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SAFE FORKLIFT OPERATION We are going to cover • Hazard Identification • Risk Management • Know your forklift • Understand the dangers to safety • Operation of the Forklift • Maintenance & Refuelling What you need to know • Acts, regulations and standards • Your responsibilities and the employers’ • Safety requirements for forklift operation • Planning for forklift operations • Hazard identification and control • Name and description of parts • Material Data Safety Sheet • Job Safety Analysis Sheets Why are you here today? Are you legal? Two ways to operate legally: • Log Book • License • Under 18 needs special permission • No experience – needs 100% supervision – until fully competent Who says … • NT Road Traffic Act Regulations – Motor Vehicle – Regulations and Motor Vehicle Standards • NT Work Health Act and Regulations • Australian Standards – AS4801 • Individual company work place rules and standards Forklift Parts What do you check before you drive !! ?? What’s what Other parts Engine Hours • The Engine Hour Meter records the total number of hours that an engine has been used. • Because this information is used to schedule maintenance, you should record this number on your Daily Inspection Report. Amps Gauge The Ampere Gauge indicates that the engine's electrical generator is producing electricity. (+) readings mean the generator is working. (-) readings mean something is wrong, and that battery power is being used to run the engine. Always return a forklift for maintenance, if the amperes gauge is showing (-) readings. Oil Pressure Gauge The Oil Pressure Gauge indicates the oil pressure inside the engine. Oil pressure readings that are low or drop to "0" indicate a serious problem with the engine. Never operate a forklift with oil pressure problems. Turn the engine off, and notify your supervisor Tilt Control • Allows you to tilt the forks up or down. • Lever forward, forks will tilt down. • Lever back, forks will tilt up. Data Plate Data plates display important information concerning the forklift's: • Type • Capacity • Load Center • Forklift Weight Read and remember the data for the forklifts you operate Tyre Types • Solid tyres are designed for use inside on smooth, dry surfaces. They should not be used outdoors or on rough surfaces. • Pneumatic tyres (tyres filled with air) are designed for use on improved surfaces, and may be used outdoors, as well as indoors. Lifting System The lifting system on forklifts includes chains attached to a hydraulic cylinder. Lifting System When the cylinder is filled with hydraulic fluid, it forces the piston to move upward. Lifting Forks These can be moved from side to side to adjust for different types of loads. While most forklifts require that this be done by hand, some have special controls for adjusting the forks. Rear Wheel Steering Unlike a car forklifts use the rear wheels for steering. Rear Wheel Steering Greater control of the forklift when you are using the forks. Note the larger turning arc produced by forklift "A" using front wheel steering versus the arc produced by forklift "B" using rear wheel steering. The Stability Triangle - LIFE SAVER If you were to raise a forklift up and look at its underside, you would see that the support points for the forklift are located at points A, B, and C. The forklift will not tip over as long as the center of gravity remains inside the triangle. (The center of gravity is the point within a forklift where there is equal weight all around it.) Stability Triangle – Life Saver If the center of gravity shifts outside the stability triangle, the forklift will tip over. The center of gravity can be moved by: • Travelling with an elevated load or too heavy a load • Turning, starting or stopping while moving too fast • Operating on a hill or incline • Jerky operation of the hydraulic system. Load Capacity Use the right forklift for the right load The front wheels of a forklift serve as the Fulcrum Point between the weight of the forklift and the weight of the load being carried. If the weight of the load is equal to the weight of the forklift, with equal distances between the centers of gravity, it is possible to "seesaw" a forklift on its front wheels. If we rearrange the load so that the load's center of gravity is farther away from the fulcrum point, this will cause: • the center of gravity for both the forklift and the load to shift beyond the front wheels of the forklift, • and the forklift will tip forward. If we arrange the load so the load's center of gravity is closer to the fulcrum point, this will cause: • the center of gravity for both the forklift and the load to shift behind the front wheels of the forklift. • With this arrangement, there is no danger of the forklift tipping forward Load Your most immediate Capacity source of information concerning the safe load capacity of a forklift can be found on its data plate. The plate will give you information concerning the load capacity of the forklift in pounds and the load center in inches. Where to place the load When lifting and carrying several loads at once, always place the heaviest load against the back of the forks. Placing the heaviest loads near the back of the forks shifts the load center closer to the front wheels and makes for a more stable load. Tilt the thines You can increase the stability of a load by tilting the forks back. Tilting the forks back moves the load center closer to the front wheels Load Centering Tilting the forks forward shifts the load center away from the front wheels and creates a less stable load, especially when the forks are raised. You should never tilt the forks forward when they are raised, except to place a load. Quick Turns The higher you lift a load, the more unstable it becomes. Always take extra care when making sharp turns with a raised load. SPEED KILLS – YOU OR OTHERS NEVER FASTER THAN WALKING PACE When is a hazard not a hazard? Answer: When it is controlled through elimination, substitution, isolation, engineering controls, administrative controls, personal protective clothing and equipment ADDITIONAL HAZARDS • Ramps and uneven ground • People traffic and vehicle traffic • Busy schedules • Lots of small cargo or bulky awkward cargo or full container loads • Cluttered laydown area • Wet Season conditions Risk Management – starts with us • We know the risks, we work here everyday • So how come we have incidents? • When was the last time you did a risk assessment? And rated the result? Risk Management Step One: Likelihood • Very likely – could happen frequently • Likely – could happen occasionally • Unlikely – could happen, but only rarely • Highly Unlikely – could happen, but probably never will Consequences: Step Two : Consequences • Fatality • Major Injuries – irreversible damage • Minor Injuries – reversible but time off • Negligible Injuries - first aid Risk Table Likelihood Very Likely Likely Unlikely Highly Unlikely Consequence Fatality High High High Medium Major Injury High High Medium Medium Minor Injury High Medium Medium Low Negligible Injury Medium Medium Low Low Watch the height Normally you wouldn’t raise the load more than 8 inches from the ground. Given the nature of the site, safe operation means you raise the load higher. Higher Load = Higher Duty of The higher the risk Watch for stability problems and potential for accidents. Keep the load tilted back. Forklift View If Your View is Blocked – usually you would travel in reverse, but you can raise your load to where you can see beneath the container or load to Travel slowly, raise the operate. load no higher than necessary to see safely, and to clear obstacles. Moving from dark to light Beep to indicate your presence STOP and let your eyes adjust Always beep when turning corners Watch out for overhead obstructions such as beams and cables. Proximity to people and vehicles What could happen here? Direction of Travel …. or here? Look around – look to see who is standing there, or what your forklift swing could hit !! .. how about these? Direction of Travel Look up, Look down, Look Around, Stay Alive Our site is a congested work space Watch out – follow the signs • Never allow a machine to coast • Do not disengage the gears Chain Slack Chain slack means there is a problem in the lift mechanism. You should always stay alert to any problems with the lift mechanism of your forklift. DO NOT ATTEMPT to repair - Advise your supervisor. Centre your load Take time to adjust the forks on your forklift to fit the load you will be carrying. Adjusting the forks outward for wide loads, helps you to center the load, and make it more stable. Stacking • Avoid lifting or carrying loose or poorly stacked loads. • Correctly stack and wrap loads to prevent accidents and injury to the load, the forklift, pedestrians or YOURSELF. Wide Loads need more room Keep in mind the load center and lift capacity of your forklift. Slow down and watch your clearance Wide and long loads are more unstable than other loads. Wide loads require that you keep them low and watch the balance of the load. Direction of Travel • The special site considerations for the safe operation of forklifts: • tidal conditions, ramp angles, barge angles, yard space, congestion, and vessel loading requirements, so the direction of travel must take into account safety and visibility at all times. TURNING ON INCLINES NEVER turn while driving up or down a ramp or incline. You may need to drive across an incline on an angle. The risk needs to be considered, with extreme caution, and within the skills and experience of the operator and capacity of the equipment GROUND HAZARDS Slopes, uneven ground, or loose surfaces: mud, gravel, sand, and soft dirt all present potential problems for you and Use a second set of your forklift. eyes “cockatoo” if difficult or awkward loads to stay safe Uneven areas Try to avoid rough spots and pot holes. Cross carefully at an angle One wheel at a time Hazard Identification Identify – Assess – Control – Overcome Modify the workplace Change the way things are moved Isolate the harm Move the job Evaluate outcomes What might be a problem? Typical Hazards Blind corners Uneven loads Rough ground Other workers Steep grades Wet or slippery Sick Operator Large work load Unserviced equipment Noisy workplace Confined spaces Watch the edges…. Forklift Loads Inspect the floor of the trailer to ensure that it will support the forklift and the load. Make sure that the wheels of the trailer are chocked to prevent the trailer from moving. Make sure that dock plates, boards, and ramps are in place and secure Attachments Because you may change attachments (from forks, to barrel clamps, to a side loader), always compute the weight of the attachment as part of the load. Parking You are responsible for your forklift, even when you leave or park it. Always park your forklift in a safe area that is away from traffic. Never leave or park your forklift on an incline. Safe Parking Always lower the forks until they are flat on the floor – thines down – tips down and park the forklift in neutral Park across an incline and chock the wheels Turn off the engine, set the parking brake, and remove the key Don’t Jump If you start to tip over, DON'T JUMP! Stay in your seat, go with the forklift. Grip the wheel securely Brace yourself with your feet. Walking pace - As you drive, watch out for people walking, slow down, look for traffic, and sound your horn frequently. Remember, ALWAYS come to a complete stop before changing direction Raised Forks Never let anyone, including yourself, walk or stand under the forks when they are raised. Safety ! – Built in • Seat Belt • Horn - Sound your horn: • Before backing up & at intersections • When travelling through doors • Anywhere your vision is limited Back up Alarms • Forklifts are equipped with a backup alarm to warn others that you are backing up. YOUR OWN SAFETY • Your PPE safety equipment must be warn in line with OH&S requirements. • Steel cap boots • High Viz long sleeved shirts YOU = SAFETY Stay alert, watch out for others Monitor the condition of your forklift and the work area Do you want to be the cause? • Never use drugs or alcohol before coming to work or on the job. • Be careful of over-the-counter or prescription drugs that may impair your ability to operate your forklift safely. • SAFETY is the most important part of your job when operating a forklift. What causes incidents and accidents? Carelessness tiredness lack of training lack of personal discipline Ignorance Equipment failure Daily Ops Checks Begin your daily inspection by checking the safety equipment on your forklift. Seat Belt Warning Light Backup Alarm Horn Steering Brakes Wheels Hydraulic hoses Chains Leakages Steering Feel the steering action for a minimum of freeplay. The freeplay in steering should not be more than one or two inches in either direction that you turn the wheel Brakes and Wheels • Check tyres for wear, cuts, free of blockages. • Test your brakes as you move off. • The pedal should not sink under continued pressure and should depress smoothly, • The brakes should not grab or cause the forklift to swerve. • Any grinding or screeching needs immediate attention. • Remember: check your parking brake. Hydraulic Hoses • Visually examine the hydraulic hoses and connections. • Look to make sure the hoses are in good condition. • Check for leaks around fittings and connecting points • Also check behind you when you first move off the parking bay Lever Checks • Hydraulic Controls - The control levers should move smoothly and return to neutral when released. • Feel for roughness in the action when the forks are raised or tilted. • No slipping or moving of the forks or mast should occur when they are moved to a new position Leaks • Brake fluid, transmission oil, radiator coolant, battery acid (electrolyte), or fuel can leak from your forklift. • DO NOT DRIVE a forklift that has a leak. Daily Operators Report • It is your responsibility as a forklift operator to inspect your forklift daily and fill out the report. • This schedules maintenance, documents problems, and is required by many insurance companies. Refuelling • Turn off the engine and any lights on the forklift. • Do not smoke; make sure there are no open flames near your forklift. • Be certain there is contact between the spout and the fill pipe before pumping. • Try not to spill any fuel and/ or clean it up If you must use a can to refuel, make sure it is an approved fuel container LP GAS • Before replacing an LP gas tank, close the shut off valve and let the engine stall. • Turn off the engine and any lights that may be burning on the forklift. • Check for damage to connections and look for leaks. • WARNING: Since LP gas is heavier than air, make sure there is plenty of ventilation • Do not smoke; make sure there are no open flames near the forklift. Plan your Job • Priorities – or the job schedule • Task duration • Timings and weather conditions • Resources required and where • Work place roles and procedures • Personal Safety Equipment • Emergency procedures Don’t forget also • The number of lifts • Inspection of the site • Discussion with the site supervisor • Document the process • - The authorities will want to see your plan if there is an accident Picking up a load • Check behind before reversing • Reverse back slowly and clear stack • Lower the load of the transfer position • Move off when safe to do so Placing the load Check behind before reversing Reverse back just clear of the stack Lower forks to travel position Move off when safe to do so Straight back, clear the deck, then turn! Slinging loads from Forks Is an unsafe practice Always use the correct attachment for the task Drum Attachments – don’t rotate them while moving Electricity Kills Stay away from power lines 2 metres Stay away from high voltage lines 6 metres Stay away from any unknown voltage 6 metres No-one comes to work to do the wrong thing • Damage to you, personnel, equipment, customer’s cargo, causes major loss of time, money and loss of our good name. • If we take more care, we have less financial claims and losses, which straight away improves our bottom line profitability. • Our bottom line profitability is directly linked to the safe and careful nature of our forklift operations. Don’t look now but ….
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