Introduction to Low cost Steering System – “Front axle loads to (PDF)

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					Introduction to Low-cost Steering System – “Front axle loads to define choice of steering
systems in low-cost cars”

                       Low-cost Chassis Systems Market: Classification of Low-cost Car by Steering Systems (World), 2008

        Low-cost vehicles built for China                                                                Vehicles like the Logan built for
       and India to weigh less than 850kg                          Low-cost Car                         Europe to weigh more than other
         due to lesser focus on safety                                                                  LCC due to quality standards and
                                                                   Classification
                   standards.                                                                               crash test requirements.


                            Kerb weight                                                               Kerb weight
                             Less than                                                                 More than
                               850kg                                                                    850kg



      Europe                    China                    India                      Europe                China                   India

Global OEMs               Manual assist           Ultra LCC like the Tata                           Chinese OEMs to         Indian LCC to weigh
                                                                              European LCC cars     prefer EPS systems      the least as OEMs
entering the LCC          steering systems with   Nano will have basic
                                                                              such as Renault                               will not have to
market in 2012 are        power assist as an      steering systems due to                           across their low-cost
                                                                              Logan are expected    models due to added     integrate safety
expected to design        option. Increasing      the low kerb weight;
                                                                              to have HPS systems                           features like side
cars weighing less        penetration is          power assist steering                             value across supply
                                                                              due to higher front   chain.                  beams, collapsible
than 850kg and focus      expected for EPS.       systems are expected
                                                                              axle load.                                    mechanism and so
on EPS solutions.                                 after 2010.
                                                                                                                            on.

                                                                                                              Source: Frost & Sullivan
    Safety requirements and government regulations to influence steering systems in low-cost cars.
    Base variants of most of the low-cost cars are expected to have manual rack and pinion with power assist; HPS/EPS optional in
    higher-end variant.
    Manual rack and pinion to have a xx% market penetration in global LCC volumes in 2015, which is a decline from xx% in 2005.


 M2D9-18                                                                                                                                     48
Technology Analysis of Low-cost Steering Systems – “Manual rack and pinion steering
systems to have the highest penetration across low-cost cars”

                                                                             Low-cost Chassis Systems Market: Low-cost Vehicles with
•   Variable ratio rack and pinion steering column to be common in                    Manual Rack and Pinion (World), 2012
    low-cost cars.
                                                                           Low-cost Model                Country                2012 Volumes
•   Simplest in design, it will be especially suitable to low-cost cars
    like Nano with very low front axle load as power assist is not             Tata Nano                   India                    xxx,xxx
    necessary.                                                                Dacia Logan                   Iran                    xxx,xxx
•   Design and development requirements especially for suspension          Maruti Suzuki 800               India                     xx,xxx
    tuning and is best suited for rear axle-driven vehicles.
                                                                              Renault Bajaj                India                     xx,xxx
•   Manual rack and pinion to cost €xx wheel to wheel in low-cost
    countries like India while in Europe, the price is expected to be
    €xx.                                                                  Note: All figures are rounded; the base year is 2008. Source: Frost & Sullivan




•   Simple designing, tuning and manufacturing cost of only about                Low-cost Chassis Systems Market: Advantages and
                                                                               Disadvantages of Manual Rack and Pinion (World), 2008
    €xxx,xxx for Manual Rack and Pinion Systems.

•   Total weight of the system not to exceed xxkg.
                                                                                      Disadvantages                         Advantages
•   Collapsible mechanism to be integrated with the steering column                  No steering assist              Minimal cost of system
    and drive up costs.
                                                                                 High vibration feedback                Packaging benefits
•   Steering column outer casing to be made of low-grade tensile
    steel in order to reduce the costs.                                                Not adjustable                       Lightweight

•   An example is Tata Nano having a hollow steering column that                                                        Less maintenance
    will reduce the weight of the steering system by xkg, thereby
                                                                                                                            Source: Frost & Sullivan
    reducing the steering effort.

    M2D9-18                                                                                                                                            49
Technology Analysis of Low-cost Steering Systems – “Hydraulic power assist to be
preferred in low-cost cars with a front axle load greater than 550kg”

•   HPS systems to be found in vehicles with more front axle loads         Low-cost Chassis Systems Market: Low-cost Vehicles with
    or weight of more than xxxkg.                                                    Hydraulic Power Assist (World), 2008

•   Vehicles developed for Europe may have a higher penetration          Low-cost Model                  Country                 2008 Volumes
    of HPS systems.                                                            Fiat Uno                    Brazil                      xx,xxx
•   Cost of low-cost HPS systems is estimated to be between €xxx            Dacia Logan                     Iran                       xx,xxx
    and €xxx depending upon the region.
                                                                          VAZ 2110.2170                   Russia                       xx,xxx
•   Hydraulic systems have an established supplier base in low-
    cost countries such as India and will initially be sold on higher-    Volkswagen Fox                   Brazil                      xx,xxx
    end versions of low-cost cars instead of EPS systems.
                                                                         Note: All figures are rounded; the base year is 2008. Source: Frost & Sullivan



•   HPS systems on low-cost cars to have simple hydraulic pump
                                                                                Low-cost Chassis Systems Market: Advantages and
    units to drive the rack and pinion as the steering effort will be         Disadvantages of Manual Rack and Pinion (World), 2008
    lesser in low-cost cars.

•   Driving style will be an important indicator of the impact of HPS                Disadvantages                              Advantages
    systems on efficiency.
                                                                                      Heavy weight                           Lesser initial cost
•   The HPS system will reduce the engine power by as much as x
    Bhp.                                                                        High maintenance cost                      Cheaper spare parts

•   HPS system will weigh xkg more than manual rack and pinion                  Hydraulic fluid wastage                    Better road feedback
    and xkg more than EPS systems.                                           Derives power from engine
•   Drawbacks of HPS will outweigh its benefit in the long run and                   Full-time assist
    market penetration of HPS will reduce as volumes increase for
                                                                                                                                Source: Frost & Sullivan
    EPS.

    M2D9-18                                                                                                                                               50
Technology Analysis of Low-cost Steering Systems – “Suppliers and OEMs are
expected to have a growing preference for EPS solution in low-cost cars due to its added benefits”

                                                                              Low-cost Chassis Systems Market: Low-cost Vehicles with
    •   Park assist EPS systems to be preferred over active steering                    Electric Power Assist (World), 2008
        EPS system as the former is cheaper.

    •   Column assist system to be used in low-cost cars.                    Low-cost Model               Country                2008 Volumes

    • xx  Volt architecture sufficient for supplying power to turn rack        Daewoo Matiz                 Korea                     xx,xxx
        and pinion gear.                                                      Daihatsu Cuore                Japan                     xx,xxx
    •   Cost of low cost EPS system to range from €xxx and €xxx                 Kia Picanto                 Korea                     xx,xxx
        depending upon the region.
                                                                             Suzuki Wagon R                 Japan                     xx,xxx
    •   More flexible steering system; high-speed signal processing
        due to inherent Digital Signal Processing architecture.           Note: All figures are rounded; the base year is 2008. Source: Frost & Sullivan

                                                                                   Low-cost Chassis Systems Market: Advantages and
                                                                                 Disadvantages of Manual Rack and Pinion (World), 2008

•   Has a wider operating range and can be used in a number of
    emerging markets with lighter front axle loads.
                                                                                       Disadvantages                        Advantages
•   Peak motor assist is limited to x Kilowatt for a xxV architecture                     Higher cost                    Lighter than HPS
    and hence, is not sufficient to be used in larger vehicles.
                                                                                      Expensive spares                    Efficient system
•   Lighter than HPS by x-xkg and has lesser components
    mechanically.                                                                    Reduced customer
                                                                                                                      Reduced running costs
                                                                                        awareness
•   Cost minimisation through economies of scale; same EPS
    system can be used for different applications by changing                                                             No fluid wastage
    controller software.
                                                                                                                            Source: Frost & Sullivan



    M2D9-18                                                                                                                                            51
Technology Analysis of Low-cost Steering Systems – “Reduced carbon emissions, R&D
costs and increased fuel efficiency to increase the penetration of low-cost EPS solutions”


                         Low-cost Chassis Systems Market: Advantages of Electric Power Assist Systems (World), 2008



                                                                         EPS




         R&D Cost             Carbon Footprint        Assembling Cost           Driving Comfort          Fuel Efficiency        Common Platforms


•   Suspension           •   No hydraulic         •   Lesser parts than    •   Variable assist     • x.x%    gain in fuel   •   EPAS system
    tuning drastically       fluids or oil used       hydraulic system.        depending upon          efficiency over          can be used
    reduced.                 in working of the                                 the speed of the        HPS system.              across a wide
                             system.              •   EPS motor is             vehicle.                                         range of vehicle
•   Steering system                                   mounted onto                                 •   Assist provided          platforms within
    can be tweaked       •   Easier                   steering column.     •   Improved driver         to the column            the weight range
    by changing the          component                                         feedback on cars        only when                of xxx-xxxxkg.
    ECU algorithm.           recycling and        •   Two stop                 with smaller rack       required.
                             servicing of EPS         assembly line            ratio.                                       •   Small changes in
•   Development              system.                  procedure                                    •   Assist provided          handling
    time reduced due                                  Service and          •   S/W features to         by the electric          parameters to be
    to electronic                                     maintenance              enhance driver’s        motor and hence          made.
    settings.                                         time reduced.            feel of the road.       engine power
                                                                                                       unaffected.




    M2D9-18                                                                                                                                    52