"The Bridge between Eastern and Western Cultures" The Mongolian Empire All empires from sunrise to sunset have been given to us, and we own them. -Guyuk Third Great Khan of the Mongols Nomadic Life ―… surpasses all other Barbarians in wildness of life…. And though they do just bear the likeness of men … they are so little advanced in civilization that they make no use of fire, nor any kind of relish, in the preparation of their food, but feed upon the roots which they find in the fields and the half-raw flesh of any sort of animal. I say half-raw, because they give it a kind of cooking by placing it between their own thighs and the backs of their horses….‖ (POV) Would you be willing to live this kind of life? What advantages are there? “What equipment was essential for a horse-mounted warrior?” What type of riding gear would have been necessary? Who were the Mongols? Nomads who lived on the steppe. Around 500 BCE, a tribe of nomadic people called the Mongols lived in Asia. The Mongols were traders and herdsmen. They herded sheep and traded horses with the ancient Chinese and Persians. The ancient Mongols are sometimes called The Felt Tent People because their homes were round tents made of felt. What did they wear? Dels: Clothes varied from tribe to tribe. Both men and women wore leather boots. Also, men and women wore dels. A del is a wrap that looks like a dress tied at the waist. Dels made of cotton fabric kept people cool in the summer. Dels were lined with fur for winter wear, to keep the people warm and toasty. There were no pockets in a del. Eating utensils and anything you wished to carry was hung from your belt. Mongol Clothing Hairstyles Hair was a symbol of honor and strength. In BCE times, the Mongols believed that hairstyles should look like the wings of an eagle. Women wore their hair pulled smoothly away from their face. They glued strings of decorated felt to hairbands. Men cut their hair in the shape of a horseshoe on top. a French missionary left the following description: ―Like our monks, the men leave a lock of hair on the top of head. But they would shave around it for about three fingers wide. The hair lock left on the top would hung ahead and grow until reaching the eyebrows. The remainder of hairs left behind will be locked in two tails.‖ How did they live? Tribes: They did not live in towns. The Mongols were nomads. They traveled in small groups composed of perhaps only two or three families. You might travel 20 miles before you ran into another family group. Although the Mongols were nomads, they still had a royalty of sorts - chieftains, and later khans. In ancient times, a tribe did not necessarily travel together. But they did get together at festivals, and in times of need. Yurts Mongolian Tent A - posts supporting the roof B - stove pipe out through roof C - wood or dried dung for stove D - bucket for water storage E - saddle stand F - airag bag on wooden frame G - Buddha or family photos H - stools in guests' seating area Cont. The Mongols were a very diverse and mobile group. They used oxen when they needed animal power for key tasks such as transporting their housing for seasonal or longer=term migrations. The Mongols mounted the tents on wagons, which were pulled large teams of oxen. Mongol Customs: 1. You may not beat horses, dogs, or animals. It would be the same as beating a close friend. 2. You may not throw any waste into water including rivers and lakes. 3. You must feed all guests, or at least offer food. 4. You must build two bonfires with an open path between them and direct traders to walk along the path between the fires to be purified before trade can occur. 5. Greet all people with a well wish. 6. Deep respect can be shown by putting your hand on your heart and bowing. 7. The highest form of greeting is to give a gift of a blue scarf. 8. It is forbidden to be unfair. Here are two old Mongol sayings or proverbs: "Better the bone be broken than ones reputation." "Better to die with a good reputation than be alive with a bad one." Genghis Khan All who surrender will be spared; whoever does not surrender but opposes with struggle and dissension, shall be annihilated. --Genghis Khan Genghis Khan The Mongols were not united until Genghis The Nomads who lived on horseback-from the Asian steppes-organized along bloodlines/clans – Great speed and mobility – Had spies to gather information about the enemy – Formal code of honor with military forces – had a messenger force to communicate between units Male dominated but women had influence within the family Temujin = Chinggis Elected supreme ruler of all Mongol tribes in 1206 Cont. Genghis Khan became emperor of "all who lived in felt tents," but his dream was to conquer the world. Cont. Method of ruling: (motto: submit and live, resist and die) People could keep their religions, used their knowledge to make the empire better Always open to new ideas/religions Established laws to make peace throughout the Asian empire Commerce excelled because trade routes were safe (silk Mongols siege a Persian city road) Army All males 15-70 served in the army as cavalry The Army’s 95 units of 10,000 soldiers wee subdivided into units of 1,000, 100, and 10. Different tribes were mixed together to ensure loyalty to the army. Officers and men were bound to each other by mutual loyalty and two-way responsibilities. No one in the army was paid, though all shared to varying degrees in the booty. All contributed to a fund to take care of those too old, sick, or hurt to fight. Genghis Khan’s death Upon Chinggis’s death the Mongolian Empire was divided into four successor empires or khanates. China- Khubilia Khan (Yuan Dynasty) Inner Eurasia- Chagatay Caspian and Black Seas, Russia- Khanate of the Golden Horde Persia and Iraq (Ilkhanate) Mongols in China 1207 – forced NW Chinese kingdom to be a vassal Attacked the Qin dynasty – Method: if cities resisted attacks their inhabitants were killed or made slaves Driving West…The Golden Horde Took control of Kiev as it was becoming vulnerable (1200’s) Tartar (people from hell) Russia was a vassal to the Mongols for 250 years – Many Russian peasants had to submit to their own princes and the Mongols…they chose serfdom-this began feudalism in Russia – Serfdom in Russia lasted until the mid 1800’s – Regardless, some cities grew due to the increase in trade b/c of the Mongols (Moscow) – Influenced military and political organization – Isolated Russia from Western Europe and their developments Attack on Islam Hulegu eliminated the last Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad (1258)—called the Ilkhanates – Local rulers were allowed to continue ruling as long as they taxed the people and maintained order; facilitated trade Mamluk (slave dynasty in Egypt) – Stopped the spread of Mongols in Egypt Effect on SW Asia Sack of Baghdad 1258 ended Abbasid Caliphate Invasion turned back at Ain Jalut (Jordan River Valley) 1260 Destruction of irrigation systems blamed for subsequent economic weakness of Mesopotamia Effect on Europe Successive invasions of E Europe Destroyed Kiev, supported rise of Moscovy Invasions halted/tempered by succession disputes Effect on South Asia Raided into Indus Valley for decades, sometimes into Gangetic Plain Timur the Lame (Tamerlane) destroyed Delhi 1398 Periodic incursions until Mughal invasion of early 1500s established Mughal Empire north of Deccan The conquest of northern China Beijing Conquest of western Inner Eurasia and northern Iran Conquest of Black Sea steppes and invasions of Russia and eastern Europe •Mongols on the plain of Hungary •Mongol withdrawal from Europe Russian Princes Kneeling before Their Mongol Ruler Conquest of Southwest Asia •End of the Muslim Caliph and the Abbasid empire •Mamluks stop the Mongols in Syria •Conquest of southern China •Attempted invasions of Japan (1274 and 1281) Mongolian Empire at its height in 1200’s CE Mongol Impact Pax Mongolia – United large territory for about a century 2 continents were united under one rule; safe trade; etc Cultural diffusion – Gun powder – Trade of food, tools, ideas – $$ for traders (esp. in Venice and Genoa) – Bubonic Plague (AKA Black death) – Killed 1/3 of W. Europe and 50% of the population in other areas • Ended feudalism in W Europe Kublai Khan Ruled in China Took over the Song Dynasty; Created the Yuan Dynasty Capital in Tatu (Beijing) Government:only Mongols and foreigners…no Chinese in high positions-why? But respected and were interested in Chinese culture Got rid of Civil Service Exam Postal/communication system connected Beijing to Vienna using horses; 1400 postal stations; trade flourished; merchants converted their $$ to Chinese paper money Women in Kublai Khan’s Court Mongol women would not blend with Chinese culture (ie: foot binding) Kept their rights to property and freedom to move around town as they pleased Many fought in wars too Chabi-Kublai Khan’s wife-she was a good buffer between Mongol and Chinese society Kublai Khan Continued Marco Polo – From Venice – Served in the court for 17 yrs – Wrote about his travels to China…no one believed him Increased the status of artisans/actors/merchants Mongols built a navy and tried to invade Japan…twice (1274 and 1281) – Kamikaze (sacred wind)– this showed the Mongols could be stopped Reduced peasant taxes; maintained their cropland Wanted to implement education to the peasants Yuan Dynasty falls Defeat in Japan and Vietnam hurt their image Mongol rule got soft…spent $$, led to inflation Kublai’s successors were weak – Divided the empire among various generals by 1350, most of the empire was reconquered by other armies White Lotus Society: dedicated to overthrowing the Yuan Dynasty Ju Yuanzhang-took over and founded the Ming Dynasty – Ruled for 300 years Trade Nomads understood importance of trade Built up roads, extended the Grand Canal in China Set up post offices/trading posts Protected merchants, gave them a higher status Set up merchant associations - ortoghs Allowed safe passage to everyone Religious Tolerance No intention of spreading own religion Offered tax benefits to all religious leaders (why?) Muslims brought to China to help with administration Bridges More Asian products available to Europe Europeans travel to Asia, return with great stories Marco Polo spends 17 years in Mongol court His book inspires European imagination Bridges Portuguese look for quicker route to Asia around Africa Columbus sails west with Marco Polo’s journal - trying to find Mongol China Bridges Would Columbus have been inspired to sail the ocean blue without the dreams of riches inspired by Marco Polo’s writings? Can we give Genghis Kahn and the Mongols credit for the Age of Exploration? Summary Began as nomads and challenged the sedentary peoples for control Often portrayed as barbarians; destructive conquerors, but they brought peace, religious toleration, laws and unity to their empire Empire included Central Asia, China, Persia, Tibet, Iraq, Asia Minor, and Southern Russia Bridged gaps between East and West Big Ideas ANALYSIS: How did the geography of central Asia affect the development of the nomadic cultures? – How did these people adapt to their environment? – What advantages did their adaptations give them? Discuss the military organization, techniques, and strategies of these Asian nomads. – How did these abilities make their military so formidable?