Exploration and The Scientific Revolution The World is changing and becoming smaller. Causes for European Expansion • 1. Technology improves- • A) Mapmaking- more of the world has been seen and can be mapped. Sailors can now visually see that they can sail west across the Atlantic Ocean and that the world is round. • B) The compass, which always points north, helps ensure sailors won’t get lost at sea. http://www.nhc.rtp.nc.us/tserve/nattrans/ntecoindian/essays/columbian.htm • C) new ships are constructed that are bigger and easier to steer • D) changed shape of the sails so that people could sail with www1.minn.net/~keithp/ships.htm or against the wind 2. Economic reasons for expansion • A) coins have a fixed value for the first time. This means that money is worth the same amount no matter where you try to spend it. This encourages international trade and banking. • B) Joint-stock company- owners raised $ by selling stock in a company. Investors bought the stock and became co-owners and shared in the profits. They raised large sums of $ from investors to finance exploration. Mercantilism • Mercantilism is the belief that the world contains a limited amount of wealth so in order to get wealth, one country must take it from another. • (wealth= gold and silver a country possessed) • Colony- overseas land that was controlled by powerful countries for their resources. A colony only existed to benefit the mother country. 3. Social causes for expansion: • Curiosity and spirit of discovery moved many people to explore the world outside Europe. • People wanted to make quick profits (money) • People were looking for new lands to settle to escape religious persecution. They wanted the freedom to practice their religion their way. Exploration • 1492- Christopher Columbus lands in San Salvador in the West Indies (the Caribbean). He “discovers” America. • “In 1492 Columbus sails the Ocean blue” • Christopher Columbus was Italian but Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand of Spain paid for his voyage. • www.funlol.com/fun[ages/columbus.html He thought he was on the islands off the coast of India. He dies never knowing that he “discovered” a new continent. The Columbian Exchange • In the years following Columbus’s voyages, a massive exchange took place between the New World and the Old World of Europe. • This exchange is called the Columbian Exchange. • Products, plants, animals and diseases traveled between the Western and Eastern Hemispheres. • Example: horses came to the New World from Europe and Potatoes went from the Americas to Europe. http://www.nhc.rtp.nc.us/tserve/nattrans/ntecoindian/essays/columbianb.htm Ferdinand Magellan • He is the 1st to sail around the world • This is the first real proof that the world is round. http://staff.esuhsd.org/~balochie/studentprojects/ageexploration/magellan.html Ponce de Leon • Sailed north from the Caribbean and landed in Florida. • He was looking for the Fountain of Youth. http://staff.esuhsd.org/~balochie/studentprojects/ageexploration/poncedeleon.html Hernan Cortes • 1519 • Landed in Mexico with 11 ships and nearly 600 men. • He conquered the Aztec empire and their ruler Montezuma. http://www.pbs.org/kpbs/theborder/history/timeline/1.html Francisco Pizarro • 1530 • Conquered the Incan Empire of Peru and their ruler Anahualpa. http://www.pbs.org/conquistadors/pizarro/pizarro_flat.html Triangular Trade • Trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas • Goods sent from Europe to Africa- cotton, weapons, liquor • Goods sent from Africa to the Americas- slaves (This part of the triangle was called THE MIDDLE PASSAGE) • Goods sent from the Americas to Europe- cotton, tobacco, sugar and molasses http://members.tripod.com/lylesj/trade/tritrade.html Why use Africans as labor? • Why did the Europeans use Africans as labor instead of the Native Americans that were already living there? • The Native Americans had no immunities to the diseases the Europeans brought with them. More than 80% of the Native Americans would die from European diseases. This would make them a very poor source of labor. • Africans had immunities to European diseases. The Scientific Revolution • The spirit of the Renaissance encouraged curiosity, investigation and the practical application of the knowledge of nature to everyday life. • People became more willing to question old ideas and beliefs. • They were more willing to use new approaches to answer questions about the natural world. • They would no longer explain the world in terms of religious thought or magic. • Scientific method- scientists did experiments and used math to check and apply their measurements. They would repeat experiments to be sure and get the same results. Then they would draw conclusions about what they observed. • This was a new process and one that would become standard to scientists throughout the world. Important scientists of the Scientific Revolution • A) Francis Bacon- philosopher and scientist; he felt that scientific theories could only be developed through observation. • B) N. Copernicus- believed in the geocentric theory- which means he thought the Earth was the center of the universe. • C) Galileo- invented the telescope to study the heavens. He believed in the heliocentric theory- that the sun is the center of the universe. Today, we agree with Galileo’s theory. • D) Isaac Newton- wrote the law of http://www.newton.cam.ac.uk/newton.html universal gravitation- all bodies attract each other and the force can be measured • “what goes up must come down” DIRECTIONS: • Using the PowerPoint you just read for information, fill in the graphic organizer. • Who were these scientists? • What did they do that made them so famous? Factors: Renaissance spirit of curiosity and The questioning of old beliefs. Scientific Revolution COPERNICUS NEWTON BACON GALILEO Directions for your activity: • Now that you’ve read the PowerPoint and filled in the graphic organizer, you will create this activity to demonstrate your knowledge of Exploration and the Scientific Revolution. • Create a 2 character play. • In your play, your characters must discuss: • Causes for exploration and expansion, Columbus, Columbian Exchange, Important People, Triangular Trade and the Scientific Revolution. • Be sure your play informs the audience of all the important information and is fun and entertaining.