conomie de la biodiversit

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					 Natura 2000
 Costs and benefits
 Case studies in France

  Biodiversity post-2010:
  Biodiversity in a changing world
  Theme II: valuation and benefits of
  ecosystem services

Sarah Hernandez, ONEMA, French National
Agency for Water and Aquatic Ecosystems
Elen Lemaître-Curri, French Ministry for
Sustainable Development
       Ministère de l'Écologie, de l'Énergie, du Développement durable et de la Mer
                    en charge des Technologies vertes et des Négociations sur le climat
           Natura 2000 network in France
                                                 W ater bodies            Artificiel
                                                 (non marine)             surfaces
  • 6,9 M ha terrestrial                 W etlands
                                                      5%                    1%

     12,5% of                              6%                                                Agricultural
                                   Other open                                               areas (including
    national territory               areas                                                    grasslands)
                                      9%                                                         34%

  • 3,9 M ha marine                     Heathland


  Sites of Community Interest – Habitat types repartition (Corine Land Cover) in ‘000ha
    areas                                                      Water            Artificiel
             Forests   Heathland      open     Wetlands                                             Total
 (including                                                    bodies           surfaces
   1 531      1 778        205         413          272             236                41                4 476

  Gand, Biodiversity in a changing World                                                            08/09/2010   2
Context and objectives of the evaluation
• Evaluation conducted by Credoc (Centre de recherche pour
  l’étude et l’observation des conditions de vie) for the French
  Ministry of Environment

• Aimed at :
    • Providing methodological tools to integrate economic and
      institutional analysis of Natura 2000 policy – based on case

    • Using the evaluation of costs and benefits to:
         • Communicate with stakeholders
         • Discuss on Natura 2000 network funding (at EU and
           national levels)

 Gand, Biodiversity in a changing World                              08/09/2010   3
      6 case studies in various contexts

• Phase I (2005-2006):
  • Vallée du Lison (Doubs): forest
  • Moyenne Vallée de l’Oise (Aisne et Oise): valley
  • Marais de l’Erdre (Loire-Atlantique): marsh

• Phase II (2006-2007):
  • Massif des Bauges (Rhône Alpes): mountain
  • Plaine de la Crau (PACA): dry and humid grasslands   Economic
                                                         analysis :
  • Tregor-Goelo (Bretagne): coastal area

 Gand, Biodiversity in a changing World                        08/09/2010   4
                     Cost-benefit criteria

- Direct benefits: positive effects on existing economic activities
- Indirect benefits: spillover effects on other human activities
- Economic value of positive externalities (non market)
                                                               Demand for
Costs                                                          Biodiversity
- Directs costs: investment on N2000
- Indirect costs: on various economic activities
- Transaction costs (difficult to assess)
- Opportunity costs: lost benefits related to activities        Attribute-
restricted because of N2000

Gand, Biodiversity in a changing World                                 08/09/2010   5
           Cost-benefit analysis framework
                             Biodiversity              Increased benefits


                             Water                      Cost-benefit summary
       Recreation                                      Biodiversity
                             Recreation                improvement
       Forest products
       extraction                                      Water Protection
                             Forest products           improvement               Increased
       Land use              extraction                                          benefits
       agricultural                                    Recreation
       activities            Agricultural              development

                                                       Forest extraction       Opportunity cost
                             Program cost              and agricultural        Future benefits non
                                                       area reduction          perceived

                                                                               Conservation measures
      Without                With Natura 2000          Program cost            cost
      intervention           Programme

Adapted from Stefano Pagiola, K. von Ritter, J. Bhop. 2004: « Assessing the economic
value of ecosystem conservation”; Working paper N°101

   Gand, Biodiversity in a changing World                                                    08/09/2010
                        La plaine de la Crau
   Le SIC FR9301595 « Crau Centrale – Crau Sèche » (31 460 hectares)

 The « coussoul », priority natural habitat (EU Habitats Directive)
Maintained by pastoral activities. Provides shelter for numerous bird species
of community interest:
• the only resort of Pin-tailed Sandgrouse (Ganga cata)
• 90% of French Lesser Kestrel (Faucon crécerellette)
• 80 % of French Calandra Lark (Alouette calandre)
• 30 - 40% of French Little Bustard (Outarde canepetière )

 Meadows of mow, habitat of community interest
• wetland (irrigated) favourable to birds
• pasture area necessary for ovine and bovine fodder cycle in Crau
• wooded area and copses favourable to biodiversity

 Two other priority habitats and four other habitats of community interest
on a few hectares
Crau provides shelter for 22 species of Birds Directive and several other
species within the Habitats Directive II (3 dragonflies, 1 reptile and eight bats)
    Gand, Biodiversity in a changing World                                  08/09/2010
                   Socio-economic analysis
      N2000 impact on a range of local productive activities and investments
                              ex: Plaine de la Crau

                 Activity / investment        Positive impact          Negative impact
                                            Direct support Offset
              Sheep rearing
compatible                                  Quality label
              Traditional hay production
with                                        Offset measures
N2000         Cattle husbandry              Support for specific
              Vegetable and fruit           agro-environmental
              production                    practices
              Ecotourism                    Some direct support
              Research                      Offset measures
              Mining                        Investments in          - New investments
              Gas pipeline                  sustainable             potentially restricted
                                            development             - Additional costs to
              Industrial development
Activities                                                          avoid / reduce impacts
              (harbor)                      Positive image
potentially                                                         - Compensatory
restricted    Windmills                                             measures

                       Several positive and negative impacts have been quantified
   Gand, Biodiversity in a changing World                                              08/09/2010   8
               Le marais de l’Erdre
   Site of community interest FR5200624 covering 2 565 hectares

• Large floodplain with a great variety of wet habitat types :
alluvial forests, reed, peat bogs, alluvial wetlands
•4 habitats of priority community interest, 10 habitats of CI
•Flora : floating water-plantain Luronium natans -
•Fauna : 3 bats, 4 invertebrates including tiger moth (Callimorpha
quadripunctaria), 1 fish (bitterling Rhodeus sericeus amarus )

    • Management of water levels
    • Fight against invasive species
    • Improvement of water quality necessary to habitats
    • Cultural and recreational value (close to Nantes)

 Gand, Biodiversity in a changing World                              08/09/2010   9
Non-monetary benefits: attribute-based method
           (choice experiment)
- A sample of 400 people interviewed in each location (7 communes each)
- Choice between scenarios (6 x 2 scenarios + status quo)
- Attributes: based on key features of N2000 + experts recommendations
                                    - To reduce potential bias
Scenarios for :                     - To evaluate several components of the program
• Plaine de la Crau
- Ha of agricultural area benefiting from N2000 direct support
-% of hedges and groves maintenance
- Number of protected species
- Number of ponds cleared from an invasive specie: Red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans)
+ financial contribution

• Marais de l’Erdre
- % of maintenance of wet grassland
- Number of protected species
-% of canals dredged to prevent invasive species
- % of bank stabilization
+ financial contribution
  Gand, Biodiversity in a changing World                                           08/09/2010   10
                        Attributes ranking
                                            ( 3 answers maximum)

                                                                                  High priority
                                                                                  Low priority

       Protected     Ha benefiting from    Hedges and               Financial       Invasive species
        species       N2000 support          groves                contribution
                                              ( 2 answers maximum)
                                                                         High priority
                                                                         Low priority

       Financial         Protected        Bank stabilization         Canal        Grassland maintenance
      contribution        species
Gand, Biodiversity in a changing World                                                            08/09/2010   11
   Attributes-based method: main results
• Higher social value: conservation of protected species
• Lower social value: conservation of habitats (hedges, wetlands…)

                          Information & sensibilisation

• Average willingness to pay for a scenario corresponding to the
  local N2000 program objectives
  • Plaine de la Crau: ~65 €/ household /year: high patrimonial value (and
    high pressure on land from a range of economic activities)
  • Marais de l’Erdre: ~35 €/ household /year: no easy access, low

• Cost benefit analysis: positive balance for N2000 program at
  local level for both case studies
  Gand, Biodiversity in a changing World                             08/09/2010   12
           Conclusions and perspectives
• Study describes and partially quantifies N2000 impacts on a
  range of local activities
       • methodology can be used to assess the efficiency of N2000 level
         of support + distributive impacts
• Study assesses social/economic value of non-monetary
  N2000 benefits at local level
• Results show positive balance

Remaining questions:
  • Assessment of opportunity costs
  • Possibility to scale-up / transfer results (WTP)
  • How to aggregate methods and approaches for economic evaluation

  Gand, Biodiversity in a changing World                           08/09/2010   13
            Conclusions and perspectives
• More recent and on-going work on methodological aspects to assess
  economic benefits of biodiversity & ecosystem services in France
       • Centre d’analyse stratégique Report (2009): methodological
         recommendations, reference values (a minima) for forest, grassland…
       • Several case studies and literature reviews on the benefits of wetlands,
         hedges, coral reefs…

• Works are largely based on the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment
  (MEA France in progress)
• The feasibility and rationale of assessing economic value of heritage
  sites is being debated

• In this context, N2000 study underlines the interest of assessing:
  • Distributive impacts
  • Non-usage value
   Gand, Biodiversity in a changing World                              08/09/2010   14

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