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VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 38

									Material Handling and
       Storage
 Occupational Health and Safety
      November 10, 2010



                                  1
    Supplemental Resources
• The Basics of Occupational Safety (course
  text)
  – Chapter 11, Falling, Impact, Acceleration, Lifting
    and Vision Hazards
     • Pages 257-260, Lifting Hazards
     • Pages 266-269, Forklift Safety
• Selected Internet websites, as noted in this
  presentation


                                                         2
               Objectives
• Recognize material handling hazards and
  how to control them
  – Manual material handling
     • Storage
     • Hand trucks
  – Conveyors
  – Powered Industrial trucks (forklifts)
     • Accident statistics
     • Cause, consequences and prevention of trailer
       creep
     • Forklift safety
  – (Cranes will be addressed later)
                                                       3
    Material Handling and
           Storage
• Outline
  – Introduction
  – General Practices
  – Storage
  – Manual Material Handling
  – Powered Industrial Trucks



                                4
               Introduction
• 600,000 overexertion injuries, 27% of all lost-
  workday cases
   – 370,000 injuries caused by lifting
   – 93,000 pushing/pulling
   – Strains and sprains from loads that are too heavy
     or large
   – Fractures, cuts and bruises from improper storage
• 100 annual deaths from Powered Industrial
  Trucks (forklifts)

                                                     5
            Introduction
• General Work Practices
  – Get help for large loads or use mechanical
    devices!
  – When blocking a raised load:
    • Keep hands from underneath before releasing
      load
    • Use blocking materials of adequate strength
    • Look for cracks, splintered pieces, rounded
      corners, etc.
  – Attach handles or holder to loads
  – Use appropriate PPE
    • Gloves, eye protection, safety boots (for heavy
      loads)
                                                    6
               Introduction

• General Work Practices (cont.)
  – Do not overload equipment
    • Refer to equipment rated capacity
  – General forklift procedures
    •   Center load on forks and close to mast
    •   Do not overload
    •   Do not add extra weight to counterbalance
    •   Travel with load at lowest position


                                                    7
         Materials Storage
• Precautions for stored materials
  – Stacked loads correctly piled and cross-tiered
  – Stored material must not create hazard
  – Areas free of accumulated material
  – Keep materials in buildings away from exterior
    building walls, hoistways, etc.
  – Store non-compatible material separately
  – Keep 18 inches clear space below sprinklers



                                                     8
         Materials Storage
• Precautions for stored materials (cont.)
  – Employees in silos, hoppers or tanks equipped with
    lifeline and safety harness
  – Bound material stacked, on racks, blocked or
    interlocked to keep it from sliding, falling or
    collapsing
  – Don't exceed load capacity for the structure
      • Post load limits
  – Stacking height
      • Mark walls or posts to indicate maximum height
  – Use bins or shelves for materials that cannot be
    stacked
                                                    9
Lumber and Masonry Storage
• Lumber
   – Stacks stable and self-
     supporting
• Bricks, masonry blocks
   – Taper stacks                     Lumber storage
• Bags and bundles
   – Stack in interlocking rows
   – Step back at least every 10
     layers
   – Remove from top of stack first
                                       Masonry blocks
                                                   10
Box and Drum Storage
• Boxed materials
  – Hold in place using cross-ties,
    or shrink plastic
• Drums, barrels, kegs                   Box storage
  – Stack symmetrically
  – Block bottom tiers to prevent
    rolling, if stored on side,
  – Use planks, pallets, etc.
    between each tier, if stacked on
    ends

                                                 11
                                       Drum storage
               Manual Lifting
• Manual lifting precautions
  –   Avoid manual lifting when possible
  –   Limit vertical lifting (knuckle-to-shoulder height)
  –   Be in good physical shape
  –   Plan the lifting operation
  –   Get a good grip
  –   Keep the load close to the body
  –   Do not twist or bend sideways
  –   Get help for large or heavy loads


                                                Manual lifting
                                                             12
            Manual Lifting
• Recommendations for specific
  tasks
  – Grasp opposite corners on boxes,
    cartons & sacks
  – Use mechanical assistance for barrels
    and drums
  – Wear leather gloves when handling sheet
                                               Drum jack
    metal
  – Plate glass
     • Carry with bottom edge in gloved
       palm, other hand on top edge
     • Never carry plate glass under the arm
  – Use a team for long objects
                                                   13
    2-wheeled hand trucks
• Safe hand truck use
  – Tip load forward and slip tongue
    underneath
  – Keep center of gravity low
  – Let the truck carry the load - don't
    lean it too far                      Hand truck      Appliance
  – Walk forward - keep load height                      truck
    low enough to see
  – Secure bulky items to the truck
  – Use specialty equipment
      • Drums
      • Appliances
      • Stairs                                              14
                                  Stair-climbing truck   Drum truck
                2-wheeled hand trucks
      • Powered hand trucks




         PowerMate video
http://www.powermate.info/powermate.htm                  Magliner video
                                                http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_9lWS

                   (I am not endorsing these products)        w-gTWM        15
                    Dollies
• Dollies can be used to
  move heavy objects that
  don’t have wheels

                                Furniture dolly




       Machinery dolly        Drum dolly          16
              Conveyers
• Conveyer basics
  – Hazards
     • Nip points (rollers, near frame)
     • Material may fall from conveyor
     • Persons may be caught in the
                                        Inclined belt conveyor
       conveyor
  – Controls
     • Emergency stop button or pull cord
         – Must be reset after use
         – Never ride on conveyor
     • Guards over aisles or
       work areas
     • Screw conveyors covered,
       interlocked                         Screw conveyor
   Powered Industrial Trucks
          (Forklifts)
• Forklift injuries and deaths
  – 100 annual deaths, 95,000 injured
  – Cause of fatality:
     • 42% crushed by vehicle tipping
     • 25% crushed between vehicle and surface
     • 11% crushed between two vehicles
     • 10% struck or run over by vehicle
     • 8% struck by falling material
     • 4% fall from platform or forks
     • 2% accidental activation of controls

                                                 18
   Powered Industrial Trucks
          (Forklifts)
• Forklift injuries and deaths
  (cont)
  – “Classic” forklift accidents:
     • Forklift overturns when
       traveling or lifting a load
     • Trailer moves while being
       loaded or unloaded, causing
       the forklift to fall (“trailer creep”
       or “dock walk”)

                                               19
   Powered Industrial Trucks
          (Forklifts)
• Forklift safety
  – ANSI Approved
     • Identifying label
  – Owner modification
     • Only with mfg.
       approval
     • New label required
  – Front-end attachments   Typically forklift capacity
     • Should have new      is based on load center
                            24 inches out and 24
       label                inches up from forks

                                                          20
        Typical forklift configuration
(counterbalanced, solid tires, sit-down rider)
                                                 21
               Forklift types
– Forklifts are selected from several configurations
  and fuel types, according to the desired use
  •   Solid tires for smooth, hard floor
  •   Pneumatic tires for outdoor or rough surfaces
  •   Battery powered, for indoor use
  •   Extended reach, for construction
  •   Capacity
  •   Clearance
  •   Etc.



                                                      22
            Forklift types
– Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks (solid
  tires)




                                              23
             Forklift types
• Electric Motor, Sit-down Rider, Counter-
  Balanced Trucks (solid and pneumatic tires)




                                                24
Forklift battery   25
             Forklift types
– Electric Motor Hand Trucks or Hand/Rider Trucks
  Internal Combustion Engine Trucks




                                                    26
              Forklift types
– Internal Combustion Engine Trucks (pneumatic tires)
– Rough Terrain Extended Reach Forklift Trucks
  (pneumatic tires)




                                  Rough Terrain Extended-
                                  Reach Forklifts
                                                        27
             Forklift types
• “Explosion proof” forklifts
  are used to control ignition
  hazards
  – Example:
     • DS (Diesel), EE (completely
       enclosed electrical), or EX
       trucks where containers of
       flammable gases or liquids are
       handled

                                        28
     Powered Industrial Truck
             Safety
• Fuel, liquid or gas
  – Handled in accord with NFPA standards
• Batteries
  – Hazards
     • Lifting and handling                  Forklift battery
     • Acid (electrolyte)
     • Hydrogen produced during charging
  – Precautions
     • Designated battery charging area
     • Spill control, fire protection,
       ventilation, etc.
     • Mechanical handling equipment
     • No smoking                       Battery charging station
    Powered Industrial Truck
            Safety
• Trucks and Railroad cars
  – Many deaths occur when a truck moves
    as it is loaded (“trailer creep” or “dock
    walk”)
     • Forklift travel and braking action cause Wheel chock
       the truck to move away from the dock
     • The forklift falls into the gap and the
       driver is crushed
  – Precautions
     • Brakes set, wheel chocks (trucks)
     • Wheel stops (railroad cars)
     • Trailer restraints secure the truck to
       the loading dock                        Trailer restraint
                                                           30
      Powered Industrial Truck
            Operation
• Safe forklift operation
  – Never drive toward a person standing in front of a
    fixed object
  – No person under any elevated portion
  – Do not place arms or legs in the mast or outside the
    truck
  – Unattended trucks must be shut off with lowered load
  – Set brakes and wheel blocks when loading vehicles
    (trucks, rail cars, etc.)
  – Maintain headroom under lights, sprinkler systems,
    etc.
  – Use overhead guard to protect from falling objects
  – Use load backrest when necessary                    31
      Powered Industrial Truck
            Operation
• Safe forklift operation
  – Cross railroad tacks on the diagonal
  – Sound horn at blind intersections
  – Back down ramps, drive forward up
    ramps
                                               A dockboard
  – Operate at safe speed, avoid quick turns   is used to bridge
  – Personnel on loading platform must have    the gap between
    an emergency shut-off for truck power      loading dock and
  – Secure dockboards and bridge plates        truck/trailer
  – Loads must be stable and safely arranged
  – Disconnect battery before repairing
    electrical system
  – Replacement parts must be equivalent to
                                                        32
    original
           Forklift Training
• OSHA standard, 1919.178(l)
  – Formal training program required
     • OSHA specified topics
         – Stability, operation, etc.
         – Training length is not specified
     • Initial training required before use a forklift
     • Refresher training as needed (based on
       observations of improper operation)
     • Employer must certify proper training
• OSHA training information
  – http://www.osha.gov/dte/library/materials_library.ht
                                                       33
    ml#poweredindustrialtrucks
                      Forklift Training
                                                             Vehicle Center of
Stability Triangle:                            B             Gravity (Unloaded)




                 A




                                               C             Center of Gravity
                                                             of Vehicle and
                                                             Maximum Load
                                                             (Theoretical)
 Notes:
 1. When the vehicle is loaded, the combined center of gravity (CG) shifts toward line B-C.
    Theoretically the maximum load will result in the CG at the line B-C. In actual practice,
    the combined CG should never be at line B-C.
 2. The addition of additional counterweight will cause the truck CG to shift toward point A
    and result in a truck that is less stable laterally.                               34
                Forklift Training
Stability Triangle
                                        Load CG
        Load CG

        Vertical
        Stability
        Line
                                                          Combined CG
        (Line of Action)

        Combined CG
                                                        Vertical
        Truck CG                                        Stability
                                  Truck CG              Line
                                                        (Line of Action)



          The vehicle is stable      This vehicle is unstable and
                                      will continue to tip over      35
             Conclusions
• Material handling activities cause many injuries
  and deaths each year
• Stacked materials must be stable
• Avoid manual material handling if possible
• Use mechanical devices for heavy loads
• Most forklift fatalities caused by overturning
• Wheel chocks and restraints prevent “trailer
  creep”
• Forklifts have battery charging/handling and fuel
  hazards                                        36
• Forklift operators must be trained
37
           WSIB Safety Ads
• A few yeas ago, the Workplace Safety and Insurance
  Board of Ontario (WSIB) produced short safety video
  ads. They still are available on the web:
   – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qf_LWq88H5I
   – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u5kiz7GhJt0
   – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tN2gpRcFKAQ
   – http://www.spike.com/video/wsib-funeral/2777867
   – http://www.metacafe.com/watch/2074541/wsib_work_safe_w
     indow_washer/
   – http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1wUNUAIN8Fs


                                                         38

								
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