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SAFE FORKLIFT OPERATION by sanmelody

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									SAFE FORKLIFT OPERATION
We are going to cover
•   Hazard Identification
•   Risk Management
•   Know your forklift
•   Understand the dangers to safety
•   Operation of the Forklift
•   Maintenance & Refuelling
What you need to know
•   Acts, regulations and standards
•   Your responsibilities and the employers’
•   Safety requirements for forklift
    operation
•   Planning for forklift operations
•   Hazard identification and control
•   Name and description of parts
•   Material Data Safety Sheet
•   Job Safety Analysis Sheets
Why are you here
today?
Are you legal?
Two ways to operate legally:

  •   Log Book
  •   License
  •   Under 18 needs special permission
  •   No experience – needs 100%
      supervision – until fully competent
Who says …
•   NT Road Traffic Act Regulations –
    Motor Vehicle – Regulations and Motor
    Vehicle Standards

•   NT Work Health Act and Regulations

•   Australian Standards – AS4801

•   Individual company work place rules
    and standards
Forklift Parts




What do you check before you drive !! ??
What’s what
Other parts
Engine Hours
•   The Engine Hour Meter records the
    total number of hours that an engine
    has been used.
•   Because this information is used to
    schedule maintenance, you should
    record this number on your Daily
    Inspection Report.
Amps Gauge
     The Ampere Gauge indicates that
     the engine's electrical generator is
     producing electricity. (+) readings
     mean the generator is working. (-)
     readings mean something is wrong,
     and that battery power is being
     used to run the engine.

     Always return a forklift for
     maintenance, if the amperes gauge
     is showing (-) readings.
Oil Pressure Gauge
       The Oil Pressure Gauge indicates
       the oil pressure inside the engine.

       Oil pressure readings that are low
       or drop to "0" indicate a serious
       problem with the engine.

       Never operate a forklift with oil
       pressure problems.

       Turn the engine off, and notify
       your supervisor
Tilt Control
•   Allows you to tilt the
    forks up or down.
•   Lever forward, forks
    will tilt down.
•   Lever back, forks
    will tilt up.
Data Plate
             Data plates display important
                information concerning the
                forklift's:
             •  Type
             •  Capacity
             •  Load Center
             •  Forklift Weight

             Read and remember the data
                for the forklifts you operate
Tyre Types
•   Solid tyres are designed for use inside
    on smooth, dry surfaces. They should
    not be used outdoors or on rough
    surfaces.

•   Pneumatic tyres (tyres filled with air)
    are designed for use on improved
    surfaces, and may be used outdoors, as
    well as indoors.
Lifting System

            The lifting system
            on forklifts
            includes chains
            attached to a
            hydraulic cylinder.
Lifting System

            When the cylinder
            is filled with
            hydraulic fluid, it
            forces the piston
            to move upward.
Lifting Forks
                These can be moved
                from side to side to
                adjust for different
                types of loads.

                While most forklifts
                require that this be
                done by hand, some
                have special controls
                for adjusting the
                forks.
Rear Wheel Steering

           Unlike a car
           forklifts use the
           rear wheels for
           steering.
Rear Wheel Steering
           Greater control of the
           forklift when you are using
           the forks.
           Note the larger turning arc
           produced by forklift "A"
           using front wheel steering
           versus the arc produced by
           forklift "B" using rear wheel
           steering.
The Stability Triangle -
LIFE SAVER


 If you were to raise a forklift up and look at its
 underside, you would see that the support points
 for the forklift are located at points A, B, and C.

 The forklift will not tip over as long as the center of
 gravity remains inside the triangle.

 (The center of gravity is the point within a forklift
 where there is equal weight all around it.)
Stability Triangle – Life Saver

 If the center of gravity shifts outside the
   stability triangle, the forklift will tip over.
 The center of gravity can be moved by:

 •   Travelling with an elevated load or too heavy
     a load
 •   Turning, starting or stopping while moving
     too fast
 •   Operating on a hill or incline
 •   Jerky operation of the hydraulic system.
Load Capacity
Use the right forklift for the right load
                   The front wheels of a forklift
                   serve as the Fulcrum Point
                   between the weight of the
                   forklift and the weight of the
                   load being carried.

                   If the weight of the load is
                   equal to the weight of the
                   forklift, with equal distances
                   between the centers of gravity,
                   it is possible to "seesaw" a
                   forklift on its front wheels.
If we rearrange the load so that the load's center
of gravity is farther away from the fulcrum point,
this will cause:
• the center of gravity for both the forklift and
   the load to shift beyond the front wheels of the
   forklift,
• and the forklift will tip forward.
If we arrange the load so the load's center of
gravity is closer to the fulcrum point, this will
cause:
• the center of gravity for both the forklift and the
   load to shift behind the front wheels of the
   forklift.
• With this arrangement, there is no danger of the
   forklift tipping forward
Load       Your most immediate
Capacity   source of information
           concerning the safe
           load capacity of a
           forklift can be found on
           its data plate.

           The plate will give you
           information concerning
           the load capacity of the
           forklift in pounds and
           the load center in
           inches.
Where to place the load
                             When lifting and
                             carrying several
                             loads at once,
                             always place the
                             heaviest load
                             against the back
                             of the forks.

Placing the heaviest loads near the
back of the forks shifts the load
center closer to the front wheels and
makes for a more stable load.
Tilt the thines
                             You can
                             increase the
                             stability of a
                             load by tilting
                             the forks
                             back.
Tilting the forks back moves the load center
closer to the front wheels
Load Centering
        Tilting the forks forward
        shifts the load center
        away from the front
        wheels and creates a less
        stable load, especially
        when the forks are raised.

        You should never tilt the
        forks forward when they
        are raised, except to place
        a load.
Quick Turns
The higher you lift a load, the more
unstable it becomes. Always take extra
care when making sharp turns with a
raised load.

SPEED KILLS – YOU OR OTHERS
NEVER FASTER THAN WALKING PACE
When is a hazard not a
hazard?
 Answer: When it is controlled through
 elimination, substitution, isolation,
 engineering controls, administrative
 controls, personal protective clothing
 and equipment
ADDITIONAL HAZARDS
•   Ramps and uneven ground
•   People traffic and vehicle traffic
•   Busy schedules
•   Lots of small cargo or bulky awkward
    cargo or full container loads
•   Cluttered laydown area
•   Wet Season conditions
Risk Management – starts
with us
•   We know the risks, we work here
    everyday

•   So how come we have incidents?

•   When was the last time you did a risk
    assessment? And rated the result?
   Risk Management

Step One:       Likelihood
•    Very likely – could happen frequently
•    Likely – could happen occasionally
•    Unlikely – could happen, but only rarely
•    Highly Unlikely – could happen, but
  probably never will
Consequences:

Step Two : Consequences

•   Fatality
•   Major Injuries – irreversible damage
•   Minor Injuries – reversible but time off
•   Negligible Injuries - first aid
       Risk Table
Likelihood     Very Likely   Likely   Unlikely   Highly Unlikely

Consequence
Fatality       High          High     High       Medium
Major Injury   High          High     Medium     Medium
Minor Injury   High          Medium   Medium     Low
Negligible
   Injury      Medium        Medium   Low        Low
Watch the height
Normally you wouldn’t raise the load more than 8
inches from the ground.

Given the nature of the site, safe operation
means you raise the load higher.

Higher Load = Higher Duty of The higher the risk

Watch for stability problems and potential for
accidents.

Keep the load tilted back.
Forklift View
                           If Your View is Blocked –
                           usually you would travel
                           in reverse, but you can
                           raise your load to where
                           you can see beneath the
                           container or load to
Travel slowly, raise the   operate.
load no higher than
necessary to see safely,
and to clear obstacles.
Moving from dark to light



Beep to indicate your presence
STOP and let your eyes adjust
Always beep when turning corners
Watch out for overhead obstructions such as beams
and cables.
Proximity to people and vehicles
What could happen here?




Direction of Travel
…. or here?




              Look around – look to see
              who is standing there, or
              what your forklift swing
              could hit !!
.. how about these?




    Direction of Travel
Look up, Look down, Look
Around, Stay Alive
              Our site is a congested
              work space
Watch out – follow the
signs




•   Never allow a machine to coast
•   Do not disengage the gears
Chain Slack
              Chain slack means
              there is a problem in
              the lift mechanism.
              You should always stay
              alert to any problems
              with the lift mechanism
              of your forklift.

              DO NOT ATTEMPT to
              repair - Advise your
              supervisor.
Centre your load
                                 Take time to
                                 adjust the forks
                                 on your forklift
                                 to fit the load
                                 you will be
                                 carrying.
Adjusting the forks outward for wide
loads, helps you to center the load, and
make it more stable.
Stacking   •   Avoid lifting or
               carrying loose or
               poorly stacked loads.

           •   Correctly stack and
               wrap loads to
               prevent accidents
               and injury to the
               load, the forklift,
               pedestrians or
               YOURSELF.
Wide Loads need more
room
                               Keep in mind the
                               load center and lift
                               capacity of your
                               forklift. Slow down
                               and watch your
                               clearance

Wide and long loads are more unstable than other
loads. Wide loads require that you keep them low
and watch the balance of the load.
Direction of Travel

•   The special site considerations for the safe
    operation of forklifts:
•   tidal conditions, ramp angles, barge angles,
    yard space, congestion, and vessel loading
    requirements, so the direction of travel must
    take into account safety and visibility at all
    times.
TURNING ON INCLINES
          NEVER turn while driving up
          or down a ramp or incline.

          You may need to drive across
          an incline on an angle.

          The risk needs to be
          considered, with extreme
          caution, and within the skills
          and experience of the
          operator and capacity of the
          equipment
GROUND HAZARDS
                       Slopes, uneven
                       ground, or loose
                       surfaces: mud, gravel,
                       sand, and soft dirt all
                       present potential
                       problems for you and
Use a second set of    your forklift.
eyes “cockatoo” if
difficult or awkward
loads to stay safe
Uneven areas




Try to avoid rough spots and pot holes.
Cross carefully at an angle
One wheel at a time
Hazard Identification
            Identify – Assess –
            Control – Overcome

            Modify the workplace
            Change the way things
            are moved
            Isolate the harm
            Move the job
            Evaluate outcomes
What might be a
problem?
Typical Hazards
Blind corners     Uneven loads
Rough ground      Other workers
Steep grades      Wet or slippery
Sick Operator     Large work load
Unserviced equipment
Noisy workplace   Confined spaces
Watch the edges….
Forklift Loads
            Inspect the floor of the trailer
            to ensure that it will support
            the forklift and the load.

            Make sure that the wheels of
            the trailer are chocked to
            prevent the trailer from
            moving.

            Make sure that dock plates,
            boards, and ramps are in place
            and secure
Attachments
              Because you may
              change
              attachments
              (from forks, to
              barrel clamps, to
              a side loader),
              always compute
              the weight of the
              attachment as
              part of the load.
Parking
          You are responsible for
          your forklift, even when
          you leave or park it.

          Always park your forklift in
          a safe area that is away
          from traffic.

          Never leave or park your
          forklift on an incline.
Safe Parking



Always lower the forks until they are flat on the floor –
thines down – tips down and park the forklift in neutral

Park across an incline and chock the wheels

Turn off the engine, set the parking brake, and remove
the key
Don’t Jump

If you start to tip over, DON'T JUMP!

Stay in your seat, go with the forklift.
Grip the wheel securely
Brace yourself with your feet.
Walking pace -
                           As you drive, watch
                           out for people
                           walking, slow down,
                           look for traffic, and
                           sound your horn
                           frequently.

Remember, ALWAYS come to a complete
stop before changing direction
Raised Forks

Never let anyone, including
yourself, walk or stand under the
forks when they are raised.
Safety ! – Built in
•   Seat Belt

•   Horn - Sound your horn:
•   Before backing up & at intersections
•   When travelling through doors
•   Anywhere your vision is limited
Back up Alarms
•   Forklifts are equipped with a
    backup alarm to warn others
    that you are backing up.
YOUR OWN SAFETY
•   Your PPE safety equipment must be warn
    in line with OH&S requirements.
•   Steel cap boots
•   High Viz long sleeved shirts
YOU = SAFETY
Stay alert, watch out for others

Monitor the condition of your forklift
and the work area
Do you want to be the
cause?
•   Never use drugs or alcohol before coming to
    work or on the job.

•   Be careful of over-the-counter or prescription
    drugs that may impair your ability to operate
    your forklift safely.

•   SAFETY is the most important part of your job
    when operating a forklift.
What causes incidents
and accidents?
Carelessness
     tiredness
     lack of training
     lack of personal discipline
Ignorance
Equipment failure
Daily Ops Checks
Begin your daily inspection by checking
the safety equipment on your forklift.

Seat Belt              Warning Light
Backup Alarm           Horn
Steering               Brakes
Wheels                 Hydraulic hoses
Chains                 Leakages
Steering
Feel the steering action for a
minimum of freeplay.

The freeplay in steering should not
be more than one or two inches in
either direction that you turn the
wheel
Brakes
and Wheels
•   Check tyres for wear, cuts, free of
    blockages.
•   Test your brakes as you move off.
•   The pedal should not sink under continued
    pressure and should depress smoothly,
•   The brakes should not grab or cause the
    forklift to swerve.
•   Any grinding or screeching needs
    immediate attention.
•   Remember: check your parking brake.
Hydraulic Hoses
•   Visually examine the hydraulic hoses
    and connections.
•   Look to make sure the hoses are in
    good condition.
•   Check for leaks around fittings and
    connecting points
•   Also check behind you when you first
    move off the parking bay
Lever Checks
•   Hydraulic Controls - The control levers should
    move smoothly and return to neutral when
    released.
•   Feel for roughness in the action when the
    forks are raised or tilted.
•   No slipping or moving of the forks or mast
    should occur when they are moved to a new
    position
Leaks
•   Brake fluid, transmission oil, radiator
    coolant, battery acid (electrolyte), or
    fuel can leak from your forklift.

•   DO NOT DRIVE a forklift that has a
    leak.
Daily Operators Report
•   It is your responsibility as a forklift
    operator to inspect your forklift daily
    and fill out the report.

•   This schedules maintenance,
    documents problems, and is required
    by many insurance companies.
Refuelling
•   Turn off the engine and any lights on
    the forklift.
•   Do not smoke; make sure there are no
    open flames near your forklift.
•   Be certain there is contact between the
    spout and the fill pipe before pumping.
•   Try not to spill any fuel and/ or clean it
    up If you must use a can to refuel,
    make sure it is an approved fuel
    container
LP GAS
•   Before replacing an LP gas tank, close the shut
    off valve and let the engine stall.
•   Turn off the engine and any lights that may be
    burning on the forklift.
•   Check for damage to connections and look for
    leaks.
•   WARNING: Since LP gas is heavier than air, make
    sure there is plenty of ventilation
•   Do not smoke; make sure there are no open
    flames near the forklift.
Plan your Job

•   Priorities – or the job schedule
•   Task duration
•   Timings and weather conditions
•   Resources required and where
•   Work place roles and procedures
•   Personal Safety Equipment
•   Emergency procedures
Don’t forget also

•   The number of lifts
•   Inspection of the site
•   Discussion with the site supervisor
•   Document the process
•   - The authorities will want to see your
    plan if there is an accident
Picking up a load

•   Check behind before reversing
•   Reverse back slowly and clear stack
•   Lower the load of the transfer position
•   Move off when safe to do so
Placing the load

Check behind before reversing
Reverse back just clear of the stack
Lower forks to travel position
Move off when safe to do so

Straight back, clear the deck, then turn!
Slinging loads from Forks

Is an unsafe practice

Always use the correct attachment for
  the task

Drum Attachments – don’t rotate them
 while moving
Electricity Kills
Stay away from power lines
     2 metres
Stay away from high voltage lines
     6 metres
Stay away from any unknown voltage
     6 metres
No-one comes to work to do
the wrong thing
•   Damage to you, personnel, equipment,
    customer’s cargo, causes major loss of time,
    money and loss of our good name.
•   If we take more care, we have less financial
    claims and losses, which straight away
    improves our bottom line profitability.
•   Our bottom line profitability is directly linked
    to the safe and careful nature of our forklift
    operations.
Don’t look now but ….

								
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