Volcanoes and Igneous Activity Earth

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					   Structural Geology
The branch of geology that deals with:
  Form, arrangement and internal architecture of

  Description, representation, and analysis of
  structures from the small to moderate scale

  Reconstruction of the motions of rocks

Structural geology provides information about the
conditions during regional deformation using
 Main Principles and Concepts
Original Horizontality (Steno)

Uniformitarianism (James Hutton)
Tectonics vs. Structural Geology
Both are concerned with the reconstruction of the
motions that shape the outer layers of earth

Both deal with motion and deformation in the
Earth’s crust and upper mantle

Tectonic events at all scales produce deformation

These two disciplines are closely related and
Tectonics: Study of the origin and geologic
evolution (history of motion and deformation) of
large areas (regional to global) of the Earth’s
lithosphere (e.g., origin of continents; building of
mountain belts; formation of ocean floor)

 Structural Geology: Study of deformation in
rocks at scales ranging from submicroscopic to
regional (micro-, meso-, and macro-scale)
 Structural Geologist
A geologist who:
  Studies deformation of rock and Earth’s crust

  Identifies and interprets geological structures and
  their tectonic implications
Field Tectonic Studies
Many tectonic problems are approached by
studying structures at outcrop scale, and smaller
(microscopic) or larger (100’s to 1000’s of km)

Systematically observe/record the patterns of rock
structures (e.g., fault, fold, foliation, fracture).
This gives the geometry of the structures.
Next steps
Explanation of the structures
  Kinematics of formation of the
 structures – motions that occurred in
 producing them

  When integrated over a large area,
 the motions will help to infer the past
 tectonic motions
 Use of Models
We use geometric, mechanical, and kinematic
models to understand deformation on all scales
(micro, meso, macro)

Geometric model: 3D interpretation of the
distribution and orientation of features within the
earth crust

Kinematic model: Specific history of motion that
could have carried the system from an undeformed
to its deformed state (or from one configuration to
   Plate tectonic model is a kinematic model
Mechanical Model
Mechanical model: Based on laws of
continuum mechanics

  Study of rock deformation under
  applied forces (laboratory work)

  Model of driving forces of plate
  tectonic based on the mechanics of
  convection in the mantle is a
  mechanical model
  Recognize, describe structures by measuring their
  locations, geometries and orientations
  Break a structure into structural elements -
  physical & geometric
  Interprets deformational movements that formed
  the structures
   • Translation, Rotation, Distortion, Dilation
  Interprets forces and stresses from interpreted
  deformational movements of structures
  We Study:
Changes in the original orientation, location, shape and
volume of a rock body (Deformation: changes in
shape, position, and/or orientation of a body)

Physical and chemical forces that deform rocks
Geologic structures that form to accommodate
Stress - Force applied over an area
Strain - Observable deformation in the rock
Brittle deformation – e.g., fault: the result of rapidly
applied high stress which "break the rock"
Ductile deformation – e.g., fold: the result of slowly
applied, constant, low stress which "bend the rock"
Includes: strain, rotation, translation
Homogeneous strain: strain is the same at
every point in the deformed body

Undeformed state is used as a reference frame
  Commonly, we do not know the initial state

Coordinate transformation is used to
describe a deformation if initial and final
states are known
A geometric feature in a rock whose shape,
  form, and distribution can be described
The small-scale arrangement of geometric
and mineralogical elements within a rock
Preferred orientation of crystallographic
axes in the sample
Comprises the microstructure and the
texture of a material
  Fundamental Structures
Primary Structures
Secondary structures
Fractures (Joints, Shear Fractures)
Vein - Precipitated minerals from fluid flowing
through fractures
 Fundamental Structures, con’t
Foliation - Preferred orientation of
planar rock bodies and/or minerals

Lineation - Preferred orientation of
linear minerals and rocks

Shear Zone
  Zones of deformed rock that have
  accommodated movement