      Date ______________________________

Directions: Cut out the events and glue or tape them on a time line in the appropriate order and spacing. You may want to use a longer
sheet of paper or adding machine tape for your time line. It should extend forever in both directions (show with arrows) and should be
divided into 50-year intervals from 1650 to 2050. Include the following dates: 1669, 1820, 1970, 1936, 1969, 1970s, 1972, 1988 and
present day. Some events may fall on the same date; some may fall between some of the dates listed.


    President Nixon of the United States and Pierre Trudeau of Canada sign the Clean Water Act.


    Human population increases dramatically. Raw sewage (oil, sawdust, animal carcasses, and human waste) are dumped directly into
    the lake.


    Mills built to grind corn and wheat on most of the streams and rivers leading into the river.


    Population of fish species that need to migrate to spawn are reduced or eliminated.


    Phosphorus used in soaps causes algae to bloom and over populate.


    A nearby river catches fire.


    The lake is considered one of the cleanest of its size or larger.


    Consumers are warned not to eat catfish over 16 inches caught anywhere on the lake.


    A nearby river catches fire for the second time.


    The lake is declared dead as dead fish and decaying algae ring the shores. (Bacteria on decaying algae consumed oxygen in the lake,
    effectively suffocating many fish).


    Ohio passes a ban on the sale of detergents containing phosphorus.


    The first European sees Lake Erie.


    Thousands of acres of wild rice grow at the mouths of the rivers feeding the lake, acting as filters for sediment.


    The lake is popular for boating, fishing and swimming.


    The lake is still in danger from continued non point source pollution and past pollution by PCBs, dioxin, mercury, and DDT.



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                                                              Attachment B
                                                         Pre-Assessment Answers

Teacher Answer Sheet for Pre-Assessment


    First European sees Lake Erie. (1669)


    Thousands of acres of wild rice grow at the mouths of the rivers feeding the lake, acting as filters for sediment. (pre- 1820)


    Human population increases dramatically. Raw sewage (oil, sawdust, animal carcasses, and human waste) dumped directly into the
    lake. (1820s)


    Mills built to grind corn and wheat on most of the streams and rivers leading into the river. (1820s)


    Population of fish species that migrate to spawn are reduced or eliminated. (1820s)


    The Cuyahoga River catches fire. (1936)


    Phosphorus used in soaps causes algae to bloom and over populate. (1960s)


    The Cuyahoga River catches fire for a second time. (1969)


    Lake Erie declared dead as dead fish and decaying algae ring the shores. (Bacteria on decaying algae consumed oxygen in the lake,
    effectively suffocating many fish). (1970)


    President Nixon of the United States and Pierre Trudeau of Canada sign the Clean Water Act. (1972)


    Ohio passes ban on the sale of detergents containing phosphorus. (1988)


    Lake Erie considered on of the cleanest of the Great Lakes. (present time)



    Lake Erie is popular for boating, fishing (walleye, pike, trout, perch, others) and swimming.    (present day)


    Lake Erie still in danger from continued non point source pollution and past pollution by PCBs, dioxin, mercury and DDT. (Trapped
    in the sediment, biomagnification.) (present day)


    Consumers are warned not to eat catfish over 16 inches caught anywhere in Lake Erie. (present day)




                                          Attachment C:      Post-Assessment Directions and Rubric
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You will create a time line and a related essay. Directions and a rubric for each assignment are shown below. The rubrics will be used to
evaluate your work on the time line and the essay. The two exercises are related, so read the directions for both and think through your answers
before you actually begin.

Time Line Directions:
Based upon what you have learned about Earth‟s environmental systems, you will create a time line of probable environmental events that you
foresee happening over the next 50 years. These changes may be environmentally beneficial or detrimental. You should list at least five
environmental changes.

Time Line Rubric:
5 pts. You created a time line that covers the next five decades (50 years) and showed at least five important events that may occur during that
        time period. Your time line has the decades set at equal intervals and the years that important events occurred are shown. Events
        should be somewhat realistic. (You might have twins or we may have a colony of people or animals living in space or an earthquake
        may have changed the course of a river, but not a giant octopus ate the state of Ohio). Your time line has a title.

4pts.    You created a time line that covers the next five decades and showed four or five important events. Your time line has the decades set
         at equal intervals and the year that an important event occurred is shown. Your events are somewhat realistic. Your time line has a
         title.

3 pts.   You created a time line that covers the next five decades, and included at least four somewhat realistic events. You may have
         forgotten to use equal intervals and/or forgot to include a title.

2pts.    You created a time line, but did not mark the decades or did not included all 50 years. You have only included three or more
         somewhat realistic events.

1 pt.    You started to create a time line, but it does not included all 50 years and has fewer than three somewhat realistic events.

0 pts.   No work turned in and/or no events shown.


Essay Directions:
The essay should be based on events in the time line and what you saw happening on the watershed model. The essay will begin with a
        statement of conditions as they are 50 years in the future. Conditions could include things such as your home, family, luxuries,
        vacation destinations, scenic views (this is not a complete list of examples- be original). The writing also specifies whether human
        intervention has played any role in the environment for better or worse. It is also very important to explain how Earth‟s natural
        systems have played a role (for better or worse) in this future world.

Essay rubric:
5 pts. Your essay is based on the time line and includes specific references to the events listed. It includes your vision of what the future local
        environmental conditions will be like due to natural environmental changes and intervention by or lack of intervention by human
        beings.

4 pts.   Your essay is based on the time line, but includes only two or three specific references to the events listed. It includes your vision of
         what the future local environmental conditions will be like due to natural environmental changes or intervention by or lack of
         intervention by human beings.

3 pts.   Your essay is based on the time line, but includes only one or two specific references to the events listed. It includes your vision of
         what the future local environmental conditions will be like due to natural environmental changes or intervention by or lack of
         intervention by human beings.

2 pts.   Your essay is based on what you think may happen in the future, but does not included references to statements on the time line. It
         includes your vision of what the future local environmental conditions will be like but is somewhat unclear about causes.

1 pt.    Your essay is only partially completed and contains statements that are not related to the previous work you have done.

0 pts.   No work turned in.



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                                               Attachment D: Model Watershed Directions

Watersheds are those land areas that catch rain or snow and drain to specific marshes, streams, rivers, lakes or to ground water. You can
buy models of watersheds or you and your students can work together to make models. Building models will help students take more
ownership in the unit and begin to understand how a watershed works.

If you are building your own model of a watershed, you will need the following materials:
 garbage bags (for clean up)
 papier-mâché (plants)
 blocks or other representations of factories, cars, houses and agricultural areas
 large plastic containers at least three inches deep
 potting soil, sand or clay
 powdered drinks (types of pollution)
 powdered soap
 cocoa (animal waste and sewage)
 spray bottles or small watering cans (for rain)
 clear plastic containers marked at ½-and ¾-level (for a pond)

Model Watershed Construction
1. Obtain a large plastic container, at least three inches deep, in which to build your model.
2. Place the container (pond) where desired.
3. Build terrain up and around the container using potting soil, sand and/or clay. Make sure you can take out and replace the container
   easily.
4. Model terrains may include an area of forest where logging will take place, an agricultural area, urban/suburban storm water runoff,
   household and automotive care, a factory site and a construction site. Water that washes from these areas should converge in a small
   pond represented by the margarine container. This should be the lowest point in your model.
5. Spread dry papier-mâché to represent forest or other vegetation. To show where logging takes place, clear away some of the papier-
   mâché to leave bare ground.
6. Complete your model with objects to represent trees, homes, cars, factory and construction site. The pond should be half full of water.


Teacher Demonstration
1. Allow students to decide where to place pollutants. Ideas should include most of the following:
     Dirt near the farm and under the forest area and the construction site;
     Cocoa (animal waste) in the farm area and near the homes;
     Powdered soap near the homes;
     One color of the powdered drink mix for pollution near the factory;
     A powder of another color to represent lawn care products.

2.   When pollutants have been placed, review with students the concepts of point source pollution and non point source pollution. They
     should be able to identify possible sources on the model. Factory pollution is usually point source. Pollution from neighboring homes
     is usually non point source.

3.   Next, explain to students that it is going to rain. Ask them what they think will happen. Any answers are acceptable, but the use of the
     term watershed and point source and nonpoint pollution should be included in the discussion.

4.   Have a student volunteer to use the spray bottle or watering can. It should rain until the pond is about three-quarters full.

5.   Ask students what they observe. Have someone write the observations on the board.

6.   Ask students the following questions, which will also be answered on the board.
      How will we clean up the mess? (Run water over it until it is clean).
      What happens to the water we use to clean up? (Down the drain and finally back into the water cycle).
      Will it still be polluted when it goes back into the water cycle? Why or why not? (No pollution or little pollution, will be present
         in the water. Pollutants will be removed by our water treatment plants before the water is returned to the cycle.)




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                                                              Attachment D
                                                        Model Watershed Directions
                                                               Continued

Student Trials

If student groups have built their own models, ask each group to choose or assign each group one contaminant. They should record their
results so that they can report briefly to the class.
Directions:
1. Have students fill their ponds ½ full of water.
2. Have students spill their contaminants in appropriate areas.
3. Have students use their spray bottles or small watering cans to let it rain until their ponds are ¾ full.
4. Have students take visual readings for clarity of their ponds. They will rate their ponds on a scale of 0 – 5. Five indicates that you
     cannot see through the water, whereas zero is perfectly clear.
5. Have students continue to "rain" until the pond is ¾ full. Pour the water out of the pond until it is only half full. Repeat these steps five
     times, to represent five years of rainy seasons.

Discussion:
1. Have students report out to the class, answering the following questions:
     How does your pond look now?
     Did anything about this activity surprise you?
     How could you make the cleanup process easier or faster?
2. Depending on time constraints, you may want students to make simple line graphs to show how the clarity of the pond changed over
    the simulated years.




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                                             Attachment E: Community Board Extension

1.   Divide students into groups with three to five members. You may want to make the groups heterogeneous to allow for diverse
     abilities.
     Possible groups include:
      community board (lawmakers; must have this group)
      automakers
      environmentalists (represent views of the wildlife in the area)
      farmers
      tourists
      parents
      loggers

2.   Have students decide what environmental issues are important to them.
     Assemble students into their groups and have them decide what is most important to them. Have students use Attachment F, Hear This
     Extension, to help them think about what they want.
     All groups want the political system (community board) to hear their views so they have formed lobby groups to make their
              presentations to the decision makers.

3.   Have students gather data to support their issues.
     Pass the accompanying Assessment Rubric for Community Board Activity out to students so they can gauge their work.

Directions for lobbying groups
 Students must have two sources of information to support their plans.
 Students may use the Internet, magazines or newspaper articles to find information.
 Students will have two days to prepare their presentations.
 Groups will need a poster and a written argument that someone in each group will read.
 Students should include some information in a table or graph so ideas can be presented in a pictorial format, as well as lecture (ex:
    unemployment figures, weather charts, etc.)
 Students need to document the work they did in the group and how much time it took them.

Directions for Community Board group
 Community Board members believe that good jobs and salaries are the best things for their community.
 Have students propose a law they would like to pass to help their community. Have students create a promotion for their plan. They
    should include a poster and a written argument.
 Students should have some information to include in a table or graph.
 As community board members, students must keep in mind the cost of their program and the backing of their voters. They may ask
    any group or all groups for information to back up their plan or they may do their own research. The community board should NOT
    tell other interest groups what their plan is at this time.
 Students will need to document the work they did in the group and how much time it took them.
4.   Have lobbying groups present their ideas to the community board.
     a. Have the community board members present the laws that they have drafted.
     b. Instruct the lobbying groups to respond with their posters and arguments.
     c. When all the groups have spoken, give the board 15 minutes to make its decisions and explain why members voted the way they
        did.
     d. While the board discusses its position, have the other groups meet and evaluate their own presentations. They can ask themselves
        the following questions:
         Did your group make its point well and have influence the way the new laws will be written?
         Did you do a better job than the other groups? Why do you think so?
         Did another group do better than you did? Why do you think that is true?
     e. After 15 minutes, have the community board give its decision and explain how the board made its decision.
     f. Have the special interest groups vote to keep the board in office or vote them out.
     g. Discuss the exercise and its implications for the environment.

6.   Have the students complete the assessment rubric on the next page.
                                                              Attachment E
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                                                          Community Board Extension
                                                                Continued

Assessment Rubric for Community Board Extension Activity

Name _______________________________                      Name of Group _____________


(5 pts)    Student presentation includes poster with slogan, graph and picture. Poster is clear and easy to read, an attention grabber. Oral
           presentation supports group view with facts and opinions.
(4 pts)   Student presentation includes poster with slogan, graph and picture. Oral presentation supports group view with facts and
           opinions.
(3 pts)   Student presentation includes poster with slogan, graph and picture. Oral presentation supports group view with facts or opinions,
           but argument is weak.
(2 pts)   Student presentation includes poster, but slogan, graph or picture is missing. Oral presentation supports group view with facts or
           opinions, but argument is weak.
(1 pt)     Student presentation is missing poster or oral presentation.

                  My work on this activity was               Outstanding     Good              Fair              Poor
                  My work with the group was                 Outstanding     Good              Fair              Poor
                  The amount of time I spent was             Too long        About right       Not enough        None
                  The rest of the group spent (time)         Too long        About right       Not enough        None
                  My knowledge of pollution is               Outstanding     Good              Fair              Poor



                  Comment:




Please attach your log sheet that shows what you did and the amount of time you spent on this project as an individual.

Date:

Minutes Spent:


Activity:

                                                                Attachment F
                                                              Hear This Extension

Number the statements in order of importance. One (1) is most important and 11 is least important. Remember to respond as a member of
your group. You have three minutes to do this individually, and then your group will meet and decide on its top priorities.

My group is _______________________________________.

My priorities are

_____       The creation of new jobs for people like me and my children

_____       Eliminating pollutants caused by factories.

_____       Having a nice place to fish and swim.

_____ Driving a safe family car.
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_____   Having as many people as possible like and respect me.

_____   Avoiding layoffs.

_____   Stopping people from fertilizing their yards.

_____   Allowing farmers to use the best and most economical pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers so that they can make a good living
        and still keep food affordable.

_____   Dredging the pond and removing all contaminants.

_____   Increasing the property tax to pay for a better sewage treatment plant.

_____   Building a house for me and my family.

Talk with your group. List your top two priorities below.

Top:    ___________________________________________________________________


Also important:
__________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________




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Grade 7
Water Chemistry
NAEP Questions                                                             Name


4. What two gases make up most of the Earth's atmosphere?
  A) Hydrogen and oxygen
  B) Hydrogen and nitrogen
  C) Oxygen and carbon dioxide
  D) Oxygen and nitrogen


21. Which of the following would be the best model to show the interactions between water and the
    Sun's heat energy in cycles of precipitation?

    A) A light shines on an aquarium covered with glass, and water droplets form on the inside of the
       glass.




    B) A light shines on a closed cardboard box containing a plant.




    C) A light shines on a man's face. Droplets of sweat form on his face as he exercises.




    D) A light shines on a glass of iced tea. Water droplets form on the outside of the glass.




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                                                                                                                                                                     3rd Quarter: 9 weeks

                                                                                                                                        Grade: 7
Standards:           Physical Science                                                                                                   Unit:  Energy
                     Science and Technology
                     Scientific Inquiry, Scientific Ways of Knowing

        Benchmark/Indicator:
        Physical Sciences
        Benchmark A: Relate uses, properties and chemical processes to the behavior and/or arrangement of the small particles that compose matter.
        Nature of Matter
        1. Investigate how matter can change forms but the total amount of matter remains constant.
        Benchmark D: Describe that energy takes many forms, some forms represent kinetic energy and some forms represent potential energy; and during energy
            transformations the total amount of energy remains constant.
        Nature of Energy
        2. Describe how an object can have potential energy due to its position or chemical composition and can have kinetic energy due to its motion.
        3. Identify different forms of energy (e.g., electrical, mechanical, chemical, thermal, nuclear, radiant and acoustic).
        4. Explain how energy can change forms but the total amount of energy remains constant.
        5. Trace energy transformation in a simple closed system (e.g., a flashlight).

        Science and Technology
        Benchmark B: Design a solution or product taking into account needs and constraints (e.g., cost, time, trade-offs, properties of materials, safety and aesthetics).
What?




        Abilities To Do Technological Design
        4. Design and build a product or create a solution to a problem given two constraints (e.g., limits of cost and time for design and production or supply of materials and
              environmental effects).

        Scientific Inquiry
        Benchmark B: Analyze and interpret data from scientific investigations using appropriate mathematical skills in order to draw valid conclusions.
        Doing Scientific Inquiry
        7. Use graphs, tables and charts to study physical phenomena and infer mathematical relationships between variables (e.g., speed and density).

        Scientific Ways of Knowing
        Benchmark B: Explain the importance of reproducibility and reduction of bias in scientific methods.
        Ethical Practices
        1. Show that the reproducibility of results is essential to reduce bias in scientific investigations.
        2. Describe how repetition of an experiment may reduce bias.
        Benchmark C: Give examples of how thinking scientifically is helpful in daily life.
        Science and Society
        3. Describe how the work of science requires a variety of human abilities and qualities that are helpful in daily life (e.g., reasoning, creativity, skepticism and openness).




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       Enduring Understandings                                               Essential Questions

       Energy comes in a variety of forms.                                     What is energy?

       Energy can transform from one form to another.                          What forms of energy do you use everyday?
Why?


       Energy cannot be lost but its form can change.                          Why are energy conversions important?

                                                                               Can you lose energy? Can energy disappear?

                                                                               When do you do work? How is energy related?




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       State Assessment Item                                                         Grade Level Assessment
       Grade 8 Ohio Achievement Science Half-
       Length Practice Test                                                          Unit Test
How?




                                                NAEP Questions




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     Vocabulary                                                                                                  Strategies/Clarification

     Work                                                                                                        Lessons to be used in this unit:
     Closed system                                                                                                    Chemical reactions—Borax & Glue,
     Kinetic energy                                                                                                      Cream (from ORC)
     Conversion forms of energy (electrical, mechanical, chemical, thermal, nuclear, radiant, acovstic energy)        Exploring Pendulums (from ORC)
     Gravitational potential energy                                                                                   Bounceability
     Chemical potential energy                                                                                        Push & Go
     Elastic potential energy                                                                                         Drop ‘n’ Popper
     Motion                                                                                                           Homemade Roller Coaster
     Force
                                                                                                                      Energy Toys Learning Center
     Law of conservation of energy
                                                                                                                      Egg Bungee Jump
     Law of conservation of mass
                                                                                                                      Finding Energy

     Resources




                    Teaching Physics with TOYS, EASYGuide™ Edition; 1-883822-40-8




                     Exploring Energy with TOYS; 1-883822-33-5

     Teaching Physics with Toys (2005, 1995)
     Teaching Energy with Toys (1998)
     Chemical Reactions—Borax & Glue, Cream
     Exploring Pendulums


     Reference: Holt Science and Technology: Forces, Motion, and Energy (Chapter 5: Energy and Resources)




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Grade 7
Energy
NAEP Questions                                                            Name

1. Household appliances convert electricity into one or more different forms of energy. An electric fan can best be described
  as converting electricity into

  A) heat energy only
  B) heat energy and sound energy only
  C) heat energy, sound energy, and mechanical energy only
  D) heat energy, sound energy, mechanical energy, and chemical energy




8. Is a hamburger an example of stored energy? Explain why or why not.




30. Which of the following is designed to convert energy into mechanical work?
    A) Electric fan
    B) Kerosene heater
    C) Flashlight
    D) Baking oven




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                                                                                    Science Course of Study                                                                                  4th Quarter: 9 weeks

                                                                                                                                                       Grade: 7
Standards:             Earth and Space Science                                                                                                         Unit:  Ecology
                       Life Science
                       Science and Technology, Scientific Inquiry, Scientific Ways of Knowing

        Benchmark/Indicator:
        Earth and Space Sciences
        Benchmark C: Describe interactions of matter and energy throughout the lithosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere (e.g., water cycle, weather and pollution).
        Earth Systems
        2.    Explain that Earth’s capacity to absorb and recycle materials naturally (e.g., smoke, smog and sewage) can change the environmental quality depending on the length of time involved (e.g. global
              warming).
        8.    Describe how temperature and precipitation determine climatic zones (biomes) (e.g., desert, grasslands, forests, tundra and alpine).
        Life Sciences
        Benchmark A: Explain that the basic functions of organisms are carried out in cells and groups of specialized cells form tissues and organs; the combination of these cells make up
              multicellular organisms that have a variety of body plans and internal structures.
        Characteristics and Structure of Life
        1.    Investigate the great variety of body plans and internal structures found in multicellular organisms.
        Evolutionary Theory
        8.    Investigate the great diversity among organisms.
        Benchmark C: Explain how energy entering the ecosystems as sunlight supports the life of organisms through photosynthesis and the transfer of energy through the interactions of
              organisms and the environment.
        Diversity and Interdependence of Life
        2.    Investigate how organisms or populations may interact with one another through symbiotic relationships and how some species have become so adapted to each other that neither could survive
              without the other (e.g., predator-prey, parasitism, mutualism and commensalism).
        3.    Explain how the number of organisms an ecosystem can support depends on adequate biotic (living) resources (e.g., plants, animals) and abiotic (non-living) resources (e.g., light, water and soil).
        6.    Summarize the ways that natural occurrences and human activity affect the transfer of energy in Earth’s ecosystems (e.g., fire, hurricanes, roads and oil spills).
        7.    Explain that photosynthetic cells convert solar energy into chemical energy that is used to carry on life functions or is transferred to consumers and used to carry on their life functions.
        Benchmark D: Explain how extinction of a species occurs when the environment changes and its adaptive characteristics are insufficient to allow survival (as seen in evidence of the fossil
              record).
        Diversity and Interdependence of Life
What?




        4.    Investigate how overpopulation impacts an ecosystem.
        5.    Explain that some environmental changes occur slowly while others occur rapidly (e.g., forest and pond succession, fires and decomposition).
        Science and Technology
        Benchmark A: Give examples of how technological advances, influenced by scientific knowledge, affect the quality of life.
        Understanding Technology
        2.    Describe how decisions to develop and use technologies often put environmental and economic concerns in direct competition with each other.
        Scientific Inquiry
        Benchmark A: Explain that there are differing sets of procedures for guiding scientific investigations and procedures are determined by the nature of the investigation, safety
              considerations and appropriate tools.
        Doing Scientific Inquiry
        1.    Explain that variables and controls can affect the results of an investigation and that ideally one variable should be tested at a time; however it is not always possible to control all variables.
        2.    Identify simple independent and dependent variables.
        3.    Formulate and identify questions to guide scientific investigations that connect to science concepts and can be answered through scientific investigations.
        4.    Choose the appropriate tools and instruments and use relevant safety procedures to complete scientific investigations.
        Benchmark B: Analyze and interpret data from scientific investigations using appropriate mathematical skills in order to draw valid conclusions.
        Doing Scientific Inquiry
        5.    Analyze alternative scientific explanations and predictions and recognize that there may be more than one good way to interpret a given set of data.
        6.    Identify faulty reasoning and statements that go beyond the evidence or misinterpret the evidence.
        7.    Use graphs, tables and charts to study physical phenomena and infer mathematical relationships between variables (e.g., speed and density).
        Scientific Ways of Knowing
        Benchmark B: Explain the importance of reproducibility and reduction of bias in scientific methods.
        Ethical Practices
        1.    Show that the reproducibility of results is essential to reduce bias in scientific investigations.
        2.    Describe how repetition of an experiment may reduce bias.
        Benchmark C: Give examples of how thinking scientifically is helpful in daily life.
        Science and Society
        3.    Describe how the work of science requires a variety of human abilities and qualities that are helpful in daily life (e.g., reasoning, creativity, skepticism and openness).




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       Enduring Understandings                                          Essential Questions

       Organisms interact with their environments.                       What is Ecology?

       Organisms interact with other organisms in their environments.    What is an ecosystem?

                                                                         How does an ecosystem support the animals that live there?
Why?




                                                                         How does overpopulation affect an ecosystem?

                                                                         How do living things interact with one another in an ecosystem?

                                                                         What is succession?

       State Assessment Item                                                                                                     Grade Level Assessment
       Grade 8 Ohio Achievement Science
       Half-Length Practice Test                                                                                                 Unit Test
How?




                                                                                       NAEP Questions




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                                                              Science Course of Study
     Vocabulary:    See SEPUP Teacher’s Guide                                             Strategies/Clarification

     Additional Vocabulary (not covered in materials but appear in standards):            Biomes Puppet Show
     diversity                                                                            (www.ims.ode.state.oh.us)
     symbiotic relationships (predator-prey, parasitism, mutualism, commensalisms)
     biotic resources (living)
     abiotic resources (non-living)
     solar energy
     chemical energy

     Resources

     Science and Life Issues: Ecology and Evolution




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Grade 7
Ecology
NAEP Questions                                                           Name




1. The diagram above shows a food web in a large park. Each circle represents a different species in
  the food web. Which of the organisms in the food web could be referred to as primary consumers?

  A) 7 only
  B) 5 and 6 only
  C) 2, 3, and 4 only
  D) 2, 5, and 7 only




6. In your body, what two organs work together to make sure that oxygen gets to all the other organs of
  your body?

  A) Lungs and kidneys
  B) Heart and lungs
  C) Brain and kidneys
  D) Heart and liver




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20. Tell why it is important for dead animals and plants in the pond system to be broken down.




21. Which animal is the top carnivore in the pond system? Explain why you chose this answer.




22. If all of the small fish in the pond system died one year from a disease that killed only the small fish, what would
     happen to the algae in the pond?

     Explain why you think so.




     What would happen to the large fish? Explain why you think so.




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23. Suppose that one spring a new type of large fish was put into the pond. So many were put in that there were twice
     as many fish as before. By the end of the summer, what would happen to the large fish that were already in the
     pond?

     Explain why you think these new large fish would have this effect.




24. If a rainstorm washed some fertilizer from a nearby field into the pond, what would happen to the algae in the pond
     system after one month? Why do you think the fertilizer would affect the algae this way?




25. What effect would the fertilizer have on the bacteria in the mud at the bottom of the pond after one month? Why do
     you think the fertilizer would affect the bacteria this way?




26. If air pollution causes the rain that falls on this pond to become much more acidic, after two years how will this acidity
    affect the living things in this pond?

    A) There will be more plants and animals because the acid is a source of food.
    B) There will be fewer plants and animals because the acid will dissolve many of them.
    C) There will be fewer plants and animals because many of them cannot survive in water with high acidity.
    D) There will be more plants and animals because the acid will kill most of the disease-causing microorganisms.


27. Suppose that a farmer near the pond sprayed crops with a pesticide to kill insects and that some of the spray
     washed into the pond. (This pesticide breaks down very slowly.) If several months later a biologist tested all the
     organisms in the pond system for the pesticide, which organism would most likely have the greatest concentration of
     the pesticide? Explain your answer.




30. Which group of organisms would all be found living in a tropical rain forest?
    A) Lizards, insects, cacti, kangaroos
    B) Vines, palm trees, tree frogs, monkeys
    C) Evergreens, moose, weasels, mink
    D) Lichens, mosses, caribou, polar bears



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                       Ohio Standards             Summary:
                        Connection:               This instructional strategy engages students in the investigation of how
                                                  climate, geographic location and other abiotic factors are related to
                  Earth and Space Sciences        biomes. Students will also be introduced to organisms that live in a
                                                  variety of biomes and explore some interactions between the biome
                  Benchmark C                     organisms including food webs.
                  Describe interactions of
                  matter and energy               Estimated Duration:
                  throughout the lithosphere,     Approximately six hours
                  hydrosphere and
                  atmosphere (e.g., water
                  cycle, weather and
                  pollution).
                                                  Commentary:
                  Indicator 8                     This instructional strategy was produced during a pilot led by the ODE.
                  Describe how temperature        Teachers involved in this project shared resources they had successfully
                  and precipitation determine     used in their own classrooms and worked with colleagues to refine these
                  climatic zones (biomes)         resources. This instructional strategy was submitted by Lisa M. Yeager,
                  (e.g., desert, grasslands,      Granville Exempted Village School District.
                  forests, tundra and alpine).

                  Life Science

                  Benchmark C
                                                  Targeted Concept/Skill:
                  Explain how energy
                                                  This instructional strategy supports standards-based education by
                  entering the ecosystems as
                                                  engaging students‟ interest in concepts related to ecosystems with a
                  sunlight supports the life of
                                                  relevant activity.
                  organisms through
                  photosynthesis and the
                  transfer of energy through
                  the interactions of
                                                  Pre-Assessment:
                  organisms and the
                                                  Students will be assigned a specific biome and biome group. Each
                  environment.
                                                  biome group should be unique. Use Attachment A, Script Review and
                                                  Checklist, to allow students to conduct biome research. Students work
                  Indicator 3
                                                  individually to complete the worksheet provided. Students then
                  Explain how the number of
                                                  collaborate in their biome groups and combine all of their research to
                  organisms an ecosystem
                                                  complete and submit a unified Script Review and Checklist prior to the
                  can support depends on
                                                  puppet show presentations.
                  adequate biotic (living)
                  resources (e.g., plants,
                                                  Scoring Guidelines:
                  animals) and abiotic (non-
                                                  Examine Script Review and Checklist submitted by each group to gauge
                  living) resources (e.g.,
                                                  the level of student understanding prior to beginning work on the puppet
                  light, water and soil).
                                                  shows. Evaluate Script Review and Checklist for accuracy and
                                                  completeness. Provide direct feedback during conferences with student




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                        Biomes Puppet Show – Grade Seven
                               Instructional Strategy
groups. Use the information to determine what concepts related to biomes need further review and
investigation.

Post-Assessment:
Prior to beginning the assignment, provide copies of the scoring rubric that will be used to evaluate the puppet
show. The same form will be used by students for self-evaluation and by the teacher at the completion of the
assignment.

Scoring Guidelines:
Examine and compare completed student and teacher rubrics to evaluate student performance. Points are earned
in categories of: Biome Basics; Script: Food Web; Script: Organisms; Script: Abiotic Factors; Script:
Presentation; Backdrop: Plants; Backdrop: Animals; Backdrop: Weather; Backdrop: Assembly; Puppets; and
Overall Presentation.

Instructional Procedures:
1. Assign each student to a biome group. There should be no duplicate biome groups.
2. Allow students to research independently and complete Attachment A, Script Review and Checklist. This
    should be completed individually. Provide students with various science resources as they work to
    complete the Script Review and Checklist.
3. Group students by biome and ask them to compile their information into one Script Review and Checklist.
    Monitor student group discussions for understanding of biome concepts.
4. Collect and review each group‟s completed Script Review and Checklist sheet for accuracy and
    completeness.
5. Return group worksheets with feedback regarding accuracy and completeness and conference with each
    group.
6. Distribute and explain Attachment B, Biomes Puppet Show Overview.
7. Introduce Attachment C, Biomes Puppet Show Scoring Rubric. Have students review descriptions provided
    by the rubric for expectations of high quality work. Discuss these expectations with students.
8. Have students work in biome groups to begin writing puppet show scripts. Students should use the Biomes
    Puppet Show Scoring Rubric and the Biomes Puppet Show Overview as guides for inclusion of key
    concepts.
9. Students should meet in their biome groups to sketch ideas for their puppet show backdrop and create a list
    of materials needed for the backdrop as sketched.
10. Conference with each group to discuss backdrop ideas and provide feedback to students.
11. Students continue to work in biome groups to create their backdrop and puppets.
12. Provide time for groups to practice their puppet shows.
13. Prior to presentation, each group should submit a corrected copy of the Script Review and Checklist and a
    copy of the script to the teacher.
14. As students present their puppet shows, the teacher should complete the Biomes Puppet Show Scoring
    Rubric.
15. Following the presentations, each group should complete the Biomes Puppet Show Scoring Rubric and
    submit it as a group self-assessment.
16. Compare completed student rubrics with the completed teacher rubric and conference with each group to
    discuss similarities and differences between the student and teacher rubrics in order to establish a final
    score.

Differentiated Instructional Support:
Instruction is differentiated according to learner needs, to help all learners either meet the intent of the specified
indicator(s) or, if the indicator is already met, to advance beyond the specified indicator(s).
   Use technology, the Internet and media resources to provide information and images.



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                       Biomes Puppet Show – Grade Seven
                              Instructional Strategy

   Provide puppets instead of making original puppets.
   Modify length of puppet show.
   Reduce the number of scoring categories on the rubric.
Extensions:
   Present puppet show to younger students studying food webs and related ecological
    concepts.
   Study illustrations by various artists for inspiration while creating backdrops.
   Attend a puppet show to observe techniques, puppets, presentation and audience
    etiquette.
   Invite a puppeteer to come in and work with students.
   Extend the puppet show script by writing a story leading up to or following the puppet
    show segment.

Materials and Resources:
The inclusion of a specific resource in any lesson formulated by the Ohio Department of Education should not
be interpreted as an endorsement of that particular resource, or any of its contents, by the Ohio Department of
Education. The Ohio Department of Education does not endorse any particular resource. The Web addresses
listed are for a given site’s main page, therefore, it may be necessary to search within that site to find the
specific information required for a given lesson. Please note that information published on the Internet changes
over time, therefore the links provided may no longer contain the specific information related to a given lesson.
Teachers are advised to preview all sites before using them with students.

For the teacher:                Attachment A, Script Review and Checklist, Attachment B,
                                Biomes Puppet Show Overview, Attachment C, Biomes Puppet
                                Show Scoring Rubric, resources with information about biomes
                                (books and/or Internet sites), puppet show stage or screen, large
                                paper, cardboard, or poster board for backdrops (suggested size 3
                                x 8 feet), craft supplies.
For the students:               Attachment A, Script Review and Checklist, Attachment B,
                                Biomes Puppet Show Overview, Attachment C, Biomes Puppet
                                Show Scoring Rubric, puppets (collected or constructed), craft
                                supplies.

Technology Connections:
Use computer techniques and Boolean searches to research information on biomes, as well as
analyze the reliability of web resources.

Research Connections:
Research suggests that providing specific feedback positively affects student achievement.
This lesson offers numerous opportunities for providing specific feedback to students
individually and in small groups. Feedback is provided in both written and verbal form.




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                  Biomes Puppet Show – Grade Seven
                         Instructional Strategy

Robert J. Marzano. What Works in Schools: Translating Research into Action. Association
for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Alexandria, VA, 2003, pp 82-83.

Attachments:
Attachment A: Script Review and Checklist
Attachment B: Biomes Puppet Show Overview
Attachment C: Biomes Puppet Show Scoring Rubric




                                                                                          53
                      Biomes Puppet Show – Grade Seven
                                               Attachment A
                                        Script Review and Checklist

Complete and turn in before presentation.

Biome ____________________________

Group Members: ___________________________________________________________

Climate Information
Annual precipitation amount (cm) ____________________

Annual temperature range (Co) _________________

List possible extreme weather events



Location
Latitude Range ______________ Longitude Range __________________

Living organisms
                          Animals
                 Plants
                 1.                                                   1.
                 2.                                                   2.
                 3.                                                   3.
                 4.                                                   4.
                 5.                                                   5.


List any natural resources. Include information on human use of natural resources.


Draw a food web of at least three levels appropriate to the biome. Name the organisms
and show their relationship to one another.


Describe a possible consequence if an organism is removed from this food web.


Discuss one abiotic factor (other than climate and location) important to the biome.




                                                                                       54
                                       Biomes Puppet Show – Grade Seven
                                                                 Attachment B
                                                         Biomes Puppet Show Overview

               Goal: To investigate how geographic location, climate, and other abiotic factors affect the biome, the
               organisms that live in the biome, and the interactions between the biome organisms.


               Assignment: Create a puppet show of approximately 3 minutes in length demonstrating the concepts above.
               The puppet show must include one animal puppet for every group member, the required backdrop (described
               below), and the script.


               Puppets: These may be constructed by the group or ready-made puppets. Handmade puppets
               earn extra credit: 2 dimensional (up to 4 points) or 3 dimensional (up to 10 points). One
               animal puppet per person is required.


               Script Details:
               The script must include the following:
                Name of the biome
                Climate information and any possible extreme weather events
                Location (use globe or world map to show)
                Animals and plants that can live in the biome (as illustrated in your backdrop)
                Food web relationships
                Important abiotic factors for the biome
                Any natural resources present and how they are used by humans
               The Script Review and Checklist must be completed before the presentation.


               Backdrop details:
               The following elements are required in your backdrop:
                At least three types (species) of plants found in the biome
                At least three types (species) of animals found in the biome (in addition to puppets)
                At least two land features in the biome
                At least one weather event appropriate to the biome
                Backdrop elements must be appropriately colored on paper or fabric and must be appropriate in scale.
                     High Quality                                                                                 Low Quality
 Item                           4                                3                                  2                               1
                 Accurately incorporates name     Provides name of biome,           Provides incomplete and/or       Provides incomplete and
                 of biome, climate, potential     climate, potential extreme        inaccurate information           inaccurate information
                 extreme weather events,          weather events, location on the   regarding name of biome,         regarding name of biome,
Biome Basics     location on the globe, animals   globe, animals and plants,        climate, potential extreme       climate, potential extreme
                 and plants, natural resources    natural resources and how         weather events, location on the weather events, location on the
                 and how humans use them into     humans use them but not well      globe, animals and plants,       globe, animals and plants,
                 script.                          incorporated into script.         natural resources and how        natural resources and how
                                                                                    humans use them.                 humans use them.
                 Accurately depicts a food web    Accurately depicts a food web     Portrays an incomplete and/or    Provides an incomplete and
                 of at least three levels         of at least two levels            inaccurate food web loosely      inaccurate food web unrelated
Script: Food
                 appropriate to the biome and     appropriate to the biome and      tied to the biome. Vague         to the biome. No reference to
    Web
                 indicates possible               indicates at least one possible   reference to possible            the possible consequences
                 consequences when food webs      consequence when food webs        consequences when food webs when food webs are disrupted.
                 are disrupted.                   are disrupted.                    are disrupted.
  Script:        Includes at least one organism   One member of the group is        Two members of the group are Three members of the group



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                                                                                                                               Biomes
Puppet Show – Grade Seven
                                                               Attachment B
                                                       Biomes Puppet Show Overview
  Organisms       per member of the group.          not represented. Most of the      not represented. Most of the      are not represented. Few of
                  Each organism is portrayed        organisms are portrayed           organisms are portrayed           the organisms are portrayed
                  accurately and plays a            accurately and play a             accurately but not all play a     accurately and not all play a
                  significant role in the script.   significant role in the script.   significant role in the script.   significant role in the script.
                  Refers in a correct way to        Refers in a correct way to at     General reference to abiotic      General reference to abiotic
Script: Abiotic
                  more than one abiotic factor in   least one abiotic factor in the   factors in the biome.             factors but not those specific
   Factors
                  the biome.                        biome.                                                              to the biome.

                  Story is presented in an          Story has good information        Story provides good               Story lacks both elements of a
                  interesting and engaging          and evidence of a storyline.      information but lacks the         story and accurate science
   Script:
                  manner with accurate                                                elements of a story.              information.
 Presentation
                  information and strong
                  storyline.
                  Includes 4 or more plant          Includes at least 3 plant         Includes at least 2 plant         Includes at least 1 plant
  Backdrop:
                  species appropriate to the        species appropriate to the        species appropriate to the        species appropriate to the
    Plants
                  biome.                            biome.                            biome.                            biome.
                  Includes 4 or more animal         Includes at least 3 animal        Includes at least 2 animal        Includes at least 1 animal
  Backdrop:
                  species appropriate to the        species appropriate to the        species appropriate to the        species appropriate to the
   Animals
                  biome.                            biome.                            biome.                            biome.
                  Includes at least one             Evidence of a weather event       Weather event is appropriate      Weather event not appropriate
  Backdrop:       illustration of a weather event   appropriate to the biome          to biome but is not clearly       to the biome.
   Weather        appropriate to the biome and is   present on the backdrop or        illustrated.
                  referenced in the script.         referenced in the script.
                  Backdrop is carefully drawn       Backdrop is generally neat and    Backdrop shows either general     Lacks attention to neatness
  Backdrop:       and assembled at appropriate      some consideration has been       neatness or appropriate scale.    and scale.
  Assembly        scale.                            given to scale.


                  All puppets are appropriate to    Puppets are appropriate to        Most puppets are appropriate      Puppets not appropriate to the
  Puppets         the biome and of high quality.    biome.                            to the biome.                     biome.

                  Presentation is rehearsed,        Presentation is organized,        Presentation is organized and     Presentation is completed on
  Overall:        organized, completed on time,     completed on time, and all        completed on time.                time.
Presentation      and all components are            components are submitted.
                  submitted.

   Score                                                                                                                _________/44 points




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                                            Biomes Puppet Show –
Grade Seven
                      Attachment B
              Biomes Puppet Show Overview




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