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Progress Monitoring and Goal Writing Section 2: Curriculum-Based Measurement and Writing Individualized RTI or IEP Goals. Progress Monitoring Research has demonstrated that when teachers use formative evaluation [progress monitoring] for instructional decision-making purposes: – students achieve more – teacher decision making improves – students tend to be more aware of their performance (e.g., see Fuchs, Deno, Mirkin, 1984; L. S. Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, & Ferguson, 1992; L. S. Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, & Stecker, 1991; Stecker, Fuchs, & Fuchs, 2005) Progress Monitoring Tools • Used to monitor progress from one year to the next • Sensitive to effects of an intervention • Can be used regardless of curriculum (e.g. Harcourt, Scott Foresman) • Useful to inform teaching • Quick to administer & easy to score • Provides instant data to graph • Easily understood by teachers and parents What is CBM? • Curriculum-based measurement, or CBM, is a method of monitoring student progress through direct assessment of academic skills. • CBM can be used to measure basic skills in reading, mathematics, spelling, and written expression. • Instructor gives the student brief, timed samples, or "probes," made up of academic material taken from grade-level curriculum. • Performance on a CBM probe is scored for speed, or fluency, and for accuracy of performance. CBM covers… • Reading (Early Literacy skills, Reading Fluency and Comprehension) • Math (Early Numeracy skills, Math Computation/ Basic Math facts) • Writing (Spelling and Written Expression) • Probes contain a mixture of problems that represent skills to be mastered by the end of the year – NOT like traditional mastery/chapter tests Previous Goal-Setting Strategies: • Use “data” from standardized achievement tests like WIAT-II, WJ-III ACH • Use data from Mastery Tests (e.g. chapter tests) • Refer to state standards • Use a sample goal-bank • Suggestions on classroom observation of skills (subjective) Pitfalls of Previous Strategies • Standardized Tests (WIAT-II, WJ-ACH): – Lack of alternate forms – Less sensitive to short-term gains – Reliance on age or grade equivalents ≠ accurate – Ex. Students with 1 year delay typically not considered “significantly discrepant” from their peers, and may not qualify for special education. • Mastery tests do not reflect maintenance or generalization of skills over the course of the school year • Little guidance in selecting goals from state standards/ goal- banks: – No consistent evaluation tool to measure goals written from standards or goal banks! Pitfalls, continued… • Examples of Previous Goals/Objectives: – “Student will perform spelling skills at 3rd grade level.” – “Student will master basic math facts with 80% accuracy.” – “Student will read 1 story per week.” – “Student will read aloud with 80% accuracy and 80% comprehension.” • Little research supports that these types of goals relate to improved educational outcomes. • Difficult to consistently measure over time. • Tendency to write un-ambitious goals in hopes that student will show “some” progress over the year. To improve our goal writing: • Remember: goals are statements about the power or impact of our instructional programs. • Goals need to be more clearly defined. • Identify specific skills deficits through universal screening measures using CBM. • Target a few, but important goals and objectives. • Ensure goals are measurable and linked to validated progress monitoring approaches. CBM to write IEP and RTI goals • CBM scores from Universal Screenings are easily translated into goals for RTI intervention and IEPs. • Using CBM to write goals lets us accurately compare performance later in the year because: – Test administration of CBM is consistent (and quick!) – Scoring procedures are consistent – Difficulty level of test is always consistent RTI: Who needs a goal? • A desirable goal for all students is to achieve a score at or above the 50th%ile on the Universal Screenings (Fall/Winter/ Spring). • WOVSED recommends that students below the 25th%ile are considered “At-Risk.” – Use AIMSweb site to schedule PM. • Students who perform in between the 25th and 50th%iles may need “Strategic Monitoring.” – Consider monitoring these students, just less often. – Option to do this through AIMSweb site. Level of Intervention and Monitoring Frequency Tier 3 Progress Monitoring (< 25th%ile) Tier 2 (Every two weeks or weekly) Strategic Monitoring (25th-50th%ile) (Monthly) Tier 1 75-80% of students Universal Screening (Three times per year) Components of our Goals • Current/Present Level of Performance – What the student is currently able to do in the targeted area. – Taken from Fall, Winter, Spring Universal Screenings – Works with whatever CBM tool you are using (DIBELS/AIMSweb, etc). • Intervention Goal/Annual Goals and Objectives – Growth anticipated for specific time period – Should be ambitious – Must be specific – Must be measurable Example of Current Levels Statement Student’s Score 50th %ile score IEPs: Annual Goals • CBM probes represent a range of skills to be mastered by the end of the year. • CBM-based annual goals are easily understood by parents. 15 Annual Goal-Line 100 90 WIF: Correctly Read Words 80 70 X Per Minute 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Weeks of Instruction 16 Not at Grade Level? Universal screening data does not always reflect accurate measurement of skills. In some cases, Universal Screening data show that grade-level passages are too frustrating for some students. What do we do to get a better understanding of a student’s current performance level? Survey Level Assessment (SLA) • Process to determine Current Performance Levels when student is not working at grade level. • Can be used for RTI or IEP purposes. • Student is tested in successive levels, beginning with current grade placement, until he/she scores anywhere within the “Average range.” • Create SLA table, using Aggregate Norm Tables. Find score at or above the 25th%ile for the particular grade and time of year. • Scoring anywhere within the “Green” on AIMSweb Individual or Comparison reports. Create Survey Level Assessment Table • Sally is a 4th grade student who was tested in the Fall. • Use AIMSweb Aggregate Growth Tables (next slide). Grade of Passage 1 Passage 2 Passage 3 Median Instructional Passage (WRC/E) (WRC/E) (WRC/E) (WRC/E) Range? 4 51/6 38/11 59/2 51/6 At-Risk 3 60/4 58/3 42/7 58/4** “Average” *Using Survey Level Assessment, Sally’s performance is Average given a 3rd grade AIMSWEB R-CBM probe (Fall). Using AIMSweb Individual or Comparison Reports: Box Plots ¼ of scores Fourth Quartile Above Average (75th – 100th%ile) ¼ of scores Third Quartile (50th- 74th %ile) Average Median or Middle Score ¼ of scores Second Quartile (25th-49th %ile) First Quartile ¼ of scores Below Average (0-24th%ile) John John John 3rd grade 4th grade 5th grader: Conducting a Survey passage Level Assessmentpassage 5th grade passage 62/4 49/7 26/12 Guidelines for administering SLA probes • Administer probes from successive grade-levels, beginning at the student’s current grade placement or one year above the student’s functioning level. Reading-CBM: Use median score of 3 probes. Rule of Thumb on R-CBM: If WRC is 20 or fewer, stop administering probes on this level and move one level below. (For middle/high school students, suggested starting point is 6th grade passages. Survey levels higher or lower as needed). Creating the Goal: 5-Steps • Step 1. Document Current/Present Levels of Performance: “Sally’s Current Performance on a 4th grade AIMSweb R-CBM probe is 51 Words Read Correctly, while the expected performance level is 103 Words Read Correctly (50th%ile Target).” “Using Survey Level Assessment, Sally’s performance is Average for Fall when given a 3rd Grade AIMSweb R-CBM probe.” Creating the Goal • Step 2. Decide how you will determine the desired goal level. – Two options: • Use Benchmark scores – Compared to School/District – Relate to High-Stakes Tests • Use Norms – Percentile (and associated score) – Growth Rates/ Rates of Improvement (ROI) Benchmark: Options • Benchmark for success on some outcome measure, (ex. 71 WRC/min.) Correlates from high-stakes testing. Norms • Percentiles and corresponding score: – Students at the 25th%ile (lower end of the Average range) read 81WRC/min. 81WRC/min Growth Rates (Rate of Improvement/ ROI) • How much growth students make in a week’s time. (ROI for students whose scores are entered into AIMSweb) • Formula to determine how much growth you would like to see in a specific amount of time. *Goal = ________________________________ + Current Performance Level (___________________ X ____________________) # weeks until goal reviewed Growth Rate (use chart) Growth Rates (Rate of Improvement) Ex. 3rd grader Ben’s median R-CBM score = 35. • 12 weeks until the end of the school year. • Team would like to see Ben make progress at a similar rate to his peers (1.0 words/week). 35WRC/min+ (12wks x 1.0) = 47WRC/min This is the goal by the end of the year! Benchmark, Norm or Growth Rate? • Are you more concerned with a specific outcome (i.e. on high-stakes tests), or how one student performs compared to a population of others (local or national?) • Are you working with a student with a well-documented learning style? • Using the Rate of Improvement is not always ambitious: – Based on progress made by students in general ed. classroom who are NOT receiving additional intervention. – Point of RTI is to help kids catch up – ROI will never be help students catch up because they will be learning at the same pace as students receiving no intervention; students receiving intervention need to learn at a faster pace. Setting the Goal Level • Step 3. Team decides what an appropriate goal will be! – Be ambitious! Select the level that you want to see the student achieve within a specific amount of time. – Research has shown that ambitious goals can lead to better student achievement: – How ambitious you are should depend on: – How often you can feasibly provide services – How confident you are in the power of your instructional programs and resources Selecting Length of Time • Step 4: Team must determine how much time to allow until the goal can be feasibly reached. • RTI goals written to reflect length of intervention: – Depends on how long interventionist needs to effectively teach skill. – Individualized based on student need. – Depends on how often you will progress monitor. • Need 7-9 data points to plot a trend-line. • IEPs: – Will have an annual goal (apx. 36 weeks) and short-term objectives. Suggestions for Writing Objectives Annual goal - Minus current performance / Divided by number of weeks between baseline and goal = Short term / Weekly objective. 33 Writing the Goal • Step 5: Write goal into a standard format. – Same/similar format can be used for RTI/IEP goals. – Facilitates process of goal-writing. – Easily understood by general, special and remedial teachers. – Can be used for any deficit area pertinent to a Specific Learning Disability – Basic reading, reading fluency, reading comprehension, math calculation, math reasoning, written expression. Sample RTI Goal Written w/AIMSweb Early Literacy Goal (Kindergartener) Current Performance: Lizzie’s current level of performance on a Kindergarten AIMSweb LSF probe is 2 Letter Sounds/min, while the expected level of performance is 14 correct Letter Sounds for Fall. Goal: At the end of 8 weeks, when given a K AIMSweb LSF probe, Lizzie will say Correct Letter Sounds with an expected performance level of 22 LS/min. IEP Goal Written with AIMSweb Basic Reading Skills Goal (Second Grader) Current Performance Level: Terrance’s current level of performance when given an AIMSweb 2nd Grade R-CBM probe is 40 WRC/min, while the expected level of performance is 82 WRC/min, (50th%ile target). Goal: In 30 weeks, when given an AIMSweb 2nd Grade R-CBM probe, Terrence will achieve a median score of 100 WRC/min with less than 4 errors. Objective: Each week, when given an AIMSweb 2nd Grade R-CBM (Reading Fluency) probe, Terrence will increase his score by 2 Words Read Correctly.
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