Docstoc

Fluency Instruction Assessment

Document Sample
Fluency Instruction Assessment Powered By Docstoc
					Fluency: Instruction &
Assessment



Steven A. Stahl
The University of Illinois -- Urbana/
Champaign/ CIERA
Fluency is more than
automatic word recognition


 Children also need to be able to read with
 prosody and expression.
National Reading Panel:
Fluency Findings
 Guided oral reading   Guided oral reading is a
 is effective in       grab bag including a lot
                       of different procedures
 improving reading
                       including repeated
 fluency and overall   reading, assisted
 achievement           reading, impress reading
                       Not all approaches are
                       going to be effective
National Reading Panel:
Fluency Findings
 Encouraging children   This includes DEAR,
 to read on their own   SSR, Accelerated
 does not seem to       Reader.
 improve fluency or     This is very
 general reading        controversial (and
 achievement            does not make
                        sense)
Why didn’t the Report find
effects for just reading?
 The best evidence         Few studies actually
 may be correlational      monitored the reading
 and could not be          done by students
 included in this report
 Often children do not
 choose to read
 material of adequate
 challenge
National Reading Panel:
Fluency Findings
 Fluency-oriented reading approaches
 seem to be effective, but there are very
 few out there to choose from.
 In spite of what report says, have children
 read.
 Teachers should be encouraged to have
 children read material of adequate
 challenge.
Being fluent is more than
automaticity




  Accuracy
  Rate
  Prosody
Accuracy
 What is an “Instructional level”?
 Depends on level of child or whether child
 is reading “cold” or not
 Depends on level of instruction
    In our work, children could benefit from
   material as low as 85% accuracy with strong
   instructional support
Accuracy
 High accuracy/low comprehension
    Kendall and Hood found children who were accurate
    but poor comprehenders and good comprehenders,
    but not accurate.
    Carpenter and Paris found a greater tendency for
    older children to be able to read well with weak
    comprehension.
 Carpenter and Paris found that accuracy on IRIs they
 studied correlated significantly with comprehension only
 below the 3rd grade level
NAEP Fluency Scale
 Level 4 Reads primarily in larger, meaningful phrase groups. Although
 some regressions, repetitions, and deviations from text may be present,
 these do not appear to detract from the overall structure of the story.
 Preservation of the author's syntax is consistent. Some or most of the story
 is read with expressive interpretation.
 Level 3 Reads primarily in three- or four-word phrase groups. Some
 smaller groupings may be present. However, the majority of phrasing
 seems appropriate and preserves the syntax of the author. Little or no
 expressive interpretation is present.
 Level 2 Reads primarily in two-word phrases with some three-or four-
 word groupings. Some word-by-word reading may be present. Word
 groupings may seem awkward and unrelated to larger context of sentence
 or passage.
 Level 1 Reads primarily word-by-word. Occasional two-word or three-
 word phrases may occur, but these are infrequent and/or they do not
 preserve meaningful syntax.
 Accuracy -- NAEP Oral
 Reading Study 4th grade
                            Nonfluent                    Fluent

                      --------------------        ----------------------

                  Fluency       Fluency          Fluency          Fluency

                  Level 1      Level 2           Level 3        Level 4

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------

Percent accuracy       94         94               96               97

Words per minute 65                89              126             162
Accuracy -- NAEP Oral
Reading Study
                  0-4          5-9         10-14        15-19        > 20

               Deviations   Deviations   Deviations   Deviations   Deviations

                 99%          97%          96%          94%        Less than

               Accurate     Accurate     Accurate     Accurate       94%

                                                                   Accurate

   Fluent

    4 (13 %)      25           39           20           13            3

    3 (42 %)       8           28           28           18           18

   Nonfluent

    2 (37 %)       2           12           19           29           38

    1 (7 %)        7           15           13           26           39
Accuracy

 NAEP Oral Reading Study did not find a
 relation between oral reading accuracy
 and comprehension
 They did, however, find a relation between
 the number of meaning-changing miscues
 and comprehension
Rate

 Trade-off between accuracy, rate and
 comprehension
 Children may lower rate to improve
 accuracy, thus impairing comprehension
 Thus, may be the relationship between
 CBM performance and comprehension
Power Curve




              Series1
Developmental
relationships

 As children get more automatic, one
 would expect the relationship between
 rate and comprehension to drop, since, as
 decoding becomes more transparent,
 variations in language abilities and
 strategic knowledge become more
 important.
Prosody and
Comprehension
 We examined sound spectrographs of 124 children
 reading the first passage of the Gray Oral Reading
 Test IV
 We found that good and struggling readers could be
 distinguished by intersentential pauses,
 intrasentential pauses, declining frequency at end of
 declarative sentences, but….
 We found that the closeness of the prosodic
 envelope (the contours of the rising and falling
 intonations) to adult readers added significant
 variance to the prediction of comprehension beyond
 that accounted for by word recognition.
Prosody and
comprehension

 We believe, as do others, that prosody
 reflects children’s syntactic processing.
 It is the ability to assign words to syntactic
 categories that accounts for the
 relationship between prosody and
 comprehension.
How do you develop
fluency?

 Repeated reading?
 Assisted Reading?
 Integrated approaches?
Repeated Reading
(classroom)

 Have children read from the same text.
 Have them start reading orally.
 After 3 minutes, say “Stop”
 Have them mark last word they read.
 Repeat.
 Children should read further down the
 page with each repeated reading.
Paired Repeated Reading
 Children read in pairs
 One child reads the text three times
   The other child reviews errors and rates
 the reader on fluency on the third reading.
 The children reverse roles with next
 section.

 Koskinen, P. S., & Blum, I. H. (1986). Paired repeated reading: A classroom strategy for
 developing fluent reading. The Reading Teacher, 40, 70-75.
Assisted Reading

Teacher and student read passage
 together, repeatedly, until desired level of
 fluency is achieved.
Assisted Reading

 Teacher and children read passage
 together.
 Teacher and children re-read until
 adequate level of fluency is attained.
Research on Repeated and
Assisted Reading
                     R e p e a te d   Ass ist e d
                     R e a d in g     R e a d in g

   F av or s
   tr e a tm e n t          6                5
   No
   Di ff e re nc e          8                2
   F av or s
   c o nt r o l             1
Results

 Repeated reading does not seem to
 produce higher results than a control
    Effects could be due to increased amount of
   reading
 Assisted reading seems to be effective
   Modeling?
   Monitoring?
Effects of difficulty?
               Treatment/Control Comparisons for Fluency Measures

    6




    5




    4




                                                                                Fluency T=C
    3
                                                                                Fluency T>C




    2




    1




    0
        Easy                   Instructional Level                  Difficult
Effects of Difficulty?
               Treatment/Control Comparisons for Comprehension Measures

    8




    7




    6




    5



                                                                              Comprehension T=C
    4
                                                                              Comprehension T>C



    3




    2




    1




    0
        Easy                    Instructional Level               Difficult
Fluency Oriented Reading
Instruction

 Four teachers, a graduate student, and
 myself met one summer to design the
 program
 We began with five principles
Five principles

 All lessons must be comprehension-oriented
 Children will be supported through repeated
 readings
 Children will read at their instructional level
 Children will do partner reading to maximize
 “eyes on text” time.
 Children will read as much as possible both at
 home and at school.
New superintendent mandated that all
children will read material at their grade
placement
We decided to scaffold children at a
higher level, using material at their level.
Three components of fluency-
oriented reading instruction

 Home reading program
 Choice reading
 Redesigned Basal Reading Program
Redesigned Basal Reading
program

 Comprehension Focus
   Teacher reads story to class
   Teacher discusses story
   ⌧May do story map, or graphic organizer
   ⌧May ask questions
Redesigned Basal Reading
program

 Preparation for reading
   Teacher preteaches vocabulary, does
   prereading activities
 Home reading
   Students bring book home
 Partner reading
Prepare for reading
 Children need
 some practice in
 word reading prior
 to reading.
 In this lesson,
 children are taught
 the strategy of
 comparing words
 to words they
 already know, as
 well as being
 taught the new
 words.
Comprehensive Reading
Program
 Because we are         There are word study
 emphasizing fluency,   lessons as well as
 does not mean we       comprehension
 are neglecting other   building activities.
 aspects of reading.      Making words
                          Compare/contrast
                          Comprehension
                          strategy instruction
Echo Reading
               Echo
               reading is
               used for
               struggling
               readers to
               provide
               additional
               support.
Home reading
               Children may be
               asked to read
               the story at
               home 1, 2, 3 or 4
               times during the
               week.
               This gives
               children
               additional
               practice
Paired reading
                 Paired reading
                 is the most
                 efficient way of
                 giving children
                 practice in
                 reading
                 connected text
                 These are two
                 struggling
                 readers.
Paired Reading
 With more
 advanced
 readers, one
 could combine
 paired reading
 with reciprocal
 questions.
 These children
 had been taught
 Question-Answer
 Relationships to
 improve their
 questioning.
Home Reading Program

 Students read at home, as part of
 homework.
 We met with parents as part of a PTO
 program to discuss how to read at home.
 We kept track using logs, but teachers did
 not feel they were efficient.
Choice Reading

 Children read material of their choosing
 for 15-20 minutes per day.
 Allowed for children to read material at
 their instructional level
Results

 Teachers were able to do the program all
 year long.
Results

 Children made an average of 1.8 years
 gain in each single year
Results

 All children who were reading at the
 primer level or higher at the beginning of
 the year were reading at the second grade
 level or higher at the end of the year.
Results

 Children were able to benefit from
 material at their frustration level, if given
 adequate support.
Replication
 Purpose: To demonstrate that modifying
 classroom instruction to increase the
 volume of children’s reading will improve
 fluency and comprehension
 Sites:
   Athens, GA
   Atlanta, GA
   North Plainfield, NJ
Fluency Oriented Reading Instruction
  Supported reading of a single text weekly, using
  repeated reading
Wide Reading Adaptation
  Uses many of the same techniques as FORI, but
  has children read three or more texts per week
Control
  Involves teachers using the district's reading
  program as usual
Measures
 Gray Oral Reading Test IV (GORT)
   Set of graded passages. Scores based on rate and
   accuracy
   Fluency Measure
 Test of Word Reading Efficiency
   Two word lists (sight and nonsense). Scores based
   on number of words read correctly in 45 seconds.
 WIAT Reading Comprehension
   Individual, open ended comprehension measure
Measures

 The GORT and TOWRE were given three
 times a year.
 The WIAT was given fall and spring.
Problem
 The control schools were not really
 “control.”
    We did not get a control school in Atlanta.
    The “control” school in Athens was put on a
   state list and underwent an extensive reading
   intervention.
    The control school in New Jersey was a true
   control, but was a high functioning school,
   with excellent instruction.
Problem
 We analyzed the data with two controls
    A contemporary control analysis used the
   control schools during the same school year.
    A historical control analysis compared the
   treatment schools with the children from all
   the schools at the end of the previous second
   grade year.
Results -- Historical
Controls

 We found statistically significant differences
 between the treatment groups and the historical
 control on all measures (all at p < .001).
 This suggests that children were performing at a
 higher level after treatment than similar children
 did the year previous.
Analysis -- Concurrent
Controls

 What is presented here is a repeated measures
 analysis. Children were tested three times
 during the year, August/September, January,
 and May/June.
 All analyses are based on a Time x Group
 analysis, with a significant interaction
 considered as evidence for significant treatment
 effects.
Results -- Concurrent
Controls
 Students in all groups made significant progress from
 the beginning of the year on all measures
 The only statistically significant effect was on the WIAT
 Passage Comprehension measure. We found a
 significant (p = .044) effect favoring the Wide Reading
 group.
 The effects on the TOWRE subtests and the GORT
 were not statistically reliable.
Results -- Concurrent
Controls

 When we included entering level in the
 analysis, there were significant effects
 found on the GORT and TOWRE.
 The greatest treatment effects were found
 for children who were between 1.0 and
 1.7, or somewhat below grade level.
Results -- Concurrent
Controls

 Similar to the Stahl et al. Study, children
 who were reading at a primer or higher
 were reading at an average of 3rd grade
 level at the end of second grade.
 In other words, children who began with
 modest entering abilities were ready to
 begin 3rd grade reading 3rd grade
 materials.
Scientifically-Based
Reading Research?

 When we add programs to schools, we
 need to worry about how they are
 implemented.
 We need to worry about all the things left
 out of our programs.
 We need to worry about our professional
 development.
Scientifically based Reading
Research?
 Phonics is not, by itself, a solution
   Children will continue to differ by entering
   abilities
   Instruction will have to be differentiated to
   meet those different abilities
 Grouping is and is not a solution
    If you group, you need to make sure that the
   lower ability group receives challenging
   instruction
Scientifically based Reading
Research?

 Differential support with the same
 curriculum
   May work best for children in the second
   quartile, those who are within the ZPD
   Some children will need external support
What do we know about
fluency?

 Classroom interventions can improve
 children’s reading significantly, even
 bringing children from below grade level to
 grade level.
 Classroom interventions are practical.
 They can be carried out over a school
 year.
What do we know about
fluency?

 We know children can read difficult
 material with appropriate support.
 We want children to have some time
 during the day so that they can read easy
 material as well.
What do we know about
fluency?

 We know that the most important thing
 one can do to improve children’s
 achievement is to have them read text at
 an appropriate level.
 We do not know whether these
 approaches work because children are
 reading more or because of the repetition.
What do we know about
fluency?

 We think that this instruction will improve
 comprehension.
 We may have to think about how to
 integrate comprehension instruction into
 fluency-oriented reading.
References
 Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2000). Fluency: A review of
 developmental and remedial practices ( 2-008): Center for the
 Improvement of Reading Achievement, University of
 Michigan.
 Samuels, S. J., Schermer, N., & Reinking, D. (1992). Reading
 fluency: Techniques for making decoding automatic. In S. J.
 Samuels & A. E. Farstrup (Eds.), What research says about
 reading instruction (2nd ed., pp. 124-144). Newark, DE:
 International Reading Association.
 Stahl, S., Heubach, K., & Cramond, B. (1997). Fluency-
 oriented reading instruction. Athens:GA: National Reading
 Research Center ;U.S. Dept. of Education Office of
 Educational Research and Improvement Educational
 Resources Information Center.
sstahl@uiuc.edu

www.ciera.org

				
DOCUMENT INFO