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PEDIATRIC NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL TEST BATTERY REFERENCE


I. INTELLECTUAL FUNCTIONING

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV):
   • Ages 6-16 years, 11 months
   • Consists of the following indexes: Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal
       Comprehension Index (VCI), Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI), Working Memory Index
       (WMI), and Processing Speed Index (PSI)
Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI)
   • Consists of the following subtests: Similarities, Comprehension, and Vocabulary
   • Information and Word Reasoning are supplemental subtests
   • Measure of overall verbal comprehension abilities
   • Assesses for the ability to think with words and to apply verbal skills and information to
       the solution of new problems
Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI)
   • Consists of the following subtests: Block Design, Picture Concepts, and Matrix
       Reasoning
   • More pure measure of fluid reasoning
   • Previously known as the Perceptual Organization Index (POI)
   • Picture Completion is a supplemental subtest
Working Memory Index (WMI)
   • Consists of the following subtests: Digit Span and Letter-Number Sequencing
   • Arithmetic is a supplemental subtest
   • Measure of ability to sustain attention
   • Assesses short-term memory and ability to use rehearsal strategies and shift mental
       operations on symbolic material
   • Previously known as the Freedom from Distractibility Index (FDI)
Processing Speed Index (PSI)
   • Consists of the following subtests: Coding and Symbol Search
   • Cancellation is a supplemental subtest
   • Measure of processing speed
   • Assesses perceptual discrimination, speed of mental operation, and psychomotor speed
Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI) subtests:
   Similarities
   • Test of verbalization of conceptual thinking for identifying relationships
   Vocabulary
   • Test of word knowledge
   Comprehension
   • Test of knowledge of rules for conventional behaviors
   (Information)
   • Test of factual knowledge
   (Word Reasoning)
   • Test of identification of common concepts described in a series of clues
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Perceptual Reasoning Index (PRI) subtests:
   Block Design
   • Test of visual-motor integration and spatial orientation with blocks
   Picture Concepts
   • Test of higher order associative reasoning skills with pictures
   Matrix Reasoning
   • Test of nonverbal reasoning ability for perceptual discrimination
   (Picture Completion)
   • Test of ability to differentiate between essential and nonessential details
Working Memory Index (WMI) subtests:
   Digit Span
   • Test of rote short-term auditory memory for numbers
   Letter-Number Sequencing
   • Test of short-term auditory memory of letters and numbers
   Arithmetic)
   • Test of application of reasoning skills for solving mathematical problems
Processing Speed Index (PSI) subtests:
   Coding
   • Measure of visual motor speed and dexterity
   Symbol Search
   • Assesses perceptual discrimination and processing speed abilities
   (Cancellation)
   • Test of ability to scan both a random and structured arrangement of pictures

Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III):
   • Ages 6-16 years, 11 months
   • Following indexes: Full Scale Intelligence Quotient (FSIQ), Verbal Intelligence Quotient
       (VIQ), Performance Intelligence Quotient (PIQ), Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI),
       Perceptual Organization Index (POI), Freedom from Distractibility Index (FDI), and
       Processing Speed Index (PSI)
Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI)
   • Consists of the following subtests: Information, Similarities, Vocabulary, and
       Comprehension
   • Measure of overall verbal comprehension abilities
   • Assesses for the ability to think with words and to apply verbal skills and information to
       the solution of new problems
Perceptual Organization Index (POI)
   • Consists of the following subtests: Picture Completion, Picture Arrangement, Block
       Design, and Object Assembly
   • Measure of overall perceptual organization skills
   • Assesses for ability to think in terms of visual images and manipulate them with fluency,
       flexibility, and relative speed
   • Notes the ability to interpret or organize visually perceived material within a time limit
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Freedom from Distractibility Index (FDI)
   • Consists of the following subtests: Arithmetic and Digit Span
   • Measure of ability to sustain attention
   • Assesses short-term memory and ability to use rehearsal strategies and shift mental
       operations on symbolic material
Processing Speed Index (PSI)
   • Consists of the following subtests: Coding and Symbol Search
   • Measure of processing speed
   • Assesses perceptual discrimination, speed of mental operation, and psychomotor speed
Verbal Intelligence Quotient (VIQ) subtests:
   Information
   • Test of factual knowledge
   Similarities
   • Test of verbalization of conceptual thinking for identifying relationships
   Arithmetic
   • Test of application of reasoning skills for solving mathematical problems
   Vocabulary
   • Test of word knowledge
   Comprehension
   • Test of knowledge of rules for conventional behaviors
   (Digit Span)
   • Test of rote short-term auditory memory for numbers
Performance Intellectual Quotient (PIQ) subtests:
   Picture Completion
   • Measure of ability to differentiate between essential and nonessential details
   Coding
   • Measure of visual motor speed and dexterity
   Picture Arrangement
   • Test of sequential thought processes for ability to infer causal relationships
   Block Design
   • Test of visual-motor integration and spatial orientation with blocks
   Object Assembly
   • Test of ability to synthesize concrete parts into meaningful wholes
   (Symbol Search)
   • Test of perceptual discrimination and processing speed abilities
   (Mazes)
   • Test of visual-motor and perceptual organization
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Woodcock Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Third Edition: Test of Cognitive Abilities
(WJ-III: Cognitive)
   • Measures different aspects of cognitive ability
   • Contains 20 tests
   • Ages 2-90
   • Clusters on acquired knowledge, thinking ability, and cognitive efficiency
   • Definition of measured abilities by each test/cluster are based on the Cattell-Horn-Carol
       (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities (i.e., Gf-Gc theory and the three-stratum theory in
       which Stratum III represents a general factor (g), Stratum II, the broad abilities (e.g., Gf,
       Gc), and Stratum I, the many narrow abilities
Cluster of Verbal Ability-Standard Scale
   • Consists of Test 1: Verbal Comprehension, including all 4 of its subtests
   • Measure of language development
Cluster of Verbal Ability-Extended Scale
   • Consists of Test 1: Verbal Comprehension and Test 11: General Information
   • Represents a broad category of language-based acquired knowledge and the ability to
       communicate that knowledge
Cluster of Thinking Ability-Standard Scale
   • Consists of Test 2: Visual-Auditory Learning, Test 3: Spatial Relations, Test 4: Sound
       Blending, and Test 5: Concept Formation
   • Represents a sampling of different thinking processes that may be invoked when
       information in short-term memory can’t be automatically processed
Cluster of Thinking Ability-Extended Scale
   • Consists of Test 2: Visual-Auditory Learning, Test 3: Spatial Relations, Test 4: Sound
       Blending, Test 5: Concept Formation, Test 12: Retrieval Fluency, Test 13: Picture
       Recognition, Test 14: Auditory Attention, and Test 15: Analysis-Synthesis
   • A broad representation of the following four thinking abilities: long-term retrieval (Glr),
       visual-spatial thinking (Gv), auditory processing (Ga), and fluid reasoning (Gf)
Cluster of Cognitive Efficiency-Standard Scale
   • Includes Test 6: Visual Matching and Test 7: Numbers Reversed
   • Represents the capacity of the cognitive system to process information automatically
Cluster of Cognitive Efficiency-Extended Scale
   • Includes Test 6: Visual Matching, Test 7: Numbers Reversed, Test 16: Decision Speed,
       and Test 17: Memory for Words
   • Represents two types of cognitive processing, processing speed (Gs) and short-term
       memory (Gsm)
Cluster of Comprehension-Knowledge
   • Includes Test 1: Verbal Comprehension and Test 11: General Information
   • Represents crystallized intelligence, which includes the breadth and depth of acquired
       knowledge, ability to verbally communicate knowledge, and ability to reason using
       previously learned experiences
Cluster of Long-Term Retrieval
   • Includes Test 2: Visual-Auditory Learning and Test 12: Retrieval Fluency
   • Represents the ability to store information and fluently retrieve it later via thinking
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Cluster of Visual-Spatial Thinking
   • Includes Test 3: Spatial Relations and Test 13: Picture Recognition
   • Represents the ability to perceive, analyze, synthesize, and think with visual patterns,
       including the ability to store and recall visual representations
Cluster of Auditory Processing
   • Includes Test 4: Sound Blending and Test 14: Auditory Attention
   • Represents the ability to analyze, synthesize, and discriminate auditory stimuli, including
       the ability to process and discriminate speech sounds that may be presented under
       distorted conditions
Cluster of Fluid Reasoning
   • Includes Test 5: Concept Formation and Test 15: Analysis-Synthesis
   • Represents the broad thinking ability of reasoning, forming concepts, and solving
       problems using unfamiliar information or novel procedures
Cluster of Processing Speed
   • Includes Test 6: Visual Matching and Test 16: Decision Speed
   • Represents the ability to perform automatic cognitive tasks, particularly measured under
       pressure to maintain focused attention
Cluster of Short-Term Memory
   • Includes Test 7: Numbers Reversed and Test 17: Memory for Words
   • Represents the ability to apprehend and hold information in immediate awareness and
       then use it within a few seconds
Cluster of Phonemic Awareness
   • Includes Test 4: Sound Blending and Test 8: Incomplete Words
   • Represents the knowledge and skills related to analyzing and synthesizing speech sounds
Cluster of Working Memory
   • Includes Test 7: Numbers Reversed and Test 9: Auditory Working Memory
   • Represents the ability to hold information in immediate awareness while performing a
       mental operation on the information
Cluster of Broad Attention
   • Includes Test 7: Numbers Reversed, Test 9: Auditory Working Memory, Test 14:
       Auditory Attention, and Test 20: Pair Cancellation
   • Represents the complex construct of attention, which consists of focused or selective
       attention, vigilance or sustained attention, divided attention, and attentional capacity or
       working memory
Cluster of Cognitive Fluency
   • Consists of Test 12: Retrieval Fluency and Test 16: Decision Speed
   • Represent the ease and speed of performing cognitive tasks
Cluster of Executive Processes
   • Includes Test 5: Concept Formation, Test 19: Planning, and Test 20: Pair Cancellation
   • Represents three aspects of executive functioning: strategic planning, proactive
       interference control, and the ability to repeatedly shift one’s mental set
Cluster of Delayed Recall
   • Includes Test 10: Visual-Auditory Learning-Delayed and Test 12: Story Recall
   • Represents the ability to both recall and relearn associations previously learned
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Cluster of Knowledge
   • Includes Test 11: General Information and Test 19: Academic Knowledge
   • Represents general information and curricular knowledge
   Verbal Comprehension
   • Includes the following four subtests: Picture Vocabulary (lexical knowledge), Synonyms
       (vocabulary knowledge), Antonyms (vocabulary knowledge), and Verbal Analogies
       (reasoning using lexical knowledge) to measure different aspects of language
       development
   • Measure of acquired knowledge
   Visual-Auditory Learning
   • Test of long-term storage and retrieval involving associative and meaningful memory
   • Asked to learn and recall rebuses (i.e., pictographic representations of words)
   Spatial Relations
   • Test of visual-spatial thinking
   • Requires identification of the two or three pieces that form a complete target shape
   Sound Blending
   • Test of auditory processing test of phonetic coding
   • Asked to synthesize language sounds after listening to a series of syllables or phonemes
   Concept Formation
   • Test of fluid reasoning and executive processing consisting of a controlled-learning task
       involving categorical reasoning based on principles of inductive knowledge
   • Requires the derivation of rules for each item upon presentation of a complete stimulus
       set and examiner feedback
   Visual Matching
   • Test of processing speed that is perceptual
   • Visual Matching 1 is used for preschool children and individuals with impaired cognitive
       functioning requires pointing to the two matching shapes in a row of 4-5 shapes
   • Visual Matching 2 is used for individuals above a maturational age of 5 and asked for the
       locations and circling of the two identical numbers in a row of 6 numbers
   Numbers Reversed
   • Test of short-term memory as well as attentional capacity and working memory
   • Requires the retaining of a span of numbers in immediate awareness while performing a
       metal operation on it by reversing its sequence
   Incomplete Words
   • Test of auditory processing, including auditory analysis and auditory closure, aspects of
       phonemic awareness, and phonetic coding
   • Asks for the identification of the complete word upon hearing a word with missing
       phonemes from an audio recording
   Auditory Working Memory
   • Test of short-term auditory memory span, including working memory and divided
       attention
   • Requires the reordering of information, repeating objects then digits in sequential order
       upon the presentation of a series containing words and digits
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Visual-Auditory Learning-Delayed
• Test of long-term retrieval-especially aspects of associative and meaningful memory
• Asked to relearn the associations made in Test 2: Visual-Auditory Learning 30 minutes to
    8 days later to identify the ease of relearning
General Information
• Test of comprehension-knowledge-especially verbal
• Consists of the following two subtests: “Where you find…(an object)?” and “What would
    you do with…(an object)?”
Retrieval Fluency
• Test of long-term retrieval fluency from stored knowledge
• Requires the naming of as many examples from a given category within one minute
Picture Recognition
• Test of visual memory of objects or pictures as part of visual-spatial thinking
• Asks to recognize a subset of previously presented pictures within a field of distracting
    pictures
Auditory Attention
• Test of speech-sound discrimination, or the ability to overcome the effects of auditory
    distortion or masking in understanding oral language
• Requires the pointing to the correct picture for a word upon listening to a word while
    seeing four pictures
Analysis-Synthesis
• Test of fluid reasoning involving sequential (deductive) reasoning
• Asks to perform increasingly complex procedures by giving instructions on performance
    and feedback on correctness
• Involved learning of a miniature system of mathematics and uses symbolic formations
    from chemistry and logic
Decision Speed
• Test of processing speed-the ability to make conceptual decisions quickly
• Requires the quick location of two pictures that are conceptually alike
Memory for Words
• Test of short-term auditory memory span
• Asks to repeat lists of unrelated words in the correct sequence
Rapid Picture Naming
• Test of cognitive fluency and processing speed
• Requires speedy direct recall of information from acquired knowledge
Planning
• Test of executive processing of mental control process involved in determining, selecting,
    and applying solutions to problems using forethought
• Asks to trace a pattern without removing the pencil from the paper or retracting any lines
Pair Cancellation
• Test of executive processing, attention/concentration, and processing speed abilities
• Requires the location and marking of a repeated pattern as quickly as possible
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II. ACHIEVEMENT

Woodcock-Johnson Psychoeducational Battery-Third Edition: Test of Achievement (WJ-
III: Achievement)
    • Individually administered test designed to assess academic achievement in reading,
       mathematics, written language, and general knowledge
    • Ages 2-90+ years
    • Conormed with WJ-III Cognitive to allow comparisons of ability versus achievement
    • Standard battery includes the following subtests: Letter-Word Identification, Reading
       Fluency, Passage Comprehension, Spelling, Writing Fluency, Writing Samples,
       Understanding Directions, Story Recall and Story Recall-Delayed, Calculation, Math
       Fluency, and Applied Problems
    • Academic Achievement clusters: Broad Reading, Broad Mathematics, Broad Oral
       Language, and Broad Written Language
    • Other subtests are: Academic Knowledge, Phoneme/Grapheme Knowledge, Academic
       Skills, Academic Fluency, and Academic Application
    • Extended Battery consists of the following subtests: Word Attack, Picture Vocabulary,
       Oral Comprehension, Editing, Reading Vocabulary, Quantitative Concepts, Academic
       Knowledge, Spelling of Sounds, Sound Awareness, Punctuation, and Capitalization
    • Oral language tests, each Basic Achievement cluster has a basic skills test, fluency test,
       and application test
    • Obtain a Total Achievement Score
Cluster of Broad Reading
    • Consists of Test 1: Letter-Word Identification, Test 2: Reading Fluency, and Test 9:
       Passage Comprehension
    • Provides a comprehensive measure of reading achievement including reading decoding,
       reading speed, and the ability to comprehend connected discourse while reading
Cluster of Basic Reading Skills
    • Consists of Test 1: Letter-Word Identification and Test 13: Word Attack
    • Provides a measure of basic reading skills and measures sight vocabulary, phonics, and
       structural analysis
Cluster of Reading Comprehension
    • Consists of Test 9: Passage Comprehension and Test 17: Reading Vocabulary
    • Provides a measure of reading comprehension skills, vocabulary, and reasoning
Cluster of Oral Language-Standard
    • Consists of Test 3: Story Recall and Test 4: Understanding Directions
    • Measure of linguistic competency, listening ability, and comprehension
Cluster of Oral Language-Extended
    • Consists of Test 3: Story Recall, Test 4: Understanding Directions, Test 14: Picture
       Vocabulary, and Test 15: Oral Comprehension
    • Measures expressive vocabulary, reasoning, listening comprehension, and memory
Cluster of Listening Comprehension
    • Consists of Test 4: Understanding Directions and Test 15: Oral Comprehension
    • Measures listening ability and verbal comprehension skills
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Cluster of Oral Expression
   • Consists of Test 3: Story Recall and Test 14: Picture Vocabulary
   • Measures linguistic competency and expressive vocabulary
Cluster of Broad Math
   • Consists of Test 5: Calculation, Test 6: Math Fluency, and Test 10: Applied Problems
   • Provides a comprehensive measure of math achievement including problem solving,
       number facility, automaticity, and reasoning
Cluster of Math Calculation Skills
   • Consists of Test 5: Calculation and Test 6: Math Fluency
   • Measure of computational skills and automaticity with basic math facts and provides a
       measure of basic math skills
Cluster of Math Reasoning
   • Consists of Test 10: Applied Problems and Test 18: Quantitative Concepts
   • Provides a measure of mathematical knowledge and reasoning and assesses for problem
       solving, analysis, reasoning, and vocabulary
Cluster of Broad Written Language
   • Consists of Test 7: Spelling, Test 8: Writing Fluency, and Test 11: Writing Samples
   • Provides a comprehensive measure of written language achievement including spelling of
       single-word responses, fluency of production, and quality of expression
Cluster of Basic Writing Skills
   • Consists of Test 7: Spelling and Test 16: Editing
   • Provides a measure of basic writing skills in both isolated and contextually based formats
       by assessing the spelling of single-word responses and identification and correction of
       errors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and word usage
Cluster of Written Expression
   • Consists of Test 8: Writing Fluency and Test 11: Writing Samples
   • Measures meaningful written expression and fluency providing a measure of written
       expression skills
Cluster of Academic Knowledge
   • Consists of Test 19: Academic Knowledge
   • Samples a broad range of knowledge across the areas of science, social studies, and
       culture
Cluster of Academic Skills
   • Consists of Test 1: Letter-Word Identification, Test 5: Calculation, and Test 7: Spelling
   • Measures reading decoding, math calculation, and spelling of single-word responses to
       provide an overall score of basic achievement skills
Cluster of Academic Fluency
   • Consists of Test 2: Reading Fluency, Test 6: Math Fluency, and Test 8: Writing Fluency
   • Provides an overall index of academic fluency
Cluster of Academic Applications
   • Consists of Test 9: Passage Comprehension, Test 10: Applied Problems, and Test 11:
       Writing Samples
   • Measures the application of academic skills to academic problems
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Cluster of Phoneme/Grapheme Knowledge
   • Consists of Test 13: Word Attack and Test 20: Spelling of Sounds
   • Used to evaluate proficiency with both phonic (i.e., sounds) generalizations, as well as
       common orthographic patterns (i.e., frequently occurring letter clusters) for decoding
       (i.e., reading) and encoding (i.e., spelling)
Cluster of Total Achievement
   • Combination of the nine tests included in the Broad Reading, Broad Math, and Broad
       Written Language clusters
   • Represents overall performance across the various achievement domains
   Letter-Word Identification
   • Test of word identification skills
   • Requires the identification and pronunciation of letters and words
   Reading Fluency
   • Test of ability to read simple sentences
   • Asks to read the sentences and decide if the statements are true or false
   Story Recall
   • Test of oral language including language development and meaningful memory
   • Requires to recall details of a story after listening to an audio recording
   Understanding Directions
   • Test of oral language
   • Requires the listening of a sequence of audio-recorded instructions and their follow-
       through by pointing to various objects in a colored picture
   Calculation
   • Test of math achievement measuring the ability to perform math computations
   • Asks to write single numbers, and then to perform addition, subtraction, multiplication,
       and division, as well as a combination of these operations, as well as to solve geometric,
       logarithmic, and calculus operations
   Math Fluency
   • Test of the ability to solve simple addition, subtraction, and multiplication facts quickly
   • Asks to solve a series of simple arithmetic problems presented in the response booklet
   Spelling
   • Test of the ability to write orally presented words correctly
   • Requires drawing and tracing of letters and lines, production of uppercase and lowercase
       letters, and spelling of words
   Writing Fluency
   • Test of skill in formulating and writing simple sentences quickly
   • Asks to provide sentences that related to the stimulus picture and includes a given set of
       three words
   Passage Comprehension
   • Test of symbolic learning, or the ability to match a rebus (i.e., pictographic representation
       of a word) with an actual picture of the object
   • Test progresses to the identification of pictures represented by a phrase via pointing
   • Last portion of the test consists of the identification of a missing key word that makes
       sense in the context of the presented passage
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Applied Problems
• Test of analysis and math problem solving
• Requires listening to the problem, recognition of the procedure to be followed, and
    performing of simple calculations
Writing Samples
• Test of writing responses to a variety of demands
• Requires the production of written sentences that are evaluated with respect to the quality
    of the expression
Story Recall-Delayed
• Test of language development and meaningful memory using previously presented stories
• Requires recalling, after 30 minutes on the same day until 8 days after the administration
    of the story elements presented in Story Recall
Word Attack
• Test of application of phonic and structural analysis skills to the pronunciation of
    unfamiliar printed words
• Requires production of sounds for single letters and combinations of letters that are
    phonically consistent, or regular, patterns in English orthograph but are nonwords
Picture Vocabulary
• Test of oral language development and lexical (i.e., word) knowledge
• Requires the identification of pictured objects that become increasingly less frequent in
    the environment
Oral Comprehension
• Test of oral language requiring the use of listening, reasoning, and vocabulary abilities
• Requires the comprehension of a short audio-recorded passage and the production of the
    missing word using syntactic and semantic cues
Editing
• Test of identification and correction of errors in a written passage
• Asks to correct punctuation, capitalization, word usage, or spelling errors
Reading Vocabulary
• Test of skill in reading words and supplying appropriate meanings
• Includes three subtests: Synonyms, Antonyms, and Analogies
• Synonyms requires reading a word and providing a synonym
• Antonym requires reading a word and providing an antonym
• Analogies requires reading three words of an analogy and providing a fourth word to
    complete the analogy
Quantitative Concepts
• Test of knowledge of mathematical concepts, symbols, and vocabulary
• Consists of two subtests: Concepts and Number Series
• Concepts requires counting and identification of numbers, shapes, and sequences, as well
    as the application of mathematical terms and formulas without paper-and-pencil
    calculations
• Number Series requires to look at a series of numbers, identify the pattern, and provide
    the missing number in the series
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Academic Knowledge
• Test of knowledge in the sciences, history, geography, government, art, music, and
   literature
• Consists of three subtests: Science, Social Studies, and Humanities
Spelling of Sounds
• Test of spelling ability-particularly of phonological and orthographical coding skills
• Requires writing of single letters of sounds as well as the spelling of letter combinations
   that are regular patterns but nonwords
Sound Awareness
• Test of phonological awareness
• Consists of four subtests: Rhyming, Deletion, Substitution, and Reversal
• Rhyming requires the production of a word that rhymes with the provided stimulus word
• Deletion requires the removal of a part of a compound word or a letter sound from a word
   to make a new word
• Substitution requires the substitution of a word, word ending, or a letter to create a new
   word
• Reversal requires the initial reversal of parts of compound words and then the reversal of
   letter sounds of words to create new words
Punctuation and Capitalization
• Test of certain written English formatting skills
• Requires the punctuation and capitalization of items correctly
                                                                                               13


Reading:

Word Attack, Letter-Word Identification, Passage Comprehension, Reading Fluency
  • Measures of reading achievement
  • Letter-Word Identification and Passage Comprehension assesses for decoding, speed, and
     comprehension connectedness discourse of reading
  • Letter-Word Identification and Word Attack are measures of sight vocabulary, phonics,
     and structural analysis skills
  • Reading Fluency is a measure of automaticity and speed of reading

Spadafore Diagnostic Reading Test (SDRT)
   • Test of reading at the primer through 12th grade levels
   • Assesses decoding skills in reading, as well as comprehension
   • Administration of 30-60 minutes
   • Consists of the following 4 subtests: Word Recognition, Oral Reading and
       Comprehension, Silent Reading Comprehension, and Listening Comprehension
Decoding
   Word Recognition
   • Assesses ability to recognize individual words
   • Obtain an indication of sight vocabulary
   • Provides the examiner with a guide for selecting an appropriate starting point in other
       SDRT subtests
   Oral Reading and Comprehension
   • Assesses ability to read aloud
   • Obtain a measure of reading fluency by number of errors made
Comprehension
   Oral Reading and Comprehension
   • Assesses performance on reading comprehension of what has been read aloud
   • Questions require recall and inferential abilities
   Silent Reading Comprehension
   • Assesses the ability to understand material that is read silently
   • No auditory reinforcement is present
   Listening Comprehension
   • Assesses the ability to understand material when there is no requirement for decoding
       present

Gray Oral Reading Test-4 (GORT-4)
   • Measures oral reading and comprehension
   • Ages 6-18
   • Fluency Score combines rate and accuracy
   • Oral Reading Comprehension Score is based on number of correct responses to
      comprehension questions
   • Oral Reading Quotient is derived from a combination of the Fluency Score and Oral
      Reading Comprehension Score
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Wide Range Achievement Test-Third Edition (WRAT-3)
  • Screening measure of word reading ability
  • Ages 5-75
  • Blue and tan forms
  • Requires child to read aloud a series of words that become more difficult and less
      common
  • Measures recognition and naming of letter and pronunciation of words out of context

Written Language:

WJ-III: Spelling, Writing Samples, Writing Fluency
  • Measures of written language achievement
  • Assesses for spelling of single-word responses and quality of written expression
  • Writing Fluency is a measure of efficiency of written production

Wide Range Achievement Test-Third Edition (WRAT-3)
  • Screening measure of spelling ability
  • Ages 5-75
  • Blue and tan forms
  • Requires child to spell a series of words that become more difficult and less common
  • Measures the ability to write name, letters, and words to dictation

Test of Written Language (TOWL-3)
   • Designed to identify students who perform significantly more poorly than their peers in
       writing and determine a student’s strengths and weaknesses in various writing abilities
   • Children ages 7-17 years, 11 months
   • Eight subtest scores: Vocabulary, Spelling, Style, Logical Sentences, Sentence
       Combining, Contextual Language, and Story Construction
   • All items are untimed
   • Three composite scores: Contrived Writing, Spontaneous Writing, and Overall Writing

Mathematics:

WJ-III: Calculations, Applied Problems, Math Fluency
  • Measure of math achievement
  • Assesses for basic mathematical skills, including computational skills, mathematic
      knowledge and reasoning such as problem-solving and analysis
  • Math Fluency is a measure of efficiency of basic math facts

Wide Range Achievement Test-Third Edition (WRAT-3)
  • Screening measure of mathematics ability
  • Ages 5-75
  • Blue and tan forms
  • Requires child to solve math problems that become more difficult
  • Measures the ability to count, read number symbols, solve oral problems and perform
      written computations
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III. ATTENTIONAL ABILITIES & EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONING

Trail Making Test (TMT)
   • Speeded test that measures sustained visual attention, visual scanning, sequencing, and
       cognitive flexibility
   • Trails A: requires sequencing of numbers
   • Trails B: requires alternation and sequencing between letters and numbers

Child Color Trails Test (CCTT)
   • Standardized, paper-and-pencil orthographic neuropsychological instrument that should
      be administered to children individually
   • Easily administered and objective scored measure of alternating sustained visual
      attention, sequencing, psychomotor speed, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition-
      disinhibition
   • Children ages 8-16
   • Recognition of Arabic numbers and colors of pink and yellow
   • Like Trails A except all odd numbered circles are printed against a pink background and
      all even numbered circles are printed against a yellow background
   • Child is instructed to draw a line rapidly through circles numbered 1-15 in consecutive
      order
   • Colors alternate with each succeeding number is not said
   • Ten seconds are allowed for child to make connection between circles

Stroop Color & Word Test
   • Used to measure cognitive flexibility, resistance to interference from outside stimuli and
      the ability to suppress a prepotent verbal response
   • Performance is compared across three tasks: word reading, color naming, and color word
      naming
   • Color word naming requires to name as quickly the color ink, which is disconcordant
      with the color word

Auditory Consonant Triagrams
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Children’s Memory Scale (CMS)
   • Comprehensive memory instrument that measures the dimensions of attention and
      working memory, verbal and visual memory, short delay and long delay memory, recall
      and recognition, and learning characteristics
   • Used in children ages 5-16
   • Consists of 9 subtests that assess functioning in three domains: auditory-verbal, visual-
      nonverbal, and attention-concentration
   • Each domain includes two core subtests and one supplemental subtest
   • Core subtests include: Stories, Word-Pairs, Dot Locations, Faces, Numbers, and
      Sequences
   • Supplemental subtests consist of: Word Lists, Family Pictures, and Picture Locations
   • Core subtests result in the following 8 summary scores: Verbal Immediate, Verbal
      Delayed, Visual Immediate, Visual Delayed, General Memory, Delayed Recognition,
      Attention and Concentration, and Learning
   • Visual/nonverbal domain: consists of story memory and verbal paired-associate learning
   • Available optional memory tasks include word lists learning and complex picture
      memory
   • Conormed with WISC-III and WPPI-R to allow for comparisons among intellectual
      ability, learning, and memory
   Attention-Concentration
   • Consists of digit span and mental control tasks
   • Numbers/Sequences

WISC-III:
Freedom from Distractibility Index (FDI)
   • Measures ability to sustain attention and retain short-term memory
   • Assesses ability to shift mental operations on symbolic material
   • Test of ability to self-monitor
   Coding
   • Test of attention and concentration
   • Assesses for sustained energy or persistence
   Symbol Search
   • Test of attention and concentration
   • Assesses for sustained energy or persistence
   • Measures short-term visual memory
   Arithmetic
   • Test of concentration and attention skills
   • Assesses ability to engage in complex thought patterns
   • Gauges orientation to teacher
   Digit Span
   • Optional subtest
   • Measures ability for short-term auditory memory
   • Assesses ability to attend to auditory stimuli in a testing situation
   • DS forward is a measure of elementary attention or span of apprehension
   • DS backward is a measure of mental manipulation or control and requires working
       memory
                                                                                             17


WISC-IV:
Processing Speed Index (PSI)
   • Test of attention span
   • Assesses for speed of mental operations
Working Memory Index (WMI)
   • Measures ability to sustain attention and retain short-term memory
   • Assesses ability to shift mental operations on symbolic material
   • Test of ability to self-monitor
   Coding
   • Test of attention and concentration
   • Assesses for sustained energy or persistence
   Symbol Search
   • Test of attention and concentration
   • Assesses for sustained energy or persistence
   • Measures short-term visual memory
   Arithmetic
   • Test of concentration and attention skills
   • Assesses ability to engage in complex thought patterns
   • Gauges orientation to teacher
   Digit Span
   • Optional subtest
   • Measures ability for short-term auditory memory
   • Assesses ability to attend to auditory stimuli in a testing situation
   • DS forward is a measure of elementary attention or span of apprehension
   • DS backward is a measure of mental manipulation or control and requires working
       memory

Conners’ Continuous Performance Test (CPT-II)
  • Used to identify visual attention problems manifested in impaired vigilance and
     impulsive responding
  • Test is presented via computer
  • Provides information on numbers of omission and commission errors, perceptual
     sensitivity, and reaction time
  • Children ages 6+

Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST)
   • Measures abstract reasoning, concept generation, and perseverative responding
   • Ages 6.5-89
   • Requires child to sort the cards according to one of three principles of class membership
   • Measures include: categories achieved, perseverative responses, perseverative errors,
      nonperseverative errors, failure to maintain set, and efficiency of learning
                                                                                               18


Children’s Category Test (CCT)
   • Designed to assess nonverbal learning and memory, concept formation, and problem-
      solving abilities
   • Directly assesses the cognitive processes required for successful academic achievement
      by measuring the child’s ability to learn, solve problems, and to develop, test, and modify
      hypotheses
   • Task itself is a learning experience rather than a demonstration of acquired skills, ability,
      or knowledge
   • Does not require a verbal or motor response
   • Children ages 5-16 years, 11 months (Level 1: 5-8; Level 2: 9-16)
   • Five subtests, six scores (Subtests I-V and Total Score)
   • Adaptation of the Category Test from the Halstead-Reitan Neuropsychological Test
      Battery
   • Administration time of 15-20 minutes, but no strict time limit

Verbal Fluency/Controlled Oral Word Association Test
   • Measure of verbal fluency or the ability to maximally produce words belonging to a
      particular class
   FAS
   • Must generate as many words beginning with the letter “F”, “A”, and “S” in one
      minute/letter
   Category Fluency
   • Required to generate as many words as possible belonging to a certain category, such as
      animals
                                                                                             19


IV. LANGUAGE

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III)
   • Screening test of verbal ability
   • Forms A and B
   • Measure of English hearing vocabulary
   • Normed on ages 2_-90 years of age
   • Required to match one of four pictures on a test page with a word spoken aloud by the
      examiner

Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised (EOWPVT-R)
   • Obtains a basal estimate of verbal intelligence by means of acquired one-word expressive
      picture vocabulary
   • Measures verbal expression of language, a complicated thought process, by requiring the
      processing of language that has been learned from what is visually and auditorily
      perceived
   • Forms L and U
   • Ages 2-12
   • Useful source of information for the following: speech deficits, learning disorders,
      bilingual child’s fluency in English, auditory processing, and auditory-visual-verbal
      association ability

WJ-III: Achievement
Picture Vocabulary
   • Extended battery subtest
   • Measure of expressive vocabulary

Strip Initial Consonant Task

Auditory Discrimination and Attention Test
  • Designed to assess auditory discrimination and attention for speech
  • Ages 3_ -12
  • Administered in 20 minutes
  • Assesses the ability to discriminate and attend to differences between 17 pairs of words
  • Items are presented in a picture-book format in which the pairs have one "broad" feature,
      consisting of a voicing group (i.e., pear-bear), place group (i.e., key-tea), manner group
      (i.e., mat-bat), and a cluster group (i.e., crown-clown)
  • Twelve colored counters are provided for response to the stimulus word by placing one of
      the counters in slots provided on the book frame beneath the appropriate picture
  • Asked to name each word for every pair of pictures
  • Repetitions of words at the request of the child are scored as errors
                                                                                                20


WISC-IV:
  Vocabulary
  • Measure of word knowledge
  • Verbal comprehension skill
  • Assesses verbal skills and language development
  Similarities
  • Measures ability to select and verbalize appropriate relationships between two
     objects/concepts
  • Notes verbal comprehension skills
  • Assesses verbal concept formation and language development

WISC-III:
  Vocabulary
  • Measure of word knowledge
  • Verbal comprehension skill
  • Assesses verbal skills and language development
  Similarities
  • Measures ability to select and verbalize appropriate relationships between two
     objects/concepts
  • Notes verbal comprehension skills
  • Assesses verbal concept formation and language development

Token Test
   • Rapid and effective measure for assessing subtle receptive language dysfunction in
      children
   • Test is divided into 5 subtests, with each part presenting progressively longer and more
      complex commands for a total of 61 items
                                                                                                    21


Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Third Edition (CELF-3)
   • Tool for identification, diagnosis, and follow-up evaluation of language skills deficits
   • Ages 6 years, 0 monnths-21 years, 11 months
   • Assesses word meanings (i.e., semantics), word and sentence structure (i.e., morphology
       and syntax), and recall and retrieval of spoken language (i.e., memory)
   • Total administration time of 30-45 minutes
   • Consists of the following subtests: Sentence Structure, Word Structure, Concepts and
       Directions, Formulated Sentences, Word Classes, Recalling Sentences, Sentence
       Assembly, Semantic Relationships, Word Associations, Listening to Paragraphs, and
       Rapid, Automatic Naming
   • Obtain Receptive and Expressive Language Scores, as well as a Total Language Score
   Sentence Structure
   • Assesses for the ability to understand syntax, or sentence structure
   Word Structure
   • Measures the ability to express and understand distinctions in meaning that arise from
       grammatical markers, such as plural and possessive word endings, past-tense forms,
       personal pronouns, and derived forms of nouns, verbs, and adjectives
   Concepts and Directions
   • Assesses for the ability to follow directions that include basic linguistic concepts, such as
       coordinating conjunctions, references to inclusion or exclusion, time, condition, or
       quantity
   Formulated Sentences
   • Measures generative language aspects related to planning and producing sentences for
       conversation, classroom discourse, academic interactions, and written language
   Word Classes
   • Measures the ability to associate related words automatically and efficiently
   Recalling Sentences
   • Assesses the ability to immediately recall spoken language
   Sentence Assembly
   • Measures the ability to formulate descriptions, questions, responses, or conversation
   Semantic Relationships
   • Assesses the ability to interpret sentences that make comparisons (i.e., comparative
       relations), identify location or direction (i.e., spatial relations), include time relationships
       (i.e., temporal relations), include serial order (i.e., sequential relations), or express
       passive voice (i.e., passive relations)
   Word Associations
   • Measures the ability to demonstrate semantic organization and word association
       strategies
   Listening to Paragraphs
   • Assesses listening comprehension at the factual and inferential levels
   Rapid, Automatic Naming
   • Measures word-finding difficulties (i.e., dysnomia) and reading disabilities (i.e., dyslexia)
                                                                                              22


Test of Language Competence-Expanded Edition (TLC-E) Level 1/2
   • Used by speech and language pathologists, special educators, and psychologists
   • Test used on children who have not acquired the expected levels of metalinguistic
       competence in semantics, syntax, and/pragmatics
   • Norm-referenced
   • Takes less than one hour to administer
   • Level 1: Ages 5-9 years, 11 months
   • Level 2: Ages 9 years, 11 months-18 years, 11 months
   • Consists of the following 5 subtests: Ambiguous Sentences, Listening Comprehension:
       Making Inferences, Oral Expression: Recreating Speech Acts, Figurative Language, and
       Remembering Word Pairs
   • Consists of the following 4 composite scores: Expressing Intents, Interpreting Intents,
       Screening Composite, and TLC-Expanded Composite
   Ambiguous Sentences
   • Requires interpretation of ambiguous sentences
   • Context-reduced task in which the child is provided with only minimal situational
       information upon which to base judgment
   Listening Comprehension: Making Inferences
   • Consists of making inferences from short scripts
   • Context-reduced task in which the child is provided with only minimal situational
       information upon which to base judgment
   Oral Expression: Recreating Sentences
   • Requires the formulation of speech acts or sentences about a scene using specific words
   • Greater contextual and situational information is provided
   Figurative Language
   • Subtest consists of 20 previously untrained figurative expressions that are featured in
       curriculum text at grade level (e.g., “I just can’t swallow that.”)
   • Interpret the expression and the child’s ability to match the meaning of the expression to
       one of four choices
   Remembering Word Pairs
   • Supplemental subtest for Level 2 only

Verbal Fluency/Controlled Oral Word Association Test
   • Measure of verbal fluency or the ability to maximally produce words belonging to a
      particular class
   • FAS: must generate as many words beginning with the letter “F”, “A”, and “S” in one
      minute/letter
   Category Fluency
   • Required to generate as many words as possible belonging to a certain category, such as
      animals

Upper-Extension Expressive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test
  • Measures vocabulary for English speakers
  • Children ages 2-18
  • Conormed with Receptive One-Word Picture Vocabulary Test
                                                                                              23


V. VISUAL PERCEPTUAL DISCRIMINATION

Right-Left Differentiation
Personal Space
Personal Cross Commands
Extra Personal Space
Hand Preference Test (Right/Left/Both)

Test of Visual Perceptual Skills (TVPS)
   • Assesses visual perceptual skills, which is the ability of the brain to understand and
       interpret what is being seen
   • Children ages 4-13
   • Non-language test
   • Subtests are the following: Visual Discrimination, Visual Memory, Visual-Spatial
       Relationships, Visual Form Constancy, Visual-Sequential Relationships, Visual Figure-
       Ground, and Visual Closure
   • Tasks measure the extent of the following skills: identification of forms correctly,
       memory of forms individually and in sequence, determination of the correct direction of
       forms, recognition of the same form when varied in size from the stimulus, location of a
       form when hidden, and determination form parts of a form the whole form
   • Nonmotor – only requires pointing
   • TVPS-Upper Level (TVPS-UL) retains the 7 original subtests but has items modified to
       measure visual-perceptual skills of ages 12-18

WISC-IV:
  Block Design
  • Test of visual-motor spatial integration
  • Assesses for analysis and synthesis of visual stimuli
  • Measures spatial visualization
  • Test of fluid ability
  Matrix Reasoning
  • Assesses analogic, nonverbal perceptual reasoning abilities
  • Test of attention to detail
  • Measures spatial ability
  • Represents fluid intelligence

WISC-III:
  Block Design
  • Test of visual-motor spatial integration
  • Assesses for analysis and synthesis of visual stimuli
  • Measures spatial visualization
  • Test of fluid ability
  Object Assembly
  • Test of perceptual organization and visual processing
  • Measures spatial ability and synthesis of concrete parts into meaningful wholes
                                                                                              24


Beery-Buktenica Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI)
   • Measures visual-motor integration
   • Requires child to copy 24 geometric designs that progress from less to more complex
   • Supplemental measures using the same stimuli assess visual perception and motor
      coordination
   • Short form (i.e., 15 drawings) is normed for children ages 3-8
   • Long form (i.e., 24 drawings) is normed for children ages 3-18

Test of Visual-Perceptual Skills (TVPS) (non motor)
   • Assesses visual perceptual skills, which is the ability of the brain to understand and
       interpret what is being seen
   • Based on non-motor visual-perceptual testing
   • Children ages 4-13
   • Non-language test
   • Subtests are the following: Visual Discrimination, Visual Memory, Visual-Spatial
       Relationships, Visual Form Constancy, Visual-Sequential Relationships, Visual Figure-
       Ground, and Visual Closure
   • Tasks measure the extent of the following skills: identification of forms correctly,
       memory of forms individually and in sequence, determination of the correct direction of
       forms, recognition of the same form when varied in size from the stimulus, location of a
       form when hidden, and determination form parts of a form the whole form
   • Nonmotor – only requires pointing
   • TVPS-Upper Level (TVPS-UL) retains the 7 original subtests but has items modified to
       measure visual-perceptual skills of ages 12-18
   • Obtain a Perceptual Quotient

Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (CTF)
   • Assesses a variety of cognitive processes, including planning and organizational skills
      and problem-solving strategies, as well as perceptual, motor, and memory functions
   • Ages 6-85
   • Consists of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex figure, blank pieces of paper, and colored
      pictures
   • Alternate figure is the Taylor figure
   • Requires the copying of the figure and then, without prior warning, its reproduction from
      memory
   • Delay is commonly 30 minutes, but can vary from 3-45 minutes
   • Scores on Copy, 3-Minute Recall, Delayed Recall, and Recognition
                                                                                                  25


VI. LEARNING & MEMORY

Verbal Memory:

Children’s Memory Scale (CMS)
   • Comprehensive memory instrument that measures the dimensions of attention and
      working memory, verbal and visual memory, short delay and long delay memory, recall
      and recognition, and learning characteristics
   • Used in children ages 5-16
   • Consists of 9 subtests that assess functioning in three domains: auditory-verbal, visual-
      nonverbal, and attention-concentration
   • Each domain includes two core subtests and one supplemental subtest
   • Each subtest contains both an immediate memory component and a delayed memory
      component, with a delay of 30 minutes between the two components
   • Core subtests include: Stories, Word-Pairs, Dot Locations, Faces, Numbers, and
      Sequences
   • Supplemental subtests consist of: Word Lists, Family Pictures, and Picture Locations
   • Core subtests result in the following 8 summary scores: Verbal Immediate, Verbal
      Delayed, Visual Immediate, Visual Delayed, General Memory, Delayed Recognition,
      Attention and Concentration, and Learning
   • Visual/nonverbal domain: consists of story memory and verbal paired-associate learning
   • Available optional memory tasks include word lists learning and complex picture
      memory
   • Conormed with WISC-III and WPPI-R to allow for comparisons among intellectual
      ability, learning, and memory

California Verbal Learning Test-Child (CVLT-C)
   • Word list learning task
   • Also have this test for adults ages 16-89
   • Measures verbal learning and memory
   • Uses words from four categories over five trials, after which an interference list is
       presented, and followed by short-delay recall of the first list and long-delay recall of the
       same list after 20 minutes
   • Recognition trial also available at the end of the test
   • Provides information about acquisition, recall, retention, and retrieval of verbal
       information and strategies on learning

Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning (WRAML)
  • Designed to evaluate learning and memory abilities
  • Children ages 5-17
  • Index scores are available for Verbal Memory, Visual Memory, and Learning
  • General Memory Index score can be derived from the index scores
  • Delayed recall and auditory recognition tasks are included
  • Subtests include the following: Story Memory, Verbal Learning, Sentence Memory,
      Design Memory, Picture Memory, Finger Windows (i.e., for spatial span)
                                                                                            26


Nonverbal Memory:

Children’s Memory Scale (CMS)
   • Comprehensive memory instrument that measures the dimensions of attention and
      working memory, verbal and visual memory, short delay and long delay memory, recall
      and recognition, and learning characteristics
   • Used in children ages 5-16
   • Consists of 9 subtests that assess functioning in three domains: auditory-verbal, visual-
      nonverbal, and attention-concentration
   • Each domain includes two core subtests and one supplemental subtest
   • Each subtest contains both an immediate memory component and a delayed memory
      component, with a delay of 30 minutes between the two components
   • Core subtests include: Stories, Word-Pairs, Dot Locations, Faces, Numbers, and
      Sequences
   • Supplemental subtests consist of: Word Lists, Family Pictures, and Picture Locations
   • Core subtests result in the following 8 summary scores: Verbal Immediate, Verbal
      Delayed, Visual Immediate, Visual Delayed, General Memory, Delayed Recognition,
      Attention and Concentration, and Learning
   • Visual/nonverbal domain: consists of story memory and verbal paired-associate learning
   • Available optional memory tasks include word lists learning and complex picture
      memory
   • Conormed with WISC-III and WPPI-R to allow for comparisons among intellectual
      ability, learning, and memory

Rey-Osterreith Complex Figure Test (CFT)
   • Assesses a variety of cognitive processes, including planning and organizational skills
      and problem-solving strategies, as well as perceptual, motor, and memory functions
   • Ages 6-85
   • Consists of the Rey-Osterrieth Complex figure, blank pieces of paper, and colored
      pictures
   • Alternate figure is the Taylor figure
   • Requires the copying of the figure and then, without prior warning, its reproduction from
      memory
   • Delay is commonly 30 minutes, but can vary from 3-45 minutes
   • Scores on Copy, 3-Minute Recall, Delayed Recall, and Recognition
                                                                                               27


VII. SENSORY MOTOR

Handedness
  • Can belong to one of the following: right, left, ambiguous, or ambidextrous

Quick Neurological Screening Test (QNST)
   • Brief, 20-minute test assessing neurological integration as it relates to learning
   • Consists of a series of brief tasks adapted from a pediatric neurological examination
   • Samples maturity of motor development, skill in controlling large and small muscles,
      motor planning and sequencing, sense of rate and rhythm, spatial organization, visual and
      auditory perceptual skills, balance and cerebellar-vestibular functioning, and disorders of
      attention
   • Easy to administer
   • Consists of 15 tasks
   • Starts from ages 5
   • Screening tool only-not a diagnostic
   • Tasks measured are the following: Hand Skill, Palm Form Recognition, Finger to Nose,
      Thumb and Finger Circle, Rapidly Reversing Repetitive Hand Movements, Tandem
      Walk, Stand on One Leg, and Skip

Grooved Pegboard
   • Measures manual dexterity
   • Requires complex visual-motor coordination
   • Pegboard consists of 25 randomly positioned keyholes
   • Patient must rotate pegs (i.e., keys) to match the holes before the peg can be inserted into
      the keyhole on the board
   • Like Finger Tapping, it helps to assess laterality of brain damage
   • Used on children and adults

Finger Tapping Test/Finger Oscillation Test
   • Included in the Halstead-Reitan Battery
   • Measures fine motor speed of the index finger on each hand
   • Used on children and adults
   • Helpful in assessing laterality
   • Test consists of finger tapping on a special finger tapping board

Grip Strength
   • Assesses the strength of each hand
   • Uses a hand dynamometer
   • Records movement while acting against a resistive torque

Brannock Device
   • Measures foot length
   • Typically, the right foot is a bit longer
   • Assesses for left-handed pathology if the left foot is longer than the right
                                                                                             28


VIII. EMOTIONAL/BEHAVIORAL

CDI
  •     Self-report scale of depression
  •     27 items
  •     Ages 7-18
  •     Evaluates symptoms in the following areas: Negative Mood, Interpersonal Problems,
        Ineffectiveness, Anhedonia, and Negative Self-Esteem
   •    Obtain a total score

CDI-S
Total

Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS)
   • Subtitled “What I Think and Feel”
   • Assesses the level and nature of anxiety
   • Ages 6-19
   • 37-item self-report instrument
   • Obtain a Total Anxiety score
   • Subtests include the following: Physiological Anxiety, Worry/Oversensitivity, Social
       Concerns/Concentration, and Lie
   Physiological Anxiety
   • Index of child’s expression of physical manifestations of anxiety
   • High score suggests that the child has certain kinds of physiological responses during
       anxiety
   Worry/Oversensitivity
   • Index of being afraid, nervous, or oversensitive to environmental pressures
   • High score indicates a child who internalizes anxiety experience and may become
       overburdened trying to relieve this anxiety
   Social Concerns/Concentration
   • Index of concern about self vis-à-vis other people or expression of difficulty in
       concentrating
   • High score suggests that the child feels some anxiety about being unable to live up to the
       expectations of significant individuals
   Lie
   • Validity index
   • Indicates that the child presents self in an unrealistic ideal manner

Conners’ Rating Scales-R (CRS-R)
  • Three versions of the scale – parent, teacher, and self
  • Used to assess reports of ADHD symptoms and related problems in the following areas:
     conduct, family, cognitive, anxiety, anger, and somatic
  • Children ages 3-17
                                                                                            29


Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL)/Teacher Rating Form (TRF)/Youth Self
Report (YSR)
   • Assesses for competencies and problems of children and adolescents through the use of
      ratings and reports by different informants (e.g., teacher, parent, child)
   • Children ages 2-18
   • Scores on the following: Sleep Problems, Somatic Problems, Aggressive, Destructive,
      Syndrome Scales (i.e., Withdrawn, Somatic Complaints, Anxious-Depressed, Social
      Problems, Thought Problems, Attention Problems, Aggressive Behavior, Delinquent
      Behavior), Internalizing, Externalizing, Total Problems, Competence Scales (i.e.,
      Activities, Social, School, Total Competence), Academic Performance, Adaptive
      Functioning, Behavior Problems, Withdrawn-Inattentive, Nervous-Obsessive, Depressed,
      Hyperactive, Attention-Demanding, On-Task Behavior, Aggressive Behavior, Anxious,
      Family Problems, Resistant, Strange, Withdrawn
   • 15 minutes/checklist
   • Behavioral problems similar to the DSM

House-Tree Person (HTP)
  • Projective technique that allows for qualitative interpretation of simple drawings
  • Can reflect feelings about the home situation, emotional history, and self
  • Ages 7-12
  • Was developed to assess personality-emotional characteristics of sexually abused
      children
  • Scores on the following areas: Preoccupation with Sexually Relevant Concepts,
      Aggression and Hostility, Withdrawal and Guarded Accessibility, Alertness for Danger-
      Suspiciousness, and Lack of Trust.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-Adolescent (MMPI-A)
  • Personality inventory designed to measure adolescent psychopathology and identify
      personal, social, and behavioral problems
  • Ages 14-18
  • Validity Scales include: Variable Response Consistency, True Response Inconsistency,
      Infrequency, Lie, Defensiveness, and Cannot Say
  • Has the same Clinical Scales as the MMPI-2: Hypochondriasis, Depression, Hysteria,
      Psychopathic Deviate, Masculinity-Femininity, Paranoia, Psychasthenia, Schizophrenia,
      Hypomania, and Social Introversion
  • Has Supplementary Scales, Content Scales, and Subscales to further delineate pathology

Beck Youth Inventories (BYI)
   • Five self-report instruments
   • Children ages 7-14
   • Each inventory contains 20 statements about thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in the
      following areas: depression, anxiety, anger, disruptive behavior, and self-concept
                                                                                             30


Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS)
   • Assesses a wide range of adaptive behaviors in communication, daily living skills,
      socialization, and motor skills domains
   • Good for children, adolescents, and low-functioning adults
   • Can be given to caregiver in semistructured interview format or to a teacher as a
      questionnaire

Roberts Apperception Test
  • Assesses children’s perceptions of interpersonal situations
  • 16 stimulus cards depicting black and white drawing of children and adults engaging in a
      variety of interpersonal interactions
  • Administration time of 20-30 minutes
  • Children ages 6-15
  • Cards presented in exact numerical sequence
  • Addresses themes that are relevant to children, such as family and peer interactions,
      homework, sibling rivalry, and observation of nudity
  • Separate versions for girls (G) and boys (B), except for 5 cards
  • Five queries used only during the first two cards: “What is happening?”, “What happened
      before?”, “What is he/she feeling?”; “What is he/she talking about?”; and “How does the
      story end?”

Sentence Completion Series
   • A semi-projective method of gathering client information for personality and
      psychodiagnostic assessment
   • Used on adolescents and adults
   • Administration time of 10-45 minutes
   • 8 forms: Adolescent, Adult, Family, Marriage, Parenting, Work, Illness, and Aging
   • Addresses “touchy” issues
   • 50 questions/form
   • Standardized form of administration, but no normative manner for interpretation

Rorschach
   • Projective test used for clinical assessment and diagnosis
   • Consists of 10 cards depicting inkblots
   • There are 5 black and white cards, 2 black, white, and red cards, 3 pastel colored cards
   • Used with children ages 5+-adult
   • Duration of 20-30 minutes for administration
   • First portion consists of answering the questions “What might this be?” for each card
   • Second portion has “free association” stage in which there is elaboration of the responses
      given during the first part
   • Scoring is complex, and based on aspects such as location, whether shape or color
      determined the responses, and the content of the response

				
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