CBM Probes by sanmelody

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									           Progress Monitoring
            and Goal Writing

Section 2: Curriculum-Based Measurement and
           Writing Individualized RTI or IEP Goals.
            Progress Monitoring

Research has demonstrated that when
teachers use formative evaluation [progress
monitoring] for instructional decision-making
  – students achieve more
  – teacher decision making improves
  – students tend to be more aware of their
      (e.g., see Fuchs, Deno, Mirkin, 1984; L. S. Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, &
         Ferguson, 1992; L. S. Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, & Stecker, 1991;
                                          Stecker, Fuchs, & Fuchs, 2005)
    Progress Monitoring Tools
• Used to monitor progress from one year to
  the next
• Sensitive to effects of an intervention
• Can be used regardless of curriculum (e.g.
  Harcourt, Scott Foresman)
• Useful to inform teaching
• Quick to administer & easy to score
• Provides instant data to graph
• Easily understood by teachers and parents
               What is CBM?
• Curriculum-based measurement, or CBM, is a
  method of monitoring student progress through
  direct assessment of academic skills.

• CBM can be used to measure basic skills in
  reading, mathematics, spelling, and written

• Instructor gives the student brief, timed samples,
  or "probes," made up of academic material taken
  from grade-level curriculum.

• Performance on a CBM probe is scored for speed,
  or fluency, and for accuracy of performance.
                       CBM covers…
• Reading (Early Literacy skills, Reading Fluency and

• Math (Early Numeracy skills, Math Computation/
  Basic Math facts)

• Writing (Spelling and Written Expression)

• Probes contain a mixture of problems that represent skills to
  be mastered by the end of the year
   – NOT like traditional mastery/chapter tests
 Previous Goal-Setting Strategies:

• Use “data” from standardized achievement
  tests like WIAT-II, WJ-III ACH
• Use data from Mastery Tests (e.g. chapter
• Refer to state standards
• Use a sample goal-bank
• Suggestions on classroom observation of
  skills (subjective)
   Pitfalls of Previous Strategies
• Standardized Tests (WIAT-II, WJ-ACH):
   – Lack of alternate forms
   – Less sensitive to short-term gains
   – Reliance on age or grade equivalents ≠ accurate
          – Ex. Students with 1 year delay typically not considered
             “significantly discrepant” from their peers, and may not qualify
             for special education.

• Mastery tests do not reflect maintenance or generalization of
  skills over the course of the school year
• Little guidance in selecting goals from state standards/ goal-
   – No consistent evaluation tool to measure goals written from
     standards or goal banks!
          Pitfalls, continued…
• Examples of Previous Goals/Objectives:
  – “Student will perform spelling skills at 3rd
    grade level.”
  – “Student will master basic math facts with
    80% accuracy.”
  – “Student will read 1 story per week.”
  – “Student will read aloud with 80% accuracy
    and 80% comprehension.”
     • Little research supports that these types of goals relate to
       improved educational outcomes.
     • Difficult to consistently measure over time.
     • Tendency to write un-ambitious goals in hopes that student
       will show “some” progress over the year.
   To improve our goal writing:
• Remember: goals are statements about the
  power or impact of our instructional programs.
• Goals need to be more clearly defined.
• Identify specific skills deficits through universal
  screening measures using CBM.
• Target a few, but important goals and objectives.
• Ensure goals are measurable and linked to
  validated progress monitoring approaches.
CBM to write IEP and RTI goals
• CBM scores from Universal Screenings are
  easily translated into goals for RTI intervention
  and IEPs.

• Using CBM to write goals lets us accurately
  compare performance later in the year because:
   – Test administration of CBM is consistent (and
   – Scoring procedures are consistent
   – Difficulty level of test is always consistent
        RTI: Who needs a goal?
• A desirable goal for all students is to achieve a score at or
  above the 50th%ile on the Universal Screenings (Fall/Winter/

• WOVSED recommends that students below the 25th%ile are
  considered “At-Risk.”
   – Use AIMSweb site to schedule PM.

• Students who perform in between the 25th and 50th%iles may
  need “Strategic Monitoring.”
   – Consider monitoring these students, just less often.
   – Option to do this through AIMSweb site.
Level of Intervention and Monitoring Frequency

            Tier 3
                                     Progress Monitoring (< 25th%ile)
      Tier 2                            (Every two weeks or weekly)

                                       Strategic Monitoring (25th-50th%ile)

   Tier 1

                75-80% of students            Universal Screening
                                                (Three times per year)
        Components of our Goals
• Current/Present Level of Performance
  – What the student is currently able to do in the targeted
  – Taken from Fall, Winter, Spring Universal Screenings
  – Works with whatever CBM tool you are using
    (DIBELS/AIMSweb, etc).

• Intervention Goal/Annual Goals and Objectives
  –   Growth anticipated for specific time period
  –   Should be ambitious
  –   Must be specific
  –   Must be measurable
Example of Current Levels

         50th %ile
         IEPs: Annual Goals

• CBM probes represent a range of skills to be
  mastered by the end of the year.

• CBM-based annual goals are easily
  understood by parents.

                                         Annual Goal-Line

WIF: Correctly Read Words

                            70                                                                  X
       Per Minute

                                 1   2   3   4   5    6     7     8   9     10   11   12   13   14
                                                     Weeks of Instruction

       Not at Grade Level?
Universal screening data does not always reflect
accurate measurement of skills.

In some cases, Universal Screening data show
that grade-level passages are too frustrating for
some students.

What do we do to get a better understanding of
a student’s current performance level?
   Survey Level Assessment (SLA)
• Process to determine Current Performance Levels when student
  is not working at grade level.

• Can be used for RTI or IEP purposes.

• Student is tested in successive levels, beginning with current
  grade placement, until he/she scores anywhere within the
  “Average range.”

   • Create SLA table, using Aggregate Norm Tables. Find score at or
     above the 25th%ile for the particular grade and time of year.

   • Scoring anywhere within the “Green” on AIMSweb Individual or
     Comparison reports.
  Create Survey Level Assessment Table
• Sally is a 4th grade student who was tested in the Fall.

• Use AIMSweb Aggregate Growth Tables (next slide).

  Grade of   Passage 1 Passage 2 Passage 3 Median Instructional
  Passage     (WRC/E)   (WRC/E)   (WRC/E) (WRC/E)    Range?

      4         51/6        38/11         59/2        51/6      At-Risk

      3         60/4         58/3         42/7      58/4**    “Average”

  *Using Survey Level Assessment, Sally’s performance is Average given a
  3rd grade AIMSWEB R-CBM probe (Fall).
    Using AIMSweb Individual or Comparison Reports:
                      Box Plots
  ¼ of scores           Fourth Quartile
Above Average           (75th – 100th%ile)

¼ of scores                    Third Quartile
                               (50th- 74th %ile)

                                             Median or Middle Score

¼ of scores                    Second Quartile
                                (25th-49th %ile)

                      First Quartile
 ¼ of scores
Below Average          (0-24th%ile)
                          John          John          John
                          3rd grade   4th grade    5th grader:
Conducting a Survey       passage
                      Level Assessmentpassage     5th grade passage
                           62/4          49/7
 Guidelines for administering SLA probes

• Administer probes from successive grade-levels, beginning at the
  student’s current grade placement or one year above the student’s
  functioning level.

    Reading-CBM: Use median score of 3 probes.

    Rule of Thumb on R-CBM: If WRC is 20 or fewer, stop
     administering probes on this level and move one level below.

    (For middle/high school students, suggested starting point is 6th
     grade passages. Survey levels higher or lower as needed).
      Creating the Goal: 5-Steps
• Step 1. Document Current/Present Levels of Performance:

      “Sally’s Current Performance on a 4th grade AIMSweb R-CBM
        probe is 51 Words Read Correctly, while the expected
        performance level is 103 Words Read Correctly (50th%ile

      “Using Survey Level Assessment, Sally’s performance is
        Average for Fall when given a 3rd Grade AIMSweb R-CBM
                  Creating the Goal
• Step 2. Decide how you will determine the desired goal level.

   – Two options:
      • Use Benchmark scores
         – Compared to School/District
         – Relate to High-Stakes Tests

       • Use Norms
          – Percentile (and associated score)
          – Growth Rates/ Rates of Improvement (ROI)
        Benchmark: Options
• Benchmark for success on some outcome
  measure, (ex. 71 WRC/min.) Correlates from
  high-stakes testing.
•   Percentiles and corresponding score:
    – Students at the 25th%ile (lower end of the Average
      range) read 81WRC/min.

                   Growth Rates
              (Rate of Improvement/ ROI)

• How much growth students make in a week’s time. (ROI for
  students whose scores are entered into AIMSweb)

• Formula to determine how much growth you would like to see
  in a specific amount of time.

   *Goal =   ________________________________ +
                     Current Performance Level
   (___________________ X ____________________)
   # weeks until goal reviewed     Growth Rate (use chart)
            Growth Rates
          (Rate of Improvement)

Ex. 3rd grader Ben’s median R-CBM score = 35.

• 12 weeks until the end of the school year.

• Team would like to see Ben make progress at a
  similar rate to his peers (1.0 words/week).

35WRC/min+ (12wks x 1.0) = 47WRC/min

This is the goal by the end of the year!
   Benchmark, Norm or Growth Rate?
• Are you more concerned with a specific outcome (i.e. on
  high-stakes tests), or how one student performs compared
  to a population of others (local or national?)
• Are you working with a student with a well-documented
  learning style?

• Using the Rate of Improvement is not always ambitious:
   – Based on progress made by students in general ed. classroom who
     are NOT receiving additional intervention.
   – Point of RTI is to help kids catch up
   – ROI will never be help students catch up because they will be
     learning at the same pace as students receiving no intervention;
     students receiving intervention need to learn at a faster pace.
              Setting the Goal Level
• Step 3. Team decides what an appropriate goal will be!

   – Be ambitious! Select the level that you want to see the student
     achieve within a specific amount of time.

   – Research has shown that ambitious goals can lead to better student

   – How ambitious you are should depend on:
         – How often you can feasibly provide services
         – How confident you are in the power of your instructional
           programs and resources
         Selecting Length of Time
• Step 4: Team must determine how much time to allow until the
  goal can be feasibly reached.

• RTI goals written to reflect length of intervention:
   – Depends on how long interventionist needs to effectively
     teach skill.
   – Individualized based on student need.
   – Depends on how often you will progress monitor.
      • Need 7-9 data points to plot a trend-line.

• IEPs:
   – Will have an annual goal (apx. 36 weeks) and short-term
Suggestions for Writing Objectives

Annual goal - Minus current performance

/ Divided by number of weeks between
  baseline and goal

= Short term / Weekly objective.

               Writing the Goal
• Step 5: Write goal into a standard format.

   – Same/similar format can be used for RTI/IEP goals.

   – Facilitates process of goal-writing.

   – Easily understood by general, special and remedial

   – Can be used for any deficit area pertinent to a
     Specific Learning Disability
          – Basic reading, reading fluency, reading comprehension,
            math calculation, math reasoning, written expression.
Sample RTI Goal Written w/AIMSweb
Early Literacy Goal (Kindergartener)

Current Performance:
Lizzie’s current level of performance on a Kindergarten
AIMSweb LSF probe is 2 Letter Sounds/min, while the expected
level of performance is 14 correct Letter Sounds for Fall.

At the end of 8 weeks, when given a K AIMSweb LSF probe,
Lizzie will say Correct Letter Sounds with an expected
performance level of 22 LS/min.
IEP Goal Written with AIMSweb
Basic Reading Skills Goal (Second Grader)

Current Performance Level:
Terrance’s current level of performance when given an AIMSweb
2nd Grade R-CBM probe is 40 WRC/min, while the expected level of
performance is 82 WRC/min, (50th%ile target).

In 30 weeks, when given an AIMSweb 2nd Grade R-CBM probe,
Terrence will achieve a median score of 100 WRC/min with less
than 4 errors.

Each week, when given an AIMSweb 2nd Grade R-CBM (Reading
Fluency) probe, Terrence will increase his score by 2 Words Read

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